WorldWideScience

Sample records for meliloti rna chaperone

  1. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. © 2015 Madru et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Fab Chaperone-Assisted RNA Crystallography (Fab CARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Eileen; Archer, Jennifer; Ye, Jing-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recent discovery of structured RNAs such as ribozymes and riboswitches shows that there is still much to learn about the structure and function of RNAs. Knowledge learned can be employed in both biochemical research and clinical applications. X-ray crystallography gives unparalleled atomic-level structural detail from which functional inferences can be deduced. However, the difficulty in obtaining high-quality crystals and their phasing information make it a very challenging task. RNA crystallography is particularly arduous due to several factors such as RNA's paucity of surface chemical diversity, lability, repetitive anionic backbone, and flexibility, all of which are counterproductive to crystal packing. Here we describe Fab chaperone assisted RNA crystallography (CARC), a systematic technique to increase RNA crystallography success by facilitating crystal packing as well as expediting phase determination through molecular replacement of conserved Fab domains. Major steps described in this chapter include selection of a synthetic Fab library displayed on M13 phage against a structured RNA crystallization target, ELISA for initial choice of binding Fabs, Fab expression followed by protein A affinity then cation exchange chromatography purification, final choice of Fab by binding specificity and affinity as determined by a dot blot assay, and lastly gel filtration purification of a large quantity of chosen Fabs for crystallization.

  3. RNA chaperoning and intrinsic disorder in the core proteins of Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Gabus, Caroline; Ficheux, Damien; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-02-01

    RNA chaperone proteins are essential partners of RNA in living organisms and viruses. They are thought to assist in the correct folding and structural rearrangements of RNA molecules by resolving misfolded RNA species in an ATP-independent manner. RNA chaperoning is probably an entropy-driven process, mediated by the coupled binding and folding of intrinsically disordered protein regions and the kinetically trapped RNA. Previously, we have shown that the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a potent RNA chaperone that can drive profound structural modifications of HCV RNA in vitro. We now examined the RNA chaperone activity and the disordered nature of core proteins from different Flaviviridae genera, namely that of HCV, GBV-B (GB virus B), WNV (West Nile virus) and BVDV (bovine viral diarrhoea virus). Despite low-sequence similarities, all four proteins demonstrated general nucleic acid annealing and RNA chaperone activities. Furthermore, heat resistance of core proteins, as well as far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that a well-defined 3D protein structure is not necessary for core-induced RNA structural rearrangements. These data provide evidence that RNA chaperoning-possibly mediated by intrinsically disordered protein segments-is conserved in Flaviviridae core proteins. Thus, besides nucleocapsid formation, core proteins may function in RNA structural rearrangements taking place during virus replication.

  4. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our

  5. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Affinity maturation of a portable Fab–RNA module for chaperone-assisted RNA crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Deepak; Shelke, Sandip A; Dupont, Marcel; Ruiz, Stormy; DasGupta, Saurja; Bailey, Lucas J; Benner, Steven A; Piccirilli, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Antibody fragments such as Fabs possess properties that can enhance protein and RNA crystallization and therefore can facilitate macromolecular structure determination. In particular, Fab BL3–6 binds to an AAACA RNA pentaloop closed by a GC pair with ∼100 nM affinity. The Fab and hairpin have served as a portable module for RNA crystallization. The potential for general application make it desirable to adjust the properties of this crystallization module in a manner that facilitates its use for RNA structure determination, such as ease of purification, surface entropy or binding affinity. In this work, we used both in vitro RNA selection and phage display selection to alter the epitope and paratope sides of the binding interface, respectively, for improved binding affinity. We identified a 5′-GNGACCC-3′ consensus motif in the RNA and S97N mutation in complimentarity determining region L3 of the Fab that independently impart about an order of magnitude improvement in affinity, resulting from new hydrogen bonding interactions. Using a model RNA, these modifications facilitated crystallization under a wider range of conditions and improved diffraction. The improved features of the Fab–RNA module may facilitate its use as an affinity tag for RNA purification and imaging and as a chaperone for RNA crystallography. PMID:29309709

  7. Conserved TRAM Domain Functions as an Archaeal Cold Shock Protein via RNA Chaperone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold shock proteins (Csps enable organisms to acclimate to and survive in cold environments and the bacterial CspA family exerts the cold protection via its RNA chaperone activity. However, most Archaea do not contain orthologs to the bacterial csp. TRAM, a conserved domain among RNA modification proteins ubiquitously distributed in organisms, occurs as an individual protein in most archaeal phyla and has a structural similarity to Csp proteins, yet its biological functions remain unknown. Through physiological and biochemical studies on four TRAM proteins from a cold adaptive archaeon Methanolobus psychrophilus R15, this work demonstrated that TRAM is an archaeal Csp and exhibits RNA chaperone activity. Three TRAM encoding genes (Mpsy_0643, Mpsy_3043, and Mpsy_3066 exhibited remarkable cold-shock induced transcription and were preferentially translated at lower temperature (18°C, while the fourth (Mpsy_2002 was constitutively expressed. They were all able to complement the cspABGE mutant of Escherichia coli BX04 that does not grow in cold temperatures and showed transcriptional antitermination. TRAM3066 (gene product of Mpsy_3066 and TRAM2002 (gene product of Mpsy_2002 displayed sequence-non-specific RNA but not DNA binding activity, and TRAM3066 assisted RNases in degradation of structured RNA, thus validating the RNA chaperone activity of TRAMs. Given the chaperone activity, TRAM is predicted to function beyond a Csp.

  8. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  9. RNA-binding properties and RNA chaperone activity of human peroxiredoxin 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Lee, Hae Na; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Bin; Ahn, Sung-Min; Jang, Ho Hee; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► hPrx1 has RNA-binding properties. ► hPrx1 exhibits helix-destabilizing activity. ► Cold stress increases hPrx1 level in the nuclear fraction. ► hPrx1 enhances the viability of cells exposed to cold stress. -- Abstract: Human peroxiredoxin 1 (hPrx1), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, detoxifies peroxide substrates and has been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and redox signaling. To date, Prx1 has not been implicated in RNA metabolism. Here, we investigated the ability of hPrx1 to bind RNA and act as an RNA chaperone. In vitro, hPrx1 bound to RNA and DNA, and unwound nucleic acid duplexes. hPrx1 also acted as a transcription anti-terminator in an assay using an Escherichia coli strain containing a stem–loop structure upstream of the chloramphenicol resistance gene. The overall cellular level of hPrx1 expression was not increased at low temperatures, but the nuclear level of hPrx1 was increased. In addition, hPrx1 overexpression enhanced the survival of cells exposed to cold stress, whereas hPrx1 knockdown significantly reduced cell survival under the same conditions. These findings suggest that hPrx1 may perform biological functions as a RNA-binding protein, which are distinctive from known functions of hPrx1 as a reactive oxygen species scavenger.

  10. The role of Vif oligomerization and RNA chaperone activity in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Julien; Guerrero, Santiago; Bernacchi, Serena; Sleiman, Dona; Gabus, Caroline; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Marquet, Roland; Tisné, Carine; Paillart, Jean-Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells that involve most natural HIV-1 target cells. Vif counteracts the packaging of two cellular cytidine deaminases named APOBEC3G (A3G) and A3F by diverse mechanisms including the recruitment of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and the proteasomal degradation of A3G/A3F, the inhibition of A3G mRNA translation or by a direct competition mechanism. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by participating in virus assembly and Gag processing, thus regulating the final stage of virion formation notably genomic RNA dimerization and by inhibiting the initiation of reverse transcription. Vif is a small pleiotropic protein with multiple domains, and recent studies highlighted the importance of Vif conformation and flexibility in counteracting A3G and in binding RNA. In this review, we will focus on the oligomerization and RNA chaperone properties of Vif and show that the intrinsic disordered nature of some Vif domains could play an important role in virus assembly and replication. Experimental evidence demonstrating the RNA chaperone activity of Vif will be presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lack of the RNA chaperone Hfq attenuates pathogenicity of several Escherichia coli pathotypes towards Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Jakobsen, Henrik; Struve, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    as a model for virulence characterization and screening for novel antimicrobial entities. Several E. coli human pathotypes are also pathogenic towards C. elegans, and we show here that lack of the RNA chaperone Hfq significantly reduces pathogenicity of VTEC, EAEC, and UPEC in the nematode model. Thus, Hfq...... is intrinsically essential to pathogenic E. coli for survival and virulence exerted in the C. elegans host.......Escherichia coli is an important agent of Gram-negative bacterial infections worldwide, being one of the leading causes of diarrhoea and urinary tract infections. Strategies to understand pathogenesis and develop therapeutic compounds include the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...

  12. Structural and biochemical studies on ATP binding and hydrolysis by the Escherichia coli RNA chaperone Hfq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Hämmerle

    Full Text Available In Escherichia coli the RNA chaperone Hfq is involved in riboregulation by assisting base-pairing between small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs and mRNA targets. Several structural and biochemical studies revealed RNA binding sites on either surface of the donut shaped Hfq-hexamer. Whereas sRNAs are believed to contact preferentially the YKH motifs present on the proximal site, poly(A(15 and ADP were shown to bind to tripartite binding motifs (ARE circularly positioned on the distal site. Hfq has been reported to bind and to hydrolyze ATP. Here, we present the crystal structure of a C-terminally truncated variant of E. coli Hfq (Hfq(65 in complex with ATP, showing that it binds to the distal R-sites. In addition, we revisited the reported ATPase activity of full length Hfq purified to homogeneity. At variance with previous reports, no ATPase activity was observed for Hfq. In addition, FRET assays neither indicated an impact of ATP on annealing of two model oligoribonucleotides nor did the presence of ATP induce strand displacement. Moreover, ATP did not lead to destabilization of binary and ternary Hfq-RNA complexes, unless a vast stoichiometric excess of ATP was used. Taken together, these studies strongly suggest that ATP is dispensable for and does not interfere with Hfq-mediated RNA transactions.

  13. Denitrification by Rhizobium meliloti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, A

    1996-10-01

    Rhizobium meliloti strains were investigated for their denitrification activity as free-living cells and in nodules on lucerne (Medicago sativa) roots. They were also investigated for presence of nitrous oxide reductase (nos) activity and for genes using a nosZ probe derived from the Pseudomonas stutzeri. To decide whether R. meliloti strains used as inoculants contribute to the total denitrification activity in a lucerne ley, strains with different denitrifying capacities were used in field and laboratory experiments. The nitrate reduction activity of R. meliloti during anaerobic respiration was compared with that of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A great diversity in the denitrification activity was found within strains of R. meliloti, and four of thirteen investigated strains showed an obvious denitrification activity. Two denitrifying bacteria were used as references, one strain each of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and P. aeruginosa. All but one of the R. meliloti strains hybridized to the PstI-fragment of the nosZ-gene from P. stutzeri. Two sizes of the hybridizing fragment, 5 and 7 kb, were noticed. Nos activity was only shown in three R. meliloti strains, and these were all characterized by a high denitrification activity. The potential denitrification activity was about 20, 40, and 80 times higher than the actual denitrification activity for lucerne, fallow, and grass, respectively. The potential denitrification activity was almost the same in lucerne and grass planted soils. Compared with the unplanted soil, the presence of lucerne roots in the soil increased the actual denitrification activity, while roots of both plant species, grass and lucerne, increased the potential denitrification activity in the soil. 32 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  14. The RNA chaperone Hfq impacts growth, metabolism and production of virulence factors in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kakoschke

    Full Text Available To adapt to changes in environmental conditions, bacteria regulate their gene expression at the transcriptional but also at the post-transcriptional level, e.g. by small RNAs (sRNAs which modulate mRNA stability and translation. The conserved RNA chaperone Hfq mediates the interaction of many sRNAs with their target mRNAs, thereby playing a global role in fine-tuning protein production. In this study, we investigated the significance of Hfq for the enteropathogen Yersina enterocolitica serotype O:8. Hfq facilitated optimal growth in complex and minimal media. Our comparative protein analysis of parental and hfq-negative strains suggested that Hfq promotes lipid metabolism and transport, cell redox homeostasis, mRNA translation and ATP synthesis, and negatively affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism, transport of siderophore and peptides and tRNA synthesis. Accordingly, biochemical tests indicated that Hfq represses ornithine decarboxylase activity, indole production and utilization of glucose, mannitol, inositol and 1,2-propanediol. Moreover, Hfq repressed production of the siderophore yersiniabactin and its outer membrane receptor FyuA. In contrast, hfq mutants exhibited reduced urease production. Finally, strains lacking hfq were more susceptible to acidic pH and oxidative stress. Unlike previous reports in other Gram-negative bacteria, Hfq was dispensable for type III secretion encoded by the virulence plasmid. Using a chromosomally encoded FLAG-tagged Hfq, we observed increased production of Hfq-FLAG in late exponential and stationary phases. Overall, Hfq has a profound effect on metabolism, resistance to stress and modulates the production of two virulence factors in Y. enterocolitica, namely urease and yersiniabactin.

  15. Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN2 is a RNA chaperone that is regulated by cold and developmental signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kim, Myung-Hee; Imai, Ryozo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial cold shock proteins (CSPs) are RNA chaperones that unwind RNA secondary structures. Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN2 (AtCSP2) contains a domain that is shared with bacterial CSPs. Here we showed that AtCSP2 binds to RNA and unwinds nucleic acid duplex. Heterologous expression of AtCSP2 complemented cold sensitivity of an Escherichia coli csp quadruple mutant, indicating that AtCSP2 function as a RNA chaperone in E. coli. AtCSP2 mRNA and protein levels increased during cold acclimation, but the protein accumulation was most prominent after 10 days of cold treatment. AtCSP2 promoter::GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtCSP2 is expressed only in root and shoot apical regions during vegetative growth but is expressed in reproductive organs such as pollens, ovules and embryos. These data indicated that AtCSP2 is involved in developmental processes as well as cold adaptation. Localization of AtCSP2::GFP in nucleolus and cytoplasm suggested different nuclear and cytosolic RNA targets

  16. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs. PMID:24454905

  17. The prion protein has RNA binding and chaperoning properties characteristic of nucleocapsid protein NCP7 of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, C; Derrington, E; Leblanc, P; Chnaiderman, J; Dormont, D; Swietnicki, W; Morillas, M; Surewicz, W K; Marc, D; Nandi, P; Darlix, J L

    2001-06-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the prion protein (PrP). Although PrP is conserved in vertebrates, its function remains to be identified. In vitro PrP binds large nucleic acids causing the formation of nucleoprotein complexes resembling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid-RNA complexes and in vivo MuLV replication accelerates the scrapie infectious process, suggesting possible interactions between retroviruses and PrP. Retroviruses, including HIV-1 encode a major nucleic acid binding protein (NC protein) found within the virus where 2000 NC protein molecules coat the dimeric genome. NC is required in virus assembly and infection to chaperone RNA dimerization and packaging and in proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase (RT). In HIV-1, 5'-leader RNA/NC interactions appear to control these viral processes. This prompted us to compare and contrast the interactions of human and ovine PrP and HIV-1 NCp7 with HIV-1 5'-leader RNA. Results show that PrP has properties characteristic of NCp7 with respect to viral RNA dimerization and proviral DNA synthesis by RT. The NC-like properties of huPrP map to the N-terminal region of huPrP. Interestingly, PrP localizes in the membrane and cytoplasm of PrP-expressing cells. These findings suggest that PrP is a multifunctional protein possibly participating in nucleic acid metabolism.

  18. The hepatitis C virus Core protein is a potent nucleic acid chaperone that directs dimerization of the viral (+) strand RNA in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Gaël; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Gabus, Caroline; Boulant, Steeve; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Penin, François; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen causing chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome encoding a single polyprotein that is processed to generate viral proteins. Several hundred molecules of the structural Core protein are thought to coat the genome in the viral particle, as do nucleocapsid (NC) protein molecules in Retroviruses, another class of enveloped viruses containing a positive-sense RNA genome. Retroviral NC proteins also possess nucleic acid chaperone properties that play critical roles in the structural remodelling of the genome during retrovirus replication. This analogy between HCV Core and retroviral NC proteins prompted us to investigate the putative nucleic acid chaperoning properties of the HCV Core protein. Here we report that Core protein chaperones the annealing of complementary DNA and RNA sequences and the formation of the most stable duplex by strand exchange. These results show that the HCV Core is a nucleic acid chaperone similar to retroviral NC proteins. We also find that the Core protein directs dimerization of HCV (+) RNA 3' untranslated region which is promoted by a conserved palindromic sequence possibly involved at several stages of virus replication.

  19. Structural characterization of the RNA chaperone Hfq from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Marco Antonio Seiki; Iulek, Jorge; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Chubatsu, Leda Satie; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Schüler; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud

    2012-02-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq is a homohexamer protein identified as an E. coli host factor involved in phage Qβ replication and it is an important posttranscriptional regulator of several types of RNA, affecting a plethora of bacterial functions. Although twenty Hfq crystal structures have already been reported in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), new insights into these protein structures can still be discussed. In this work, the structure of Hfq from the β-proteobacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a diazotroph associated with economically important agricultural crops, was determined by X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Biochemical assays such as exclusion chromatography and RNA-binding by the electrophoretic shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the purified protein is homogeneous and active. The crystal structure revealed a conserved Sm topology, composed of one N-terminal α-helix followed by five twisted β-strands, and a novel π-π stacking intra-subunit interaction of two histidine residues, absent in other Hfq proteins. Moreover, the calculated ab initio envelope based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data agreed with the Hfq crystal structure, suggesting that the protein has the same folding structure in solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A role for the RNA chaperone Hfq in controlling adherent-invasive Escherichia coli colonization and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Simonsen

    Full Text Available Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC has been linked with the onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel diseases. The AIEC strain LF82 was originally isolated from an ileal biopsy from a patient with Crohn's disease. The pathogenesis of LF82 results from its abnormal adherence to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known LF82 virulence determinants but was abolished by deletion of the LF82 hfq gene, which encodes an RNA chaperone involved in mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs. This finding reveals that important aspects of LF82 pathogenesis are controlled at the posttranscriptional level by riboregulation. The role of Hfq in LF82 virulence was independent of its function in regulating RpoS and RpoE activity. Further, LF82Δhfq mutants were non-motile, impaired in cell invasion and highly sensitive to various chemical stress conditions, reinforcing the multifaceted function of Hfq in mediating bacterial adaptation. This study highlights the usefulness of simple non-mammalian infection systems for the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors.

  1. Loss of function mutation in LARP7, chaperone of 7SK ncRNA, causes a syndrome of facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, and primordial dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazami, Anas M; Al-Owain, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Shamrani, Hussain; Al-Falki, Yahya H; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Alsheddi, Tarfa; Colak, Dilek; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2012-10-01

    Primordial dwarfism (PD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. Various molecular mechanisms are known to underlie the disease including impaired mitotic mechanics, abnormal IGF2 expression, perturbed DNA damage response, defective spliceosomal machinery, and abnormal replication licensing. Here, we describe a syndromic form of PD associated with severe intellectual disability and distinct facial features in a large multiplex Saudi family. Analysis reveals a novel underlying mechanism for PD involving depletion of 7SK, an abundant cellular noncoding RNA (ncRNA), due to mutation of its chaperone LARP7. We show that 7SK levels are tightly linked to LARP7 expression across cell lines, and that this chaperone is ubiquitously expressed in the mouse embryo. The 7SK is known to influence the expression of a wide array of genes through its inhibitory effect on the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) as well as its competing role in HMGA1-mediated transcriptional regulation. This study documents a critical role played by ncRNA in human development and adds to the growing list of molecular mechanisms that, when perturbed, converge on the PD phenotype. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The RNA chaperone, Hfq, controls two luxR-type regulators and plays a key role in pathogenesis and production of antibiotics in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Nabil M; Williamson, Neil R; Ramsay, Joshua P; Poulter, Simon; Bandyra, Kasia J; Salmond, George P C

    2011-10-01

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes, pectate lyase and cellulase. A complex regulatory network that includes quorum sensing (QS) controls production of prodigiosin. While many aspects of the regulation of the metabolites and exoenzymes are well understood, the potential role in this network of the RNA chaperone Hfq and dependent small regulatory RNAs has not been characterized. Hfq is an RNA chaperone involved in post-transcriptional regulation that plays a key role in stress response and virulence in diverse bacterial species. To explore whether Hfq-dependent processes might contribute to the regulation of antibiotic production we constructed an S39006 Δhfq mutant. Production of prodigiosin and carbapenem was abolished in this mutant strain, while production of the QS signalling molecule, butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL), was unaffected. Using transcriptional fusions, we found that Hfq regulates the QS response regulators, SmaR and CarR. Additionally, exoenzyme production and swimming motility were decreased in a Δhfq mutant, and virulence was attenuated in potato and C. elegans models. These results suggest that an Hfq-dependent pathway is involved in the regulation of virulence and secondary metabolite production in S39006. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Chloroplast SRP43 acts as a chaperone for glutamyl-tRNA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Liang, Fu-Cheng; Wittmann, Daniel; Siegel, Alex; Shan, Shu-Ou; Grimm, Bernhard

    2018-04-10

    Assembly of light-harvesting complexes requires synchronization of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis with biogenesis of light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). The chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) pathway is responsible for transport of nucleus-encoded LHCPs in the stroma of the plastid and their integration into the thylakoid membranes. Correct folding and assembly of LHCPs require the incorporation of Chls, whose biosynthesis must therefore be precisely coordinated with membrane insertion of LHCPs. How the spatiotemporal coordination between the cpSRP machinery and Chl biosynthesis is achieved is poorly understood. In this work, we demonstrate a direct interaction between cpSRP43, the chaperone that mediates LHCP targeting and insertion, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR), a rate-limiting enzyme in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Concurrent deficiency for cpSRP43 and the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) additively reduces GluTR levels, indicating that cpSRP43 and GBP act nonredundantly to stabilize GluTR. The substrate-binding domain of cpSRP43 binds to the N-terminal region of GluTR, which harbors aggregation-prone motifs, and the chaperone activity of cpSRP43 efficiently prevents aggregation of these regions. Our work thus reveals a function of cpSRP43 in Chl biosynthesis and suggests a striking mechanism for posttranslational coordination of LHCP insertion with Chl biosynthesis.

  4. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-07

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  5. Structural and dynamic properties of the C-terminal region of the Escherichia coli RNA chaperone Hfq: integrative experimental and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Shi, Yunyu; Wu, Jihui; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-08-09

    In Escherichia coli, hexameric Hfq is an important RNA chaperone that facilitates small RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The Hfq monomer consists of an evolutionarily conserved Sm domain (residues 1-65) and a flexible C-terminal region (residues 66-102). It has been recognized that the existence of the C-terminal region is important for the function of Hfq, but its detailed structural and dynamic properties remain elusive due to its disordered nature. In this work, using integrative experimental techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as multi-scale computational simulations, new insights into the structure and dynamics of the C-terminal region in the context of the Hfq hexamer are provided. Although the C-terminal region is intrinsically disordered, some residues (83-86) are motionally restricted. The hexameric core may affect the secondary structure propensity of the C-terminal region, due to transient interactions between them. The residues at the rim and the proximal side of the core have significantly more transient contacts with the C-terminal region than those residues at the distal side, which may facilitate the function of the C-terminal region in the release of double-stranded RNAs and the cycling of small non-coding RNAs. Structure ensembles constructed by fitting the experimental data also support that the C-terminal region prefers to locate at the proximal side. From multi-scale simulations, we propose that the C-terminal region may play a dual role of steric effect (especially at the proximal side) and recruitment (at the both sides) in the binding process of RNA substrates. Interestingly, we have found that these motionally restricted residues may serve as important binding sites for the incoming RNAs that is probably driven by favorable electrostatic interactions. These integrative studies may aid in our understanding of the functional role of the C-terminal region of Hfq.

  6. Extended region of nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. II. Nucleotide sequence, transcription start sites and protein products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.F.; Swanson, J.A.; Mulligan, J.T.; Long, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have established the DNA sequence and analyzed the transcription and translation products of a series of putative nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti strain 1021. Four loci have been designated nodF, nodE, nodG and nodH. The correlation of transposon insertion positions with phenotypes and open reading frames was confirmed by sequencing the insertion junctions of the transposons. The protein products of these nod genes were visualized by in vitro expression of cloned DNA segments in a R. meliloti transcription-translation system. In addition, the sequence for nodG was substantiated by creating translational fusions in all three reading frames at several points in the sequence; the resulting fusions were expressed in vitro in both E. coli and R. meliloti transcription-translation systems. A DNA segment bearing several open reading frames downstream of nodG corresponds to the putative nod gene mutated in strain nod-216. The transcription start sites of nodF and nodH were mapped by primer extension of RNA from cells induced with the plant flavone, luteolin. Initiation of transcription occurs approximately 25 bp downstream from the conserved sequence designated the nod box, suggesting that this conserved sequence acts as an upstream regulator of inducible nod gene expression. Its distance from the transcription start site is more suggestive of an activator binding site rather than an RNA polymerase binding site

  7. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote. PMID:19218416

  8. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  9. Sinorhizobium meliloti can protect Medicago truncatula against Phoma medicaginis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef MRABET

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sinorhizobium meliloti microsymbiont of Medicago spp. was used in an antibiosis test against Phoma medicaginis and in bioprotection assays of Medicago truncatula JA17 from the pathogen. Among 17 S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of M. truncatula and Medicago laciniata grown in Tunisian soils, six showed up to 60% growth inhibition of five P. medicaginis strains isolated from infected field-grown M. truncatula. Two S. meliloti strains with differing in vitro effects on P. medicaginis, 10.16/R6 antagonist and 5M6 non antagonist, were used in a bioprotection assay of M. truncatula JA17 from the pathogen. The inoculation of P. medicaginis caused complete root and stem rotting, and the mortality of all treated plantlets. Inoculation of the antagonist S. meliloti strain 10.16/R6 to M. truncatula JA17 infected with P. medicaginis was associated with a significant 65% decrease of vegetative rotting length, an 80% decrease of plant mortality, an increase of root length, and enhancement of root and shoot biomass comparatively to control plantlets treated with P. medicaginis. The inoculation of the non antagonistic S. meliloti strain 5M6 slightly decreased disease and slightly increased plant growth parameters.

  10. Genome sequence of Ensifer meliloti strain WSM1022; a highly effective microsymbiont of the model legume Medicago truncatula A17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpolilli, Jason; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-12-20

    Ensifer meliloti WSM1022 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1022 was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual Medicago orbicularis growing on the Cyclades Island of Naxos in Greece. WSM1022 is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. truncatula and other annual species such as M. tornata and M. littoralis and is also highly effective with the perennial M. sativa (alfalfa or lucerne). In common with other characterized E. meliloti strains, WSM1022 will nodulate but fixes poorly with M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos and does not nodulate M. murex. Here we describe the features of E. meliloti WSM1022, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,649,661 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 121 scaffolds of 125 contigs containing 6,323 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  11. Extracellular and circulating redox- and metalloregulated eRNA and eRNP: copper ion-structured RNA cytokines (angiotropin ribokines) and bioaptamer targets imparting RNA chaperone and novel biofunctions to S100-EF-hand and disease-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissler, Josef H

    2004-06-01

    were visualized by 3D-rapid prototyping of accurate molecular image models based on crystallographic or NMR data. For S100A12-homologous proteins, receptor- and metalloregulated RNA chaperone-shaped protein assemblies were investigated. They suggest insight into signaling cascades as to how eRNA transmits its cytokine (ribokine) bioinformation from the extracellular RNA biosphere into cells. Proteomics of the extracellular RNA biosphere demonstrate the presence of nucleic acid-binding domain homologies in defense-, aging-, and disease-associated neuronal and other proteins as targets for RNA orphans. By structural relationships found to transmissible processes, proteinaceous transfer ("infectivity") and feedback of bioinformation beyond the central dogma of molecular biology are considered in terms of metalloregulated RNA bioaptamer function, nucleic acid-binding domains, and protein conformation.

  12. Conjugal properties of the Sinorhizobium meliloti plasmid mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorio, Mariano; Giusti, María A; Del Papa, María F; Draghi, Walter O; Lozano, Mauricio J; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Lagares, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    The biology and biochemistry of plasmid transfer in soil bacteria is currently under active investigation because of its central role in prokaryote adaptation and evolution. In this work, we examined the conjugal properties of the cryptic plasmids present in a collection of the N(2)-fixing legume-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. The study was performed on 65 S. meliloti isolates recovered from 25 humic soils of Argentina, which were grouped into 22 plasmid-profile types [i.e. plasmid operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]. The cumulative Shannon index calculated for the observed plasmid profiles showed a clear saturation plateau, thus indicating an adequate representation of the S. meliloti plasmid-profile types in the isolates studied. The results show that isolates of nearly 14% of the plasmid OTUs hosted transmissible plasmids and that isolates of 29% of the plasmid OTUs were able to retransfer the previously characterized mobilizable-cryptic plasmid pSmeLPU88b to a third recipient strain. It is noteworthy that isolates belonging to 14% of the plasmid OTUs proved to be refractory to the entrance of the model plasmid pSmeLPU88b, suggesting either the presence of surface exclusion phenomena or the occurrence of restriction incompatibility with the incoming replicon. Incompatibility for replication between resident plasmids and plasmid pSmeLPU88b was observed in c. 20% of the OTUs. The results reported here reveal a widespread compatibility among the conjugal functions of the cryptic plasmids in S. meliloti, and this fact, together with the observed high proportion of existing donor genotypes, points to the extrachromosomal compartment of the species as being an extremely active plasmid mobilome.

  13. PCR Analysis of "expR" Gene Regulating Biosynthesis of Exopolysaccharides in "Sinorhizobium Meliloti"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorroche, Fernando G.; Giordano, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by the rhizobacterium "Sinorhizobium meliloti" is essential for root nodule formation on its legume host (alfalfa), and for establishment of a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between the two partners. Production of EPS II (galactoglucan) by certain "S. meliloti" strains results in a mucoid colony…

  14. Hydrogen peroxide-regulated genes in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrio, Emilie; Marino, Daniel; Marmeys, Anthony; de Segonzac, Marion Dunoyer; Damiani, Isabelle; Genre, Andrea; Huguet, Stéphanie; Frendo, Pierre; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), play an important role in signalling in various cellular processes. The involvement of H(2)O(2) in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction raises questions about its effect on gene expression. A transcriptome analysis was performed on inoculated roots of M. truncatula in which ROS production was inhibited with diphenylene iodonium (DPI). In total, 301 genes potentially regulated by ROS content were identified 2 d after inoculation. These genes included MtSpk1, which encodes a putative protein kinase and is induced by exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment. MtSpk1 gene expression was also induced by nodulation factor treatment. MtSpk1 transcription was observed in infected root hair cells, nodule primordia and the infection zone of mature nodules. Analysis with a fluorescent protein probe specific for H(2)O(2) showed that MtSpk1 expression and H(2)O(2) were similarly distributed in the nodule infection zone. Finally, the establishment of symbiosis was impaired by MtSpk1 downregulation with an artificial micro-RNA. Several genes regulated by H(2)O(2) during the establishment of rhizobial symbiosis were identified. The involvement of MtSpk1 in the establishment of the symbiosis is proposed. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke

    2016-09-10

    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro reconstitution of chaperone-mediated human RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Ken; Matsuura-Suzuki, Eriko; Watanabe, Mariko; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    To silence target mRNAs, small RNAs and Argonaute (Ago) proteins need to be assembled into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Although the assembly of Drosophila melanogaster RISC was recently reconstituted by Ago2, the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, and five chaperone proteins, the absence of a reconstitution system for mammalian RISC assembly has posed analytical challenges. Here we describe reconstitution of human RISC assembly using Ago2 and five recombinant chaperone proteins: Hsp90β, Hsc70, Hop, Dnaja2, and p23. Our data show that ATP hydrolysis by both Hsp90β and Hsc70 is required for RISC assembly of small RNA duplexes but not for that of single-stranded RNAs. The reconstitution system lays the groundwork for further studies of small RNA-mediated gene silencing in mammals. © 2018 Naruse et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Engineering a vitamin B12 high-throughput screening system by riboswitch sensor in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yingying; Xia, Miaomiao; Dong, Huina; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, Tongcun; Zhu, Beiwei; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-05-11

    As a very important coenzyme in the cell metabolism, Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin, VB 12 ) has been widely used in food and medicine fields. The complete biosynthesis of VB 12 requires approximately 30 genes, but overexpression of these genes did not result in expected increase of VB 12 production. High-yield VB 12 -producing strains are usually obtained by mutagenesis treatments, thus developing an efficient screening approach is urgently needed. By the help of engineered strains with varied capacities of VB 12 production, a riboswitch library was constructed and screened, and the btuB element from Salmonella typhimurium was identified as the best regulatory device. A flow cytometry high-throughput screening system was developed based on the btuB riboswitch with high efficiency to identify positive mutants. Mutation of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) was optimized using the novel mutation technique of atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Finally, the mutant S. meliloti MC5-2 was obtained and considered as a candidate for industrial applications. After 7 d's cultivation on a rotary shaker at 30 °C, the VB 12 titer of S. meliloti MC5-2 reached 156 ± 4.2 mg/L, which was 21.9% higher than that of the wild type strain S. meliloti 320 (128 ± 3.2 mg/L). The genome of S. meliloti MC5-2 was sequenced, and gene mutations were identified and analyzed. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a riboswitch element was used in S. meliloti. The flow cytometry high-throughput screening system was successfully developed and a high-yield VB 12 producing strain was obtained. The identified and analyzed gene mutations gave useful information for developing high-yield strains by metabolic engineering. Overall, this work provides a useful high-throughput screening method for developing high VB 12 -yield strains.

  18. RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  19. Inter-replicon Gene Flow Contributes to Transcriptional Integration in the Sinorhizobium meliloti Multipartite Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. diCenzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid. Removal of the pSymA megaplasmid influenced the transcription of only six genes. In contrast, removal of the chromid influenced expression of ∼8% of chromosomal genes and ∼4% of megaplasmid genes. This was mediated in part by the loss of the ETR DNA region whose presence on pSymB is due to a translocation from the chromosome. No obvious functional bias among the up-regulated genes was detected, although genes with putative homologs on the chromid were enriched. Down-regulated genes were enriched in motility and sensory transduction pathways. Four transcripts were examined further, and in each case the transcriptional change could be traced to loss of specific pSymB regions. In particularly, a chromosomal transporter was induced due to deletion of bdhA likely mediated through 3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation. These data provide new insights into the evolution of the multipartite bacterial genome, and more generally into the integration of horizontally acquired genes into the transcriptome.

  20. Inter-replicon Gene Flow Contributes to Transcriptional Integration in the Sinorhizobium meliloti Multipartite Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Wellappili, Deelaka; Golding, G Brian; Finan, Turlough M

    2018-05-04

    Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid. Removal of the pSymA megaplasmid influenced the transcription of only six genes. In contrast, removal of the chromid influenced expression of ∼8% of chromosomal genes and ∼4% of megaplasmid genes. This was mediated in part by the loss of the ETR DNA region whose presence on pSymB is due to a translocation from the chromosome. No obvious functional bias among the up-regulated genes was detected, although genes with putative homologs on the chromid were enriched. Down-regulated genes were enriched in motility and sensory transduction pathways. Four transcripts were examined further, and in each case the transcriptional change could be traced to loss of specific pSymB regions. In particularly, a chromosomal transporter was induced due to deletion of bdhA likely mediated through 3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation. These data provide new insights into the evolution of the multipartite bacterial genome, and more generally into the integration of horizontally acquired genes into the transcriptome. Copyright © 2018 diCenzo, et al.

  1. Cellular Stoichiometry of Methyl-Accepting Chemotaxis Proteins in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatakia, Hardik M; Arapov, Timofey D; Meier, Veronika M; Scharf, Birgit E

    2018-03-15

    The chemosensory system in Sinorhizobium meliloti has several important deviations from the widely studied enterobacterial paradigm. To better understand the differences between the two systems and how they are optimally tuned, we determined the cellular stoichiometry of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) and the histidine kinase CheA in S. meliloti Quantitative immunoblotting was used to determine the total amount of MCPs and CheA per cell in S. meliloti The MCPs are present in the cell in high abundance (McpV), low abundance (IcpA, McpU, McpX, and McpW), and very low abundance (McpY and McpZ), whereas McpT was below the detection limit. The approximate cellular ratio of these three receptor groups is 300:30:1. The chemoreceptor-to-CheA ratio is 23.5:1, highly similar to that seen in Bacillus subtilis (23:1) and about 10 times higher than that in Escherichia coli (3.4:1). Different from E. coli , the high-abundance receptors in S. meliloti are lacking the carboxy-terminal NWETF pentapeptide that binds the CheR methyltransferase and CheB methylesterase. Using transcriptional lacZ fusions, we showed that chemoreceptors are positively controlled by the master regulators of motility, VisNR and Rem. In addition, FlbT, a class IIA transcriptional regulator of flagellins, also positively regulates the expression of most chemoreceptors except for McpT and McpY, identifying chemoreceptors as class III genes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the chemosensory complex and the adaptation system in S. meliloti deviates significantly from the established enterobacterial paradigm but shares some similarities with B. subtilis IMPORTANCE The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is of great agricultural importance because of its nitrogen-fixing properties, which enhances growth of its plant symbiont, alfalfa. Chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage for bacteria to sense their environment and interact with their eukaryotic hosts. For a better

  2. Histone chaperone networks shaping chromatin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Colin; Strømme, Caroline Bianchi; Huang, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones. We emphasize how chaperones cooperate in the histone...... chaperone network and via co-chaperone complexes to match histone supply with demand, thereby promoting proper nucleosome assembly and maintaining epigenetic information by recycling modified histones evicted from chromatin....

  3. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia

    1981-01-01

    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  4. The identification and characterization of nucleic acid chaperone activity of human enterovirus 71 nonstructural protein 3AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fenfen; Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Tianyong; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-09-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae and has been recognized as one of the most important pathogens that cause emerging infectious disease. Despite of the importance of EV71, the nonstructural protein 3AB from this virus is little understood for its function during EV71 replication. Here we expressed EV71 3AB protein as recombinant protein in a eukaryotic expression system and uncovered that this protein possesses a nucleic acid helix-destabilizing and strand annealing acceleration activity in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that EV71 3AB is a nucleic acid chaperone protein. Moreover, we characterized the RNA chaperone activity of EV71 3AB, and revealed that divalent metal ions, such as Mg(2+) and Zn(2+), were able to inhibit the RNA helix-destabilizing activity of 3AB to different extents. Moreover, we determined that 3B plus the last 7 amino acids at the C-terminal of 3A (termed 3B+7) possess the RNA chaperone activity, and five amino acids, i.e. Lys-80, Phe-82, Phe-85, Tyr-89, and Arg-103, are critical and probably the active sites of 3AB for its RNA chaperone activity. This report reveals that EV71 3AB displays an RNA chaperone activity, adds a new member to the growing list of virus-encoded RNA chaperones, and provides novel knowledge about the virology of EV71. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Important Late-Stage Symbiotic Role of the Sinorhizobium meliloti Exopolysaccharide Succinoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Markus F F; Penterman, Jon; Shabab, Mohammed; Chen, Esther J; Walker, Graham C

    2018-07-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti enters into beneficial symbiotic interactions with Medicago species of legumes. Bacterial exopolysaccharides play critical signaling roles in infection thread initiation and growth during the early stages of root nodule formation. After endocytosis of S. meliloti by plant cells in the developing nodule, plant-derived nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides mediate terminal differentiation of the bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Previous transcriptional studies showed that the intensively studied cationic peptide NCR247 induces expression of the exo genes that encode the proteins required for succinoglycan biosynthesis. In addition, genetic studies have shown that some exo mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of NCR247. Therefore, we investigated whether the symbiotically active S. meliloti exopolysaccharide succinoglycan can protect S. meliloti against the antimicrobial activity of NCR247. We discovered that high-molecular-weight forms of succinoglycan have the ability to protect S. meliloti from the antimicrobial action of the NCR247 peptide but low-molecular-weight forms of wild-type succinoglycan do not. The protective function of high-molecular-weight succinoglycan occurs via direct molecular interactions between anionic succinoglycan and the cationic NCR247 peptide, but this interaction is not chiral. Taken together, our observations suggest that S. meliloti exopolysaccharides not only may be critical during early stages of nodule invasion but also are upregulated at a late stage of symbiosis to protect bacteria against the bactericidal action of cationic NCR peptides. Our findings represent an important step forward in fully understanding the complete set of exopolysaccharide functions during legume symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Symbiotic interactions between rhizobia and legumes are economically important for global food production. The legume symbiosis also is a major part of the global nitrogen

  6. Resistance to organic hydroperoxides requires ohr and ohrR genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufour Virginie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Medicago sativa. During nodule formation bacteria have to withstand oxygen radicals produced by the plant. Resistance to H2O2 and superoxides has been extensively studied in S. meliloti. In contrast resistance to organic peroxides has not been investigated while S. meliloti genome encodes putative organic peroxidases. Organic peroxides are produced by plants and are highly toxic. The resistance to these oxygen radicals has been studied in various bacteria but never in plant nodulating bacteria. Results In this study we report the characterisation of organic hydroperoxide resistance gene ohr and its regulator ohrR in S. meliloti. The inactivation of ohr affects resistance to cumene and ter-butyl hydroperoxides but not to hydrogen peroxide or menadione in vitro. The expression of ohr and ohrR genes is specifically induced by organic peroxides. OhrR binds to the intergenic region between the divergent genes ohr and ohrR. Two binding sites were characterised. Binding to the operator is prevented by OhrR oxidation that promotes OhrR dimerisation. The inactivation of ohr did not affect symbiosis and nitrogen fixation, suggesting that redundant enzymatic activity exists in this strain. Both ohr and ohrR are expressed in nodules suggesting that they play a role during nitrogen fixation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role Ohr and OhrR proteins play in bacterial stress resistance against organic peroxides in S. meliloti. The ohr and ohrR genes are expressed in nodule-inhabiting bacteroids suggesting a role during nodulation.

  7. The HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat has potent nucleic acid chaperoning activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciak, Monika; Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Semrad, Katharina; Storchak, Roman; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-06-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a primate lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the virion structural proteins and enzyme precursors, that are Gag, Env and Pol, HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably a small nuclear transcriptional activator named Tat. The Tat protein is absolutely required for virus replication since it controls proviral DNA transcription to generate the full-length viral mRNA. Tat can also regulate mRNA capping and splicing and was recently found to interfere with the cellular mi- and siRNA machinery. Because of its extensive interplay with nucleic acids, and its basic and disordered nature we speculated that Tat had nucleic acid-chaperoning properties. This prompted us to examine in vitro the nucleic acid-chaperoning activities of Tat and Tat peptides made by chemical synthesis. Here we report that Tat has potent nucleic acid-chaperoning activities according to the standard DNA annealing, DNA and RNA strand exchange, RNA ribozyme cleavage and trans-splicing assays. The active Tat(44-61) peptide identified here corresponds to the smallest known sequence with DNA/RNA chaperoning properties.

  8. Analysis of nucleic acid chaperoning by the prion protein and its inhibition by oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Cécile; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Gabus, Caroline; Marc, Daniel; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Prion diseases are unique neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the aggregated misfolded scrapie isoform, named PrP(Sc). Recent studies on the physiological role of PrP(C) revealed that this protein has probably multiple functions, notably in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, and in assisting nucleic acid folding. In fact, in vitro findings indicated that the human PrP (huPrP) possesses nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, similarly to nucleic acid chaperone proteins that play essential roles in cellular DNA and RNA metabolism. Here, we show that a peptide, representing the N-terminal domain of huPrP, facilitates nucleic acid annealing by two parallel pathways nucleated through the stem termini. We also show that PrP of human or ovine origin facilitates DNA strand exchange, ribozyme-directed cleavage of an RNA template and RNA trans-splicing in a manner similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. In an attempt to characterize inhibitors of PrP-chaperoning in vitro we discovered that the thioaptamer 5'-GACACAAGCCGA-3' was extensively inhibiting the PrP chaperoning activities. At the same time a recently characterized methylated oligoribonucleotide inhibiting the chaperoning activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein was poorly impairing the PrP chaperoning activities.

  9. Mutations in sit B and sit D genes affect manganese-growth requirements in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platero, Raúl A; Jaureguy, Melina; Battistoni, Federico J; Fabiano, Elena R

    2003-01-21

    Two transposon-induced mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti 242 were isolated based on their inability to grow on rich medium supplemented with the metal chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and either heme-compounds or siderophores as iron sources. Tagged loci of these mutants were identified as sit B and sit D genes. These genes encode components of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) metal-type permease in several Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, the phenotypes of these two mutants were compared with those of two siderophore-mediated iron transport mutants. The results strongly implicate a role of the sit genes in manganese acquisition when this metal is limiting in S. meliloti.

  10. Biodegradable plastics from Sinorhizobium meliloti as plastics compatible with the environment and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi Beidokhti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are natural polyesters and biodegradable plastics that are stored as intracellular inclusion bodies by a great variety of bacteria. The aim of this study was to extract polyhydroxyalkanoate from native Sinorhizobium meliloti in Iran. Materials and methods: Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates were collected from roots of alfalfa plants and were identified by Gram staining, biochemical experiments and amplification of 1500 bp fragment of 16Sr DNA gene. PHA granules were detected by microscopic examination. PHA production was evaluated in nutrient deficient medium and its amount was determined by conversion of PHA into crotonic acid by sulphuric acid treatment. The effect of various temperatures, agitation rate and carbon source (sucrose, mannitol, and maltose were evaluated on dry cell weight and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production. Results: The maximum amount of polymer production (43.10% was seen in basal mineral medium at 29°C, pH~7 and 215 revolutions per minute (rpm. The results of this research showed that the S5 isolate was capable to produce maximum poly3- hydroxybutyrate. The produced polymer was analyzed for its purity by GC- mass (gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy and confirmed to be PHB compared with the standard polymer. Discussion and conclusion: Native strains of Sinorhizobium can be used in the production of biodegradable plastics and the results of present study showed that S. meliloti S5 was capable to produce maximum PHB at 29°C, agitation rate of 215 rpm, and pH~7. 

  11. Transcription elongation factor GreA has functional chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Tianyi; Yu, Bo; Wang, Limin; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial GreA is an indispensable factor in the RNA polymerase elongation complex. It plays multiple roles in transcriptional elongation, and may be implicated in resistance to various stresses. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli GreA inhibits aggregation of several substrate proteins under heat shock condition. GreA can also effectively promote the refolding of denatured proteins. These facts reveal that GreA has chaperone activity. Distinct from many molecular chaperones, GreA does not form stable complexes with unfolded substrates. GreA overexpression confers the host cells with enhanced resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress. Moreover, GreA expression in the greA/greB double mutant could suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype, and dramatically alleviate the in vivo protein aggregation. The results suggest that bacterial GreA may act as chaperone in vivo. These results suggest that GreA, in addition to its function as a transcription factor, is involved in protection of cellular proteins against aggregation.

  12. Sinorhizobium meliloti sigma factors RpoE1 and RpoE4 are activated in stationary phase in response to sulfite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Bastiat

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legume plants. Both in soil and in planta, rhizobia spend non-growing periods resembling the stationary phase of in vitro-cultured bacteria. The primary objective of this work was to better characterize gene regulation in this biologically relevant growth stage in Sinorhizobium meliloti. By a tap-tag/mass spectrometry approach, we identified five sigma factors co-purifying with the RNA polymerase in stationary phase: the general stress response regulator RpoE2, the heat shock sigma factor RpoH2, and three extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factors (RpoE1, RpoE3 and RpoE4 belonging to the poorly characterized ECF26 subgroup. We then showed that RpoE1 and RpoE4 i are activated upon metabolism of sulfite-generating compounds (thiosulfate and taurine, ii display overlapping regulatory activities, iii govern a dedicated sulfite response by controlling expression of the sulfite dehydrogenase SorT, iv are activated in stationary phase, likely as a result of endogenous sulfite generation during bacterial growth. We showed that SorT is required for optimal growth of S. meliloti in the presence of sulfite, suggesting that the response governed by RpoE1 and RpoE4 may be advantageous for bacteria in stationary phase either by providing a sulfite detoxification function or by contributing to energy production through sulfite respiration. This paper therefore reports the first characterization of ECF26 sigma factors, the first description of sigma factors involved in control of sulphur metabolism, and the first indication that endogenous sulfite may act as a signal for regulation of gene expression upon entry of bacteria in stationary phase.

  13. Insight into the assembly of chaperones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, R P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Stegmann, R; Manakova, E; Roessle, M; Hermann, T; Heumann, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Martinsried (Germany); Axmann, S; Plueckthun, A [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Wiedenmann, A [HMI, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Chaperones are proteins that help other proteins (substrate proteins) to acquire a `good` conformation. The folding is a dynamic process and involves repetitive binding and release of the chaperone components and of the substrate protein. Small-angle neutron scattering is used to investigate the structural changes that appear to happen during the folding process. (author). 2 refs.

  14. Chaperone-client complexes: A dynamic liaison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Sebastian; Burmann, Björn M.

    2018-04-01

    Living cells contain molecular chaperones that are organized in intricate networks to surveil protein homeostasis by avoiding polypeptide misfolding, aggregation, and the generation of toxic species. In addition, cellular chaperones also fulfill a multitude of alternative functionalities: transport of clients towards a target location, help them fold, unfold misfolded species, resolve aggregates, or deliver clients towards proteolysis machineries. Until recently, the only available source of atomic resolution information for virtually all chaperones were crystal structures of their client-free, apo-forms. These structures were unable to explain details of the functional mechanisms underlying chaperone-client interactions. The difficulties to crystallize chaperones in complexes with clients arise from their highly dynamic nature, making solution NMR spectroscopy the method of choice for their study. With the advent of advanced solution NMR techniques, in the past few years a substantial number of structural and functional studies on chaperone-client complexes have been resolved, allowing unique insight into the chaperone-client interaction. This review summarizes the recent insights provided by advanced high-resolution NMR-spectroscopy to understand chaperone-client interaction mechanisms at the atomic scale.

  15. PrPC has nucleic acid chaperoning properties similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Edmund; Gabus, Caroline; Leblanc, Pascal; Chnaidermann, Jonas; Grave, Linda; Dormont, Dominique; Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Morillas, Manuel; Marck, Daniel; Nandi, Pradip; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    The function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains obscure. Studies suggest that PrPC functions in several processes including signal transduction and Cu2+ metabolism. PrPC has also been established to bind nucleic acids. Therefore we investigated the properties of PrPC as a putative nucleic acid chaperone. Surprisingly, PrPC possesses all the nucleic acid chaperoning properties previously specific to retroviral nucleocapsid proteins. PrPC appears to be a molecular mimic of NCP7, the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. Thus PrPC, like NCP7, chaperones the annealing of tRNA(Lys) to the HIV-1 primer binding site, the initial step of retrovirus replication. PrPC also chaperones the two DNA strand transfers required for production of a complete proviral DNA with LTRs. Concerning the functions of NCP7 during budding, PrPC also mimices NCP7 by dimerizing the HIV-1 genomic RNA. These data are unprecedented because, although many cellular proteins have been identified as nucleic acid chaperones, none have the properties of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins.

  16. Ssb1 chaperone is a [PSI+] prion-curing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacinska, A; Szczesniak, B; Kochneva-Pervukhova, N V; Kushnirov, V V; Ter-Avanesyan, M D; Boguta, M

    2001-04-01

    Yeast SUP7' or SUP11 nonsense suppressors have no phenotypic expression in strains deficient in the isopentenylation of A37 in tRNA. Here we show that such strains spontaneously produce cells with a nonsense suppressor phenotype which is related to the cytoplasmically inherited determinant and manifests all the key features of the [PSI+] prion. A screen of a multicopy yeast genomic library for genes that inactivate the [PSI+]-related suppressor phenotype resulted in the isolation of the SSB1 gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that multicopy plasmid encoding the Ssb1 chaperone cures cells of the [PSI+] prion.

  17. Alkalinity of Lanzarote soils is a factor shaping rhizobial populations with Sinorhizobium meliloti being the predominant microsymbiont of Lotus lancerottensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Dorta, Paola; Garrido, Ana; Jiménez, Concepción

    2017-04-01

    Lotus lancerottensis is an endemic species that grows widely throughout Lanzarote Island (Canary Is.). Characterization of 48 strains isolated from root nodules of plants growing in soils from eleven locations on the island showed that 38 isolates (79.1%) belonged to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti, whereas only six belonged to Mesorhizobium sp., the more common microsymbionts for the Lotus. Other genotypes containing only one isolate were classified as Pararhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Phyllobacterium sp. and Bradyrhizobium-like. Strains of S. meliloti were distributed along the island and, in most of the localities they were exclusive or major microsymbionts of L. lancerottensis. Phylogeny of the nodulation nodC gene placed the S. meliloti strains within symbiovar lancerottense and the mesorhizobial strains with the symbiovar loti. Although strains from both symbiovars produced effective N 2 -fixing nodules, S. meliloti symbiovar lancerottense was clearly the predominant microsymbiont of L. lancerottensis. This fact correlated with the better adaptation of strains of this species to the alkaline soils of Lanzarote, as in vitro characterization showed that while the mesorhizobial strains were inhibited by alkaline pH, S. meliloti strains grew well at pH 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracellular polymeric substances from copper-tolerance Sinorhizobium meliloti immobilize Cu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Wenjie; Ma, Zhanqiang; Sun, Liangliang; Han, Mengsha; Lu, Jianjun; Li, Zhenxiu; Mohamad, Osama Abdalla; Wei, Gehong, E-mail: weigehong@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • EPS produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 restricts uptake of Cu{sup 2+}. • We focused on the EPS, which is divided into three main parts. • LB-EPS played a more important role than S-EPS and TB-EPS in Cu{sup 2+} immobilization. • Proteins and carbohydrates were the main extracellular compounds which had functional groups such as carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), and amide (N-H), primarily involved in metal ion binding. -- Abstract: The copper tolerance gene of wild-type heavy metal-tolerance Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 was mutated by transposon Tn5-a. The mutant was sensitive up to 1.4 mM Cu{sup 2+}. Production, components, surface morphology, and functional groups of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the wild-type strains were compared with sensitive mutant in immobilization of Cu{sup 2+}. EPS produced by S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 restricts uptake of Cu{sup 2+}. The cell wall EPS were categorized based on the compactness and fastness: soluble EPS (S-EPS), loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS), and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). LB-EPS played a more important role than S-EPS and TB-EPS in Cu{sup 2+} immobilization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis LB-EPS had rough surface and many honeycomb pores, making them conducive to copper entry; therefore, they may play a role as a microbial protective barrier. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis further confirm that proteins and carbohydrates were the main extracellular compounds which had functional groups such as carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), and amide (N-H), primarily involved in metal ion binding.

  19. Polypeptide binding properties of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C S; Heegaard, N H; Holm, A

    2000-01-01

    Calreticulin is a highly conserved eukaryotic ubiquitious protein located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two major characteristics of calreticulin are its chaperone activity and its lectin properties, but its precise function in intracellular protein and peptide processing remains to be elu......Calreticulin is a highly conserved eukaryotic ubiquitious protein located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two major characteristics of calreticulin are its chaperone activity and its lectin properties, but its precise function in intracellular protein and peptide processing remains...

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the recombinant dihydropyrimidinase from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT4114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Ramírez, Luis Antonio; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Gavira, Jose A.; García-Ruíz, Juan Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The dihydropyrimidinase from S. meliloti CECT4114, with activity towards both hydantoin and dihydrouracil substrates, was crystallized, and diffraction data were collected to 1.85 Å resolution. Dihydropyrimidinases are involved in the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation, catalysing the hydrolysis of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine to the corresponding N-carbamoyl β-amino acids. This enzyme has often been referred to as hydantoinase owing to its industrial application in the production of optically pure amino acids starting from racemic mixtures of 5-monosubstituted hydantoins. Recombinant dihydropyrimidinase from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT4114 (SmelDhp) has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystallization was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.3 mm inner diameter. Crystals of SmelDhp suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to ensure mass transport controlled by diffusion. X-ray data were collected to a resolution of 1.85 Å. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 124.89, b = 126.28, c = 196.10 Å and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A molecular-replacement solution has been determined and refinement is in progress

  1. Robustness encoded across essential and accessory replicons of the ecologically versatile bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Graham C.; Finan, Turlough M.; Mengoni, Alessio; Griffitts, Joel S.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial genome evolution is characterized by gains, losses, and rearrangements of functional genetic segments. The extent to which large-scale genomic alterations influence genotype-phenotype relationships has not been investigated in a high-throughput manner. In the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, the genome is composed of a chromosome and two large extrachromosomal replicons (pSymA and pSymB, which together constitute 45% of the genome). Massively parallel transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) was employed to evaluate the contributions of chromosomal genes to growth fitness in both the presence and absence of these extrachromosomal replicons. Ten percent of chromosomal genes from diverse functional categories are shown to genetically interact with pSymA and pSymB. These results demonstrate the pervasive robustness provided by the extrachromosomal replicons, which is further supported by constraint-based metabolic modeling. A comprehensive picture of core S. meliloti metabolism was generated through a Tn-seq-guided in silico metabolic network reconstruction, producing a core network encompassing 726 genes. This integrated approach facilitated functional assignments for previously uncharacterized genes, while also revealing that Tn-seq alone missed over a quarter of wild-type metabolism. This work highlights the many functional dependencies and epistatic relationships that may arise between bacterial replicons and across a genome, while also demonstrating how Tn-seq and metabolic modeling can be used together to yield insights not obtainable by either method alone. PMID:29672509

  2. The Plasmid Mobilome of the Model Plant-Symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti: Coming up with New Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagares, Antonio; Sanjuán, Juan; Pistorio, Mariano

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobia are Gram-negative Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria living in the underground which have the ability to associate with legumes for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Sinorhizobium meliloti in particular-the symbiont of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp.-has for the past decades served as a model organism for investigating, at the molecular level, the biology, biochemistry, and genetics of a free-living and symbiotic soil bacterium of agricultural relevance. To date, the genomes of seven different S. meliloti strains have been fully sequenced and annotated, and several other draft genomic sequences are also available. The vast amount of plasmid DNA that S. meliloti frequently bears (up to 45% of its total genome), the conjugative ability of some of those plasmids, and the extent of the plasmid diversity has provided researchers with an extraordinary system to investigate functional and structural plasmid molecular biology within the evolutionary context surrounding a plant-associated model bacterium. Current evidence indicates that the plasmid mobilome in S. meliloti is composed of replicons varying greatly in size and having diverse conjugative systems and properties along with different evolutionary stabilities and biological roles. While plasmids carrying symbiotic functions (pSyms) are known to have high structural stability (approaching that of chromosomes), the remaining plasmid mobilome (referred to as the non-pSym, functionally cryptic, or accessory compartment) has been shown to possess remarkable diversity and to be highly active in conjugation. In light of the modern genomic and current biochemical data on the plasmids of S. meliloti, the current article revises their main structural components, their transfer and regulatory mechanisms, and their potential as vehicles in shaping the evolution of the rhizobial genome.

  3. Genome-Wide Sensitivity Analysis of the Microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to Symbiotically Important, Defensin-Like Host Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus F. F. Arnold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The model legume species Medicago truncatula expresses more than 700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR signaling peptides that mediate the differentiation of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. NCR peptides are essential for a successful symbiosis in legume plants of the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC and show similarity to mammalian defensins. In addition to signaling functions, many NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobial activities is likely to be important for symbiosis. However, the mechanisms used by S. meliloti to resist antimicrobial activity of plant peptides are poorly understood. To address this, we applied a global genetic approach using transposon mutagenesis followed by high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq to identify S. meliloti genes and pathways that increase or decrease bacterial competitiveness during exposure to the well-studied cationic NCR247 peptide and also to the unrelated model antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. We identified 78 genes and several diverse pathways whose interruption alters S. meliloti resistance to NCR247. These genes encode the following: (i cell envelope polysaccharide biosynthesis and modification proteins, (ii inner and outer membrane proteins, (iii peptidoglycan (PG effector proteins, and (iv non-membrane-associated factors such as transcriptional regulators and ribosome-associated factors. We describe a previously uncharacterized yet highly conserved peptidase, which protects S. meliloti from NCR247 and increases competitiveness during symbiosis. Additionally, we highlight a considerable number of uncharacterized genes that provide the basis for future studies to investigate the molecular basis of symbiotic development as well as chronic pathogenic interactions.

  4. The fragile X mental retardation protein has nucleic acid chaperone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Caroline; Mazroui, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Khandjian, Edouard W; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation resulting from the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP contains two K-homology (KH) domains and one RGG box that are landmarks characteristic of RNA-binding proteins. In agreement with this, FMRP associates with messenger ribonucleoparticles (mRNPs) within actively translating ribosomes, and is thought to regulate translation of target mRNAs, including its own transcript. To investigate whether FMRP might chaperone nucleic acid folding and hybridization, we analysed the annealing and strand exchange activities of DNA oligonucleotides and the enhancement of ribozyme-directed RNA substrate cleavage by FMRP and deleted variants relative to canonical nucleic acid chaperones, such as the cellular YB-1/p50 protein and the retroviral nucleocapsid protein HIV-1 NCp7. FMRP was found to possess all the properties of a potent nucleic acid chaperone, requiring the KH motifs and RGG box for optimal activity. These findings suggest that FMRP may regulate translation by acting on RNA-RNA interactions and thus on the structural status of mRNAs.

  5. Succinoglycan Production Contributes to Acidic pH Tolerance in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Justin P; Geddes, Barney A; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the hypothesis that exopolysaccharide plays a role in the survival of Sinorhizobium meliloti at low pH levels is addressed. When S. meliloti was grown at pH 5.75, synthesis of succinoglycan increased, whereas synthesis of galactoglucan decreased. Succinoglycan that was isolated from cultures grown at low pH had a lower degree of polymerization relative to that which was isolated from cultures grown at neutral pH, suggesting that low-molecular weight (LMW) succinoglycan might play a role in adaptation to low pH. Mutants unable to produce succinoglycan or only able to produce high-molecular weight polysaccharide were found to be sensitive to low pH. However, strains unable to produce LMW polysaccharide were 10-fold more sensitive. In response to low pH, transcription of genes encoding proteins for succinoglycan, glycogen, and cyclic β(1-2) glucans biosynthesis increased, while those encoding proteins necessary for the biosynthesis of galactoglucan decreased. While changes in pH did not affect the production of glycogen or cyclic β(1-2) glucan, it was found that the inability to produce cyclic β(1-2) glucan did contribute to pH tolerance in the absence of succinoglycan. Finally, in addition to being sensitive to low pH, a strain carrying mutations in exoK and exsH, which encode the glycanases responsible for the cleavage of succinoglycan to LMW succinoglycan, exhibited a delay in nodulation and was uncompetitive for nodule occupancy. Taken together, the data suggest that the role for LMW succinoglycan in nodule development may be to enhance survival in the colonized curled root hair.

  6. Production of nodulation factors by Rhizobium meliloti: fermentation, purification and characterization of glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, B; Baier, R; Niehaus, K; Pühler, A; Flaschel, E

    1997-12-01

    Lipooligosaccharides, synthesized by soil bacteria of the genera Rhizobium, are known to have multifunctional effects on a wide variety of plants as signal substances in symbiosis initiation, cell response elicitation and growth regulation. These so called nodulation (Nod-) factors represent interesting biotechnological products with respect to fundamental studies of symbiotic interactions as well as for potential applications. Therefore, a batch fermentation process on a scale of 30 l has been developed by means of the Rhizobium meliloti strain R.m. 1021 (pEK327) strongly overexpressing the genes for the synthesis of Nod factors. Induction by the flavone luteolin led to growth associated production of the lipooligosaccharides. Ultrafiltration was used for separating the biomass from the filtrate containing the extracellular Nod factors. Simultaneously, ultrafiltration reduced the amount of lipophilic substances, which would otherwise interfere with processes downstream. The second separation step consisted in adsorption on XAD-2, a nonspecific hydrophobic adsorptive resin. Adsorption of Nod factors was carried out by batch operation of a stirred tank. Desorption was performed by elution with methanol in a fixed bed column. A semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC (Polygoprep 100-30 C18) was chosen as the final purification step. The Nod factors were obtained after evaporation and lyophilization. Thus, about 600 mg of Nod factors were produced from 20 l of fermentation broth. The Nod factors produced by Rhizobium meliloti R.m. 1021 (pEK327) were identified by liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry and by reversed-phase HPLC as fluorescent derivatives of 2-aminobenzamide. The biological activity of the products was demonstrated by means of the root hair deformation (HAD-) assay.

  7. The co-chaperones Fkbp4/5 control Argonaute2 expression and facilitate RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Natalia J; Chang, Hao-Ming; Borrajo, Jacob de Riba; Gregory, Richard I

    2013-11-01

    Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for target messenger RNA cleavage and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Although Ago2 is essential for RISC activity, the mechanism of RISC assembly is not well understood, and factors controlling Ago2 protein expression are largely unknown. A role for the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone complex in loading small RNA duplexes into the RISC has been demonstrated in cell extracts, and unloaded Ago2 is unstable and degraded by the lysosome in mammalian cells. Here we identify the co-chaperones Fkbp4 and Fkbp5 as Ago2-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of this interaction using FK506 or siRNA-mediated Fkbp4/5 depletion leads to decreased Ago2 protein levels. We find FK506 treatment inhibits, whereas Fkbp4/5 overexpression promotes, miRNA-mediated stabilization of Ago2 expression. Simultaneous treatment with a lysosome inhibitor revealed the accumulation of unloaded Ago2 complexes in FK506-treated cells. We find that, consistent with unloaded miRNAs being unstable, FK506 treatment also affects miRNA abundance, particularly nascent miRNAs. Our results support a role for Fkbp4/5 in RISC assembly.

  8. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) by Sinorhizobium Meliloti at Al-Qassim Regions, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barakah, F. N.; Mridha, M. A. U.

    2016-01-01

    The nodulation status in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants by Sinorhizobium meliloti under Saudi field condition was assessed in some selected farms in four seasons for two years. In the present study, we also monitored the introduced S. meliloti strains activity under Saudi soil conditions. The samples were collected at regular seasonal intervals from the selected farms. The total number of nodules, morphology of the nodules and the effectiveness of N/sub 2/-fixation was assessed. In general, it was revealed that soils in the selected areas in Saudi Arabia have sufficient bacteria of the proper types to nodulate the alfalfa plants. These nodules are high in number, small in size and white in color. The nodules obtained from most of the selected farms are ineffective for nitrogen fixation. Inoculation of alfalfa seeds with imported S. meliloti strains failed to fix the atmospheric nitrogen sufficiently and also the growth improvement of alfalfa plants. There was a wide variation in the occurrence of number of nodules among the four seasons in two years. It was also observed that summer season severely affected the nodulation making it nearly zero. This low number of nodules exerts a very slow recovery of nodule formation in the next year. The introduced strains were always over competing with the native strains but they did not survive because of hot and dry summer. Nitrogenase activity of the nodules collected from both the inoculated and non-inoculated farms were always very low in all the collected samples, which indicates that the ability of fixing nitrogen by S. meliloti strains in alfalfa under Saudi soils conditions is very low. (author)

  9. Allosteric mechanism controls traffic in the chaperone/usher pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Yu, Xiao; Dubnovitsky, Anatoly; Pudney, Alex F; Macintyre, Sheila; Knight, Stefan D; Zavialov, Anton V

    2012-11-07

    Many virulence organelles of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are assembled via the chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone transports organelle subunits across the periplasm to the outer membrane usher, where they are released and incorporated into growing fibers. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of the usher-targeting step in assembly of the Yersinia pestis F1 capsule at the atomic level. The usher interacts almost exclusively with the chaperone in the chaperone:subunit complex. In free chaperone, a pair of conserved proline residues at the beginning of the subunit-binding loop form a "proline lock" that occludes the usher-binding surface and blocks usher binding. Binding of the subunit to the chaperone rotates the proline lock away from the usher-binding surface, allowing the chaperone-subunit complex to bind to the usher. We show that the proline lock exists in other chaperone/usher systems and represents a general allosteric mechanism for selective targeting of chaperone:subunit complexes to the usher and for release and recycling of the free chaperone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy of RISC: how do small RNAs and chaperones activate Argonaute proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kotaro

    2016-09-01

    RNA silencing is a eukaryote-specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference-based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone-assisted duplex loading, and the slicer-dependent and slicer-independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udupa Sripada M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Results RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM, water stress (-1.5 MPa, high temperature (40°C and low pH (3.5, respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P Conclusion High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S

  12. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit......Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length...... than 5 amino acids showed binding and a clear correlation with hydrophobicity was demonstrated for oligomers of different hydrophobic amino acids. Insertion of hydrophilic amino acids in a hydrophobic sequence diminished or abolished binding. In conclusion our results show that calreticulin has...

  13. Cross-system excision of chaperone-mediated proteolysis in chaperone-assisted recombinant protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Villaverde, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Main Escherichia coli cytosolic chaperones such as DnaK are key components of the control quality network designed to minimize the prevalence of polypeptides with aberrant conformations. This is achieved by both favoring refolding activities but also stimulating proteolytic degradation of folding reluctant species. This last activity is responsible for the decrease of the proteolytic stability of recombinant proteins when co-produced along with DnaK, where an increase in solubility might be associated to a decrease in protein yield. However, when DnaK and its co-chaperone DnaJ are co-produced in cultured insect cells or whole insect larvae (and expectedly, in other heterologous hosts), only positive, folding-related effects of these chaperones are observed, in absence of proteolysis-mediated reduction of recombinant protein yield. PMID:21326941

  14. Medicago sativa--Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis Promotes the Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Nodulated Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Kais; Nouairi, Issam; Slama, Ines; Talbi-Zribi, Ons; Mhadhbi, Haythem

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated effects of Zn supply on germination, growth, inorganic solutes (Zn, Ca, Fe, and Mg) partitioning and nodulation of Medicago sativa This plant was cultivated with and without Zn (2 mM). Treatments were plants without (control) and with Zn tolerant strain (S532), Zn intolerant strain (S112) and 2 mM urea nitrogen fertilisation. Results showed that M. sativa germinates at rates of 50% at 2 mM Zn. For plants given nitrogen fertilisation, Zn increased plant biomass production. When grown with symbionts, Zn supply had no effect on nodulation. Moreover, plants with S112 showed a decrease of shoot and roots biomasses. However, in symbiosis with S532, an increase of roots biomass was observed. Plants in symbiosis with S. meliloti accumulated more Zn in their roots than nitrogen fertilised plants. Zn supply results in an increase of Ca concentration in roots of fertilised nitrogen plants. However, under Zn supply, Fe concentration decreased in roots and increased in nodules of plants with S112. Zn supply showed contrasting effects on Mg concentrations for plants with nitrogen fertilisation (increase) and plants with S112 (decrease). The capacity of M. sativa to accumulate Zn in their nodulated roots encouraged its use in phytostabilisation processes.

  15. A global analysis of protein expression profiles in Sinorhizobium meliloti: discovery of new genes for nodule occupancy and stress adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Michael A; Chen, Han Cai; Natera, Siria; Van Noorden, Giel; Menzel, Christian; Taylor, Scott; Renard, Clotilde; Geiger, Otto; Weiller, Georg F

    2003-06-01

    A proteomic examination of Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 was undertaken using a combination of 2-D gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and bioinformatics. Our goal was to identify (i) putative symbiosis- or nutrient-stress-specific proteins, (ii) the biochemical pathways active under different conditions, (iii) potential new genes, and (iv) the extent of posttranslational modifications of S. meliloti proteins. In total, we identified the protein products of 810 genes (13.1% of the genome's coding capacity). The 810 genes generated 1,180 gene products, with chromosomal genes accounting for 78% of the gene products identified (18.8% of the chromosome's coding capacity). The activity of 53 metabolic pathways was inferred from bioinformatic analysis of proteins with assigned Enzyme Commission numbers. Of the remaining proteins that did not encode enzymes, ABC-type transporters composed 12.7% and regulatory proteins 3.4% of the total. Proteins with up to seven transmembrane domains were identified in membrane preparations. A total of 27 putative nodule-specific proteins and 35 nutrient-stress-specific proteins were identified and used as a basis to define genes and describe processes occurring in S. meliloti cells in nodules and under stress. Several nodule proteins from the plant host were present in the nodule bacteria preparations. We also identified seven potentially novel proteins not predicted from the DNA sequence. Post-translational modifications such as N-terminal processing could be inferred from the data. The posttranslational addition of UMP to the key regulator of nitrogen metabolism, PII, was demonstrated. This work demonstrates the utility of combining mass spectrometry with protein arraying or separation techniques to identify candidate genes involved in important biological processes and niche occupations that may be intransigent to other methods of gene expression profiling.

  16. Ensifer meliloti overexpressing Escherichia coli phytase gene ( appA) improves phosphorus (P) acquisition in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Ajit; Archana, G.; Kumar, G. Naresh

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 ( lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti { E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ˜9- and ˜50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression. Ensifer meliloti harboring AppA protein { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} could acidify the unbuffered phytate minimal media (pH 8.0) containing Ca-phytate or Na-phytate as sole organic P (Po) source to below pH 5.0 and released P. However, both { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} neither dropped pH of the medium nor released P when the medium was buffered at pH 8.0 using Tris-Cl, indicating that acidification of medium was important for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate. Further experiments proved that maize plants inoculated with { E. m. (pVA1)} showed increase in growth under sterile semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate as sole P source. The present study could be helpful in generating better transgenic bioinoculants harboring phosphate mineralization properties that ultimately promote plant growth.

  17. Polyamines contribute to salinity tolerance in the symbiosis Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Rubén; Marín-Peña, Agustín J; Lluch, Carmen; Herrera-Cervera, José A

    2017-07-01

    Polyamines (PAs) such as spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are small ubiquitous polycationic compounds that contribute to plant adaptation to salt stress. The positive effect of PAs has been associated to a cross-talk with other anti-stress hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). In this work we have studied the effects of exogenous Spd and Spm pre-treatments in the response to salt stress of the symbiotic interaction between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti by analyzing parameters related to nitrogen fixation, oxidative damage and cross-talk with BRs in the response to salinity. Exogenous PAs treatments incremented the foliar and nodular Spd and Spm content which correlated with an increment of the nodule biomass and nitrogenase activity. Exogenous Spm treatment partially prevented proline accumulation which suggests that this polyamine could replace the role of this amino acid in the salt stress response. Additionally, Spd and Spm pre-treatments reduced the levels of H 2 O 2 and lipid peroxidation under salt stress. PAs induced the expression of genes involved in BRs biosynthesis which support a cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the salt stress response of M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis. In conclusion, exogenous PAs improved the response to salinity of the M. truncatula-S. meliloti symbiosis by reducing the oxidative damage induced under salt stress conditions. In addition, in this work we provide evidences of the cross-talk between PAs and BRs in the adaptive responses to salinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein solubility and folding enhancement by interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Il Choi

    Full Text Available While basic mechanisms of several major molecular chaperones are well understood, this machinery has been known to be involved in folding of only limited number of proteins inside the cells. Here, we report a chaperone type of protein folding facilitated by interaction with RNA. When an RNA-binding module is placed at the N-terminus of aggregation-prone target proteins, this module, upon binding with RNA, further promotes the solubility of passenger proteins, potentially leading to enhancement of proper protein folding. Studies on in vitro refolding in the presence of RNA, coexpression of RNA molecules in vivo and the mutants with impaired RNA binding ability suggests that RNA can exert chaperoning effect on their bound proteins. The results suggest that RNA binding could affect the overall kinetic network of protein folding pathway in favor of productive folding over off-pathway aggregation. In addition, the RNA binding-mediated solubility enhancement is extremely robust for increasing soluble yield of passenger proteins and could be usefully implemented for high-throughput protein expression for functional and structural genomic research initiatives. The RNA-mediated chaperone type presented here would give new insights into de novo folding in vivo.

  19. Roles of silkworm endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the secretion of recombinant proteins expressed by baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Shirai, Shintaro; Mon, Hiroaki; Morokuma, Daisuke; Lee, Jae Man

    2015-11-01

    Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used for production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect larvae or cultured cells. BEVS has advantages over bacterial expression system in producing post-translationally modified secreted proteins. However, for some unknown reason, it is very difficult for insects to secrete sufficiently for certain proteins of interest. To understand the reasons why insect cells fail to secrete some kinds of recombinant proteins, we here employed three mammalian proteins as targets, EPO, HGF, and Wnt3A, with different secretion levels in BEVS and investigated their mRNA transcriptions from the viral genome, subcellular localizations, and interactions with silkworm ER chaperones. Moreover, we observed that no significantly influence on the secretion amounts of all three proteins when depleting or overexpressing most endogenous ER chaperone genes in cultured silkworm cells. However, among all detected ER chaperones, the depletion of BiP severely decreased the recombinant protein secretion in BEVS, indicating the possible central role of Bip in silkworm secretion pathway.

  20. Modulation of human IAPP fibrillation: cosolutes, crowders and chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mimi; Estel, Kathrin; Seeliger, Janine; Friedrich, Ralf P; Dogan, Susanne; Wanker, Erich E; Winter, Roland; Ebbinghaus, Simon

    2015-04-07

    The cellular environment determines the structure and function of proteins. Marginal changes of the environment can severely affect the energy landscape of protein folding. However, despite the important role of chaperones on protein folding, less is known about chaperonal modulation of protein aggregation and fibrillation considering different classes of chaperones. We find that the pharmacological chaperone O4, the chemical chaperone proline as well as the protein chaperone serum amyloid P component (SAP) are inhibitors of the type 2 diabetes mellitus-related aggregation process of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). By applying biophysical methods such as thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy we analyse and compare their inhibition mechanism. We demonstrate that the fibrillation reaction of human IAPP is strongly inhibited by formation of globular, amorphous assemblies by both, the pharmacological and the protein chaperones. We studied the inhibition mechanism under cell-like conditions by using the artificial crowding agents Ficoll 70 and sucrose. Under such conditions the suppressive effect of proline was decreased, whereas the pharmacological chaperone remains active.

  1. Eviction of linker histone H1 by NAP-family histone chaperones enhances activated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Giebler, Holli A; Isaacson, Marisa K; Nyborg, Jennifer K

    2015-01-01

    In the Metazoan nucleus, core histones assemble the genomic DNA to form nucleosome arrays, which are further compacted into dense chromatin structures by the linker histone H1. The extraordinary density of chromatin creates an obstacle for accessing the genetic information. Regulation of chromatin dynamics is therefore critical to cellular homeostasis, and histone chaperones serve as prominent players in these processes. In the current study, we examined the role of specific histone chaperones in negotiating the inherently repressive chromatin structure during transcriptional activation. Using a model promoter, we demonstrate that the human nucleosome assembly protein family members hNap1 and SET/Taf1β stimulate transcription in vitro during pre-initiation complex formation, prior to elongation. This stimulatory effect is dependent upon the presence of activators, p300, and Acetyl-CoA. We show that transcription from our chromatin template is strongly repressed by H1, and that both histone chaperones enhance RNA synthesis by overcoming H1-induced repression. Importantly, both hNap1 and SET/Taf1β directly bind H1, and function to enhance transcription by evicting the linker histone from chromatin reconstituted with H1. In vivo studies demonstrate that SET/Taf1β, but not hNap1, strongly stimulates activated transcription from the chromosomally-integrated model promoter, consistent with the observation that SET/Taf1β is nuclear, whereas hNap1 is primarily cytoplasmic. Together, these observations indicate that SET/Taf1β may serve as a critical regulator of H1 dynamics and gene activation in vivo. These studies uncover a novel function for SET that mechanistically couples transcriptional derepression with H1 dynamics. Furthermore, they underscore the significance of chaperone-dependent H1 displacement as an essential early step in the transition of a promoter from a dense chromatin state into one that is permissive to transcription factor binding and robust

  2. Disaggregases, molecular chaperones that resolubilize protein aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Z. Mokry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of folding is a seminal event in the life of a protein, as it is essential for proper protein function and therefore cell physiology. Inappropriate folding, or misfolding, can not only lead to loss of function, but also to the formation of protein aggregates, an insoluble association of polypeptides that harm cell physiology, either by themselves or in the process of formation. Several biological processes have evolved to prevent and eliminate the existence of non-functional and amyloidogenic aggregates, as they are associated with several human pathologies. Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins are specialized in controlling the quality of the proteins in the cell, specifically by aiding proper folding, and dissolution and clearance of already formed protein aggregates. The latter is a function of disaggregases, mainly represented by the ClpB/Hsp104 subfamily of molecular chaperones, that are ubiquitous in all organisms but, surprisingly, have no orthologs in the cytosol of metazoan cells. This review aims to describe the characteristics of disaggregases and to discuss the function of yeast Hsp104, a disaggregase that is also involved in prion propagation and inheritance.

  3. Similarities and differences in the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-2 and HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Stefaniak, Agnieszka K; Purzycka, Katarzyna J

    2014-07-03

    The nucleocapsid domain of Gag and mature nucleocapsid protein (NC) act as nucleic acid chaperones and facilitate folding of nucleic acids at critical steps of retroviral replication cycle. The basic N-terminus of HIV-1 NC protein was shown most important for the chaperone activity. The HIV-2 NC (NCp8) and HIV-1 NC (NCp7) proteins possess two highly conserved zinc fingers, flanked by basic residues. However, the NCp8 N-terminal domain is significantly shorter and contains less positively charged residues. This study characterizes previously unknown, nucleic acid chaperone activity of the HIV-2 NC protein. We have comparatively investigated the in vitro nucleic acid chaperone properties of the HIV-2 and HIV-1 NC proteins. Using substrates derived from the HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomes, we determined the ability of both proteins to chaperone nucleic acid aggregation, annealing and strand exchange in duplex structures. Both NC proteins displayed comparable, high annealing activity of HIV-1 TAR DNA and its complementary nucleic acid. Interesting differences between the two NC proteins were discovered when longer HIV substrates, particularly those derived from the HIV-2 genome, were used in chaperone assays. In contrast to NCp7, NCp8 weakly facilitates annealing of HIV-2 TAR RNA to its complementary TAR (-) DNA. NCp8 is also unable to efficiently stimulate tRNALys3 annealing to its respective HIV-2 PBS motif. Using truncated NCp8 peptide, we demonstrated that despite the fact that the N-terminus of NCp8 differs from that of NCp7, this domain is essential for NCp8 activity. Our data demonstrate that the HIV-2 NC protein displays reduced nucleic acid chaperone activity compared to that of HIV-1 NC. We found that NCp8 activity is limited by substrate length and stability to a greater degree than that of NCp7. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that the HIV-2 5'UTR is more structured than that of HIV-1. The reduced chaperone activity observed with NCp8 may

  4. Mining the Sinorhizobium meliloti transportome to develop FRET biosensors for sugars, dicarboxylates and cyclic polyols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bourdès

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET biosensors are powerful tools to detect biologically important ligands in real time. Currently FRET bisosensors are available for twenty-two compounds distributed in eight classes of chemicals (two pentoses, two hexoses, two disaccharides, four amino acids, one nucleobase, two nucleotides, six ions and three phytoestrogens. To expand the number of available FRET biosensors we used the induction profile of the Sinorhizobium meliloti transportome to systematically screen for new FRET biosensors.Two new vectors were developed for cloning genes for solute-binding proteins (SBPs between those encoding FRET partner fluorescent proteins. In addition to a vector with the widely used cyan and yellow fluorescent protein FRET partners, we developed a vector using orange (mOrange2 and red fluorescent protein (mKate2 FRET partners. From the sixty-nine SBPs tested, seven gave a detectable FRET signal change on binding substrate, resulting in biosensors for D-quinic acid, myo-inositol, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, β-diglucosides (cellobiose and gentiobiose, D-galactose and C4-dicarboxylates (malate, succinate, oxaloacetate and fumarate. To our knowledge, we describe the first two FRET biosensor constructs based on SBPs from Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP transport systems.FRET based on orange (mOrange2 and red fluorescent protein (mKate2 partners allows the use of longer wavelength light, enabling deeper penetration of samples at lower energy and increased resolution with reduced back-ground auto-fluorescence. The FRET biosensors described in this paper for four new classes of compounds; (i cyclic polyols, (ii L-deoxy sugars, (iii β-linked disaccharides and (iv C4-dicarboxylates could be developed to study metabolism in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of SinoRhizobium meliloti Efficiency and Qualitative Traits of Alfalfa under Application of Molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ahmadi Dana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture depends heavily on nitrogen which is biologically fixed through the symbiotic association between rhizobia and legume plants in nodules located on plant roots. Alfalfa is a legume that should fix most of its own N requirement if it is sufficiently nodulated by viable Rhizobium meliloti inoculums. The process of nitrogen fixation is done by the help of an enzyme called nitrogenase and molybdenum which is an important element in the formation of this compound. Molybdenum is required by plants for protein synthesis and is especially important for legumes as it is needed for nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. Therefore the following research was done aimed on studying the effect of different amount of molybdenum and S. rhizobium bacteria on alfalfa’s yield. Material and Methods Alfalfa (Medicago sativa were grown in a field. The experiment was conducted at Karaj in 2013 in split plot arrangement based on completely randomized block design (RCBD, including 2 caring S. rhizobium inoculated seed and non-inoculated as the main plot factorand 3 levels of Molybdenum (0,5,10 kg ha-1 from ammonium molybdate (as the sub plot factor in three replications. Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria were cultured on plates. Then half of the seeds were inoculated by Sinorhizobium meliloti. Nitrogen fertilizer was added only in one stage before planting up to 50 kg per hectare. Plants were grown until flowering. The data were analyzed by the SAS (9.1 software and mean comparisons were done by Duncan's MRT at the 1% and 5% probability level. Results and Discussion The results showed the effect of different levels of molybdenum and S. Rhizobium bacteria on dry matter yield, molybdenum concentrations in shoots and roots and the number of root nodules was significant. This treatment was significant in comparison to the control treatment with the14.27 ton per hectare. Increasing of molybdenum application, led to increasing of root nodules and showed a

  6. Chaperoning Proteins for Destruction: Diverse Roles of Hsp70 Chaperones and their Co-Chaperones in Targeting Misfolded Proteins to the Proteasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Shiber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones were originally discovered as heat shock-induced proteins that facilitate proper folding of proteins with non-native conformations. While the function of chaperones in protein folding has been well documented over the last four decades, more recent studies have shown that chaperones are also necessary for the clearance of terminally misfolded proteins by the Ub-proteasome system. In this capacity, chaperones protect misfolded degradation substrates from spontaneous aggregation, facilitate their recognition by the Ub ligation machinery and finally shuttle the ubiquitylated substrates to the proteasome. The physiological importance of these functions is manifested by inefficient proteasomal degradation and the accumulation of protein aggregates during ageing or in certain neurodegenerative diseases, when chaperone levels decline. In this review, we focus on the diverse roles of stress-induced chaperones in targeting misfolded proteins to the proteasome and the consequences of their compromised activity. We further discuss the implications of these findings to the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of amyloid diseases.

  7. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  8. Brucella melitensis MucR, an orthologue of Sinorhizobium meliloti MucR, is involved in resistance to oxidative, detergent, and saline stresses and cell envelope modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, A; Terwagne, M; Zygmunt, M S; Cloeckaert, A; De Bolle, X; Letesson, J J

    2013-02-01

    Brucella spp. and Sinorhizobium meliloti are alphaproteobacteria that share not only an intracellular lifestyle in their respective hosts, but also a crucial requirement for cell envelope components and their timely regulation for a successful infectious cycle. Here, we report the characterization of Brucella melitensis mucR, which encodes a zinc finger transcriptional regulator that has previously been shown to be involved in cellular and mouse infections at early time points. MucR modulates the surface properties of the bacteria and their resistance to environmental stresses (i.e., oxidative stress, cationic peptide, and detergents). We show that B. melitensis mucR is a functional orthologue of S. meliloti mucR, because it was able to restore the production of succinoglycan in an S. meliloti mucR mutant, as detected by calcofluor staining. Similar to S. meliloti MucR, B. melitensis MucR also represses its own transcription and flagellar gene expression via the flagellar master regulator ftcR. More surprisingly, we demonstrate that MucR regulates a lipid A core modification in B. melitensis. These changes could account for the attenuated virulence of a mucR mutant. These data reinforce the idea that there is a common conserved circuitry between plant symbionts and animal pathogens that regulates the relationship they have with their hosts.

  9. Conformational Activation of Argonaute by Distinct yet Coordinated Actions of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboyama, Kotaro; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-05-17

    Loading of small RNAs into Argonaute, the core protein in RNA silencing, requires the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. This machinery also activates many other clients, including steroid hormone receptors and kinases, but how their structures change during chaperone-dependent activation remains unclear. Here, we utilized single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the conformational changes of Drosophila Ago2 mediated by the chaperone machinery. We found that empty Ago2 exists in various closed conformations. The Hsp70 system (Hsp40 and Hsp70) and the Hsp90 system (Hop, Hsp90, and p23) together render Ago2 into an open, active form. The Hsp70 system, but not the Hsp90 system alone, is sufficient for Ago2 to partially populate the open form. Instead, the Hsp90 system is required to extend the dwell time of Ago2 in the open state, which must be transiently primed by the Hsp70 system. Our data uncover distinct and coordinated actions of the chaperone machinery, where the Hsp70 system expands the structural ensembles of Ago2 and the Hsp90 system captures and stabilizes the active form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular and genetic characterization of the rhizopine catabolism (mocABRC) genes of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, S; Kulpa, D A; Rossbach, U; de Bruijn, F J

    1994-10-17

    Rhizopine (L-3-O-methyl-scyllo-inosamine, 3-O-MSI) is a symbiosis-specific compound, which is synthesized in nitrogen-fixing nodules of Medicago sativa induced by Rhizobium meliloti strain L5-30. 3-O-MSI is thought to function as an unusual growth substrate for R. meliloti L5-30, which carries a locus (mos) responsible for its synthesis closely linked to a locus (moc) responsible for its degradation. Here, the essential moc genes were delimited by Tn5 mutagenesis and shown to be organized into two regions, separated by 3 kb of DNA. The DNA sequence of a 9-kb fragment spanning the two moc regions was determined, and four genes were identified that play an essential role in rhizopine catabolism (mocABC and mocR). The analysis of the DNA sequence and the amino acid sequence of the deduced protein products revealed that MocA resembles NADH-dependent dehydrogenases. MocB exhibits characteristic features of periplasmic-binding proteins that are components of high-affinity transport systems. MocC does not share significant homology with any protein in the database. MocR shows homology with the GntR class of bacterial regulator proteins. These results suggest that the mocABC genes are involved in the uptake and subsequent degradation of rhizopine, whereas mocR is likely to play a regulatory role.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an active-site mutant hydantoin racemase from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT4114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Ramírez, Luis Antonio; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Gavira, Jose Antonio; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of an active-site mutated hydantoin racemase from S. meliloti have been obtained in the presence and absence of d,l-5-isopropyl-hydantoin and characterized by X-ray diffraction. A recombinant active-site mutant of hydantoin racemase (C76A) from Sinorhizobium meliloti CECT 4114 (SmeHyuA) has been crystallized in the presence and absence of the substrate d,l-5-isopropyl hydantoin. Crystals of the SmeHyuA mutant suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown using the counter-diffusion method. X-ray data were collected to resolutions of 2.17 and 1.85 Å for the free and bound enzymes, respectively. Both crystals belong to space group R3 and contain two molecules of SmeHyuA per asymmetric unit. The crystals of the free and complexed SmeHyuA have unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.43, c = 152.37 Å and a = b = 85.69, c = 154.38 Å, crystal volumes per protein weight (V M ) of 1.94 and 1.98 Å 3 Da −1 and solvent contents of 36.7 and 37.9%, respectively

  12. Genome-engineered Sinorhizobium meliloti for the production of poly(lactic-co-3-hydroxybutyric) acid copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam T; Charles, Trevor C

    2016-02-01

    Economically competitive commercial production of biodegradable bioplastics with desirable properties is an important goal. In this study, we demonstrate the use of chromosome engineering of an alternative bacterial host, Sinorhizobium meliloti, for production of the copolymer, poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate). Codon-optimized genes for 2 previously engineered enzymes, Clostridium propionicum propionate CoA transferase (Pct532Cp) and Pseudomonas sp. strain MBEL 6-19 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 (PhaC1400Ps6-19), were introduced into S. meliloti Rm1021 by chromosome integration, replacing the native phbC gene. On the basis of phenotypic analysis and detection of polymer product by gas chromatography analysis, synthesis and accumulation of the copolymer was confirmed. The chromosome integrant strain, with the introduced genes under the control of the native phbC promoter, is able to produce over 15% cell dry mass of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate), containing 30 mol% lactate, from growth on mannitol. We were also able to purify the polymer from the culture and confirm the structure by NMR and GC-MS. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of production of this copolymer in the Alphaproteobacteria. Further optimization of this system may eventually yield strains that are able to produce economically viable commercial product.

  13. The study of salinity and drought tolerance of Sinorhizobium meliloti isolated from province of Kerman in vivo condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahboobe abolhasani zeraatkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the host plant inoculation by native strains with high efficiency has a positive effect on plant yield and biological nitrogen fixation process. The main aim of this investigation was to based on salinity and drought experiments, four isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S27K and S36K tolerant isolates, S109K semi-sensitive isolate, S56K sensitive isolate were selected for plant inoculation which was under drought stress in greenhouse condition. This experiment was carried out by using a factorial model in completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of alfalfa plants with high salinity and drought tolerant of Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria could increased biological nitrogen fixation process (symbiotic efficiency, percent crude protein and yield of alfalfa under salinity and drought conditions significantly. There were not any significant differences between S27K and S36K isolates and positive control (no nitrogen limitation. Symbiotic efficiency increased 3.4 times higher than alfalfa plants were inoculated by sensitive isolates S56K when alfalfa plants were inoculated by S27K and S36K isolates.

  14. Effects of nucleic acid local structure and magnesium ions on minus-strand transfer mediated by the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiyun; Heilman-Miller, Susan L.; Levin, Judith G.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone, which is required for highly specific and efficient reverse transcription. Here, we demonstrate that local structure of acceptor RNA at a potential nucleation site, rather than overall thermodynamic stability, is a critical determinant for the minus-strand transfer step (annealing of acceptor RNA to (−) strong-stop DNA followed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-catalyzed DNA extension). In our system, destabilization of a stem-loop stru...

  15. Applying chaperones to protein-misfolding disorders: molecular chaperones against α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaari, Ali; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Ladjimi, Moncef

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of a protein called α-synuclein (α-syn) into inclusions known as lewy bodies (LB) within neurons. This accumulation is also due to insufficient formation and activity of dopamine produced in certain neurons within the substantia nigra. Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of the idiopathic disorder and the cascade that allows α-synuclein to misfold, aggregate and form these inclusions has been the subject of intensive research. Targeting these early steps of oligomerization is one of the main therapeutic approaches in order to develop neurodegenerative-modifying agents. Because the folding and refolding of alpha synuclein is the key point of this cascade, we are interested in this review to summarize the role of some molecular chaperones proteins such as Hsp70, Hsp90 and small heat shock proteins (sHsp) and Hsp 104. Hsp70 and its co-chaperone, Hsp70 and small heat shock proteins can prevent neurodegeneration by preventing α-syn misfolding, oligomerization and aggregation in vitro and in Parkinson disease animal models. Hsp104 is able to resolve disordered protein aggregates and cross beta amyloid conformers. Together, these chaperones have a complementary effect and can be a target for therapeutic intervention in PD. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Current trends in chaperone use by plastic and reconstructive surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Umar; Barta, Ruth J; Kim, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the use of chaperones by surgeons when examining patients. Use of a chaperone not only makes the patient comfortable but also potentially protects the surgeon from perceived misconduct. This is especially true for plastic surgeons who examine sensitive areas commonly. The purpose of this study was to determine the current trends in chaperone use by plastic surgeons when examining patients. A 23-question online survey was sent to all members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Data collected online were analyzed using Student t test and Pearson χ test. A P use by plastic surgeons during all examinations of patients was 30%. This rate increased up to 60% while examining sensitive areas. Male surgeons reported a higher frequency of chaperone use than female surgeons (P use compared to reconstructive surgeons (P = 0.001). Similarly, surgeons who had been in practice for more than 20 years reported a higher rate of chaperone use compared to surgeons in practice for less than 20 years (P = 0.032). Sixty-one (7.6%; 56 male and 5 female) surgeons reported being accused of inappropriate behavior by patients, of whom 49 (80%) did not have a chaperone present. There was no significant difference among male and female surgeons in rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior (7.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.19). There was a higher rate of chaperone use by male plastic surgeons, surgeons with more than 20 years experience, and cosmetic surgeons. Despite the difference in chaperone use between the sexes, both had similar rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior during examinations by patients, and although these incidents were quite low, most had no chaperone present during those examinations.

  17. Sp1-mediated transcription regulation of TAF-Ialpha gene encoding a histone chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Masamitsu N; Murano, Kensaku; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2008-11-28

    TAF-I, one of histone chaperones, consists of two subtypes, TAF-Ialpha and TAF-Ibeta. The histone chaperone activity of TAF-I is regulated by dimer patterns of these subtypes. TAF-Ibeta is expressed ubiquitously, while the expression level of TAF-Ialpha with less activity than TAF-Ibeta differs among cell types. It is, therefore, assumed that the expression level of TAF-Ialpha in a cell is important for the TAF-I activity level. Here, we found that TAF-Ialpha and TAF-Ibeta genes are under the control of distinct promoters. Reporter assays and gel shift assays demonstrated that Sp1 binds to three regions in the TAF-Ialpha promoter and two or all mutaions of the three Sp1 binding regions reduced the TAF-Ialpha promoter activity. ChIP assays demonstrated that Sp1 binds to the TAF-Ialpha promoter in vivo. Furthermore, the expression level of TAF-Ialpha mRNA was reduced by knockdown of Sp1 using siRNA method. These studies indicated that the TAF-Ialpha promoter is under the control of Sp1.

  18. FKBP immunophilins and Alzheimer's disease: A chaperoned affair

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... FKBP immunophilins and Alzheimer's disease: A chaperoned affair. Weihuan Cao Mary ... Keywords. Alzheimer's disease; amyloid precursor protein; beta amyloid; FKBP; FK506; immunophilins; tau ... 43 | Issue 1. March 2018.

  19. Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudheer Kumar

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Keywords. Capacitation; membranolytic activity; molecular chaperone; oxidative stress ... also shown to extract phospholipids from the membrane resulting ..... Gulcin I 2006 Antioxidant and antiradical activities of L-carnitine.

  20. HDAC6 inhibition enhances 17-AAG--mediated abrogation of hsp90 chaperone function in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rekha; Fiskus, Warren; Yang, Yonghua; Lee, Pearl; Joshi, Rajeshree; Fernandez, Pravina; Mandawat, Aditya; Atadja, Peter; Bradner, James E; Bhalla, Kapil

    2008-09-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) deacetylase. Treatment with pan-HDAC inhibitors or depletion of HDAC6 by siRNA induces hyperacetylation and inhibits ATP binding and chaperone function of hsp90. Treatment with 17-allylamino-demothoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) also inhibits ATP binding and chaperone function of hsp90, resulting in polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of hsp90 client proteins. In this study, we determined the effect of hsp90 hyperacetylation on the anti-hsp90 and antileukemia activity of 17-AAG. Hyperacetylation of hsp90 increased its binding to 17-AAG, as well as enhanced 17-AAG-mediated attenuation of ATP and the cochaperone p23 binding to hsp90. Notably, treatment with 17-AAG alone also reduced HDAC6 binding to hsp90 and induced hyperacetylation of hsp90. This promoted the proteasomal degradation of HDAC6. Cotreatment with 17-AAG and siRNA to HDAC6 induced more inhibition of hsp90 chaperone function and depletion of BCR-ABL and c-Raf than treatment with either agent alone. In addition, cotreatment with 17-AAG and tubacin augmented the loss of survival of K562 cells and viability of primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) samples. These findings demonstrate that HDAC6 is an hsp90 client protein and hyperacetylation of hsp90 augments the anti-hsp90 and antileukemia effects of 17-AAG.

  1. The use of a chaperone in obstetrical and gynaecological practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Afaneh, I

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of a chaperone in obstetrical and gynaecological practice in Ireland and to explore patients\\' opinions. Two questionnaires were designed; one for patients and the other one was sent to 145 gynaecologists in Ireland. One hundred and fifty two women took part in this survey of whom 74 were gynaecological and 78 were obstetric patients. Ninety five (65%) patients felt no need for a chaperone during a vaginal examination (VE) by a male doctor. On the other hand 34 (23%) participating women would request a chaperone if being examined by a female doctor. Among clinicians 116 (80%) responded by returning the questionnaire. Overall 60 (52%) always used a chaperone in public practice, in contrast to 24 (27%) in private practice. The study demonstrated that most patients do not wish to have a chaperone during a VE but a small proportion would still request one regardless of the examiner\\'s gender. Patients should be offered the choice of having a chaperone and their opinion should be respected and documented.

  2. The use of a chaperone in obstetrical and gynaecological practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Afaneh, I

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of a chaperone in obstetrical and gynaecological practice in Ireland and to explore patients\\' opinions. Two questionnaires were designed; one for patients and the other one was sent to 145 gynaecologists in Ireland. One hundred and fifty two women took part in this survey of whom 74 were gynaecological and 78 were obstetric patients. Ninety five (65%) patients felt no need for a chaperone during a vaginal examination (VE) by a male doctor. On the other hand 34 (23%) participating women would request a chaperone if being examined by a female doctor. Among clinicians 116 (80%) responded by returning the questionnaire. Overall 60 (52%) always used a chaperone in public practice, in contrast to 24 (27%) in private practice. The study demonstrated that most patients do not wish to have a chaperone during a VE but a small proportion would still request one regardless of the examiner\\'s gender. Patients should be offered the choice of having a chaperone and their opinion should be respected and documented.

  3. Chaperoning Roles of Macromolecules Interacting with Proteins in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik L. Seong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The principles obtained from studies on molecular chaperones have provided explanations for the assisted protein folding in vivo. However, the majority of proteins can fold without the assistance of the known molecular chaperones, and little attention has been paid to the potential chaperoning roles of other macromolecules. During protein biogenesis and folding, newly synthesized polypeptide chains interact with a variety of macromolecules, including ribosomes, RNAs, cytoskeleton, lipid bilayer, proteolytic system, etc. In general, the hydrophobic interactions between molecular chaperones and their substrates have been widely believed to be mainly responsible for the substrate stabilization against aggregation. Emerging evidence now indicates that other features of macromolecules such as their surface charges, probably resulting in electrostatic repulsions, and steric hindrance, could play a key role in the stabilization of their linked proteins against aggregation. Such stabilizing mechanisms are expected to give new insights into our understanding of the chaperoning functions for de novo protein folding. In this review, we will discuss the possible chaperoning roles of these macromolecules in de novo folding, based on their charge and steric features.

  4. Chemical chaperones exceed the chaperone effects of RIC-3 in promoting assembly of functional α7 AChRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kuryatov

    Full Text Available Functional α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs do not assemble efficiently in cells transfected with α7 subunits unless the cells are also transfected with the chaperone protein RIC-3. Despite the presence of RIC-3, large amounts of these subunits remain improperly assembled. Thus, additional chaperone proteins are probably required for efficient assembly of α7 AChRs. Cholinergic ligands can act as pharmacological chaperones to promote assembly of mature AChRs and upregulate the amount of functional AChRs. In addition, we have found that the chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA and valproic acid (VPA greatly increase the amount of functional α7 AChRs produced in a cell line expressing both α7 and RIC-3. Increased α7 AChR expression allows assay of drug action using a membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent indicator. Both PBA and VPA also increase α7 expression in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line that endogenously expresses α7 AChRs. VPA increases expression of endogenous α7 AChRs in hippocampal neurons but PBA does not. RIC-3 is insufficient for optimal assembly of α7 AChRs, but provides assay conditions for detecting additional chaperones. Chemical chaperones are a useful pragmatic approach to express high levels of human α7 AChRs for drug selection and characterization and possibly to increase α7 expression in vivo.

  5. Choline Kinase Alpha as an Androgen Receptor Chaperone and Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Mohammad; Massie, Charles E.; Orafidiya, Folake; Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Warren, Anne Y.; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Selth, Luke A.; Zecchini, Heather I.; Luko, Katarina; Qureshi, Arham; Baridi, Ajoeb; Menon, Suraj; Madhu, Basetti; Escriu, Carlos; Lyons, Scott; Vowler, Sarah L.; Zecchini, Vincent R.; Shaw, Greg; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Russell, Roslin; Mohammed, Hisham; Stefanos, Niki; Lynch, Andy G.; Grigorenko, Elena; D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Chris; Lamb, Alastair; Sriranjan, Rouchelle; Yang, Jiali; Stark, Rory; Dehm, Scott M.; Rennie, Paul S.; Carroll, Jason S.; Griffiths, John R.; Tavaré, Simon; Mills, Ian G.; McEwan, Iain J.; Baniahmad, Aria; Tilley, Wayne D.; Neal, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major drug target in prostate cancer (PCa). We profiled the AR-regulated kinome to identify clinically relevant and druggable effectors of AR signaling. Methods: Using genome-wide approaches, we interrogated all AR regulated kinases. Among these, choline kinase alpha (CHKA) expression was evaluated in benign (n = 195), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (n = 153) and prostate cancer (PCa) lesions (n = 359). We interrogated how CHKA regulates AR signaling using biochemical assays and investigated androgen regulation of CHKA expression in men with PCa, both untreated (n = 20) and treated with an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor degarelix (n = 27). We studied the effect of CHKA inhibition on the PCa transcriptome using RNA sequencing and tested the effect of CHKA inhibition on cell growth, clonogenic survival and invasion. Tumor xenografts (n = 6 per group) were generated in mice using genetically engineered prostate cancer cells with inducible CHKA knockdown. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: CHKA expression was shown to be androgen regulated in cell lines, xenografts, and human tissue (log fold change from 6.75 to 6.59, P = .002) and was positively associated with tumor stage. CHKA binds directly to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR, enhancing its stability. As such, CHKA is the first kinase identified as an AR chaperone. Inhibition of CHKA repressed the AR transcriptional program including pathways enriched for regulation of protein folding, decreased AR protein levels, and inhibited the growth of PCa cell lines, human PCa explants, and tumor xenografts. Conclusions: CHKA can act as an AR chaperone, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence for kinases as molecular chaperones, making CHKA both a marker of tumor progression and a potential therapeutic target for PCa. PMID:26657335

  6. Sigma-1 receptor chaperones regulate the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Michiko; Hayashi, Teruo; Urfer, Roman; Mita, Shiro; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone that regulates protein folding and degradation. The Sig-1R activation by agonists is known to improve memory, promote cell survival, and exert an antidepressant-like action in animals. Cutamesine (SA4503), a selective Sig-1R ligand, was shown to increase BDNF in the hippocampus of rats. How exactly the intracellular chaperone Sig-1R or associated ligand causes the increase of BDNF or any other neurotrophins is unknown. We examined here whether the action of Sig-1Rs may relate to the post-translational processing and release of BDNF in neuroblastoma cell lines. We used in vitro assays and confirmed that cutamesine possesses the bona fide Sig-1R agonist property by causing the dissociation of BiP from Sig-1Rs. The C-terminus of Sig-1Rs exerted robust chaperone activity by completely blocking the aggregation of BDNF and GDNF in vitro. Chronic treatment with cutamesine in rat B104 neuroblastoma caused a time- and dose-dependent potentiation of the secretion of BDNF without affecting the mRNA level of BDNF. Cutamesine decreased the intracellular level of pro-BDNF and mature BDNF whereas increased the extracellular level of mature BDNF. The pulse-chase experiment indicated that the knockdown of Sig-1Rs decreased the secreted mature BDNF in B104 cells without affecting the synthesis of BDNF. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to clinically used antidepressants that promote the transcriptional upregulation of BDNF, the Sig-1R agonist cutamesine potentiates the post-translational processing of neurotrophins. This unique pharmacological profile may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and structure solution of MosA, a dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Sinorhizobium meliloti L5-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Yvonne A.; Phenix, Christopher P.; Puttick, Jennifer; Nienaber, Kurt; Palmer, David R. J.; Delbaere, Louis T. J.

    2005-01-01

    MosA from S. meliloti L5-30 has been crystallized in solution with pyruvate and the 2.3 Å resolution structure has been solved by molecular replacement using E. coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase as the model. The structure of MosA, a dihydrodipicolinate synthase and reported methyltransferase from Sinorhizobium meliloti, has been solved using molecular replacement with Escherichia coli dihydrodipicolinate synthase as the model. A crystal grown in the presence of pyruvate diffracted X-rays to 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 69.14, b = 138.87, c = 124.13 Å

  8. Chaperones CCS, ATOX and COXIV responses to copper supplementation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Andrews, Monica; Pizarro, Fernando; Arredondo, Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of proteins in blood and other tissues has failed to identify markers of early copper effects on health. Studies in animal models show that chaperone of SOD (CCS) respond to changes of copper status. Evidence about other copper chaperones (COXIV, ATOX) is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess by means of an in vitro challenge the mRNA relative abundance of ccs, sod1, coxIV, mtIIa and atox in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNCs) obtained from healthy individuals, acutely and chronically supplemented with small-to-moderate amounts of copper. Healthy participants received 8 mg Cu/d (supplemented group, SG) or placebo, (placebo group, PG) for 2 months. Biochemical indicators were assessed at basal (T0) and after 2 (T2) and 60 days (T60). At these times PMNCs were obtained, challenged with 1, 5 or 20 μM Cu-histidine for 20 h and the mRNA relative abundance of the selected genes assessed by real time PCR. The results showed that at T0, intracellular copper was not different between experimental and control groups. This increased at T2 and T60 when the copper in the media increased (two-way ANOVA, P CCS mRNA transcripts showed no significant changes (two-way ANOVA) at T2 and T60. In SG, CCS changed by treatment, time and interaction (two-way ANOVA, all P CCS but not SOD, ATOX or COXIV responded consistently to controlled changes of copper availability in an in vitro copper challenge.

  9. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Mnassri, Majda; Ghabriche, Rim; Wali, Mariem; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants as a result of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be useful for the rehabilitation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation presents the metal-sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 and/or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S. meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition comparatively to non-inoculated plants. Nodulation enhanced Cd absorption by the roots and Cd translocation to the shoots. The increase of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase of Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. In the presence of 50 mg Cd kg(-1) in the soil, the amounts of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 μg plant(-1) in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. This study demonstrates that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti may be an efficient biological system to extract Cd from contaminated soils.

  10. The Arabidopsis histone chaperone FACT is required for stress-induced expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfab, Alexander; Breindl, Matthias; Grasser, Klaus D

    2018-03-01

    The histone chaperone FACT is involved in the expression of genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes also upon induction by moderate high-light and therefore contributes to the stress-induced plant pigmentation. The histone chaperone FACT consists of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and associates with transcribing RNAPII (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT can promote transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNA polymerase II, thereby facilitating efficient transcription of chromatin templates. Transcript profiling of Arabidopsis plants depleted in SSRP1 or SPT16 demonstrates that only a small subset of genes is differentially expressed relative to wild type. The majority of these genes is either up- or down-regulated in both the ssrp1 and spt16 plants. Among the down-regulated genes, those encoding enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of the plant secondary metabolites termed anthocyanins (but not regulators of the pathway) are overrepresented. Upon exposure to moderate high-light stress several of these genes are up-regulated to a lesser extent in ssrp1/spt16 compared to wild type plants, and accordingly the mutant plants accumulate lower amounts of anthocyanin pigments. Moreover, the expression of SSRP1 and SPT16 is induced under these conditions. Therefore, our findings indicate that FACT is a novel factor required for the accumulation of anthocyanins in response to light-induction.

  11. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. © FASEB.

  12. Molecular chaperone complexes with antagonizing activities regulate stability and activity of the tumor suppressor LKB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaude, H; Aznar, N; Delay, A; Bres, A; Buchet-Poyau, K; Caillat, C; Vigouroux, A; Rogon, C; Woods, A; Vanacker, J-M; Höhfeld, J; Perret, C; Meyer, P; Billaud, M; Forcet, C

    2012-03-22

    LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is constitutionally mutated in a cancer-prone condition, called Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, as well as somatically inactivated in a sizeable fraction of lung and cervical neoplasms. The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that associates with the pseudokinase STRAD (STE-20-related pseudokinase) and the scaffolding protein MO25, the formation of this heterotrimeric complex promotes allosteric activation of LKB1. We have previously reported that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binds to and stabilizes LKB1. Combining pharmacological studies and RNA interference approaches, we now provide evidence that the co-chaperone Cdc37 participates to the regulation of LKB1 stability. It is known that the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex recognizes a surface within the N-terminal catalytic lobe of client protein kinases. In agreement with this finding, we found that the chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 interact with an LKB1 isoform that differs in the C-terminal region, but not with a novel LKB1 variant that lacks a portion of the kinase N-terminal lobe domain. Reconstitution of the two complexes LKB1-STRAD and LKB1-Hsp90-Cdc37 with recombinant proteins revealed that the former is catalytically active whereas the latter is inactive. Furthermore, consistent with a documented repressor function of Hsp90, LKB1 kinase activity was transiently stimulated upon dissociation of Hsp90. Finally, disruption of the LKB1-Hsp90 complex favors the recruitment of both Hsp/Hsc70 and the U-box dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) that triggers LKB1 degradation. Taken together, our results establish that the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex controls both the stability and activity of the LKB1 kinase. This study further shows that two chaperone complexes with antagonizing activities, Hsp90-Cdc37 and Hsp/Hsc70-CHIP, finely control the cellular level of LKB1 protein.

  13. Chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyrate protects against the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yang, Ching-Chin; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Chen, Li-Ping; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common and final pathologic change of kidney in end-stage renal disease. Interesting, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms during the development of renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the effects of chemical chaperon sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on renal fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, 4-PBA mimicked endogenous ER chaperon in the kidneys and significantly reduced glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and phosphorylated JNK protein expressions as well as restored spliced X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) expressions in the kidneys of UUO rats. 4-PBA also attenuated the increases of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expressions, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and apoptosis in the kidneys of UUO rats. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β markedly increased ER stress-associated molecules, profibrotic factors, and apoptotic markers in the renal tubular cells (NRK-52E), all of which could be significantly counteracted by 4-PBA treatment. 4-PBA also diminished TGF-β-increased CTGF promoter activity and CTGF mRNA expression in NRK-52E cells. Taken together, our results indicated that 4-PBA acts as an ER chaperone to ameliorate ER stress-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis and renal fibrosis.

  14. Review: The HSP90 molecular chaperone-an enigmatic ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Laurence H

    2016-08-01

    The HSP90 molecular chaperone is involved in the activation and cellular stabilization of a range of 'client' proteins, of which oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear steroid hormone receptors are of particular biomedical significance. Work over the last two decades has revealed a conformational cycle critical to the biological function of HSP90, coupled to an inherent ATPase activity that is regulated and manipulated by many of the co-chaperones proteins with which it collaborates. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 ATPase activity results in degradation of client proteins in vivo, and is a promising target for development of new cancer therapeutics. Despite this, the actual function that HSP90s conformationally-coupled ATPase activity provides in its biological role as a molecular chaperone remains obscure. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 594-607, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The heat shock protein-90 co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40, promotes ALK-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma viability and its expression is regulated by the NPM-ALK oncoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Joel D; Mohammed, Zubair; Bacani, Julinor T C; Lai, Raymond; Ingham, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) is a T cell lymphoma defined by the presence of chromosomal translocations involving the ALK tyrosine kinase gene. These translocations generate fusion proteins (e.g. NPM-ALK) with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity, which activate numerous signalling pathways important for ALK+ ALCL pathogenesis. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) plays a critical role in allowing NPM-ALK and other signalling proteins to function in this lymphoma. Co-chaperone proteins are important for helping Hsp90 fold proteins and for directing Hsp90 to specific clients; however the importance of co-chaperone proteins in ALK+ ALCL has not been investigated. Our preliminary findings suggested that expression of the immunophilin co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40), is up-regulated in ALK+ ALCL by JunB, a transcription factor activated by NPM-ALK signalling. In this study we examined the regulation of the immunophilin family of co-chaperones by NPM-ALK and JunB, and investigated whether the immunophilin co-chaperones promote the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines. NPM-ALK and JunB were knocked-down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with siRNA, and the effect on the expression of the three immunophilin co-chaperones: Cyp40, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51, and FKBP52 examined. Furthermore, the effect of knock-down of the immunophilin co-chaperones, either individually or in combination, on the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines and NPM-ALK levels and activity was also examined. We found that NPM-ALK promoted the transcription of Cyp40 and FKBP52, but only Cyp40 transcription was promoted by JunB. We also observed reduced viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA, but not with siRNAs directed against FKBP52 or FKBP51. Finally, we demonstrate that the decrease in the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA does not appear to be due to a decrease in NPM-ALK levels or the

  16. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baumgardt, K.; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, H.; Lochnit, G.; Robledo, M.; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2016), s. 486-499 ISSN 1547-6286 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Agrobacterium * autoinducer synthase * degradosome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.900, year: 2016

  17. Hsp100/ClpB Chaperone Function and Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierling, Elizabeth [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2015-01-27

    The supported research investigated the mechanism of action of a unique class of molecular chaperones in higher plants, the Hsp100/ClpB proteins, with the ultimate goal of defining how these chaperones influence plant growth, development, stress tolerance and productivity. Molecular chaperones are essential effectors of cellular “protein quality control”, which comprises processes that ensure the proper folding, localization, activation and turnover of proteins. Hsp100/ClpB proteins are required for temperature acclimation in plants, optimal seed yield, and proper chloroplast development. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and genetic and molecular approaches were used to investigate two of the three members of the Hsp100/ClpB proteins in plants, cytosolic AtHsp101 and chloroplast-localized AtClpB-p. Investigating the chaperone activity of the Hsp100/ClpB proteins addresses DOE goals in that this activity impacts how “plants generate and assemble components” as well as “allowing for their self repair”. Additionally, Hsp100/ClpB protein function in plants is directly required for optimal “utilization of biological energy” and is involved in “mechanisms that control the architecture of energy transduction systems”.

  18. Treatment of Fabry's Disease with the Pharmacologic Chaperone Migalastat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germain, Dominique P; Hughes, Derralynn A; Nicholls, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease, an X-linked disorder of lysosomal α-galactosidase deficiency, leads to substrate accumulation in multiple organs. Migalastat, an oral pharmacologic chaperone, stabilizes specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase, increasing enzyme trafficking to lysosomes. METHODS: The...

  19. Presence of chaperones during pelvic examinations in southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-12

    Dec 12, 2012 ... preferred male physicians and 88 (38.3%) had no gender preference. ... is recommended as a standard practice by many medical ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria ... and eliminates postconsultation bias. .... chaperones gave prevention of sexual harassment as a reason.

  20. Mitochondrial Chaperones in the Brain: Safeguarding Brain Health and Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Castro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain orchestrates organ function and regulates whole body metabolism by the concerted action of neurons and glia cells in the central nervous system. To do so, the brain has tremendously high energy consumption and relies mainly on glucose utilization and mitochondrial function in order to exert its function. As a consequence of high rate metabolism, mitochondria in the brain accumulate errors over time, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations, reactive oxygen species, and misfolded and aggregated proteins. Thus, mitochondria need to employ specific mechanisms to avoid or ameliorate the rise of damaged proteins that contribute to aberrant mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. To maintain mitochondria homeostasis (mitostasis, cells evolved molecular chaperones that shuttle, refold, or in coordination with proteolytic systems, help to maintain a low steady-state level of misfolded/aggregated proteins. Their importance is exemplified by the occurrence of various brain diseases which exhibit reduced action of chaperones. Chaperone loss (expression and/or function has been observed during aging, metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD, Parkinson’s (PD or even Huntington’s (HD diseases, where the accumulation of damage proteins is evidenced. Within this perspective, we propose that proper brain function is maintained by the joint action of mitochondrial chaperones to ensure and maintain mitostasis contributing to brain health, and that upon failure, alter brain function which can cause metabolic diseases.

  1. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.

    OpenAIRE

    Slonim, L N; Pinkner, J S; Brändén, C I; Hultgren, S J

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

  2. Characterization of an Hfq dependent antisense sRNA in the Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Lei Kristensen, Lisbeth; Hanghøj Chrisitansen, Mie

    between sRNA and target mRNA rely on the RNA chaperone Hfq. Hfq is a ubiquitous protein found in almost all genres of bacterial life. However, so far its role as an RNA chaperone has only been described in Gram-negative species such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella (Vogel, J. 2009). We previously...... identified several Hfq-binding sRNAs in the Gram-positive human pathogen L. monocytogenes (Christiansen et al 2006). Through bioinformatics, we have identified a number of candidate targets for one of these sRNAs (LhrA). Here, we present the characterization of one of these targets. Our results suggest...

  3. Detection of tmRNA molecules on microarrays at low temperatures using helper oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palta Priit

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hybridization of synthetic Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA on a detection microarray is slow at 34°C resulting in low signal intensities. Results We demonstrate that adding specific DNA helper oligonucleotides (chaperones to the hybridization buffer increases the signal strength at a given temperature and thus makes the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA more sensitive. No loss of specificity was observed at low temperatures compared to hybridization at 46°C. The effect of the chaperones can be explained by disruption of the strong secondary and tertiary structure of the target RNA by the selective hybridization of helper molecules. The amplification of the hybridization signal strength by chaperones is not necessarily local; we observed increased signal intensities in both local and distant regions of the target molecule. Conclusions The sensitivity of the detection of tmRNA at low temperature can be increased by chaperone oligonucleotides. Due to the complexity of RNA secondary and tertiary structures the effect of any individual chaperone is currently not predictable.

  4. An overview on molecular chaperones enhancing solubility of expressed recombinant proteins with correct folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamipour, Mina; Yousefi, Mohammadreza; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The majority of research topics declared that most of the recombinant proteins have been expressed by Escherichia coli in basic investigations. But the majority of high expressed proteins formed as inactive recombinant proteins that are called inclusion body. To overcome this problem, several methods have been used including suitable promoter, environmental factors, ladder tag to secretion of proteins into the periplasm, gene protein optimization, chemical chaperones and molecular chaperones sets. Co-expression of the interest protein with molecular chaperones is one of the common methods The chaperones are a group of proteins, which are involved in making correct folding of recombinant proteins. Chaperones are divided two groups including; cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones. Moreover, periplasmic chaperones and proteases can be manipulated to increase the yields of secreted proteins. In this article, we attempted to review cytoplasmic chaperones such as Hsp families and periplasmic chaperones including; generic chaperones, specialized chaperones, PPIases, and proteins involved in disulfide bond formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-power millimeter wave radiations do not alter stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadobov, M; Sauleau, R; Le Coq, L; Debure, L; Thouroude, D; Michel, D; Le Dréan, Y

    2007-04-01

    This article reports experimental results on the influence of low-power millimeter wave (MMW) radiation at 60 GHz on a set of stress-sensitive gene expression of molecular chaperones, namely clusterin (CLU) and HSP70, in a human brain cell line. Selection of the exposure frequency is determined by its near-future applications for the new broadband civil wireless communication systems including wireless local area networks (WLAN) for domestic and professional uses. Frequencies around 60 GHz are strongly attenuated in the earth's atmosphere and such radiations represent a new environmental factor. An exposure system operating in V-band (50-75 GHz) was developed for cell exposure. U-251 MG glial cell line was sham-exposed or exposed to MMW radiation for different durations (1-33 h) and two different power densities (5.4 microW/cm(2) or 0.54 mW/cm(2)). As gene expression is a multiple-step process, we analyzed chaperone proteins induction at different levels. First, using luciferase reporter gene, we investigated potential effect of MMWs on the activation of transcription factors (TFs) and gene promoter activity. Next, using RT-PCR and Western blot assays, we verified whether MMW exposure could alter RNA accumulation, translation, or protein stability. Experimental data demonstrated the absence of significant modifications in gene transcription, mRNA, and protein amount for the considered stress-sensitive genes for the exposure durations and power densities investigated. The main results of this study suggest that low-power 60 GHz radiation does not modify stress-sensitive gene expression of chaperone proteins. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Phloem RNA-binding proteins as potential components of the long-distance RNA transport system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICENTE ePALLAS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins (RBPs govern a myriad of different essential processes in eukaryotic cells. Recent evidence reveals that apart from playing critical roles in RNA metabolism and RNA transport, RBPs perform a key function in plant adaption to various environmental conditions. Long distance RNA transport occurs in land plants through the phloem, a conducting tissue that integrates the wide range of signalling pathways required to regulate plant development and response to stress processes. The macromolecules in the phloem pathway vary greatly and include defence proteins, transcription factors, chaperones acting in long distance trafficking, and RNAs (mRNAs, siRNAs and miRNAs. How these RNA molecules translocate through the phloem is not well understood, but recent evidence indicates the presence of translocatable RNA-binding proteins in the phloem, which act as potential components of long distance RNA transport system. This review updates our knowledge on the characteristics and functions of RBPs present in the phloem.

  7. The chaperone like function of the nonhistone protein HMGB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanov, Taner; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The HMGB1 protein strongly enhanced the formation of nucleosome particles. ► The target of HMGB1 action as a chaperone is the DNA not the histone octamer. ► The acetylation of HMGB1 decreases the stimulating effect of the protein. -- Abstract: Almost all essential nuclear processes as replication, repair, transcription and recombination require the chromatin template to be correctly unwound and than repackaged. The major strategy that the cell uses to overcome the nucleosome barrier is the proper removal of the histone octamer and subsequent deposition onto DNA. Important factors in this multi step phenomenon are the histone chaperones that can assemble nucleosome arrays in vitro in the absence of ATP. The nonhistone protein HMGB1 is a good candidate for a chaperone as its molecule consists of two DNA binding motives, Box’s A and B, and a long nonstructured C tail highly negatively charged. HMGB1 protein is known as a nuclear “architectural” factor for its property to bind preferentially to distorted DNA structures and was reported to kink the double helix. Our experiments show that in the classical stepwise dialysis method for nucleosome assembly the addition of HMGB1 protein stimulates more than two times the formation of middle-positioned nucleosomes. The stimulation effect persists in dialysis free experiment when the reconstitution is possible only in the presence of a chaperone. The addition of HMGB1 protein strongly enhanced the formation of a nucleosome in a dose dependant manner. Our results show that the target of HMGB1 action as a chaperone is the DNA fragment not the histone octamer. One possible explanation for the stimulating effect of HMGB1 is the “architectural” property of the protein to associate with the middle of the DNA fragment and to kink it. The acquired V shaped DNA structure is probably conformationals more favorable to wrap around the prefolded histone octamer. We tested also the role of the post

  8. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 500 Ontario members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants were asked about their use of chaperones when performing a variety of intimate examinations, namely female pelvic, breast, and rectal exams and male genital and rectal exams. Results 276 of 500 were returned (56%, of which 257 were useable. Chaperones were more commonly used with female patients than with males (t = 9.09 [df = 249], p Conclusion Clinical practice concerning the use of chaperones during intimate exams continues to be discordant with the recommendations of medical associations and medico-legal societies. Chaperones are used by only a minority of Ontario family physicians. Chaperone use is higher for examinations of female patients than of male patients and is highest for female pelvic exams. The availability of a nurse in the clinic to act as a chaperone is associated with more frequent use of chaperones.

  9. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualley, Dominic F.; Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC

  10. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualley, Dominic F., E-mail: dqualley@berry.edu; Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  11. Metal chaperones: a holistic approach to the treatment of AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Adlard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the burden of proof for the role of metal ion dysregulation in the pathogenesis of multiple CNS disorders grows, it has become important to more precisely identify and differentiate the biological effects of various pharmacological modulators of metal ion homeostasis. This is particularly evident in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, where the use of metal chaperones (that transport metals, as opposed to chelators (which exclude metals from biological interactions, may prove to be the first truly disease modifying approach for this condition. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the emerging notion that metal chaperones, such as PBT2 (Prana Biotechnology, modulate a variety of critical pathways affecting key aspects of the AD cascade to provide a more holistic approach to the treatment of this disease.

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of a copper chaperone gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cDNA encoding a copper chaperone, designated as HbCCH1, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. HbCC1 was 589 bp long containing a 261 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 86 amino acids, flanked by a 103 bp 5'UTR and a 225 bp 3'UTR. The predicted molecular mass of HbCCH1 was 9.2 kDa, ...

  13. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    of these proteins by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI MS/MS). As a result we obtained 24 different proteins which can be categorized into the following groups: chaperones, energy metabolism, cytoskeleton/intermediate filaments, and protein translation/ribosome biogenesis. The special set of identified......, ubiquitinated proteins confirm the thesis that ubiquitination upon oxidative stress is no random process to degrade the mass of oxidized proteins, but concerns a special group of functional proteins....

  14. Pharmacological chaperoning: a primer on mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenheimer, Nancy J; Ryder, Katelyn G

    2014-05-01

    Approximately forty percent of diseases are attributable to protein misfolding, including those for which genetic mutation produces misfolding mutants. Intriguingly, many of these mutants are not terminally misfolded since native-like folding, and subsequent trafficking to functional locations, can be induced by target-specific, small molecules variably termed pharmacological chaperones, pharmacoperones, or pharmacochaperones (PCs). PC targets include enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, revealing the breadth of proteins that can be engaged by ligand-assisted folding. The purpose of this review is to provide an integrated primer of the diverse mechanisms and pharmacology of PCs. In this regard, we examine the structural mechanisms that underlie PC rescue of misfolding mutants, including the ability of PCs to act as surrogates for defective intramolecular interactions and, at the intermolecular level, overcome oligomerization deficiencies and dominant negative effects, as well as influence the subunit stoichiometry of heteropentameric receptors. Not surprisingly, PC-mediated structural correction of misfolding mutants normalizes interactions with molecular chaperones that participate in protein quality control and forward-trafficking. A variety of small molecules have proven to be efficacious PCs and the advantages and disadvantages of employing orthostatic antagonists, active-site inhibitors, orthostatic agonists, and allosteric modulator PCs are considered. Also examined is the possibility that several therapeutic agents may have unrecognized activity as PCs, and this chaperoning activity may mediate/contribute to therapeutic action and/or account for adverse effects. Lastly, we explore evidence that pharmacological chaperoning exploits intrinsic ligand-assisted folding mechanisms. Given the widespread applicability of PC rescue of mutants associated with protein folding disorders, both in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic potential of PCs is vast

  15. A comparative genomics screen identifies a Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 sodM-like gene strongly expressed within host plant nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroux Clothilde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used the genomic data in the Integrated Microbial Genomes system of the Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute to make predictions about rhizobial open reading frames that play a role in nodulation of host plants. The genomic data was screened by searching for ORFs conserved in α-proteobacterial rhizobia, but not conserved in closely-related non-nitrogen-fixing α-proteobacteria. Results Using this approach, we identified many genes known to be involved in nodulation or nitrogen fixation, as well as several new candidate genes. We knocked out selected new genes and assayed for the presence of nodulation phenotypes and/or nodule-specific expression. One of these genes, SMc00911, is strongly expressed by bacterial cells within host plant nodules, but is expressed minimally by free-living bacterial cells. A strain carrying an insertion mutation in SMc00911 is not defective in the symbiosis with host plants, but in contrast to expectations, this mutant strain is able to out-compete the S. meliloti 1021 wild type strain for nodule occupancy in co-inoculation experiments. The SMc00911 ORF is predicted to encode a “SodM-like” (superoxide dismutase-like protein containing a rhodanese sulfurtransferase domain at the N-terminus and a chromate-resistance superfamily domain at the C-terminus. Several other ORFs (SMb20360, SMc01562, SMc01266, SMc03964, and the SMc01424-22 operon identified in the screen are expressed at a moderate level by bacteria within nodules, but not by free-living bacteria. Conclusions Based on the analysis of ORFs identified in this study, we conclude that this comparative genomics approach can identify rhizobial genes involved in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with host plants, although none of the newly identified genes were found to be essential for this process.

  16. The conformational dynamics of the mitochondrial Hsp70 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, Koyeli; Sikor, Martin; Kudryavtsev, Volodymyr; Waegemann, Karin; Kalinin, Stanislav; Seidel, Claus A M; Neupert, Walter; Lamb, Don C; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2010-04-09

    Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70) represent a ubiquitous and conserved family of molecular chaperones involved in a plethora of cellular processes. The dynamics of their ATP hydrolysis-driven and cochaperone-regulated conformational cycle are poorly understood. We used fluorescence spectroscopy to analyze, in real time and at single-molecule resolution, the effects of nucleotides and cochaperones on the conformation of Ssc1, a mitochondrial member of the family. We report that the conformation of its ADP state is unexpectedly heterogeneous, in contrast to a uniform ATP state. Substrates are actively involved in determining the conformation of Ssc1. The J protein Mdj1 does not interact transiently with the chaperone, as generally believed, but rather is released slowly upon ATP hydrolysis. Analysis of the major bacterial Hsp70 revealed important differences between highly homologous members of the family, possibly explaining tuning of Hsp70 chaperones to meet specific functions in different organisms and cellular compartments. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of hepatitis C virus RNA dimerization and core–RNA interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Kanevsky, Igor; Gabus, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Penin, François; Fossé, Philippe; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown previously to act as a potent nucleic acid chaperone in vitro, promoting the dimerization of the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the HCV genomic RNA, a process probably mediated by a small, highly conserved palindromic RNA motif, named DLS (dimer linkage sequence) [G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-Nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin and J. L. Darlix (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 2623–2631]. To investigate in depth HCV RNA dimerization, we generated a series of point mutations in the DLS region. We find that both the plus-strand 3′-UTR and the complementary minus-strand RNA can dimerize in the presence of core protein, while mutations in the DLS (among them a single point mutation that abolished RNA replication in a HCV subgenomic replicon system) completely abrogate dimerization. Structural probing of plus- and minus-strand RNAs, in their monomeric and dimeric forms, indicate that the DLS is the major if not the sole determinant of UTR RNA dimerization. Furthermore, the N-terminal basic amino acid clusters of core protein were found to be sufficient to induce dimerization, suggesting that they retain full RNA chaperone activity. These findings may have important consequences for understanding the HCV replicative cycle and the genetic variability of the virus. PMID:16707664

  18. Analysis of hepatitis C virus RNA dimerization and core-RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Kanevsky, Igor; Gabus, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Ficheux, Damien; Penin, François; Fossé, Philippe; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown previously to act as a potent nucleic acid chaperone in vitro, promoting the dimerization of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the HCV genomic RNA, a process probably mediated by a small, highly conserved palindromic RNA motif, named DLS (dimer linkage sequence) [G. Cristofari, R. Ivanyi-Nagy, C. Gabus, S. Boulant, J. P. Lavergne, F. Penin and J. L. Darlix (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 2623-2631]. To investigate in depth HCV RNA dimerization, we generated a series of point mutations in the DLS region. We find that both the plus-strand 3'-UTR and the complementary minus-strand RNA can dimerize in the presence of core protein, while mutations in the DLS (among them a single point mutation that abolished RNA replication in a HCV subgenomic replicon system) completely abrogate dimerization. Structural probing of plus- and minus-strand RNAs, in their monomeric and dimeric forms, indicate that the DLS is the major if not the sole determinant of UTR RNA dimerization. Furthermore, the N-terminal basic amino acid clusters of core protein were found to be sufficient to induce dimerization, suggesting that they retain full RNA chaperone activity. These findings may have important consequences for understanding the HCV replicative cycle and the genetic variability of the virus.

  19. The DivJ, CbrA and PleC system controls DivK phosphorylation and symbiosis in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Francesco; Frage, Benjamin; Ferri, Lorenzo; De Nisco, Nicole J.; Mohapatra, Saswat S.; Taddei, Lucilla; Fioravanti, Antonella; Dewitte, Frederique; Galardini, Marco; Brilli, Matteo; Villeret, Vincent; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Walker, Graham C.; Becker, Anke; Biondi, Emanuele G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that invades the root nodules it induces on Medicago sativa, whereupon it undergoes an alteration of its cell cycle and differentiates into nitrogen-fixing, elongated and polyploid bacteroid with higher membrane permeability. In Caulobacter crescentus, a related alphaproteobacterium, the principal cell cycle regulator, CtrA, is inhibited by the phosphorylated response regulator DivK. The phosphorylation of DivK depends on the histidine kinase DivJ, while PleC is the principal phosphatase for DivK. Despite the importance of the DivJ in C. crescentus, the mechanistic role of this kinase has never been elucidated in other Alphaproteobacteria. We show here that the histidine kinases DivJ together with CbrA and PleC participate in a complex phosphorylation system of the essential response regulator DivK in S. meliloti. In particular, DivJ and CbrA are involved in DivK phosphorylation and in turn CtrA inactivation, thereby controlling correct cell cycle progression and the integrity of the cell envelope. In contrast, the essential PleC presumably acts as a phosphatase of DivK. Interestingly, we found that a DivJ mutant is able to elicit nodules and enter plant cells, but fails to establish an effective symbiosis suggesting that proper envelope and/or low CtrA levels are required for symbiosis. PMID:23909720

  20. Comparative toxicity assessment of CeO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles towards Sinorhizobium meliloti, a symbiotic alfalfa associated bacterium: Use of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso (United States); Peralta-Videa, Jose R. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Plascencia-Villa, German; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L., E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering PhD Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First cytotoxicity study of CeO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report upon the mechanisms of CeO{sub 2} and ZnO NPs toxicity to S. meliloti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO NPs were found to be bactericidal in lower concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CeO{sub 2} NPs had bacteriostatic effect on S. meliloti. - Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used in a variety of instruments and consumer goods. These NPs are of great concern because of potential toxicity towards human health and the environment. The present work aimed to assess the toxic effects of 10 nm CeO{sub 2} and ZnO NPs towards the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Toxicological parameters evaluated included UV/Vis measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration, disk diffusion tests, and dynamic growth. Ultra high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized to determine the spatial distribution of NPs and macromolecule changes in bacterial cells, respectively. Results indicate that ZnO NPs were more toxic than CeO{sub 2} NPs in terms of inhibition of dynamic growth and viable cells counts. STEM images revealed that CeO{sub 2} and ZnO NPs were found on bacterial cell surfaces and ZnO NPs were internalized into the periplasmic space of the cells. FTIR spectra showed changes in protein and polysaccharide structures of extra cellular polymeric substances present in bacterial cell walls treated with both NPs. The growth data showed that CeO{sub 2} NPs have a bacteriostatic effect, whereas ZnO NPs is bactericidal to S. meliloti. Overall, ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic than CeO{sub 2} NPs.

  1. RNAi-Mediated Reverse Genetic Screen Identified Drosophila Chaperones Regulating Eye and Neuromuscular Junction Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Raut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of toxic proteins in neurons has been linked with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, which in many cases are characterized by altered neuronal function and synapse loss. Molecular chaperones help protein folding and the resolubilization of unfolded proteins, thereby reducing the protein aggregation stress. While most of the chaperones are expressed in neurons, their functional relevance remains largely unknown. Here, using bioinformatics analysis, we identified 95 Drosophila chaperones and classified them into seven different classes. Ubiquitous actin5C-Gal4-mediated RNAi knockdown revealed that ∼50% of the chaperones are essential in Drosophila. Knocking down these genes in eyes revealed that ∼30% of the essential chaperones are crucial for eye development. Using neuron-specific knockdown, immunocytochemistry, and robust behavioral assays, we identified a new set of chaperones that play critical roles in the regulation of Drosophila NMJ structural organization. Together, our data present the first classification and comprehensive analysis of Drosophila chaperones. Our screen identified a new set of chaperones that regulate eye and NMJ morphogenesis. The outcome of the screen reported here provides a useful resource for further elucidating the role of individual chaperones in Drosophila eye morphogenesis and synaptic development.

  2. Chaperones and the Proteasome System: Regulating the Construction and Demolition of Striated Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Carlisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein folding factors (chaperones are required for many diverse cellular functions. In striated muscle, chaperones are required for contractile protein function, as well as the larger scale assembly of the basic unit of muscle, the sarcomere. The sarcomere is complex and composed of hundreds of proteins and the number of proteins and processes recognized to be regulated by chaperones has increased dramatically over the past decade. Research in the past ten years has begun to discover and characterize the chaperones involved in the assembly of the sarcomere at a rapid rate. Because of the dynamic nature of muscle, wear and tear damage is inevitable. Several systems, including chaperones and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, have evolved to regulate protein turnover. Much of our knowledge of muscle development focuses on the formation of the sarcomere but recent work has begun to elucidate the requirement and role of chaperones and the UPS in sarcomere maintenance and disease. This review will cover the roles of chaperones in sarcomere assembly, the importance of chaperone homeostasis and the cooperation of chaperones and the UPS in sarcomere integrity and disease.

  3. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  4. Systems analysis of chaperone networks in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundara Raghavan Pavithra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones participate in the maintenance of cellular protein homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction, and development. Although a vast body of information is available regarding individual chaperones, few studies have attempted a systems level analysis of chaperone function. In this paper, we have constructed a chaperone interaction network for the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. P. falciparum is responsible for several million deaths every year, and understanding the biology of the parasite is a top priority. The parasite regularly experiences heat shock as part of its life cycle, and chaperones have often been implicated in parasite survival and growth. To better understand the participation of chaperones in cellular processes, we created a parasite chaperone network by combining experimental interactome data with in silico analysis. We used interolog mapping to predict protein-protein interactions for parasite chaperones based on the interactions of corresponding human chaperones. This data was then combined with information derived from existing high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays. Analysis of the network reveals the broad range of functions regulated by chaperones. The network predicts involvement of chaperones in chromatin remodeling, protein trafficking, and cytoadherence. Importantly, it allows us to make predictions regarding the functions of hypothetical proteins based on their interactions. It allows us to make specific predictions about Hsp70-Hsp40 interactions in the parasite and assign functions to members of the Hsp90 and Hsp100 families. Analysis of the network provides a rational basis for the anti-malarial activity of geldanamycin, a well-known Hsp90 inhibitor. Finally, analysis of the network provides a theoretical basis for further experiments designed toward understanding the involvement of this important class of molecules in parasite biology.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Polyhydroxybutyrate Cycle Mutants Reveals Discrete Loci Connecting Nitrogen Utilization and Carbon Storage in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Maya; Nordeste, Ricardo; Doxey, Andrew C; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen polymers are produced by bacteria as carbon storage compounds under unbalanced growth conditions. To gain insights into the transcriptional mechanisms controlling carbon storage in Sinorhizobium meliloti , we investigated the global transcriptomic response to the genetic disruption of key genes in PHB synthesis and degradation and in glycogen synthesis. Under both nitrogen-limited and balanced growth conditions, transcriptomic analysis was performed with genetic mutants deficient in PHB synthesis ( phbA , phbB , phbAB , and phbC ), PHB degradation ( bdhA , phaZ , and acsA2 ), and glycogen synthesis ( glgA1 ). Three distinct genomic regions of the pSymA megaplasmid exhibited altered expression in the wild type and the PHB cycle mutants that was not seen in the glycogen synthesis mutant. An Fnr family transcriptional motif was identified in the upstream regions of a cluster of genes showing similar transcriptional patterns across the mutants. This motif was found at the highest density in the genomic regions with the strongest transcriptional effect, and the presence of this motif upstream of genes in these regions was significantly correlated with decreased transcript abundance. Analysis of the genes in the pSymA regions revealed that they contain a genomic overrepresentation of Fnr family transcription factor-encoding genes. We hypothesize that these loci, containing mostly nitrogen utilization, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes, are regulated in response to the intracellular carbon/nitrogen balance. These results indicate a transcriptional regulatory association between intracellular carbon levels (mediated through the functionality of the PHB cycle) and the expression of nitrogen metabolism genes. IMPORTANCE The ability of bacteria to store carbon and energy as intracellular polymers uncouples cell growth and replication from nutrient uptake and provides flexibility in the use of resources as they are available to

  6. Autoregulation of Co-Chaperone BAG3 Gene Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilella, Antonio; Khalili, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    The Bcl-2-associated athanogene, BAG, protein family through their BAG domain associates with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) and modulates its chaperone activity. One member of this family, BAG3, appears to play an important role in protein homeostasis, as its expression promotes cell survival by preventing polyubiquitination of Hsp-70 client proteins. Expression of BAG3 is enhanced by a variety of stress-inducing agents. Here we describe a role for BAG3 to modulate transcription of its o...

  7. One out of four: HspL but no other small heat shock protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens acts as efficient virulence-promoting VirB8 chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Alpha-crystallin-type small heat shock proteins (sHsps are ubiquitously distributed in most eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Four sHsp genes named hspL, hspC, hspAT1, and hspAT2 were identified in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogenic bacterium capable of unique interkingdom DNA transfer via type IV secretion system (T4SS. HspL is highly expressed in virulence-induced growth condition and functions as a VirB8 chaperone to promote T4SS-mediated DNA transfer. Here, we used genetic and biochemical approaches to investigate the involvement of the other three sHsps in T4SS and discovered the molecular basis underlying the dominant function of HspL in promoting T4SS function. While single deletion of hspL but no other sHsp gene reduced T4SS-mediated DNA transfer and tumorigenesis efficiency, additional deletion of other sHsp genes in the hspL deletion background caused synergistic effects in the virulence phenotypes. This is correlated with the high induction of hspL and only modest increase of hspC, hspAT1, and hspAT2 at their mRNA and protein abundance in virulence-induced growth condition. Interestingly, overexpression of any single sHsp gene alone in the quadruple mutant caused increased T4SS-mediated DNA transfer and tumorigenesis. Thermal aggregation protecting assays in vitro indicated that all four sHsps exhibit chaperone activity for the model substrate citrate synthase but only HspL functions as efficient chaperone for VirB8. The higher VirB8 chaperone activity of HspL was also demonstrated in vivo, in which lower amounts of HspL than other sHsps were sufficient in maintaining VirB8 homeostasis in A. tumefaciens. Domain swapping between HspL and HspAT2 indicated that N-terminal, central alpha-crystallin, and C-terminal domains of HspL all contribute to HspL function as an efficient VirB8 chaperone. Taken together, we suggest that the dominant role of HspL in promoting T4SS function is based on its higher expression in virulence

  8. Transcriptome Response to Heavy Metals in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 Reveals New Metal Resistance Determinants That Also Promote Bioremediation by Medicago lupulina in Metal-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingmei; Jiao, Shuo; Gao, Enting; Song, Xiuyong; Li, Zhefei; Hao, Xiuli; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2017-10-15

    The symbiosis of the highly metal-resistant Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 and Medicago lupulina has been considered an efficient tool for bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. However, the metal resistance mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 have not been elucidated in detail. Here we employed a comparative transcriptome approach to analyze the defense mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 against Cu or Zn exposure. Six highly upregulated transcripts involved in Cu and Zn resistance were identified through deletion mutagenesis, including genes encoding a multicopper oxidase (CueO), an outer membrane protein (Omp), sulfite oxidoreductases (YedYZ), and three hypothetical proteins (a CusA-like protein, a FixH-like protein, and an unknown protein), and the corresponding mutant strains showed various degrees of sensitivity to multiple metals. The Cu-sensitive mutant (Δ cueO ) and three mutants that were both Cu and Zn sensitive (Δ yedYZ , Δ cusA -like, and Δ fixH -like) were selected for further study of the effects of these metal resistance determinants on bioremediation. The results showed that inoculation with the Δ cueO mutant severely inhibited infection establishment and nodulation of M. lupulina under Cu stress, while inoculation with the Δ yedYZ and Δ fixH -like mutants decreased just the early infection frequency and nodulation under Cu and Zn stresses. In contrast, inoculation with the Δ cusA -like mutant almost led to loss of the symbiotic capacity of M. lupulina to even grow in uncontaminated soil. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activity and metal accumulation in roots of M. lupulina inoculated with all mutants were lower than those with the wild-type strain. These results suggest that heavy metal resistance determinants may promote bioremediation by directly or indirectly influencing formation of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been promoted as an appropriate tool for bioremediation of heavy

  9. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Joanna L; Tan, Bertrand C-M; Panov, Kostya I

    2009-01-01

    Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle....... The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results...... in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III...

  10. Molecular mechanisms used by chaperones to reduce the toxicity of aberrant protein oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannini, Benedetta; Cascella, Roberta; Zampagni, Mariagioia; Van Waarde-Verhagen, Maria; Meehan, Sarah; Roodveldt, Cintia; Campioni, Silvia; Boninsegna, Matilde; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wilson, Mark R.; Cecchi, Cristina; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Chaperones are the primary regulators of the proteostasis network and are known to facilitate protein folding, inhibit protein aggregation, and promote disaggregation and clearance of misfolded aggregates inside cells. We have tested the effects of five chaperones on the toxicity of misfolded

  11. Chaperone-like properties of tobacco plastid thioredoxins f and m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barrio, Ruth; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Carballeda, Jon; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Seguí-Simarro, José M.; Farran, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous disulphide reductases that play important roles in the redox regulation of many cellular processes. However, some redox-independent functions, such as chaperone activity, have also been attributed to Trxs in recent years. The focus of our study is on the putative chaperone function of the well-described plastid Trxs f and m. To that end, the cDNA of both Trxs, designated as NtTrxf and NtTrxm, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum plants. It was found that bacterially expressed tobacco Trx f and Trx m, in addition to their disulphide reductase activity, possessed chaperone-like properties. In vitro, Trx f and Trx m could both facilitate the reactivation of the cysteine-free form of chemically denatured glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (foldase chaperone activity) and prevent heat-induced malate dehydrogenase aggregation (holdase chaperone activity). Our results led us to infer that the disulphide reductase and foldase chaperone functions prevail when the proteins occur as monomers and the well-conserved non-active cysteine present in Trx f is critical for both functions. By contrast, the holdase chaperone activity of both Trxs depended on their oligomeric status: the proteins were functional only when they were associated with high molecular mass protein complexes. Because the oligomeric status of both Trxs was induced by salt and temperature, our data suggest that plastid Trxs could operate as molecular holdase chaperones upon oxidative stress, acting as a type of small stress protein. PMID:21948853

  12. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  13. Information encoded in non-native states drives substrate-chaperone pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, Koyeli; Tiwari, Satyam; Kumar, Vignesh; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Maiti, Souvik

    2012-09-05

    Many proteins refold in vitro through kinetic folding intermediates that are believed to be by-products of native-state centric evolution. These intermediates are postulated to play only minor roles, if any, in vivo because they lack any information related to translation-associated vectorial folding. We demonstrate that refolding intermediate of a test protein, generated in vitro, is able to find its cognate chaperone, from the whole complement of Escherichia coli soluble chaperones. Cognate chaperone-binding uniquely alters the conformation of non-native substrate. Importantly, precise chaperone targeting of substrates are maintained as long as physiological molar ratios of chaperones remain unaltered. Using a library of different chaperone substrates, we demonstrate that kinetically trapped refolding intermediates contain sufficient structural features for precise targeting to cognate chaperones. We posit that evolution favors sequences that, in addition to coding for a functional native state, encode folding intermediates with higher affinity for cognate chaperones than noncognate ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of receptor-chaperone interactions using the optical technique of spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Tsargorodskaya, Anna; Mustafa, Mohd K; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Lacey, Joanne; Smith, David P; Abell, Benjamin M; Nabok, Alexei

    2011-07-20

    This work describes a detailed quantitative interaction study between the novel plastidial chaperone receptor OEP61 and isoforms of the chaperone types Hsp70 and Hsp90 using the optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The receptor OEP61 was electrostatically immobilized on a gold surface via an intermediate layer of polycations. The TIRE measurements allowed the evaluation of thickness changes in the adsorbed molecular layers as a result of chaperone binding to receptor proteins. Hsp70 chaperone isoforms but not Hsp90 were shown to be capable of binding OEP61. Dynamic TIRE measurements were carried out to evaluate the affinity constants of the above reactions and resulted in clear discrimination between specific and nonspecific binding of chaperones as well as differences in binding properties between the highly similar Hsp70 isoforms. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chaperone-protease networks in mitochondrial protein homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    As essential organelles, mitochondria are intimately integrated into the metabolism of a eukaryotic cell. The maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondrial proteome, also termed protein homeostasis, is facing many challenges both under normal and pathological conditions. First, since mitochondria are derived from bacterial ancestor cells, the proteins in this endosymbiotic organelle have a mixed origin. Only a few proteins are encoded on the mitochondrial genome, most genes for mitochondrial proteins reside in the nuclear genome of the host cell. This distribution requires a complex biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins, which are mostly synthesized in the cytosol and need to be imported into the organelle. Mitochondrial protein biogenesis usually therefore comprises complex folding and assembly processes to reach an enzymatically active state. In addition, specific protein quality control (PQC) processes avoid an accumulation of damaged or surplus polypeptides. Mitochondrial protein homeostasis is based on endogenous enzymatic components comprising a diverse set of chaperones and proteases that form an interconnected functional network. This review describes the different types of mitochondrial proteins with chaperone functions and covers the current knowledge of their roles in protein biogenesis, folding, proteolytic removal and prevention of aggregation, the principal reactions of protein homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components

  17. A passive physical model for DnaK chaperoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Lionel; Dumont, Audrey; Dukan, Sam

    2018-03-01

    Almost all living organisms use protein chaperones with a view to preventing proteins from misfolding or aggregation either spontaneously or during cellular stress. This work uses a reaction-diffusion stochastic model to describe the dynamic localization of the Hsp70 chaperone DnaK in Escherichia coli cells during transient proteotoxic collapse characterized by the accumulation of insoluble proteins. In the model, misfolded (‘abnormal’) proteins are produced during alcoholic stress and have the propensity to aggregate with a polymerization-like kinetics. When aggregates diffuse more slowly they grow larger. According to Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics, DnaK has the propensity to bind with misfolded proteins or aggregates in order to catalyse refolding. To match experimental fluorescence microscopy data showing clusters of DnaK-GFP localized in multiple foci, the model includes spatial zones with local reduced diffusion rates to generate spontaneous assemblies of DnaK called ‘foci’. Numerical simulations of our model succeed in reproducing the kinetics of DnaK localization experimentally observed. DnaK starts from foci, moves to large aggregates during acute stress, resolves those aggregates during recovery and finally returns to its initial punctate localization pattern. Finally, we compare real biological events with hypothetical repartitions of the protein aggregates or DnaK. We then notice that DnaK action is more efficient on protein aggregates than on protein homogeneously distributed.

  18. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  19. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@sdu.edu.cn [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 (China); Ji, Chunyan, E-mail: jichunyan@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  20. UBL/BAG-domain co-chaperones cause cellular stress upon overexpression through constitutive activation of Hsf1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Kampmeyer, Caroline; Kriegenburg, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    of molecular chaperones and other stress-relieving proteins. Here, we show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologues of human BAG-1, Bag101, and Bag102, are Hsp70 co-chaperones that associate with 26S proteasomes. Only a subgroup of Hsp70-type chaperones, including Ssa1, Ssa2, and Sks2...

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and their roles in the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Graner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a major site of passage for proteins en route to other organelles, to the cell surface, and to the extracellular space. It is also the transport route for peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome into the ER for loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I molecules for eventual antigen presentation at the cell surface. Chaperones within the ER are critical for many of these processes; however, outside the ER certain of those chaperones may play important and direct roles in immune responses. In some cases, particular ER chaperones have been utilized as vaccines against tumors or infectious disease pathogens when purified from tumor tissue or recombinantly generated and loaded with antigen. In other cases, the cell surface location of ER chaperones has implications for immune responses as well as possible tumor resistance. We have produced heat shock protein/chaperone protein-based cancer vaccines called CRCL (Chaperone-Rich Cell Lysate that are conglomerates of chaperones enriched from solid tumors by an isoelectric focusing technique. These preparations have been effective against numerous murine tumors, as well as in a canine with an advanced lung carcinoma treated with autologous CRCL. We also published extensive proteomic analyses of CRCL prepared from human surgically-resected tumor samples. Of note, these preparations contained at least ten ER chaperones and a number of other residents, along with many other chaperones/heat shock proteins. Gene ontology and network analyses utilizing these proteins essentially recapitulate the antigen presentation pathways and interconnections. In conjunction with our current knowledge of cell surface/extracellular ER chaperones, these data collectively suggest that a systems-level view may provide insight into the potent immune stimulatory activities of CRCL with an emphasis on the roles of ER components in those processes.

  2. Detección de actividad pectolítica en el cultivo de la cepa GR4 de rhyzobíum meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se ensayaron varios métodos para la obtención y purificación parcial de pectinasas a partir de sobrenadante del cultivo de la cepa GR4 de Rhizobium meliloti. Se describe el método con el cual se obtuvo el sobrenadante en el que se logró detectar la presencia de actividad pectolítica. Empleando una muestra comercial de enzimas pécticas (Pectinex, Novo se estudió la estabilidad de la actividad enzimática durante el proceso de purificación parcial establecido; se observó una pérdida gradual de la actividad en función del tiempo de duración del proceso.

  3. Overexpression of the essential Sis1 chaperone reduces TDP-43 effects on toxicity and proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei-Kyoung; Hong, Joo Y.; Arslan, Fatih; Tietsort, Alex; Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Li, Xingli

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motor neurons with inclusions frequently containing the RNA/DNA binding protein TDP-43. Using a yeast model of ALS exhibiting TDP-43 dependent toxicity, we now show that TDP-43 overexpression dramatically alters cell shape and reduces ubiquitin dependent proteolysis of a reporter construct. Furthermore, we show that an excess of the Hsp40 chaperone, Sis1, reduced TDP-43’s effect on toxicity, cell shape and proteolysis. The strength of these effects was influenced by the presence of the endogenous yeast prion, [PIN+]. Although overexpression of Sis1 altered the TDP-43 aggregation pattern, we did not detect physical association of Sis1 with TDP-43, suggesting the possibility of indirect effects on TDP-43 aggregation. Furthermore, overexpression of the mammalian Sis1 homologue, DNAJB1, relieves TDP-43 mediated toxicity in primary rodent cortical neurons, suggesting that Sis1 and its homologues may have neuroprotective effects in ALS. PMID:28531192

  4. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  5. Retrovirus-specific differences in matrix and nucleocapsid protein-nucleic acid interactions: implications for genomic RNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Grigsby, Iwen F; Gorelick, Robert J; Mansky, Louis M; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Retroviral RNA encapsidation involves a recognition event between genomic RNA (gRNA) and one or more domains in Gag. In HIV-1, the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is involved in gRNA packaging and displays robust nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone functions. In comparison, NC of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a deltaretrovirus, displays weaker NA binding and chaperone activity. Mutation of conserved charged residues in the deltaretrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV) matrix (MA) and NC domains affects virus replication and gRNA packaging efficiency. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that the MA domain may generally contribute to NA binding and genome encapsidation in deltaretroviruses. Here, we examined the interaction between HTLV-2 and HIV-1 MA proteins and various NAs in vitro. HTLV-2 MA displays higher NA binding affinity and better chaperone activity than HIV-1 MA. HTLV-2 MA also binds NAs with higher affinity than HTLV-2 NC and displays more robust chaperone function. Mutation of two basic residues in HTLV-2 MA α-helix II, previously implicated in BLV gRNA packaging, reduces NA binding affinity. HTLV-2 MA binds with high affinity and specificity to RNA derived from the putative packaging signal of HTLV-2 relative to nonspecific NA. Furthermore, an HIV-1 MA triple mutant designed to mimic the basic character of HTLV-2 MA α-helix II dramatically improves binding affinity and chaperone activity of HIV-1 MA in vitro and restores RNA packaging to a ΔNC HIV-1 variant in cell-based assays. Taken together, these results are consistent with a role for deltaretrovirus MA proteins in viral RNA packaging.

  6. Proteotoxicity is not the reason for the dependence of cancer cells on the major chaperone Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Teresa A; Gabai, Vladimir L; Sherman, Michael Y

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago a hypothesis was proposed that the survival of cancer cells depend on elevated expression of molecular chaperones because these cells are prone to proteotoxic stress. A critical prediction of this hypothesis is that depletion of chaperones in cancer cells should lead to proteotoxicity. Here, using the major chaperone Hsp70 as example, we demonstrate that its depletion does not trigger proteotoxic stress, thus refuting the model. Accordingly, other functions of chaperones, e.g., their role in cell signaling, might define the requirements for chaperones in cancer cells, which is critical for rational targeting Hsp70 in cancer treatment.

  7. Structure of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to polyriboadenylate RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Link, Todd M; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Brennan, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    (A) RNA, A(15). The structure reveals a unique RNA binding mechanism. Unlike uridine-containing sequences, which bind to the "proximal" face, the poly(A) tract binds to the "distal" face of Hfq using 6 tripartite binding motifs. Each motif consists of an adenosine specificity site (A site), which......Hfq is a small, highly abundant hexameric protein that is found in many bacteria and plays a critical role in mRNA expression and RNA stability. As an "RNA chaperone," Hfq binds AU-rich sequences and facilitates the trans annealing of small RNAs (sRNAs) to their target mRNAs, typically resulting...... in the down-regulation of gene expression. Hfq also plays a key role in bacterial RNA decay by binding tightly to polyadenylate [poly(A)] tracts. The structural mechanism by which Hfq recognizes and binds poly(A) is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the poly...

  8. Structural and Biochemical Studies on ATP Binding and Hydrolysis by the Escherichia coli RNA Chaperone Hfq

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hämmerle, H.; Beich-Frandsen, M.; Večerek, Branislav; Rajkowitsch, L.; Carugo, O.; Djinović-Carugo, K.; Bläsi, U.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2012), e50892 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SM-LIKE PROTEIN * PHAGE Q-BETA * HOST FACTOR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  9. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Required for Virulence of Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bíbová, Ilona; Škopová, Karolína; Mašín, Jiří; Černý, Ondřej; Hot, D.; Šebo, Peter; Večerek, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 11 (2013), s. 4081-4090 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1940; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ADENYLATE-CYCLASE TOXIN * ISLET-ACTIVATING PROTEIN * ESCHERICHIA-COLI HFQ Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.156, year: 2013

  10. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  11. Contributions of chaperone/usher systems to cell binding, biofilm formation and Yersinia pestis virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felek, Suleyman; Jeong, Jenny J; Runco, Lisa M; Murray, Susan; Thanassi, David G; Krukonis, Eric S

    2011-03-01

    Yersinia pestis genome sequencing projects have revealed six intact uncharacterized chaperone/usher systems with the potential to play roles in plague pathogenesis. We cloned each locus and expressed them in the Δfim Escherichia coli strain AAEC185 to test the assembled Y. pestis surface structures for various activities. Expression of each chaperone/usher locus gave rise to specific novel fibrillar structures on the surface of E. coli. One locus, y0561-0563, was able to mediate attachment to human epithelial cells (HEp-2) and human macrophages (THP-1) but not mouse macrophages (RAW264.7), while several loci were able to facilitate E. coli biofilm formation. When each chaperone/usher locus was deleted in Y. pestis, only deletion of the previously described pH 6 antigen (Psa) chaperone/usher system resulted in decreased adhesion and biofilm formation. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed low expression levels for each novel chaperone/usher system in vitro as well as in mouse tissues following intravenous infection. However, a Y. pestis mutant in the chaperone/usher locus y1858-1862 was attenuated for virulence in mice via the intravenous route of infection, suggesting that expression of this locus is, at some stage, sufficient to affect the outcome of a plague infection. qRT-PCR experiments also indicated that expression of the chaperone/usher-dependent capsule locus, caf1, was influenced by oxygen availability and that the well-described chaperone/usher-dependent pilus, Psa, was strongly induced in minimal medium even at 28 °C rather than 37 °C, a temperature previously believed to be required for Psa expression. These data indicate several potential roles for the novel chaperone/usher systems of Y. pestis in pathogenesis and infection-related functions such as cell adhesion and biofilm formation.

  12. Chaperones and intimate physical examinations: what do male and female patients want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, V C; Choy, H T; Kwok, G Yj; Lam, H G; Lim, Q Y; Man, Y Y; Tang, C K; Wong, C C; Yu, Y F; Leung, G Kk

    2017-02-01

    Many studies of patients' perception of a medical chaperone have focused on female patients; that of male patients are less well studied. Moreover, previous studies were largely based on patient populations in English-speaking countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the perception and attitude of male and female Chinese patients to the presence of a chaperone during an intimate physical examination. A cross-sectional guided questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 150 patients at a public teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Over 90% of the participants considered the presence of a chaperone appropriate during intimate physical examination, and 84% felt that doctors, irrespective of gender, should always request the presence of a chaperone. The most commonly cited reasons included the availability of an objective account should any legal issue arise, protection against sexual harassment, and to provide psychological support. This contrasted with the experience of those who had previously undergone an intimate physical examination of whom only 72.6% of women and 35.7% of men had reportedly been chaperoned. Among female participants, 75.0% preferred to be chaperoned during an intimate physical examination by a male doctor, and 28.6% would still prefer to be chaperoned when being examined by a female doctor. Among male participants, over 50% indicated no specific preference but a substantial minority reported a preference for chaperoned examination (21.2% for male doctor and 25.8% for female doctor). Patients in Hong Kong have a high degree of acceptance and expectations about the role of a medical chaperone. Both female and male patients prefer such practice regardless of physician gender. Doctors are strongly encouraged to discuss the issue openly with their patients before they conduct any intimate physical examination.

  13. Role of Subunit Exchange and Electrostatic Interactions on the Chaperone Activity of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Biswas, Ashis

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae HSP18, a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen, is a small heat shock protein. Previously, we reported that HSP18 is a molecular chaperone that prevents aggregation of different chemically and thermally stressed client proteins and assists refolding of denatured enzyme at normal temperature. We also demonstrated that it can efficiently prevent the thermal killing of E. coli at higher temperature. However, molecular mechanism behind the chaperone function of HSP18 is still unclear. Therefore, we studied the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 at normal temperature (25°C) as well as at higher temperatures (31–43°C). Our study revealed that the chaperone function of HSP18 is enhanced significantly with increasing temperature. Far- and near-UV CD experiments suggested that its secondary and tertiary structure remain intact in this temperature range (25–43°C). Besides, temperature has no effect on the static oligomeric size of this protein. Subunit exchange study demonstrated that subunits of HSP18 exchange at 25°C with a rate constant of 0.018 min-1. Both rate of subunit exchange and chaperone activity of HSP18 is found to increase with rise in temperature. However, the surface hydrophobicity of HSP18 decreases markedly upon heating and has no correlation with its chaperone function in this temperature range. Furthermore, we observed that HSP18 exhibits diminished chaperone function in the presence of NaCl at 25°C. At elevated temperatures, weakening of interactions between HSP18 and stressed client proteins in the presence of NaCl results in greater reduction of its chaperone function. The oligomeric size, rate of subunit exchange and structural stability of HSP18 were also found to decrease when electrostatic interactions were weakened. These results clearly indicated that subunit exchange and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the chaperone function of HSP18. PMID:26098662

  14. Role of Subunit Exchange and Electrostatic Interactions on the Chaperone Activity of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Sinha Ray, Sougata; Biswas, Ashis

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae HSP18, a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen, is a small heat shock protein. Previously, we reported that HSP18 is a molecular chaperone that prevents aggregation of different chemically and thermally stressed client proteins and assists refolding of denatured enzyme at normal temperature. We also demonstrated that it can efficiently prevent the thermal killing of E. coli at higher temperature. However, molecular mechanism behind the chaperone function of HSP18 is still unclear. Therefore, we studied the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 at normal temperature (25°C) as well as at higher temperatures (31-43°C). Our study revealed that the chaperone function of HSP18 is enhanced significantly with increasing temperature. Far- and near-UV CD experiments suggested that its secondary and tertiary structure remain intact in this temperature range (25-43°C). Besides, temperature has no effect on the static oligomeric size of this protein. Subunit exchange study demonstrated that subunits of HSP18 exchange at 25°C with a rate constant of 0.018 min(-1). Both rate of subunit exchange and chaperone activity of HSP18 is found to increase with rise in temperature. However, the surface hydrophobicity of HSP18 decreases markedly upon heating and has no correlation with its chaperone function in this temperature range. Furthermore, we observed that HSP18 exhibits diminished chaperone function in the presence of NaCl at 25°C. At elevated temperatures, weakening of interactions between HSP18 and stressed client proteins in the presence of NaCl results in greater reduction of its chaperone function. The oligomeric size, rate of subunit exchange and structural stability of HSP18 were also found to decrease when electrostatic interactions were weakened. These results clearly indicated that subunit exchange and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the chaperone function of HSP18.

  15. Sylvie Chaperon, Les origines de la sexologie (1850-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Rebreyend

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le mot sexologie apparaît seulement au début des années 1910 en France. Mais dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle s’affirme un nouveau savoir médical sur la sexualité, une protosexologie dont Sylvie Chaperon retrace l’histoire par le biais de sources médicales et policières, de romans érotiques, de mémoires. « Premier panorama synthétique » (p. 11 d’une histoire de la sexologie encore lacunaire en France, Les origines de la sexologie pointe la lente émergence d’une nouvelle discipline sur la...

  16. Sylvie Chaperon, Les origines de la sexologie (1850-1900)

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Claire Rebreyend

    2008-01-01

    Le mot sexologie apparaît seulement au début des années 1910 en France. Mais dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle s’affirme un nouveau savoir médical sur la sexualité, une protosexologie dont Sylvie Chaperon retrace l’histoire par le biais de sources médicales et policières, de romans érotiques, de mémoires. « Premier panorama synthétique » (p. 11) d’une histoire de la sexologie encore lacunaire en France, Les origines de la sexologie pointe la lente émergence d’une nouvelle discipline sur la...

  17. The chaperone BAG6 captures dislocated glycoproteins in the cytosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper H L Claessen

    Full Text Available Secretory and membrane (glycoproteins are subject to quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to ensure that only functional proteins reach their destination. Proteins deemed terminally misfolded and hence functionally defective may be dislocated to the cytosol, where the proteasome degrades them. What we know about this process stems mostly from overexpression of tagged misfolded proteins, or from situations where viruses have hijacked the quality control machinery to their advantage. We know of only very few endogenous substrates of ER quality control, most of which are degraded as part of a signaling pathway, such as Insig-1, but such examples do not necessarily represent terminally misfolded proteins. Here we show that endogenous dislocation clients are captured specifically in association with the cytosolic chaperone BAG6, or retrieved en masse via their glycan handle.

  18. Antarctic krill 454 pyrosequencing reveals chaperone and stress transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody S Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assembly of the 454 transcriptome of E. superba resulted in 22,177 contigs with an average size of 492bp (ranging between 137 and 8515bp. In depth analysis of the data revealed an extensive catalogue of the cellular chaperone systems and the major antioxidant proteins. Full length sequences were characterised for the chaperones HSP70, HSP90 and the super-oxide dismutase antioxidants, with the discovery of potentially novel duplications of these genes. The sequence data contained 41,470 microsatellites and 17,776 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELS, providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. CONCLUSIONS: This paper details the first 454 generated data for a pelagic Antarctic species or any pelagic crustacean globally. The classical "stress proteins", such as HSP70, HSP90, ferritin and GST were all highly expressed. These genes were shown to be over expressed in the transcriptomes of Antarctic notothenioid fish and hypothesized as adaptations to living in the cold, with the associated problems of decreased protein folding efficiency and increased vulnerability to damage by reactive oxygen species. Hence, these data will provide a major resource for future physiological work on krill, but in particular a suite of "stress" genes for studies understanding

  19. RNA Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparvath, Steffen Lynge

    introducerede vores gruppe den enkeltstrengede RNA-origami metode, der giver mulighed for cotranscriptional foldning af veldefinerede nanostrukturer, og er en central del af arbejdet præsenteret heri. Denne ph.d.-afhandling udforsker potentielle anvendelser af RNA-origami nanostrukturer, som nanomedicin eller...... biosensorer. Afhandlingen består af en introduktion til RNA-nanoteknologi feltet, en introduktion af enkeltstrenget RNA-origami design, og fire studier, der beskriver design, produktion og karakterisering af både strukturelle og funktionelle RNA-origamier. Flere RNA-origami designs er blevet undersøgt, og...... projekterne, der indgår i denne afhandling, inkluderer de nyeste fremskridt indenfor strukturel RNA-nanoteknologi og udvikling af funktionelle RNA-baserede enheder. Det første studie beskriver konstruktion og karakterisering af en enkeltstrenget 6-helix RNA-origami stuktur, som er den første demonstration af...

  20. The FKBP51 Glucocorticoid Receptor Co-Chaperone: Regulation, Function, and Implications in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Gabriel R; Gassen, Nils C; Rein, Theo

    2017-12-05

    Among the chaperones and co-chaperones regulating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 is the most intensely investigated across different disciplines. This review provides an update on the role of the different co-chaperones of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the regulation of GR function. The development leading to the focus on FKBP51 is outlined. Further, a survey of the vast literature on the mechanism and function of FKBP51 is provided. This includes its structure and biochemical function, its regulation on different levels-transcription, post-transcription, and post-translation-and its function in signaling pathways. The evidence portraying FKBP51 as a scaffolding protein organizing protein complexes rather than a chaperone contributing to the folding of individual proteins is collated. Finally, FKBP51's involvement in physiology and disease is outlined, and the promising efforts in developing drugs targeting FKBP51 are discussed.

  1. Modulation of intracellular protein degradation by SSB1-SIS1 chaperon system in yeast S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, M

    1997-06-09

    In prokaryotes, DnaK-DnaJ chaperon is involved in the protein degradation catalyzed by proteases La and ClpA/B complex as shown in E. coli. To extend this into eukaryotic cells, we examined the effects of hsp70 genes, SSA1 and SSB1, and DnaJ genes, SIS1 and YDJ1, on the growth of proteasome subunit mutants of the yeast S. cerevisiae. The results identified SSB1 and SIS1 as a pair of chaperon genes specifically involved in efficient protein turnover in the yeast, whose overexpression suppressed the growth defects caused by the proteasome mutations. Moreover, a single amino acid substitution in the putative peptide-binding site of SSB1 protein profoundly enhanced the suppression activity, indicating that the activity is mediated by the peptide-binding activity of this chaperon. Thus SSB1, with its partner DnaJ, SIS1, modulates the efficiency of protein turnover through its chaperon activity.

  2. A Common Structural Motif in the Binding of Virulence Factors to Bacterial Secretion Chaperones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilic, M.; Vujanac, M.; Stebbins, C.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is translocated into host cells by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and comprises two regions: one domain binds its cognate type III secretion chaperone, InvB, in the bacterium to facilitate translocation, while a second domain functions in the host cell, contributing to bacterial uptake by polymerizing actin. We present here the crystal structures of the SipA chaperone binding domain (CBD) alone and in complex with InvB. The SipA CBD is found to consist of a nonglobular polypeptide as well as a large globular domain, both of which are necessary for binding to InvB. We also identify a structural motif that may direct virulence factors to their cognate chaperones in a diverse range of pathogenic bacteria. Disruption of this structural motif leads to a destabilization of several chaperone-substrate complexes from different species, as well as an impairment of secretion in Salmonella

  3. Dual inhibition of chaperoning process by taxifolin: molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sharad; Singh, Amit; Mishra, Abha

    2012-07-01

    Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90), a molecular chaperone, stabilizes more than 200 mutated and over expressed oncogenic proteins in cancer development. Cdc37 (cell division cycle protein 37), a co-chaperone of Hsp90, has been found to facilitate the maturation of protein kinases by acting as an adaptor and load these kinases onto the Hsp90 complex. Taxifolin (a natural phytochemical) was found to bind at ATP-binding site of Hsp90 and stabilized the inactive "open" or "lid-up" conformation as evidenced by molecular dynamic simulation. Furthermore, taxifolin was found to bind to interface of Hsp90 and Cdc37 complex and disrupt the interaction of residues of both proteins which were essential for the formation of active super-chaperone complex. Thus, taxifolin was found to act as an inhibitor of chaperoning process and may play a potential role in the cancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hsp90 molecular chaperone: structure, functions and participation in cardio-vascular pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupskaya I. V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional properties of molecular chaperon Hsp90. Hsp90 is a representative of highly widespread family of heat shock proteins. The protein is found in eubacteria and all branches of eukarya, but it is apparently absent in archaea. It is one of key regulators of numerous signalling pathways, cell growth and development, apoptosis, induction of autoimmunity, and progression of heart failure. The full functional activity of Hsp90 shows up in a complex with other molecular chaperones and co-chaperones. Molecular interactions between chaperones, different signalling proteins and protein-partners are highly crucial for the normal functioning of signalling pathways and their destruction causes an alteration in the cell physiology up to its death.

  5. The Role of Co-chaperones in Synaptic Proteostasis and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Gorenberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Synapses must be preserved throughout an organism's lifespan to allow for normal brain function and behavior. Synapse maintenance is challenging given the long distances between the termini and the cell body, reliance on axonal transport for delivery of newly synthesized presynaptic proteins, and high rates of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Hence, synapses rely on efficient proteostasis mechanisms to preserve their structure and function. To this end, the synaptic compartment has specific chaperones to support its functions. Without proper synaptic chaperone activity, local proteostasis imbalances lead to neurotransmission deficits, dismantling of synapses, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we address the roles of four synaptic chaperones in the maintenance of the nerve terminal, as well as their genetic links to neurodegenerative disease. Three of these are Hsp40 co-chaperones (DNAJs: Cysteine String Protein alpha (CSPα; DNAJC5, auxilin (DNAJC6, and Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis 8 (RME-8; DNAJC13. These co-chaperones contain a conserved J domain through which they form a complex with heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70, enhancing the chaperone's ATPase activity. CSPα is a synaptic vesicle protein known to chaperone the t-SNARE SNAP-25 and the endocytic GTPase dynamin-1, thereby regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. Auxilin binds assembled clathrin cages, and through its interactions with Hsc70 leads to the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles, a process necessary for the regeneration of synaptic vesicles. RME-8 is a co-chaperone on endosomes and may have a role in clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis on this organelle. These three co-chaperones maintain client function by preserving folding and assembly to prevent client aggregation, but they do not break down aggregates that have already formed. The fourth synaptic chaperone we will discuss is Heat shock protein 110 (Hsp110, which interacts with Hsc70, DNAJAs, and

  6. Investigation of original multivalent iminosugars as pharmacological chaperones for the treatment of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigre, Eugénie; Hazelard, Damien; Casas, Josefina; Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Michelakakis, Helen; Mavridou, Irene; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Delgado, Antonio; Compain, Philippe

    2016-06-24

    Multivalent iminosugars conjugated with a morpholine moiety and/or designed as prodrugs have been prepared and evaluated as new classes of pharmacological chaperones for the treatment of Gaucher disease. This study further confirms the interest of the prodrug concept and shows that the addition of a lysosome-targeting morpholine unit into iminosugar cluster structures has no significant impact on the chaperone activity on Gaucher cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  8. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M.; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster reson...

  9. Chemical chaperones reduce ionizing radiation-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in IEC-6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sang; Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae-Hoon [Division of Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seongman [Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young-Bin, E-mail: yblim@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • UPR activation precedes caspase activation in irradiated IEC-6 cells. • Chemical ER stress inducers radiosensitize IEC-6 cells. • siRNAs that targeted ER stress responses ameliorate IR-induced cell death. • Chemical chaperons prevent cell death in irradiated IEC-6 cells. - Abstract: Radiotherapy, which is one of the most effective approaches to the treatment of various cancers, plays an important role in malignant cell eradication in the pelvic area and abdomen. However, it also generates some degree of intestinal injury. Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathological factor that initiates radiation-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism by which ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood. Recently, IR has been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the consequences of the IR-induced activation of the UPR signaling pathway on radiosensitivity in intestinal epithelial cells remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress responses in IR-induced intestinal epithelial cell death. We show that chemical ER stress inducers, such as tunicamycin or thapsigargin, enhanced IR-induced caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Xbp1 or Atf6 with small interfering RNA inhibited IR-induced caspase 3 activation. Treatment with chemical chaperones prevented ER stress and subsequent apoptosis in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a pro-apoptotic role of ER stress in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibiting ER stress may be an effective strategy to prevent IR-induced intestinal injury.

  10. A study for the structural and functional regulation of chaperon protein by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas for radiation technology for improvement of protein activities using radiation through the structural changes and functional regulations of molecular chaperon. Research scope includes 1) isolation of molecular chaperon proteins related radiation response from Psedomonads and purification of recombinant protein from E. coli., 2) the establishment of effective irradiation dose for the structural changes of chaperon protein, 3) analysis of the structural and functional changes of molecular chaperon by gamma irradiation. Main results are as follow: the chaperon activities of 2-Cys peroxiredxin show the maximum (about 3 times) at 15-30 kGy of gamma irradiation, but they were reduced greater than 30 kGy of gamma rays: the peroxidase activities show a tendency to decrease with increasing gamma irradiation: the structural change of peroxiredoxin (PP1084 and PA3529) by gamma irradiation (the formation of low molecular weight complexes or fragmentation of peroxiredoxin by gamma irradiation, the increase of beta-sheet and random coil by gamma irradiation and the decrease of alpha-helix and turn by gamma irradiation, and increased chaperon activity is related with increased hydrophobicity)

  11. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  12. The heat-shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pierre; Hirt, Heribert; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2017-04-01

    Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multistress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once. Consequently, the use of single stress resistance traits is often inadequate. Although it has been historically linked with the heat stress response, the heat-shock protein (HSP)/chaperone network is a major component of multiple stress responses. Among the HSP/chaperone 'client proteins', many are primary metabolism enzymes and signal transduction components with essential roles for the proper functioning of a cell. HSPs/chaperones are controlled by the action of diverse heat-shock factors, which are recruited under stress conditions. In this review, we give an overview of the regulation of the HSP/chaperone network with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana. We illustrate the role of HSPs/chaperones in regulating diverse signalling pathways and discuss several basic principles that should be considered for engineering multiple stress resistance in crops through the HSP/chaperone network. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cellular Chaperones As Therapeutic Targets in ALS to Restore Protein Homeostasis and Improve Cellular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Kalmar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps are ubiquitously expressed chaperone proteins that enable cells to cope with environmental stresses that cause misfolding and denaturation of proteins. With aging this protein quality control machinery becomes less effective, reducing the ability of cells to cope with damaging environmental stresses and disease-causing mutations. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, such mutations are known to result in protein misfolding, which in turn results in the formation of intracellular aggregates cellular dysfunction and eventual neuronal death. The exact cellular pathology of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases has been elusive and thus, hindering the development of effective therapies. However, a common scheme has emerged across these “protein misfolding” disorders, in that the mechanism of disease involves one or more aspects of proteostasis; from DNA transcription, RNA translation, to protein folding, transport and degradation via proteosomal and autophagic pathways. Interestingly, members of the Hsp family are involved in each of these steps facilitating normal protein folding, regulating the rate of protein synthesis and degradation. In this short review we summarize the evidence that suggests that ALS is a disease of protein dyshomeostasis in which Hsps may play a key role. Overwhelming evidence now indicates that enabling protein homeostasis to cope with disease-causing mutations might be a successful therapeutic strategy in ALS, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. Novel small molecule co-inducers of Hsps appear to be able to achieve this aim. Arimoclomol, a hydroxylamine derivative, has shown promising results in cellular and animal models of ALS, as well as other protein misfolding diseases such as Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM. Initial clinical investigations of Arimoclomol have shown promising results. Therefore, it is possible that the long series of

  14. Investigation of novel pharmacological chaperones for Gaucher Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Buge; Yagci, Z Begum; Bakar, Emre; Ozden, Burcu; Ulgen, Kutlu; Ozkirimli, Elif

    2017-09-01

    Beta-Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) is a lysosomal protein that is responsible for the hydrolysis of glycosylceramide into glucose and ceramide. Mutations in GBA lead to the accumulation of glycosylceramide in the lysosome causing an enlargement of the spleen and the liver and skeletal deformations. This disease is called Gaucher Disease. Enzyme replacement therapies and substrate reduction methods that are used to treat Gaucher Disease fail when the disease is neuropathic because they fail to pass the blood brain barrier. In this work, QSAR, virtual screening, docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to obtain a set of compounds that might be pharmacological chaperones for GBA. ZINC Database was screened using ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore hypotheses. After docking of these molecules and filtration based on druglikeness, top ranking ligands were identified and their binding stabilities were examined using MD simulations. As a result, seven new compounds that can potentially cross the blood brain barrier were proposed as GBA inhibitors. Three of the seven compounds have a tricyclic pyrido-thieno-pyrimidine scaffold and one has the dioxino quinolone scaffold. Derivatives of these scaffolds have been reported as antiallergic agents, antibiotic and anticancer compounds. These results offer a new approach for the development of new drugs against neuropathic Gaucher Disease Type 2 and Type 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism of Enzyme Repair by the AAA+ Chaperone Rubisco Activase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javaid Y; Miličić, Goran; Thieulin-Pardo, Gabriel; Bracher, Andreas; Maxwell, Andrew; Ciniawsky, Susanne; Mueller-Cajar, Oliver; Engen, John R; Hartl, F Ulrich; Wendler, Petra; Hayer-Hartl, Manajit

    2017-09-07

    How AAA+ chaperones conformationally remodel specific target proteins in an ATP-dependent manner is not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the AAA+ protein Rubisco activase (Rca) in metabolic repair of the photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco, a complex of eight large (RbcL) and eight small (RbcS) subunits containing eight catalytic sites. Rubisco is prone to inhibition by tight-binding sugar phosphates, whose removal is catalyzed by Rca. We engineered a stable Rca hexamer ring and analyzed its functional interaction with Rubisco. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange and chemical crosslinking showed that Rca structurally destabilizes elements of the Rubisco active site with remarkable selectivity. Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that Rca docks onto Rubisco over one active site at a time, positioning the C-terminal strand of RbcL, which stabilizes the catalytic center, for access to the Rca hexamer pore. The pulling force of Rca is fine-tuned to avoid global destabilization and allow for precise enzyme repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Constitutive upregulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hiroshi; Martinez-Vicente, Marta; Arias, Esperanza; Kaushik, Susmita; Sulzer, David; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2011-12-14

    Autophagy contributes to the removal of prone-to-aggregate proteins, but in several instances these pathogenic proteins have been shown to interfere with autophagic activity. In the case of Huntington's disease (HD), a congenital neurodegenerative disorder resulting from mutation in the huntingtin protein, we have previously described that the mutant protein interferes with the ability of autophagic vacuoles to recognize cytosolic cargo. Growing evidence supports the existence of cross talk among autophagic pathways, suggesting the possibility of functional compensation when one of them is compromised. In this study, we have identified a compensatory upregulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in different cellular and mouse models of HD. Components of CMA, namely the lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A) and lysosomal-hsc70, are markedly increased in HD models. The increase in LAMP-2A is achieved through both an increase in the stability of this protein at the lysosomal membrane and transcriptional upregulation of this splice variant of the lamp-2 gene. We propose that CMA activity increases in response to macroautophagic dysfunction in the early stages of HD, but that the efficiency of this compensatory mechanism may decrease with age and so contribute to cellular failure and the onset of pathological manifestations.

  17. Functional interactions of nucleocapsid protein of feline immunodeficiency virus and cellular prion protein with the viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Mila; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, M; Ficheux, Damien; Miller, Jennifer T; Gabus, Caroline; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Surewicz, Witold K; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2002-04-19

    All lentiviruses and oncoretroviruses examined so far encode a major nucleic-acid binding protein (nucleocapsid or NC* protein), approximately 2500 molecules of which coat the dimeric RNA genome. Studies on HIV-1 and MoMuLV using in vitro model systems and in vivo have shown that NC protein is required to chaperone viral RNA dimerization and packaging during virus assembly, and proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase (RT) during infection. The human cellular prion protein (PrP), thought to be the major component of the agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), was recently found to possess a strong affinity for nucleic acids and to exhibit chaperone properties very similar to HIV-1 NC protein in the HIV-1 context in vitro. Tight binding of PrP to nucleic acids is proposed to participate directly in the prion disease process. To extend our understanding of lentiviruses and of the unexpected nucleic acid chaperone properties of the human prion protein, we set up an in vitro system to investigate replication of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which is functionally and phylogenetically distant from HIV-1. The results show that in the FIV model system, NC protein chaperones viral RNA dimerization, primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the genomic primer-binding site (PBS) and minus strand DNA synthesis by the homologous FIV RT. FIV NC protein is able to trigger specific viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting self-priming of reverse transcription. The human prion protein was found to mimic the properties of FIV NC with respect to primer tRNA annealing to the viral RNA and chaperoning minus strand DNA synthesis. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Archease from Pyrococcus abyssi improves substrate specificity and solubility of a tRNA m5C methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auxilien, Sylvie; El Khadali, Fatima; Rasmussen, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Members of the archease superfamily of proteins are represented in all three domains of life. Archease genes are generally located adjacent to genes encoding proteins involved in DNA or RNA processing. Archease have therefore been predicted to play a modulator or chaperone role in selected steps...

  19. Probing the Inhibitor versus Chaperone Properties of sp2-Iminosugars towards Human β-Glucocerebrosidase: A Picomolar Chaperone for Gaucher Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mena-Barragán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of sp2-iminosugar glycomimetics differing in the reducing or nonreducing character, the configurational pattern (d-gluco or l-ido, the architecture of the glycone skeleton, and the nature of the nonglycone substituent has been synthesized and assayed for their inhibition properties towards commercial glycosidases. On the basis of their affinity and selectivity towards GH1 β-glucosidases, reducing and nonreducing bicyclic derivatives having a hydroxylation profile of structural complementarity with d-glucose and incorporating an N′-octyl-isourea or -isothiourea segment were selected for further evaluation of their inhibitory/chaperoning potential against human glucocerebrosidase (GCase. The 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ-related nonreducing conjugates behaved as stronger GCase inhibitors than the reducing counterparts and exhibited potent chaperoning capabilities in Gaucher fibroblasts hosting the neuronopathic G188S/G183W mutation, the isothiourea derivative being indeed one of the most efficient chaperone candidates reported up to date (70% activity enhancement at 20 pM. At their optimal concentration, the four selected compounds promoted mutant GCase activity enhancements over 3-fold; yet, the inhibitor/chaperoning balance became unfavorable at much lower concentration for nonreducing as compared to reducing derivatives.

  20. Influence of different Sinorhizobium meliloti inocula on abundance of genes involved in nitrogen transformations in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Katarina Huić; Schauss, Kristina; Hai, Brigitte; Sikora, Sanja; Redzepović, Sulejman; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with selected rhizobial strains is practised in agriculture to ameliorate the plant yield by enhanced root nodulation and nitrogen uptake of the plant. However, effective symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia does not only depend on the capacity of nitrogen fixation but also on the entire nitrogen turnover in the rhizosphere. We investigated the influence of seed inoculation with two indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strains exhibiting different efficiency concerning plant growth promotion on nitrogen turnover processes in the rhizosphere during the growth of alfalfa. Quantification of six target genes (bacterial amoA, nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA) within the nitrogen cycle was performed in rhizosphere samples before nodule formation, at bud development and at the late flowering stage. The results clearly demonstrated that effectiveness of rhizobial inocula is related to abundance of nifH genes in the late flowering phase of alfalfa. Moreover, other genes involved in nitrogen turnover had been affected by the inocula, e.g. higher numbers of amoA copies were observed during flowering when the more effective strain had been inoculated. However, the respective gene abundances differed overall to a greater extent between the three plant development stages than between the inoculation variants.

  1. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Changes and Lipid Profile Modifications Induced by Medicago truncatula N5 Overexpression at an Early Stage of the Symbiotic Interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Santi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs are small basic secreted proteins, which are characterized by lipid-binding capacity and are putatively involved in lipid trafficking. LTPs play a role in several biological processes, including the root nodule symbiosis. In this regard, the Medicago truncatula nodulin 5 (MtN5 LTP has been proved to positively regulate the nodulation capacity, controlling rhizobial infection and nodule primordia invasion. To better define the lipid transfer protein MtN5 function during the symbiosis, we produced MtN5-downregulated and -overexpressing plants, and we analysed the transcriptomic changes occurring in the roots at an early stage of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. We also carried out the lipid profile analysis of wild type (WT and MtN5-overexpressing roots after rhizobia infection. The downregulation of MtN5 increased the root hair curling, an early event of rhizobia infection, and concomitantly induced changes in the expression of defence-related genes. On the other hand, MtN5 overexpression favoured the invasion of the nodules by rhizobia and determined in the roots the modulation of genes that are involved in lipid transport and metabolism as well as an increased content of lipids, especially galactolipids that characterize the symbiosome membranes. Our findings suggest the potential participation of LTPs in the synthesis and rearrangement of membranes occurring during the formation of the infection threads and the symbiosome membrane.

  2. Biologic activities of molecular chaperones and pharmacologic chaperone imidazole-containing dipeptide-based compounds: natural skin care help and the ultimate challenge: implication for adaptive responses in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Nikolayev, Gennady M; Nikolayeva, Juliana G; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2012-03-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of photoaged skin and pathogenesis of human cutaneous disease. Growing evidence demonstrates the ability of molecular chaperone proteins and of pharmacologic chaperones to decrease the environmental stress and ameliorate the oxidation stress-related and glycation disease phenotypes, suggesting that the field of chaperone therapy might hold novel treatments for skin diseases and aging. In this review, we examine the evidence suggesting a role for molecular chaperone proteins in the skin and their inducer and protecting agents: pharmacologic chaperone imidazole dipeptide-based agents (carcinine and related compounds) in cosmetics and dermatology. Furthermore, we discuss the use of chaperone therapy for the treatment of skin photoaging diseases and other skin pathologies that have a component of increased glycation and/or free radical-induced oxidation in their genesis. We examine biologic activities of molecular and pharmacologic chaperones, including strategies for identifying potential chaperone compounds and for experimentally demonstrating chaperone activity in in vitro and in vivo models of human skin disease. This allows the protein to function and traffic to the appropriate location in the skin, thereby increasing protein activity and cellular function and reducing stress on skin cells. The benefits of imidazole dipeptide antioxidants with transglycating activity (such as carcinine) in skin care are that they help protect and repair cell membrane damage and help retain youthful, younger-looking skin. All skin types will benefit from daily, topical application of pharmacologic chaperone antioxidants, anti-irritants, in combination with water-binding protein agents that work to mimic the structure and function of healthy skin. General strategies are presented addressing ground techniques to improve absorption of usually active chaperone proteins and dipeptide compounds, include

  3. Chaperone activity of human small heat shock protein-GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbach, Hannah; Butler, Caley; McMenimen, Kathryn A

    2017-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a ubiquitous part of the machinery that maintains cellular protein homeostasis by acting as molecular chaperones. sHsps bind to and prevent the aggregation of partially folded substrate proteins in an ATP-independent manner. sHsps are dynamic, forming an ensemble of structures from dimers to large oligomers through concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation. Based on structural studies and mutagenesis experiments, it is proposed that the dimer is the smallest active chaperone unit, while larger oligomers may act as storage depots for sHsps or play additional roles in chaperone function. The complexity and dynamic nature of their structural organization has made elucidation of their chaperone function challenging. HspB1 and HspB5 are two canonical human sHsps that vary in sequence and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. In order to determine the role of the dimer in chaperone activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was genetically linked as a fusion protein to the N-terminus regions of both HspB1 and HspB5 (also known as Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, respectively) proteins in order to constrain oligomer formation of HspB1 and HspB5, by using GST, since it readily forms a dimeric structure. We monitored the chaperone activity of these fusion proteins, which suggest they primarily form dimers and monomers and function as active molecular chaperones. Furthermore, the two different fusion proteins exhibit different chaperone activity for two model substrate proteins, citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GST-HspB1 prevents more aggregation of MDH compared to GST-HspB5 and wild type HspB1. However, when CS is the substrate, both GST-HspB1 and GST-HspB5 are equally effective chaperones. Furthermore, wild type proteins do not display equal activity toward the substrates, suggesting that each sHsp exhibits different substrate specificity. Thus, substrate specificity, as described here for full-length GST

  4. Effect of glycation on α-crystallin structure and chaperone-like function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Anil; Kumar, M. Satish; Reddy, G. Bhanuprakash

    2007-01-01

    The chaperone-like activity of α-crystallin is considered to play an important role in the maintenance of the transparency of the eye lens. However, in the case of aging and in diabetes, the chaperone function of α-crystallin is compromized, resulting in cataract formation. Several post-translational modifications, including non-enzymatic glycation, have been shown to affect the chaperone function of α-crystallin in aging and in diabetes. A variety of agents have been identified as the predominant sources for the formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products) in various tissues, including the lens. Nevertheless, glycation of α-crystallin with various sugars has resulted in divergent results. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the effect of glucose, fructose, G6P (glucose 6-phosphate) and MGO (methylglyoxal), which represent the major classes of glycating agents, on the structure and chaperone function of α-crystallin. Modification of α-crystallin with all four agents resulted in the formation of glycated protein, increased AGE fluorescence, protein cross-linking and HMM (high-molecular-mass) aggregation. Interestingly, these glycation-related profiles were found to vary with different glycating agents. For instance, CML [Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine] was the predominant AGE formed upon glycation of α-crystallin with these agents. Although fructose and MGO caused significant conformational changes, there were no significant structural perturbations with glucose and G6P. With the exception of MGO modification, glycation with other sugars resulted in decreased chaperone activity in aggregation assays. However, modification with all four sugars led to the loss of chaperone activity as assessed using an enzyme inactivation assay. Glycation-induced loss of α-crystallin chaperone activity was associated with decreased hydrophobicity. Furthermore, α-crystallin isolated from glycated TSP (total lens soluble protein) had also increased AGE

  5. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Requena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis.

  6. Molecular Chaperones of Leishmania: Central Players in Many Stress-Related and -Unrelated Physiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M.; Montalvo, Ana M.; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are key components in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and survival, not only during stress but also under optimal growth conditions. Folding of nascent polypeptides is supported by molecular chaperones, which avoid the formation of aggregates by preventing nonspecific interactions and aid, when necessary, the translocation of proteins to their correct intracellular localization. Furthermore, when proteins are damaged, molecular chaperones may also facilitate their refolding or, in the case of irreparable proteins, their removal by the protein degradation machinery of the cell. During their digenetic lifestyle, Leishmania parasites encounter and adapt to harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, oxidative stress, changing pH, and shifts in temperature; all these factors are potential triggers of cellular stress. We summarize here our current knowledge on the main types of molecular chaperones in Leishmania and their functions. Among them, heat shock proteins play important roles in adaptation and survival of this parasite against temperature changes associated with its passage from the poikilothermic insect vector to the warm-blooded vertebrate host. The study of structural features and the function of chaperones in Leishmania biology is providing opportunities (and challenges) for drug discovery and improving of current treatments against leishmaniasis. PMID:26167482

  7. Investigating the Chaperone Properties of a Novel Heat Shock Protein, Hsp70.c, from Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélle Burger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical disease, African Trypanosomiasis, is fatal and has a crippling impact on economic development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 is an important molecular chaperone that is expressed in response to stress and Hsp40 acts as its co-chaperone. These proteins play a wide range of roles in the cell and they are required to assist the parasite as it moves from a cold blooded insect vector to a warm blooded mammalian host. A novel cytosolic Hsp70, from Trypanosoma brucei, TbHsp70.c, contains an acidic substrate binding domain and lacks the C-terminal EEVD motif. The ability of a cytosolic Hsp40 from Trypanosoma brucei J protein 2, Tbj2, to function as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c was investigated. The main objective was to functionally characterize TbHsp70.c to further expand our knowledge of parasite biology. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 were heterologously expressed and purified and both proteins displayed the ability to suppress aggregation of thermolabile MDH and chemically denatured rhodanese. ATPase assays revealed a 2.8-fold stimulation of the ATPase activity of TbHsp70.c by Tbj2. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 both demonstrated chaperone activity and Tbj2 functions as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c. In vivo heat stress experiments indicated upregulation of the expression levels of TbHsp70.c.

  8. Comparison of intra-organellar chaperone capacity for dealing with stress-induced protein unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J; van Waarde, Maria A W H; Kampinga, Harm H

    2007-11-23

    Molecular chaperones are essential for cells to prevent that partially unfolded proteins form non-functional, toxic aggregates. This requirement is increased when cells experience protein unfolding stresses and such could affect all compartments in the eukaryotic cell. Whether all organelles are equipped with comparable chaperone capacities is largely unknown, mainly due to the lack of suitable reporters that allow such a comparison. Here we describe the development of fluorescent luciferase reporters that are sorted to various cellular locations (nucleus, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and peroxisomes) and that differ minimally in their intrinsic thermal stability properties. When heating living cells, the rate of inactivation was most rapid for the nuclear-targeted luciferase, indicating that the nucleus is the most sensitive organelle toward heat-induced denaturing stress. Post-heat re-activation, however, occurred at equal kinetics irrespective of luciferase localization. Also, induction of thermotolerance by a priming heat treatment, that coordinately up-regulates all heat-inducible chaperones, resulted in a transient heat resistance of the luciferase in all organelles in a comparable manner. Overexpression of the main heat-inducible Hsp70 family member, HspA1A, protected only the cytosolic and nuclear, but not the other luciferases. Together, our data suggest that in each compartment investigated, including the peroxisome in which so far no chaperones could be detected, chaperone machines are present and can be induced with activities similar to those present in the cytosolic/nuclear compartment.

  9. ATP-dependent molecular chaperones in plastids--More complex than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trösch, Raphael; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Willmund, Felix

    2015-09-01

    Plastids are a class of essential plant cell organelles comprising photosynthetic chloroplasts of green tissues, starch-storing amyloplasts of roots and tubers or the colorful pigment-storing chromoplasts of petals and fruits. They express a few genes encoded on their organellar genome, called plastome, but import most of their proteins from the cytosol. The import into plastids, the folding of freshly-translated or imported proteins, the degradation or renaturation of denatured and entangled proteins, and the quality-control of newly folded proteins all require the action of molecular chaperones. Members of all four major families of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones (chaperonin/Cpn60, Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp100 families) have been identified in plastids from unicellular algae to higher plants. This review aims not only at giving an overview of the most current insights into the general and conserved functions of these plastid chaperones, but also into their specific plastid functions. Given that chloroplasts harbor an extreme environment that cycles between reduced and oxidized states, that has to deal with reactive oxygen species and is highly reactive to environmental and developmental signals, it can be presumed that plastid chaperones have evolved a plethora of specific functions some of which are just about to be discovered. Here, the most urgent questions that remain unsolved are discussed, and guidance for future research on plastid chaperones is given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER Chaperones and Oxidoreductases: Critical Regulators of Tumor Cell Survival and Immunorecognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSimmen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed bulk flow, ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER. However, solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response (UPR upregulate ER chaperones and oxidoreductases. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the production of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an eat-me signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies.

  11. Effect of hesperetin on chaperone activity in selenite-induced cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chaperone activity of α-crystallin in the lens works to prevent protein aggregation and is important to maintain the lens transparency. This study evaluated the effect of hesperetin on lens chaperone activity in selenite-induced cataracts. Methodology. Thirteen-day-old rats were divided into four groups. Animals were given hesperetin (groups G2 and G4 or vehicle (G1 and G3 on Days 0, 1, and 2. Rats in G3 and G4 were administered selenite subcutaneously 4 hours after the first hesperetin injection. On Days 2, 4, and 6, cataract grades were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The amount of a-crystallin and chaperone activity in water-soluble fraction were measured after animals sacrificed. Results. G3 on day 4 had developed significant cataract, as an average cataract grading of 4.6 ± 0.2. In contrast, G4 had less severe central opacities and lower stage cataracts than G3, as an average cataract grading of 2.4 ± 0.4. The a-crystallin levels in G3 lenses were lower than in G1, but the same as G4. Additionally, chaperone activity was weaker in G3 lenses than G1, but the same as in G4. Conclusions. Our results suggest that hesperetin can prevent the decreasing lens chaperone activity and a-crystallin water solubility by administered of selenite.

  12. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation and chaperone assisted folding of zebrafish dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Charu; Jain, Neha; Rashid, Naira; Chaudhuri Chattopadhyay, Pratima

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of thermal stability is a major issue in protein engineering as many proteins tend to form inactive aggregates at higher temperatures. Zebrafish DHFR, an essential protein for the survival of cells, shows irreversible thermal unfolding transition. The protein exhibits complete unfolding and loss of activity at 50 °C as monitored by UV-Visible, fluorescence and far UV-CD spectroscopy. The heat induced inactivation of zDHFR follows first-order kinetics and Arrhenius law. The variation in the value of inactivation rate constant, k with increasing temperatures depicts faster inactivation at elevated temperatures. We have attempted to study the chaperoning ability of a shorter variant of GroEL (minichaperone) and compared it with that of conventional GroEL-GroES chaperone system. Both the chaperone system prevented the aggregation and assisted in refolding of zDHFR. The rate of thermal inactivation was significantly retarded in the presence of chaperones which indicate that it enhances the thermal stability of the enzyme. As minichaperone is less complex, and does not require high energy co-factors like ATP, for its function as compared to conventional GroEL-GroES system, it can act as a very good in vitro as well as in vivo chaperone model for monitoring assisted protein folding phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (−)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  14. MiR-17-5p impairs trafficking of H-ERG K+ channel protein by targeting multiple er stress-related chaperones during chronic oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate if microRNAs (miRNAs play a role in regulating h-ERG trafficking in the setting of chronic oxidative stress as a common deleterious factor for many cardiac disorders. METHODS: We treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and HEK293 cells with stable expression of h-ERG with H2O2 for 12 h and 48 h. Expression of miR-17-5p seed miRNAs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of chaperones and h-ERG trafficking were measured by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study miRNA and target interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to record h-ERG K(+ current. RESULTS: H-ERG trafficking was impaired by H2O2 after 48 h treatment, accompanied by reciprocal changes of expression between miR-17-5p seed miRNAs and several chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc70, CANX, and Golga2, with the former upregulated and the latter downregulated. We established these chaperones as targets for miR-17-5p. Application miR-17-5p inhibitor rescued H2O2-induced impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Upregulation of endogenous by H2O2 or forced miR-17-5p expression either reduced h-ERG current. Sequestration of AP1 by its decoy molecule eliminated the upregulation of miR-17-5p, and ameliorated impairment of h-ERG trafficking. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, deregulation of the miR-17-5p seed family miRNAs can cause severe impairment of h-ERG trafficking through targeting multiple ER stress-related chaperones, and activation of AP1 likely accounts for the deleterious upregulation of these miRNAs, in the setting of prolonged duration of oxidative stress. These findings revealed the role of miRNAs in h-ERG trafficking, which may contribute to the cardiac electrical disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  15. MiR-17-5p impairs trafficking of H-ERG K+ channel protein by targeting multiple er stress-related chaperones during chronic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hu, Weina; Lei, Mingming; Wang, Yong; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ren; Jin, Yuanzhe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating h-ERG trafficking in the setting of chronic oxidative stress as a common deleterious factor for many cardiac disorders. We treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and HEK293 cells with stable expression of h-ERG with H2O2 for 12 h and 48 h. Expression of miR-17-5p seed miRNAs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of chaperones and h-ERG trafficking were measured by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study miRNA and target interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to record h-ERG K(+) current. H-ERG trafficking was impaired by H2O2 after 48 h treatment, accompanied by reciprocal changes of expression between miR-17-5p seed miRNAs and several chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc70, CANX, and Golga2), with the former upregulated and the latter downregulated. We established these chaperones as targets for miR-17-5p. Application miR-17-5p inhibitor rescued H2O2-induced impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Upregulation of endogenous by H2O2 or forced miR-17-5p expression either reduced h-ERG current. Sequestration of AP1 by its decoy molecule eliminated the upregulation of miR-17-5p, and ameliorated impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Collectively, deregulation of the miR-17-5p seed family miRNAs can cause severe impairment of h-ERG trafficking through targeting multiple ER stress-related chaperones, and activation of AP1 likely accounts for the deleterious upregulation of these miRNAs, in the setting of prolonged duration of oxidative stress. These findings revealed the role of miRNAs in h-ERG trafficking, which may contribute to the cardiac electrical disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  16. Cytosolic iron chaperones: Proteins delivering iron cofactors in the cytosol of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Caroline C; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Frey, Avery; Patel, Sarju

    2017-08-04

    Eukaryotic cells contain hundreds of metalloproteins that are supported by intracellular systems coordinating the uptake and distribution of metal cofactors. Iron cofactors include heme, iron-sulfur clusters, and simple iron ions. Poly(rC)-binding proteins are multifunctional adaptors that serve as iron ion chaperones in the cytosolic/nuclear compartment, binding iron at import and delivering it to enzymes, for storage (ferritin) and export (ferroportin). Ferritin iron is mobilized by autophagy through the cargo receptor, nuclear co-activator 4. The monothiol glutaredoxin Glrx3 and BolA2 function as a [2Fe-2S] chaperone complex. These proteins form a core system of cytosolic iron cofactor chaperones in mammalian cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Chaperones ameliorate beta cell dysfunction associated with human islet amyloid polypeptide overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Cadavez

    Full Text Available In type 2 diabetes, beta-cell dysfunction is thought to be due to several causes, one being the formation of toxic protein aggregates called islet amyloid, formed by accumulations of misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP. The process of hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may activate the unfolded protein response (UPR, perturbing endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis. Molecular chaperones have been described to be important in regulating ER response to ER stress. In the present work, we evaluate the role of chaperones in a stressed cellular model of hIAPP overexpression. A rat pancreatic beta-cell line expressing hIAPP exposed to thapsigargin or treated with high glucose and palmitic acid, both of which are known ER stress inducers, showed an increase in ER stress genes when compared to INS1E cells expressing rat IAPP or INS1E control cells. Treatment with molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78, also known as BiP or protein disulfite isomerase (PDI, and chemical chaperones taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA or 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA, alleviated ER stress and increased insulin secretion in hIAPP-expressing cells. Our results suggest that the overexpression of hIAPP induces a stronger response of ER stress markers. Moreover, endogenous and chemical chaperones are able to ameliorate induced ER stress and increase insulin secretion, suggesting that improving chaperone capacity can play an important role in improving beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Interplay between Molecular Chaperones and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Targeting of Misfolded Proteins for Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Guldahl

    interacting with purified 26S proteasomes, and the subsequent characterization of two novel proteasome interacting proteins. The third study was aimed at analyzing the chaperone-assisted pathway leading to degradation of misfolded kinetochore proteins in S. pombe. In this study chaperones, E2s, E3s and DUBs...

  19. Cloning and molecular characterization of a copper chaperone gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10. ... Rubber tree is currently propagated by grafting clonal ... Total RNA was extracted according to Tang's method (Tang et al.,. 2007). The quality ...

  20. Multiscale Modeling of a Conditionally Disordered pH-Sensing Chaperone

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlstrom, Logan S.; Law, Sean M.; Dickson, Alex; Brooks, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    The pH-sensing chaperone HdeA promotes the survival of enteropathogenic bacteria during transit through the harshly acidic environment of the mammalian stomach. At low pH, HdeA transitions from an inactive, folded, dimer to chaperone-active, disordered, monomers to protect against the acid-induced aggregation of periplasmic proteins. Toward achieving a detailed mechanistic understanding of the pH response of HdeA, we develop a multiscale modeling approach to capture its pH-dependent thermodyn...

  1. Possible Function of Molecular Chaperones in Diseases Caused by Propagating Amyloid Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Lazarev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of neurodegenerative pathologies stem from the formation of toxic oligomers and aggregates composed of wrongly folded proteins. These protein complexes can be released from pathogenic cells and enthralled by other cells, causing the formation of new aggregates in a prion-like manner. By this mechanism, migrating complexes can transmit a disorder to distant regions of the brain and promote gradually transmitting degenerative processes. Molecular chaperones can counteract the toxicity of misfolded proteins. In this review, we discuss recent data on the possible cytoprotective functions of chaperones in horizontally transmitting neurological disorders.

  2. Effects of HSP27 chaperone on THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Maroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V

    2012-11-01

    The role of Hsp27 (heat shock protein 27) chaperone in regulation of THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis was studied. Realization of tumor cell apoptosis under conditions of in vitro culturing with Hsp27 specific inhibitor (KRIBB3) was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Measurements of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, Bad) in tumor cells incubated with Hsp27 inhibitor were carried out by Western blotting. Chaperone Hsp27 acted as apoptosis inhibitor in THP-1 tumor cells modulating the proportion of antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic (Bax and Bad) proteins.

  3. DmsD, a Tat system specific chaperone, interacts with other general chaperones and proteins involved in the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haiming; Chang, Limei; Howell, Jenika M.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial oxidoreductases depend on the Tat translocase for correct cell localization. Substrates for the Tat translocase possess twin-arginine leaders. System specific chaperones or redox enzyme maturation proteins (REMPs) are a group of proteins implicated in oxidoreductase maturation. DmsD is a REMP discovered in Escherichia coli, which interacts with the twin-arginine leader sequence of DmsA, the catalytic subunit of DMSO reductase. In this study, we identified several potential inte...

  4. The histone chaperone TAF-I/SET/INHAT is required for transcription in vitro of chromatin templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Matthew J; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Freedman, Leonard P; Fisher, Robert P

    2005-01-01

    To uncover factors required for transcription by RNA polymerase II on chromatin, we fractionated a mammalian cell nuclear extract. We identified the histone chaperone TAF-I (also known as INHAT [inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase]), which was previously proposed to repress transcription, as a potent activator of chromatin transcription responsive to the vitamin D3 receptor or to Gal4-VP16. TAF-I associates with chromatin in vitro and can substitute for the related protein NAP-1 in assembling chromatin onto cloned DNA templates in cooperation with the remodeling enzyme ATP-dependent chromatin assembly factor (ACF). The chromatin assembly and transcriptional activation functions are distinct, however, and can be dissociated temporally. Efficient transcription of chromatin assembled with TAF-I still requires the presence of TAF-I during the polymerization reaction. Conversely, TAF-I cannot stimulate transcript elongation when added after the other factors necessary for assembly of a preinitiation complex on naked DNA. Thus, TAF-I is required to facilitate transcription at a step after chromatin assembly but before transcript elongation.

  5. The Cellular Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 Is Required for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Precursor Processing and Assembly of Capsid Pentamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph; Asfor, Amin S; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Curry, Stephen; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2018-03-01

    Productive picornavirus infection requires the hijacking of host cell pathways to aid with the different stages of virus entry, synthesis of the viral polyprotein, and viral genome replication. Many picornaviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), assemble capsids via the multimerization of several copies of a single capsid precursor protein into a pentameric subunit which further encapsidates the RNA. Pentamer formation is preceded by co- and posttranslational modification of the capsid precursor (P1-2A) by viral and cellular enzymes and the subsequent rearrangement of P1-2A into a structure amenable to pentamer formation. We have developed a cell-free system to study FMDV pentamer assembly using recombinantly expressed FMDV capsid precursor and 3C protease. Using this assay, we have shown that two structurally different inhibitors of the cellular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) impeded FMDV capsid precursor processing and subsequent pentamer formation. Treatment of FMDV permissive cells with the hsp90 inhibitor prior to infection reduced the endpoint titer by more than 10-fold while not affecting the activity of a subgenomic replicon, indicating that translation and replication of viral RNA were unaffected by the drug. IMPORTANCE FMDV of the Picornaviridae family is a pathogen of huge economic importance to the livestock industry due to its effect on the restriction of livestock movement and necessary control measures required following an outbreak. The study of FMDV capsid assembly, and picornavirus capsid assembly more generally, has tended to be focused upon the formation of capsids from pentameric intermediates or the immediate cotranslational modification of the capsid precursor protein. Here, we describe a system to analyze the early stages of FMDV pentameric capsid intermediate assembly and demonstrate a novel requirement for the cellular chaperone hsp90 in the formation of these pentameric intermediates. We show the added complexity

  6. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central “hubs”. Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates. PMID:26394388

  7. Progranulin acts as a shared chaperone and regulates multiple lysosomal enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Jian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional factor progranulin (PGRN plays an important role in lysosomes, and its mutations and insufficiency are associated with lysosomal storage diseases, including neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Gaucher disease (GD. The first breakthrough in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PGRN as regulator of lysosomal storage diseases came unexpectedly while investigating the role of PGRN in inflammation. Challenged PGRN null mice displayed typical features of GD. In addition, GRN gene variants were identified in GD patients and the serum levels of PGRN were significantly lower in GD patients. PGRN directly binds to and functions as a chaperone of the lysosomal enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCaase, whose mutations cause GD. In addition, its C-terminus containing granulin E domain, termed Pcgin (PGRN C-terminus for GCase Interaction, is required for the association between PGRN and GCase. The concept that PGRN acts as a chaperone of lysosomal enzymes was further supported and extended by a recent article showing that PGRN acts as a chaperone molecule of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D (CSTD, and the association between PGRN and CSTD is also mediated by PGRN's C-terminal granulin E domain. Collectively, these reports suggest that PGRN may act as a shared chaperone and regulates multiple lysosomal enzymes.

  8. Hsp40 function in yeast prion propagation: Amyloid diversity necessitates chaperone functional complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporn, Zachary A; Hines, Justin K

    2015-01-01

    Yeast prions are heritable protein-based elements, most of which are formed of amyloid aggregates that rely on the action of molecular chaperones for transmission to progeny. Prions can form distinct amyloid structures, known as 'strains' in mammalian systems, that dictate both pathological progression and cross-species infection barriers. In yeast these same amyloid structural polymorphisms, called 'variants', dictate the intensity of prion-associated phenotypes and stability in mitosis. We recently reported that [PSI(+)] prion variants differ in the fundamental domain requirements for one chaperone, the Hsp40/J-protein Sis1, which are mutually exclusive between 2 different yeast prions, demonstrating a functional plurality for Sis1. Here we extend that analysis to incorporate additional data that collectively support the hypothesis that Sis1 has multiple functional roles that can be accomplished by distinct sets of domains. These functions are differentially required by distinct prions and prion variants. We also present new data regarding Hsp104-mediated prion elimination and show that some Sis1 functions, but not all, are conserved in the human homolog Hdj1/DNAJB1. Importantly, of the 10 amyloid-based prions indentified to date in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chaperone requirements of only 4 are known, leaving a great diversity of amyloid structures, and likely modes of amyloid-chaperone interaction, largely unexplored.

  9. Characterization of the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from the plant Glycine (G.) max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasti, Sara; Yruela, Inmaculada; Bernal, Maria; Lujan, Maria A; Frago, Susana; Medina, Milagros; Picorel, Rafael

    2011-02-01

    The goal of the present work was to characterize the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from soybean. Very little is known about plant copper chaperones, which makes this study of current interest, and allows for a comparison with the better known homologues from yeast and humans. To obtain sizeable amounts of pure protein suitable for spectroscopic characterization, we cloned and overexpressed the G. max CCS chaperone in E. coli in the presence of 0.5 mM CuSO(4) and 0.5 mM ZnSO(4) in the broth. A pure protein preparation was obtained by using two IMAC steps and pH gradient chromatography. Most of the proteins were obtained as apo-form, devoid of copper atoms. The chaperone showed a high content (i.e., over 40%) of loops, turns and random coil as determined both by circular dichroism and homology modelling. The homology 3-D structural model suggests the protein might fold in three structural protein domains. The 3-D model along with the primary structure and spectroscopic data may suggest that copper atoms occupy the two metal binding sites, MKCEGC and CTC, within the N-terminal domain I and C-terminal domain III, respectively. But only one Zn-binding site was obtained spectroscopically.

  10. Association of HSP70 and its co-chaperones with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Broer (Linda); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); M. Schuur (Maaike); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); J.C. Bis (Joshua); F. Liu (Fan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Beiser (Alexa); W.T. Longstreth Jr; A. Hofman (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S. Seshadri (Sudha); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe heat shock protein (HSP) 70 family has been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we examined common genetic variations in the 80 genes encoding HSP70 and its co-chaperones. We conducted a study in a series of 462 patients and 5238 unaffected

  11. Comparison of intra-organellar chaperone capacity for dealing with stress-induced protein unfolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; van Waarde, Maria A. W. H.; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are essential for cells to prevent that partially unfolded proteins form non-functional, toxic aggregates. This requirement is increased when cells experience protein unfolding stresses and such could affect all compartments in the eukaryotic cell. Whether all organelles are

  12. Oral pharmacological chaperone migalastat compared with enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Derralynn A.; Nicholls, Kathleen; Shankar, Suma P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by GLA mutations, resulting in α-galactosidase (α-Gal) deficiency and accumulation of lysosomal substrates. Migalastat, an oral pharmacological chaperone being developed as an alternative to intravenous enzyme replacement t...

  13. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central "hubs". Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates.

  14. Promiscuous histone mis-assembly is actively prevented by chaperones | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    About the Cover Chaperone HJURP drives the proper loading of protein CENP-A to the centromere of a chromosome. The effect of HJURP on CENP-A's structural dynamics are observed and explained using dual-resolution in silico simulations, while in vivo experiments demonstrate how CENP-A mutations influence its specific localization in human cells. Abstract

  15. Human Hsp70 molecular chaperone binds two calcium ions within the ATPase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, M; Osipiuk, J; Freeman, B; Morimoto, R; Joachimiak, A

    1997-03-15

    The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are a family of molecular chaperones, which promote protein folding and participate in many cellular functions. The Hsp70 chaperones are composed of two major domains. The N-terminal ATPase domain binds to and hydrolyzes ATP, whereas the C-terminal domain is required for polypeptide binding. Cooperation of both domains is needed for protein folding. The crystal structure of bovine Hsc70 ATPase domain (bATPase) has been determined and, more recently, the crystal structure of the peptide-binding domain of a related chaperone, DnaK, in complex with peptide substrate has been obtained. The molecular chaperone activity and conformational switch are functionally linked with ATP hydrolysis. A high-resolution structure of the ATPase domain is required to provide an understanding of the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and how it affects communication between C- and N-terminal domains. The crystal structure of the human Hsp70 ATPase domain (hATPase) has been determined and refined at 1. 84 A, using synchrotron radiation at 120K. Two calcium sites were identified: the first calcium binds within the catalytic pocket, bridging ADP and inorganic phosphate, and the second calcium is tightly coordinated on the protein surface by Glu231, Asp232 and the carbonyl of His227. Overall, the structure of hATPase is similar to bATPase. Differences between them are found in the loops, the sites of amino acid substitution and the calcium-binding sites. Human Hsp70 chaperone is phosphorylated in vitro in the presence of divalent ions, calcium being the most effective. The structural similarity of hATPase and bATPase and the sequence similarity within the Hsp70 chaperone family suggest a universal mechanism of ATP hydrolysis among all Hsp70 molecular chaperones. Two calcium ions have been found in the hATPase structure. One corresponds to the magnesium site in bATPase and appears to be important for ATP hydrolysis and in vitro phosphorylation. Local changes

  16. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  17. Oxidative stress induces monocyte necrosis with enrichment of cell-bound albumin and overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial chaperones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Tang

    Full Text Available In the present study, monocytes were treated with 5-azacytidine (azacytidine, gossypol or hydrogen peroxide to induce cell death through oxidative stress. A shift from apoptotic to necrotic cell death occurred when monocytes were treated with 100 µM azacytidine for more than 12 hours. Necrotic monocytes exhibited characteristics, including enrichment of cell-bound albumin and up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER- and mitochondrial-specific chaperones to protect mitochondrial integrity, which were not observed in other necrotic cells, including HUH-7, A2780, A549 and HOC1a. Our results show that the cell-bound albumin originates in the culture medium rather than from monocyte-derived hepatocytes, and that HSP60 is a potential binding partner of the cell-bound albumin. Proteomic analysis shows that HSP60 and protein disulfide isomerase are the most abundant up-regulated mitochondrial and ER-chaperones, and that both HSP60 and calreticulin are ubiquitinated in necrotic monocytes. In contrast, expression levels of the cytosolic chaperones HSP90 and HSP71 were down-regulated in the azacytidine-treated monocytes, concomitant with an increase in the levels of these chaperones in the cell culture medium. Collectively, our results demonstrates that chaperones from different organelles behave differently in necrotic monocytes, ER- and mitochondrial chaperones being retained and cytosolic and nuclear chaperones being released into the cell culture medium through the ruptured cell membrane. HSP60 may serve as a new target for development of myeloid leukemia treatment.

  18. Interplay between chaperones and protein disorder promotes the evolution of protein networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pechmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution is driven by mutations, which lead to new protein functions but come at a cost to protein stability. Non-conservative substitutions are of interest in this regard because they may most profoundly affect both function and stability. Accordingly, organisms must balance the benefit of accepting advantageous substitutions with the possible cost of deleterious effects on protein folding and stability. We here examine factors that systematically promote non-conservative mutations at the proteome level. Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins play pivotal roles in protein interactions, but many questions regarding their evolution remain unanswered. Similarly, whether and how molecular chaperones, which have been shown to buffer destabilizing mutations in individual proteins, generally provide robustness during proteome evolution remains unclear. To this end, we introduce an evolutionary parameter λ that directly estimates the rate of non-conservative substitutions. Our analysis of λ in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Homo sapiens sequences reveals how co- and post-translationally acting chaperones differentially promote non-conservative substitutions in their substrates, likely through buffering of their destabilizing effects. We further find that λ serves well to quantify the evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins even though the unstructured, thus generally variable regions in proteins are often flanked by very conserved sequences. Crucially, we show that both intrinsically disordered proteins and highly re-wired proteins in protein interaction networks, which have evolved new interactions and functions, exhibit a higher λ at the expense of enhanced chaperone assistance. Our findings thus highlight an intricate interplay of molecular chaperones and protein disorder in the evolvability of protein networks. Our results illuminate the role of chaperones in enabling protein evolution, and underline the

  19. The Malarial Exported PFA0660w Is an Hsp40 Co-Chaperone of PfHsp70-x.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O Daniyan

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum, the human pathogen responsible for the most dangerous malaria infection, survives and develops in mature erythrocytes through the export of proteins needed for remodelling of the host cell. Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein (Hsp family are prominent members of the exportome, including a number of Hsp40s and a Hsp70. PFA0660w, a type II Hsp40, has been shown to be exported and possibly form a complex with PfHsp70-x in the infected erythrocyte cytosol. However, the chaperone properties of PFA0660w and its interaction with human and parasite Hsp70s are yet to be investigated. Recombinant PFA0660w was found to exist as a monomer in solution, and was able to significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of PfHsp70-x but not that of a second plasmodial Hsp70 (PfHsp70-1 or a human Hsp70 (HSPA1A, indicating a potential specific functional partnership with PfHsp70-x. Protein binding studies in the presence and absence of ATP suggested that the interaction of PFA0660w with PfHsp70-x most likely represented a co-chaperone/chaperone interaction. Also, PFA0660w alone produced a concentration-dependent suppression of rhodanese aggregation, demonstrating its chaperone properties. Overall, we have provided the first biochemical evidence for the possible role of PFA0660w as a chaperone and as co-chaperone of PfHsp70-x. We propose that these chaperones boost the chaperone power of the infected erythrocyte, enabling successful protein trafficking and folding, and thereby making a fundamental contribution to the pathology of malaria.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the interplay between hsc70 and its co-chaperone HspBP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Mahboubi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chaperones and their co-factors are components of a cellular network; they collaborate to maintain proteostasis under normal and harmful conditions. In particular, hsp70 family members and their co-chaperones are essential to repair damaged proteins. Co-chaperones are present in different subcellular compartments, where they modulate chaperone activities.Methods and Results. Our studies assessed the relationship between hsc70 and its co-factor HspBP1 in human cancer cells. HspBP1 promotes nucleotide exchange on hsc70, but has also chaperone-independent functions. We characterized the interplay between hsc70 and HspBP1 by quantitative confocal microscopy combined with automated image analyses and statistical evaluation. Stress and the recovery from insult changed significantly the subcellular distribution of hsc70, but had little effect on HspBP1. Single-cell measurements and regression analysis revealed that the links between the chaperone and its co-factor relied on (i the physiological state of the cell and (ii the subcellular compartment. As such, we identified a linear relationship and strong correlation between hsc70 and HspBP1 distribution in control and heat-shocked cells; this correlation changed in a compartment-specific fashion during the recovery from stress. Furthermore, we uncovered significant stress-induced changes in the colocalization between hsc70 and HspBP1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm.Discussion. Our quantitative approach defined novel properties of the co-chaperone HspBP1 as they relate to its interplay with hsc70. We propose that changes in cell physiology promote chaperone redistribution and thereby stimulate chaperone-independent functions of HspBP1.

  1. RNA oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.

    2015-01-01

    .9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...

  2. Roles of Prolyl Isomerases in RNA-Mediated Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Thapar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases that include immunophilins (cyclophilins and FKBPs and parvulins (Pin1, Par14, Par17 participate in cell signaling, transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. The human genome encodes 19 cyclophilins, 18 FKBPs and three parvulins. Immunophilins are receptors for the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin that are used in organ transplantation. Pin1 has also been targeted in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and a number of cancers. While these PPIases are characterized as molecular chaperones, they also act in a nonchaperone manner to promote protein-protein interactions using surfaces outside their active sites. The immunosuppressive drugs act by a gain-of-function mechanism by promoting protein-protein interactions in vivo. Several immunophilins have been identified as components of the spliceosome and are essential for alternative splicing. Pin1 plays roles in transcription and RNA processing by catalyzing conformational changes in the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain. Pin1 also binds several RNA binding proteins such as AUF1, KSRP, HuR, and SLBP that regulate mRNA decay by remodeling mRNP complexes. The functions of ribonucleoprotein associated PPIases are largely unknown. This review highlights PPIases that play roles in RNA-mediated gene expression, providing insight into their structures, functions and mechanisms of action in mRNP remodeling in vivo.

  3. Structural and Functional Consequences of Chaperone Site Deletion in αA-Crystallin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Karmakar, Srabani; Sharma, Krishna K.

    2016-01-01

    The chaperone-like activity of αA-crystallin has an important role in maintaining lens transparency. Previously we identified residues 70–88 as a chaperone site in αA-crystallin. In this study, we deleted the chaperone site residues to generate αAΔ70–76 and αAΔ70–88 mutants and investigated if there are additional substrate-binding sites in αA-crystallin. Both mutant proteins when expressed in E. coli formed inclusion bodies, and on solubilizing and refolding, they exhibited similar structural properties, with a 2- to 3-fold increase in molar mass compared to the molar mass of wild-type protein. The deletion mutants were less stable than the wild-type αA-crystallin. Functionally αAΔ70–88 was completely inactive as a chaperone, while αAΔ70–76 demonstrated a 40–50% reduction in anti-aggregation activity against alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Deletion of residues 70–88 abolished the ADH binding sites in αA-crystallin at physiological temperature. At 45 °C, cryptic ADH binding site(s) became exposed, which contributed subtly to the chaperone-like activity of αAΔ70–88. Both of the deletion mutants were completely inactive in suppressing aggregation of βL-crystallin at 53 °C. The mutants completely lost the anti-apoptotic property that αA-crystallin exhibits while they protected ARPE-19 (a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line) and primary human lens epithelial (HLE) cells from oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that residues 70–88 in αA-crystallin act as a primary substrate binding site and account for the bulk of the total chaperone activity. The β3 and β4 strands in αA-crystallin comprising 70–88 residues play an important role in maintenance of the structure and in preventing aggregation of denaturing proteins. PMID:27524665

  4. RNA aptamers targeted for human αA-crystallin do not bind αB-crystallin, and spare the α-crystallin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Prabhat K; Shi, Hua; Pande, Jayanti

    2017-09-16

    The molecular chaperones, α-crystallins, belong to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family and prevent the aggregation and insolubilization of client proteins. Studies in vivo have shown that the chaperone activity of the α-crystallins is raised or lowered in various disease states. Therefore, the development of tools to control chaperone activity may provide avenues for therapeutic intervention, as well as enable a molecular understanding of chaperone function. The major human lens α-crystallins, αA- (HAA) and αB- (HAB), share 57% sequence identity and show similar activity towards some clients, but differing activities towards others. Notably, both crystallins contain the "α-crystallin domain" (ACD, the primary client binding site), like all other members of the sHSP family. Here we show that RNA aptamers selected for HAA, in vitro, exhibit specific affinity to HAA but do not bind HAB. Significantly, these aptamers also exclude the ACD. This study thus demonstrates that RNA aptamers against sHSPs can be designed that show high affinity and specificity - yet exclude the primary client binding region - thereby facilitating the development of RNA aptamer-based therapeutic intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Different contributions of HtrA protease and chaperone activities to Campylobacter jejuni stress tolerance and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Skórko-Glonek, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    activity is sufficient for growth at high temperature or oxidative stress, whereas the HtrA protease activity is only essential at conditions close to the growth limit for C. jejuni. However, the protease activity was required to prevent induction of the cytoplasmic heat-shock response even at optimal......The microaerophilic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne infections in the developed world. Tolerance to environmental stress relies on proteases and chaperones in the cell envelope such as HtrA and SurA. HtrA displays both chaperone and protease activity......, but little is known about how each of these activities contributes to stress tolerance in bacteria. In vitro experiments showed temperature dependent protease and chaperone activities of C. jejuni HtrA. A C. jejuni mutant lacking only the protease activity of HtrA was used to show that the HtrA chaperone...

  6. Chaperone-Mediated Regulation of Choline Acetyltransferase Protein Stability and Activity by HSC/HSP70, HSP90, and p97/VCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor M. Morey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons, and mutations of this enzyme are linked to the neuromuscular disorder congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS. One CMS-related mutation, V18M, reduces ChAT enzyme activity and cellular protein levels, and is located within a highly-conserved N-terminal proline-rich motif at residues 14PKLPVPP20. We showed previously that disruption of this proline-rich motif by either proline-to-alanine mutation (P17A/P19A or mutation of residue Val18 (V18M enhances ubiquitination and degradation of these mutant ChAT proteins expressed in cholinergic SN56 cells by an unknown mechanism. In this study, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity-ligation assay (PLA, we identified the heat shock proteins (HSPs HSC/HSP70 and HSP90 as novel ChAT protein-interactors. These molecular chaperones are well-known for promoting the folding and stabilization of cellular proteins. Thus, we found that inhibition of HSPs by treatment of cells with either the HSC/HSP70 inhibitors 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES or VER-155008, or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG reduced cellular ChAT activity and solubility, and enhanced the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent loss of ChAT protein. Importantly, the effects of HSP inhibition were greater for mutant ChAT proteins (P17A/P19A-ChAT and CMS-related V18M- and A513T-ChAT compared to wild-type ChAT. HSPs can promote ubiquitination and degradation of terminally misfolded proteins through cooperative interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/Stub1, and while we show that ChAT interacts with CHIP in situ, siRNA-mediated knock-down of CHIP had no effect on either wild-type or mutant ChAT protein levels. However, inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER- and HSP-associated co-chaperone p97/VCP prevented degradation of ubiquitinated ChAT. Together, these results identify novel mechanisms

  7. Locking the Elbow: Improved Antibody Fab Fragments as Chaperones for Structure Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucas J; Sheehy, Kimberly M; Dominik, Pawel K; Liang, Wenguang G; Rui, Huan; Clark, Michael; Jaskolowski, Mateusz; Kim, Yejoon; Deneka, Dawid; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kossiakoff, Anthony A

    2018-02-02

    Antibody Fab fragments have been exploited with significant success to facilitate the structure determination of challenging macromolecules as crystallization chaperones and as molecular fiducial marks for single particle cryo-electron microscopy approaches. However, the inherent flexibility of the "elbow" regions, which link the constant and variable domains of the Fab, can introduce disorder and thus diminish their effectiveness. We have developed a phage display engineering strategy to generate synthetic Fab variants that significantly reduces elbow flexibility, while maintaining their high affinity and stability. This strategy was validated using previously recalcitrant Fab-antigen complexes where introduction of an engineered elbow region enhanced crystallization and diffraction resolution. Furthermore, incorporation of the mutations appears to be generally portable to other synthetic antibodies and may serve as a universal strategy to enhance the success rates of Fabs as structure determination chaperones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular chaperones in targeting misfolded proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegenburg, Franziska; Ellgaard, Lars; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins presents a considerable threat to the health of individual cells and has been linked to severe diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Considering that, in nature, cells often are exposed to stress conditions that may lead to aberrant protein...... conformational changes, it becomes clear that they must have an efficient quality control apparatus to refold or destroy misfolded proteins. In general, cells rely on molecular chaperones to seize and refold misfolded proteins. If the native state is unattainable, misfolded proteins are targeted for degradation...... via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The specificity of this proteolysis is generally provided by E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, hundreds of which are encoded in the human genome. However, rather than binding the misfolded proteins directly, most E3s depend on molecular chaperones to recognize...

  9. The molecular chaperone function of α-crystallin is impaired by UV photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkman, R.F.; McLaughlin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer solutions of the lens protein γ-crystallin and the enzymes aldolase and liver alcohol dehydrogenase became turbid and formed solid precipitate upon exposure to an elevated temperature of 63 o C or to UV radiation at 308 nm. When α-crystallin was added to the protein solutions in stoichiometric amounts, heat or UV irradiation did not cause turbidity, or turbidity developed much less rapidly than in the absence of α-crystallin. Hence, normal α-crystallin functioned as a ''molecular chaperone,'' providing protection against both UV and heat-induced protein aggregation. When α-crystallin was preirradiated with UV at 308 nm, its ability to function as a chaperone vis-a-vis both UV and heat-induced aggregation was significantly impaired, but only at relatively high UV doss. (author)

  10. Regulation of the copper chaperone CCS by XIAP-mediated ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Graham F; Galbán, Stefanie; Liu, Xuwen; Basrur, Venkatesha; Gitlin, Jonathan D; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Wilson, Thomas E; Duckett, Colin S

    2010-04-01

    In order to balance the cellular requirements for copper with its toxic properties, an elegant set of mechanisms has evolved to regulate and buffer intracellular copper. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein was recently identified as a copper-binding protein and regulator of copper homeostasis, although the mechanism by which XIAP binds copper in the cytosol is unclear. Here we describe the identification of the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) as a mediator of copper delivery to XIAP in cells. We also find that CCS is a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of XIAP, although interestingly, ubiquitination of CCS by XIAP was found to lead to enhancement of its chaperone activity toward its physiologic target, superoxide dismutase 1, rather than proteasomal degradation. Collectively, our results reveal novel links among apoptosis, copper metabolism, and redox regulation through the XIAP-CCS complex.

  11. The heat shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Jacob, Pierre

    2016-11-15

    Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multi-stress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once. Consequently, the use of single stress resistance traits is often inadequate. Although it has been historically linked with the heat stress response, the heat shock protein (HSP)/chaperone network is a major component of multiple stress responses. Among the HSP/chaperone

  12. The heat shock protein/chaperone network and multiple stress resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Jacob, Pierre; Hirt, Heribert; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multi-stress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once. Consequently, the use of single stress resistance traits is often inadequate. Although it has been historically linked with the heat stress response, the heat shock protein (HSP)/chaperone network is a major component of multiple stress responses. Among the HSP/chaperone

  13. The Role of System-Specific Molecular Chaperones in the Maturation of Molybdoenzymes in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenesis of prokaryotic molybdoenzymes is a complex process with the final step representing the insertion of a matured molybdenum cofactor (Moco into a folded apoenzyme. Usually, specific chaperones of the XdhC family are required for the maturation of molybdoenzymes of the xanthine oxidase family in bacteria. Enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family are characterized to contain an equatorial sulfur ligand at the molybdenum center of Moco. This sulfur ligand is inserted into Moco while bound to the XdhC-like protein and before its insertion into the target enzyme. In addition, enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family bind either the molybdopterin (Mo-MPT form of Moco or the modified molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor (MCD. In both cases, only the matured cofactor is inserted by a proofreading process of XdhC. The roles of these specific XdhC-like chaperones during the biogenesis of enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family in bacteria are described.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glucose regulated protein 170-Pokemon complexes elicit a robust antitumor immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bangqing; Xian, Ronghua; Wu, Xianqu; Jing, Junjie; Chen, Kangning; Liu, Guojun; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    Previous evidence suggested that the stress protein grp170 can function as a highly efficient molecular chaperone, binding to large protein substrates and acting as a potent vaccine against specific tumors when purified from the same tumor. In addition, Pokemon can be found in almost all malignant tumor cells and is regarded to be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumors. However, the potential of the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex has not been well described. In the present study, the natural chaperone complex between grp170 and the Pokemon was formed by heat shock, and its immunogenicity was detected by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays in vitro and by tumor bearing models in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex could elicit T cell responses as determined by ELISPOT and (51)Cr-release assays. In addition, immunized C57BL/6 mice were challenged with subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Lewis cancer cells to induce primary tumors. Treatment of mice with the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex also significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. Our results indicated that the grp170-Pokemon chaperone complex might represent a powerful approach to tumor immunotherapy and have significant potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. PfClpC Is an Essential Clp Chaperone Required for Plastid Integrity and Clp Protease Stability in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Florentin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid, known as the apicoplast, that functions to produce essential metabolites, and drugs that target the apicoplast are clinically effective. Several prokaryotic caseinolytic protease (Clp genes have been identified in the Plasmodium genome. Using phylogenetic analysis, we focused on the Clp members that may form a regulated proteolytic complex in the apicoplast. We genetically targeted members of this complex and generated conditional mutants of the apicoplast-localized PfClpC chaperone and PfClpP protease. Conditional inhibition of the PfClpC chaperone resulted in growth arrest and apicoplast loss and was rescued by addition of the essential apicoplast-derived metabolite IPP. Using a double-conditional mutant parasite line, we discovered that the chaperone activity is required to stabilize the mature protease, revealing functional interactions. These data demonstrate the essential function of PfClpC in maintaining apicoplast integrity and its role in regulating the proteolytic activity of the Clp complex. : Plasmodium falciparum contains a unique organelle, the apicoplast. Using genetic and phenotypic assays, Florentin et al. characterize the apicoplast Clp chaperone and protease. They find that the chaperone is essential for protease stability and that together they function to maintain organelle integrity and segregation into daughter cells. Keywords: malaria, Plasmodium, apicoplast, IPP, Clp, chaperone, caseinolytic protease

  16. Cytosolic chaperones mediate quality control of higher-order septin assembly in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Courtney R; Weems, Andrew D; Brewer, Jennifer M; Thorner, Jeremy; McMurray, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Septin hetero-oligomers polymerize into cytoskeletal filaments with essential functions in many eukaryotic cell types. Mutations within the oligomerization interface that encompasses the GTP-binding pocket of a septin (its "G interface") cause thermoinstability of yeast septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and human disease. When coexpressed with its wild-type counterpart, a G interface mutant is excluded from septin filaments, even at moderate temperatures. We show that this quality control mechanism is specific to G interface mutants, operates during de novo septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and requires specific cytosolic chaperones. Chaperone overexpression lowers the temperature permissive for proliferation of cells expressing a G interface mutant as the sole source of a given septin. Mutations that perturb the septin G interface retard release from these chaperones, imposing a kinetic delay on the availability of nascent septin molecules for higher-order assembly. Un-expectedly, the disaggregase Hsp104 contributes to this delay in a manner that does not require its "unfoldase" activity, indicating a latent "holdase" activity toward mutant septins. These findings provide new roles for chaperone-mediated kinetic partitioning of non-native proteins and may help explain the etiology of septin-linked human diseases. © 2015 Johnson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Proteomic Data From Human Cell Cultures Refine Mechanisms of Chaperone-Mediated Protein homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Finka, Andrija; Goloubinoff, Andrija Finka and Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In the crowded environment of human cells, folding of nascent polypeptides and refolding of stress-unfolded proteins is error prone. Accumulation of cytotoxic misfolded and aggregated species may cause cell death, tissue loss, degenerative conformational diseases, and aging. Nevertheless, young cells effectively express a network of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes, termed here “the chaperome,” which can prevent formation of potentially harmful misfolded protein conformers and use the...

  18. Multiscale modeling of a conditionally disordered pH-sensing chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Logan S; Law, Sean M; Dickson, Alex; Brooks, Charles L

    2015-04-24

    The pH-sensing chaperone HdeA promotes the survival of enteropathogenic bacteria during transit through the harshly acidic environment of the mammalian stomach. At low pH, HdeA transitions from an inactive, folded, dimer to chaperone-active, disordered, monomers to protect against the acid-induced aggregation of periplasmic proteins. Toward achieving a detailed mechanistic understanding of the pH response of HdeA, we develop a multiscale modeling approach to capture its pH-dependent thermodynamics. Our approach combines pK(a) (logarithmic acid dissociation constant) calculations from all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained modeling and yields new, atomic-level, insights into HdeA chaperone function that can be directly tested by experiment. "pH triggers" that significantly destabilize the dimer are each located near the N-terminus of a helix, suggesting that their neutralization at low pH destabilizes the helix macrodipole as a mechanism of monomer disordering. Moreover, we observe a non-monotonic change in the pH-dependent stability of HdeA, with maximal stability of the dimer near pH5. This affect is attributed to the protonation Glu37, which exhibits an anomalously high pK(a) value and is located within the hydrophobic dimer interface. Finally, the pH-dependent binding pathway of HdeA comprises a partially unfolded, dimeric intermediate that becomes increasingly stable relative to the native dimer at lower pH values and displays key structural features for chaperone-substrate interaction. We anticipate that the insights from our model will help inform ongoing NMR and biochemical investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rescue of a pathogenic mutant human glucagon receptor by pharmacological chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Chen, Chun-Rong; Liu, Xiaohong; Kodra, János T

    2012-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a homozygous inactivating P86S mutation of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) causes a novel human disease of hyperglucagonemia, pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (Mahvash disease). The mechanisms for the decreased activity of the P86S mutant (P86S) are abnormal receptor localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and defective interaction with glucagon. To search for targeted therapies for Mahvash disease, we examined whether P86S can be trafficked to the plasma membrane by pharmacological chaperones and whether novel glucagon analogs restore effective receptor interaction. We used enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged P86S stably expressed in HEK 293 cells to allow fluorescence imaging and western blotting and molecular modeling to design novel glucagon analogs in which alanine 19 was replaced with serine or asparagine. Incubation at 27 °C largely restored normal plasma membrane localization and normal processing of P86S but osmotic chaperones had no effects. The ER stressors thapsigargin and curcumin partially rescued P86S. The lipophilic GCGR antagonist L-168,049 also partially rescued P86S, so did Cpd 13 and 15 to a smaller degree. The rescued P86S led to more glucagon-stimulated cAMP production and was internalized by glucagon. Compared with the native glucagon, the novel glucagon analogs failed to stimulate more cAMP production by P86S. We conclude that the mutant GCGR is partially rescued by several pharmacological chaperones and our data provide proof-of-principle evidence that Mahvash disease can be potentially treated with pharmacological chaperones. The novel glucagon analogs, however, failed to interact with P86S more effectively.

  20. Enhanced Transport Capabilities via Nanotechnologies: Impacting Bioefficacy, Controlled Release Strategies, and Novel Chaperones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomai Panagiotou

    2011-01-01

    side affects and providing improved therapeutic interventions. Innovative nanotechnology applications, such as simultaneous targeting, imaging and delivery to tumors, are now possible through use of novel chaperones. Other examples include nanoparticles attachment to T-cells, release from novel hydrogel implants, and functionalized encapsulants. Difficult tasks such as drug delivery to the brain via the blood brain barrier and/or the cerebrospinal fluid are now easier to accomplish.

  1. Heat Shock Proteins: A Review of the Molecular Chaperones for Plant Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Jin; Seo, Young-Su

    2015-12-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to persistently changing stresses and have to be able to interpret and respond to them. The stresses, drought, salinity, chemicals, cold and hot temperatures, and various pathogen attacks have interconnected effects on plants, resulting in the disruption of protein homeostasis. Maintenance of proteins in their functional native conformations and preventing aggregation of non-native proteins are important for cell survival under stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) functioning as molecular chaperones are the key components responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation, and degradation under stress conditions and in many normal cellular processes. Plants respond to pathogen invasion using two different innate immune responses mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or resistance (R) proteins. HSPs play an indispensable role as molecular chaperones in the quality control of plasma membrane-resident PRRs and intracellular R proteins against potential invaders. Here, we specifically discuss the functional involvement of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) HSPs/chaperones in plant immunity to obtain an integrated understanding of the immune responses in plant cells.

  2. Functional Analysis of the Chaperone-Usher Fimbrial Gene Clusters of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Karine; Saulnier-Bellemare, Julie; Daigle, France

    2018-01-01

    The human-specific pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. S . Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae ( stg, sth, bcf , fim, saf , sef , sta, stb, stc, std, ste , and tcf ). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all S . Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed. All S . Typhi fimbriae were better expressed in minimal broth. Each system was overexpressed and only the fimbrial gene clusters without pseudogenes demonstrated a putative major subunits of about 17 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Six of these (Fim, Saf, Sta, Stb, Std, and Tcf) also show extracellular structure by electron microscopy. The impact of fimbrial deletion in a wild-type strain or addition of each individual fimbrial system to an S . Typhi afimbrial strain were tested for interactions with host cells, biofilm formation and motility. Several fimbriae modified bacterial interactions with human cells (THP-1 and INT-407) and biofilm formation. However, only Fim fimbriae had a deleterious effect on motility when overexpressed. Overall, chaperone-usher fimbriae seem to be an important part of the balance between the different steps (motility, adhesion, host invasion and persistence) of S . Typhi pathogenesis.

  3. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Molle, Inge; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri

    2005-01-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°

  4. Crystallization of the FaeE chaperone of Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Molle, Inge, E-mail: ivmolle@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Coppens, Fanny; Qiang, Liu; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Bouckaert, Julie; De Greve, Henri [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    The periplasmic chaperone FaeE of E. coli F4 fimbriae crystallizes in three crystal forms. F4 (formerly K88) fimbriae from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are assembled via the FaeE/FaeD chaperone/usher pathway. The chaperone FaeE crystallizes in three crystal forms, all belonging to space group C2. Crystals of form 1 diffract to 2.3 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 195.7, b = 78.5, c = 184.6 Å, β = 102.2°. X-ray data for crystal form 2 were collected to 2.7 Å using an SeMet variant of FaeE. The crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 136.4, b = 75.7, c = 69.4 Å, β = 92.8°. Crystals of form 3 were formed in a solution containing the FaeE–FaeG complex and diffract to 2.8 Å. Unit-cell parameters are a = 109.7, b = 78.6, c = 87.8 Å, β = 96.4°.

  5. Distinct Prion Domain Sequences Ensure Efficient Amyloid Propagation by Promoting Chaperone Binding or Processing In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Langlois

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prions are a group of proteins that can adopt a spectrum of metastable conformations in vivo. These alternative states change protein function and are self-replicating and transmissible, creating protein-based elements of inheritance and infectivity. Prion conformational flexibility is encoded in the amino acid composition and sequence of the protein, which dictate its ability not only to form an ordered aggregate known as amyloid but also to maintain and transmit this structure in vivo. But, while we can effectively predict amyloid propensity in vitro, the mechanism by which sequence elements promote prion propagation in vivo remains unclear. In yeast, propagation of the [PSI+] prion, the amyloid form of the Sup35 protein, has been linked to an oligopeptide repeat region of the protein. Here, we demonstrate that this region is composed of separable functional elements, the repeats themselves and a repeat proximal region, which are both required for efficient prion propagation. Changes in the numbers of these elements do not alter the physical properties of Sup35 amyloid, but their presence promotes amyloid fragmentation, and therefore maintenance, by molecular chaperones. Rather than acting redundantly, our observations suggest that these sequence elements make complementary contributions to prion propagation, with the repeat proximal region promoting chaperone binding to and the repeats promoting chaperone processing of Sup35 amyloid.

  6. Thermosensitivity of growth is determined by chaperone-mediated proteome reallocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Gao, Ye; Mih, Nathan; O’Brien, Edward J.; Yang, Laurence; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of a properly folded proteome is critical for bacterial survival at notably different growth temperatures. Understanding the molecular basis of thermoadaptation has progressed in two main directions, the sequence and structural basis of protein thermostability and the mechanistic principles of protein quality control assisted by chaperones. Yet we do not fully understand how structural integrity of the entire proteome is maintained under stress and how it affects cellular fitness. To address this challenge, we reconstruct a genome-scale protein-folding network for Escherichia coli and formulate a computational model, FoldME, that provides statistical descriptions of multiscale cellular response consistent with many datasets. FoldME simulations show (i) that the chaperones act as a system when they respond to unfolding stress rather than achieving efficient folding of any single component of the proteome, (ii) how the proteome is globally balanced between chaperones for folding and the complex machinery synthesizing the proteins in response to perturbation, (iii) how this balancing determines growth rate dependence on temperature and is achieved through nonspecific regulation, and (iv) how thermal instability of the individual protein affects the overall functional state of the proteome. Overall, these results expand our view of cellular regulation, from targeted specific control mechanisms to global regulation through a web of nonspecific competing interactions that modulate the optimal reallocation of cellular resources. The methodology developed in this study enables genome-scale integration of environment-dependent protein properties and a proteome-wide study of cellular stress responses. PMID:29073085

  7. The histone chaperone ASF1 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Fränzel, Benjamin; Wolters, Dirk; Nowrousian, Minou

    2012-05-01

    Ascomycetes develop four major types of fruiting bodies that share a common ancestor, and a set of common core genes most likely controls this process. One way to identify such genes is to search for conserved expression patterns. We analysed microarray data of Fusarium graminearum and Sordaria macrospora, identifying 78 genes with similar expression patterns during fruiting body development. One of these genes was asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), encoding a predicted histone chaperone. asf1 expression is also upregulated during development in the distantly related ascomycete Pyronema confluens. To test whether asf1 plays a role in fungal development, we generated an S. macrospora asf1 deletion mutant. The mutant is sterile and can be complemented to fertility by transformation with the wild-type asf1 and its P. confluens homologue. An ASF1-EGFP fusion protein localizes to the nucleus. By tandem-affinity purification/mass spectrometry as well as yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified histones H3 and H4 as ASF1 interaction partners. Several developmental genes are dependent on asf1 for correct transcriptional expression. Deletion of the histone chaperone genes rtt106 and cac2 did not cause any developmental phenotypes. These data indicate that asf1 of S. macrospora encodes a conserved histone chaperone that is required for fruiting body development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Chaperone turns gatekeeper: PCBP2 and DMT1 form an iron-transport pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2014-08-15

    How is cellular iron (Fe) uptake and efflux regulated in mammalian cells? In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Yanatori et al. report for the first time that a member of the emerging PCBP [poly(rC)-binding protein] Fe-chaperone family, PCBP2, physically interacts with the major Fe importer DMT1 (divalent metal transporter 1) and the Fe exporter FPN1 (ferroportin 1). In both cases, the interaction of the Fe transporter with PCBP2 is Fe-dependent. Interestingly, another PCBP Fe-chaperone, PCBP1, does not appear to bind to DMT1. Strikingly, the PCBP2-DMT1 interaction is required for DMT1-dependent cellular Fe uptake, suggesting that, in addition to functioning as an intracellular Fe chaperone, PCBP2 may be a molecular 'gate- keeper' for transmembrane Fe transport. These new data hint at the possibility that PCBP2 may be a component of a yet-to-be-described Fe-transport metabolon that engages in Fe channelling to and from Fe transporters and intracellular sites.

  9. Hsp90 chaperone inhibitor 17-AAG attenuates Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaomin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Dan; Li, Jing Jing; Xue, Yueqiang; Sakata, Kazuko; Zhu, Ling-qiang; Heldt, Scott A; Xu, Huaxi; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2014-02-12

    The excessive accumulation of soluble amyloid peptides (Aβ) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in synaptic dysfunction. The role of the two major chaperone proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in clearing misfolded protein aggregates has been established. Despite their abundant presence in synapses, the role of these chaperones in synapses remains elusive. Here, we report that Hsp90 inhibition by 17-AAG elicited not only a heat shock-like response but also upregulated presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, such as synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD95 in neurons. 17-AAG treatment enhanced high-frequency stimulation-evoked LTP and protected neurons from synaptic damage induced by soluble Aβ. In AD transgenic mice, the daily administration of 17-AAG over 7 d resulted in a marked increase in PSD95 expression in hippocampi. 17-AAG treatments in wild-type C57BL/6 mice challenged by soluble Aβ significantly improved contextual fear memory. Further, we demonstrate that 17-AAG activated synaptic protein expression via transcriptional mechanisms through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. Together, our findings identify a novel function of Hsp90 inhibition in regulating synaptic plasticity, in addition to the known neuroprotective effects of the chaperones against Aβ and tau toxicity, thus further supporting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sao, Kentaro; Murata, Masaharu; Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hashizume, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  11. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sao, Kentaro [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Murata, Masaharu, E-mail: m-murata@dem.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hashizume, Makoto [Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-06-05

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  12. The Clp Chaperones and Proteases of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkouri, Majida El; Pow, Andre; Mulichak, Anne; Cheung, Kevin L.Y.; Artz, Jennifer D.; Amani, Mehrnaz; Fell, Stuart; de Koning-Ward, Tania F.; Goodman, C. Dean; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Ortega, Joaquin; Hui, Raymond; Houry, Walid A. (McMaster U.); (Melbourne); (Toronto); (Deakin); (HWMRI)

    2015-02-09

    The Clp chaperones and proteases play an important role in protein homeostasis in the cell. They are highly conserved across prokaryotes and found also in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of plants. They function mainly in the disaggregation, unfolding and degradation of native as well as misfolded proteins. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the Clp chaperones and proteases in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite contains four Clp ATPases, which we term PfClpB1, PfClpB2, PfClpC and PfClpM. One PfClpP, the proteolytic subunit, and one PfClpR, which is an inactive version of the protease, were also identified. Expression of all Clp chaperones and proteases was confirmed in blood-stage parasites. The proteins were localized to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic organelle that accommodates several important metabolic pathways in P. falciparum, with the exception of PfClpB2 (also known as Hsp101), which was found in the parasitophorous vacuole. Both PfClpP and PfClpR form mostly homoheptameric rings as observed by size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy. The X-ray structure of PfClpP showed the protein as a compacted tetradecamer similar to that observed for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpPs. Our data suggest the presence of a ClpCRP complex in the apicoplast of P. falciparum.

  13. A primate specific extra domain in the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwadeepak Tripathi

    Full Text Available Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90 is an essential molecular chaperone that mediates folding and quality control of client proteins. Many of them such as protein kinases, steroid receptors and transcription factors are involved in cellular signaling processes. Hsp90 undergoes an ATP hydrolysis dependent conformational cycle to assist folding of the client protein. The canonical Hsp90 shows a typical composition of three distinct domains and interacts with individual cochaperone partners such as Hop, Cdc37 and Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase that regulate the reaction cycle of the molecular chaperone. A bioinformatic survey identified an additional domain of 122 amino acids in front of the canonical Hsp90 sequence. This extra domain (E domain is specific to the Catarrhini or drooping nose monkeys, a subdivision of the higher primates that includes man, the great apes and the old world monkeys but is absent from all other species. Our biochemical analysis reveals that Hsp103 associates with cochaperone proteins such as Hop, Cdc37 and Aha1 similar to Hsp90. However, the extra domain reduces the ATP hydrolysis rate to about half when compared to Hsp90 thereby acting as a negative regulator of the molecular chaperonés intrinsic ATPase activity.

  14. Molecular transformers in the cell: lessons learned from the DegP protease-chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Justyna; Heuck, Alexander; Ehrmann, Michael; Clausen, Tim

    2010-04-01

    Structure-function analysis of DegP revealed a novel mechanism for protease and chaperone regulation. Binding of unfolded proteins induces the oligomer reassembly from the resting hexamer (DegP6) into the functional protease-chaperone DegP12/24. The newly formed cage exhibits the characteristics of a proteolytic folding chamber, shredding those proteins that are severely misfolded while stabilizing and protecting proteins present in their native state. Isolation of native DegP complexes with folded outer membrane proteins (OMPs) highlights the importance of DegP in OMP biogenesis. The encapsulated OMP beta-barrel is significantly stabilized in the hydrophobic chamber of DegP12/24 and thus DegP seems to employ a reciprocal mechanism to those chaperones assisting the folding of water soluble proteins via polar interactions. In addition, we discuss in this review similarities to other complex proteolytic machines that, like DegP, are under control of a substrate-induced or stress-induced oligomer conversion.

  15. Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states.

  16. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T., E-mail: d.huang@beatson.gla.ac.uk [Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-22

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  17. Heat Shock Proteins: A Review of the Molecular Chaperones for Plant Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jin Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to persistently changing stresses and have to be able to interpret and respond to them. The stresses, drought, salinity, chemicals, cold and hot temperatures, and various pathogen attacks have interconnected effects on plants, resulting in the disruption of protein homeostasis. Maintenance of proteins in their functional native conformations and preventing aggregation of non-native proteins are important for cell survival under stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs functioning as molecular chaperones are the key components responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation, and degradation under stress conditions and in many normal cellular processes. Plants respond to pathogen invasion using two different innate immune responses mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs or resistance (R proteins. HSPs play an indispensable role as molecular chaperones in the quality control of plasma membrane-resident PRRs and intracellular R proteins against potential invaders. Here, we specifically discuss the functional involvement of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER HSPs/chaperones in plant immunity to obtain an integrated understanding of the immune responses in plant cells.

  18. A BAG3 chaperone complex maintains cardiomyocyte function during proteotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Luke M; Perez-Bermejo, Juan A; Truong, Annie; Ribeiro, Alexandre Js; Yoo, Jennie C; Jensen, Christina L; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Kaake, Robyn M; So, Po-Lin; Srivastava, Deepak; Pruitt, Beth L; Krogan, Nevan J; Conklin, Bruce R

    2017-07-20

    Molecular chaperones regulate quality control in the human proteome, pathways that have been implicated in many diseases, including heart failure. Mutations in the BAG3 gene, which encodes a co-chaperone protein, have been associated with heart failure due to both inherited and sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. Familial BAG3 mutations are autosomal dominant and frequently cause truncation of the coding sequence, suggesting a heterozygous loss-of-function mechanism. However, heterozygous knockout of the murine BAG3 gene did not cause a detectable phenotype. To model BAG3 cardiomyopathy in a human system, we generated an isogenic series of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with loss-of-function mutations in BAG3. Heterozygous BAG3 mutations reduced protein expression, disrupted myofibril structure, and compromised contractile function in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). BAG3-deficient iPS-CMs were particularly sensitive to further myofibril disruption and contractile dysfunction upon exposure to proteasome inhibitors known to cause cardiotoxicity. We performed affinity tagging of the endogenous BAG3 protein and mass spectrometry proteomics to further define the cardioprotective chaperone complex that BAG3 coordinates in the human heart. Our results establish a model for evaluating protein quality control pathways in human cardiomyocytes and their potential as therapeutic targets and susceptibility factors for cardiac drug toxicity.

  19. Jasmonate signalling in Arabidopsis involves SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Millet, Yves A; Cheng, Zhenyu; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M

    Plant hormones play pivotal roles in growth, development and stress responses. Although it is essential to our understanding of hormone signalling, how plants maintain a steady state level of hormone receptors is poorly understood. We show that mutation of the Arabidopsis thaliana co-chaperone SGT1b impairs responses to the plant hormones jasmonate, auxin and gibberellic acid, but not brassinolide and abscisic acid, and that SGT1b and its homologue SGT1a are involved in maintaining the steady state levels of the F-box proteins COI1 and TIR1, receptors for jasmonate and auxin, respectively. The association of SGT1b with COI1 is direct and is independent of the Arabidopsis SKP1 protein, ASK1. We further show that COI1 is a client protein of SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes and that the complexes function in hormone signalling by stabilizing the COI1 protein. This study extends the SGT1b-HSP90 client protein list and broadens the functional scope of SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes.

  20. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding

  1. Exploring the heat-responsive chaperones and microsatellite markers associated with terminal heat stress tolerance in developing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Shamim, Mohammad; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Khushboo; Singh, Shweta; Kala, Yugal K; Niraj, Ravi R K; Sakhrey, Akshay; Singh, Gyanendra P; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Bhupinder; Rai, Gyanendra K; Rai, Anil K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-11-01

    Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food security, and in many cases the negative impacts are already apparent. Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops and is highly sensitive to the heat stress (HS) during reproductive and grain-filling stages. Here, whole transcriptome analysis of thermotolerant wheat cv. HD2985 was carried out at the post-anthesis stage under control (22 ± 3 °C) and HS-treated (42 °C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina Hiseq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled ~24 million (control) and ~23 million (HS-treated) high-quality trimmed reads using different assemblers with optimal parameters. De novo assembly yielded 52,567 (control) and 59,658 (HS-treated) unigenes. We observed 785 transcripts to be upregulated and 431 transcripts to be downregulated under HS; 78 transcripts showed >10-fold upregulation such as HSPs, metabolic pathway-related genes, etc. Maximum number of upregulated genes was observed to be associated with processes such as HS-response, protein-folding, oxidation-reduction and photosynthesis. We identified 2008 and 2483 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers from control and HS-treated samples; 243 SSRs were observed to be overlying on stress-associated genes. Polymorphic study validated four SSRs to be heat-responsive in nature. Expression analysis of identified differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) showed very high fold increase in the expression of catalytic chaperones (HSP26, HSP17, and Rca) in contrasting wheat cvs. HD2985 and HD2329 under HS. We observed positive correlation between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR expression data. The present study culminated in greater understanding of the heat-response of tolerant genotype and has provided good candidate genes for the marker development and screening of wheat germplasm for thermotolerance.

  2. The Processed Amino-Terminal Fragment of Human TLR7 Acts as a Chaperone To Direct Human TLR7 into Endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Dawn; Booth, Sarah; Waithe, Dominic; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    TLR7 mediates innate immune responses to viral RNA in endocytic compartments. Mouse and human (h)TLR7 undergo proteolytic cleavage, resulting in the generation of a C-terminal fragment that accumulates in endosomes and associates with the signaling adaptor MyD88 upon receptor triggering by TLR7 agonists. Although mouse TLR7 is cleaved in endosomes by acidic proteases, hTLR7 processing can occur at neutral pH throughout the secretory pathway through the activity of furin-like proprotein convertases. However, the mechanisms by which cleaved hTLR7 reaches the endosomal compartment remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that, after hTLR7 proteolytic processing, the liberated amino (N)-terminal fragment remains bound to the C terminus through disulfide bonds and provides key trafficking information that ensures correct delivery of the complex to endosomal compartments. In the absence of the N-terminal fragment, the C-terminal fragment is redirected to the cell surface, where it is functionally inactive. Our data reveal a novel role for the N terminus of hTLR7 as a molecular chaperone that provides processed hTLR7 with the correct targeting instructions to reach the endosomal compartment, hence ensuring its biological activity and preventing inadvertent cell surface responses to self-RNA. PMID:25917086

  3. Discovery of novel interacting partners of PSMD9, a proteasomal chaperone: Role of an Atypical and versatile PDZ-domain motif interaction and identification of putative functional modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Sangith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PSMD9 (Proteasome Macropain non-ATPase subunit 9, a proteasomal assembly chaperone, harbors an uncharacterized PDZ-like domain. Here we report the identification of five novel interacting partners of PSMD9 and provide the first glimpse at the structure of the PDZ-domain, including the molecular details of the interaction. We based our strategy on two propositions: (a proteins with conserved C-termini may share common functions and (b PDZ domains interact with C-terminal residues of proteins. Screening of C-terminal peptides followed by interactions using full-length recombinant proteins, we discovered hnRNPA1 (an RNA binding protein, S14 (a ribosomal protein, CSH1 (a growth hormone, E12 (a transcription factor and IL6 receptor as novel PSMD9-interacting partners. Through multiple techniques and structural insights, we clearly demonstrate for the first time that human PDZ domain interacts with the predicted Short Linear Sequence Motif (SLIM at the C-termini of the client proteins. These interactions are also recapitulated in mammalian cells. Together, these results are suggestive of the role of PSMD9 in transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and editing, hormone and receptor activity and protein translation. Our proof-of-principle experiments endorse a novel and quick method for the identification of putative interacting partners of similar PDZ-domain proteins from the proteome and for discovering novel functions.

  4. Progress and potential of non-inhibitory small molecule chaperones for the treatment of Gaucher disease and its implications for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Olive; Patnaik, Samarjit; Marugan, Juan; Sidransky, Ellen; Westbroek, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Gaucher disease, caused by pathological mutations GBA1, encodes the lysosome-resident enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which cleaves glucosylceramide into glucose and ceramide. In Gaucher disease, glucocerebrosidase deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of substrate, primarily in cells of the reticulo-endothelial system. Gaucher disease has broad clinical heterogeneity, and mutations in GBA1 are a risk factor for the development of different synucleinopathies. Insights into the cell biology and biochemistry of glucocerebrosidase have led to new therapeutic approaches for Gaucher disease including small chemical chaperones. Such chaperones facilitate proper enzyme folding and translocation to lysosomes, thereby preventing premature breakdown of the enzyme in the proteasome. This review discusses recent progress in developing chemical chaperones as a therapy for Gaucher disease, with implications for the treatment of synucleinopathies. It focuses on the development of non-inhibitory glucocerebrosidase chaperones and their therapeutic advantages over inhibitory chaperones, as well as the challenges involved in identifying and validating chemical chaperones.

  5. A 3' UTR-Derived Small RNA Provides the Regulatory Noncoding Arm of the Inner Membrane Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yanjie; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-02-04

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) from conserved noncoding genes are crucial regulators in bacterial signaling pathways but have remained elusive in the Cpx response to inner membrane stress. Here we report that an alternative biogenesis pathway releasing the conserved mRNA 3' UTR of stress chaperone CpxP as an ∼60-nt sRNA provides the noncoding arm of the Cpx response. This so-called CpxQ sRNA, generated by general mRNA decay through RNase E, acts as an Hfq-dependent repressor of multiple mRNAs encoding extracytoplasmic proteins. Both CpxQ and the Cpx pathway are required for cell survival under conditions of dissipation of membrane potential. Our discovery of CpxQ illustrates how the conversion of a transcribed 3' UTR into an sRNA doubles the output of a single mRNA to produce two factors with spatially segregated functions during inner membrane stress: a chaperone that targets problematic proteins in the periplasm and a regulatory RNA that dampens their synthesis in the cytosol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2010-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post...... that adaptation to anaerobic growth involves the action of a small regulatory RNA....... of at least one sRNA regulator. Here, we extend this view by the identification and characterization of a highly conserved, anaerobically induced small sRNA in E. coli, whose expression is strictly dependent on the anaerobic transcriptional fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR). The sRNA, named Fnr...

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Bordetella pertussis reveals requirement of RNA chaperone Hfq for Type III secretion system functionality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bíbová, Ilona; Hot, D.; Keidel, Kristina; Amman, F.; Slupek, S.; Černý, Ondřej; Gross, R.; Večerek, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 175-185 ISSN 1547-6286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1940; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR028; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bsp22 * Hfq * infection Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2015

  8. A Role for the RNA Chaperone Hfq in Controlling Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Colonization and Virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karina T; Nielsen, Gorm; Bjerrum, Janni Vester

    2011-01-01

    strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known...... to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC...

  9. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  10. The roles of co-chaperone CCRP/DNAJC7 in Cyp2b10 gene activation and steatosis development in mouse livers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marumi Ohno

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR retention protein (CCRP and also known as DNAJC7 is a co-chaperone previously characterized to retain nuclear receptor CAR in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. Here we have produced CCRP knockout (KO mice and demonstrated that CCRP regulates CAR at multiple steps in activation of the cytochrome (Cyp 2b10 gene in liver: nuclear accumulation, RNA polymerase II recruitment and epigenetic modifications. Phenobarbital treatment greatly increased nuclear CAR accumulation in the livers of KO males as compared to those of wild type (WT males. Despite this accumulation, phenobarbital-induced activation of the Cyp2b10 gene was significantly attenuated. In ChIP assays, a CAR/retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα heterodimer binding to the Cyp2b10 promoter was already increased before phenobarbital treatment and further pronounced after treatment. However, RNA polymerase II was barely recruited to the promoter even after phenobarbital treatment. Histone H3K27 on the Cyp2b10 promoter was de-methylated only after phenobarbital treatment in WT but was fully de-methylated before treatment in KO males. Thus, CCRP confers phenobarbital-induced de-methylation capability to the promoter as well as the phenobarbital responsiveness of recruiting RNA polymerase II, but is not responsible for the binding between CAR and its cognate sequence, phenobarbital responsive element module. In addition, KO males developed steatotic livers and increased serum levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in response to fasting. CCRP appears to be involved in various hepatic regulations far beyond CAR-mediated drug metabolism.

  11. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.; Li, Huilin; Christie, P. J.

    2016-06-27

    ABSTRACT

    The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains ofEscherichia coliuse this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function.

    IMPORTANCEPili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. UropathogenicE. colirelies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to

  12. Divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network of old mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Andrew Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of the mTOR kinase, increases longevity in mice in a sex-specific manner. In contrast to the widely accepted theory that a loss of proteasome activity is detrimental to both life- and healthspan, biochemical studies in vitro reveal that rapamycin inhibits 20S proteasome peptidase activity. We tested if this unexpected finding is also evident after chronic rapamycin treatment in vivo by measuring peptidase activities for both the 26S and 20S proteasome in liver, fat, and brain tissues of old, male and female mice fed encapsulated chow containing 2.24mg/kg (14 ppm rapamycin for 6 months. Further we assessed if rapamycin altered expression of the chaperone proteins known to interact with the proteasome-mediated degradation system (PMDS, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, and the levels of key mTOR pathway proteins. Rapamycin had little effect on liver proteasome activity in either gender, but increased proteasome activity in female brain lysates and lowered its activity in female fat tissue. Rapamycin-induced changes in molecular chaperone levels were also more substantial in tissues from female animals. Furthermore, mTOR pathway proteins showed more significant changes in female tissues compared to those from males. These data show collectively that there are divergent tissue and sex effects of rapamycin on the proteasome-chaperone network and that these may be linked to the disparate effects of rapamycin on males and females. Further our findings suggest that rapamycin induces indirect regulation of the PMDS/heat-shock response through its modulation of the mTOR pathway rather than via direct interactions between rapamycin and the proteasome.

  13. Broadening the functionality of a J-protein/Hsp70 molecular chaperone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Brenda A; Ciesielski, Szymon J; Ziegelhoffer, Thomas; Kamiya, Erina; Tonelli, Marco; Lee, Woonghee; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Hines, Justin K; Markley, John L; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    By binding to a multitude of polypeptide substrates, Hsp70-based molecular chaperone systems perform a range of cellular functions. All J-protein co-chaperones play the essential role, via action of their J-domains, of stimulating the ATPase activity of Hsp70, thereby stabilizing its interaction with substrate. In addition, J-proteins drive the functional diversity of Hsp70 chaperone systems through action of regions outside their J-domains. Targeting to specific locations within a cellular compartment and binding of specific substrates for delivery to Hsp70 have been identified as modes of J-protein specialization. To better understand J-protein specialization, we concentrated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIS1, which encodes an essential J-protein of the cytosol/nucleus. We selected suppressors that allowed cells lacking SIS1 to form colonies. Substitutions changing single residues in Ydj1, a J-protein, which, like Sis1, partners with Hsp70 Ssa1, were isolated. These gain-of-function substitutions were located at the end of the J-domain, suggesting that suppression was connected to interaction with its partner Hsp70, rather than substrate binding or subcellular localization. Reasoning that, if YDJ1 suppressors affect Ssa1 function, substitutions in Hsp70 itself might also be able to overcome the cellular requirement for Sis1, we carried out a selection for SSA1 suppressor mutations. Suppressing substitutions were isolated that altered sites in Ssa1 affecting the cycle of substrate interaction. Together, our results point to a third, additional means by which J-proteins can drive Hsp70's ability to function in a wide range of cellular processes-modulating the Hsp70-substrate interaction cycle.

  14. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A

    2012-10-30

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to test the counteraction hypothesis of counterbalancing effects between the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and denaturing osmolyte urea for the case of α-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease-linked protein whose monomer exhibits significant disorder. The single-molecule experiments, which avoid complications from protein aggregation, do not exhibit clear solvent-induced cooperative protein transitions for these osmolytes, unlike results from previous studies on globular proteins. Our data demonstrate the ability of TMAO and urea to shift α-synuclein structures towards either more compact or expanded average dimensions. Strikingly, the experiments directly reveal that a 21 [urea][TMAO] ratio has a net neutral effect on the protein's dimensions, a result that holds regardless of the absolute osmolyte concentrations. Our findings shed light on a surprisingly simple aspect of the interplay between urea and TMAO on α-synuclein in the context of intrinsically disordered proteins, with potential implications for the biological roles of such chemical chaperones. The results also highlight the strengths of single-molecule experiments in directly probing the chemical physics of protein structure and disorder in more chemically complex environments.

  15. Tah1 helix-swap dimerization prevents mixed Hsp90 co-chaperone complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Pal, Mohinder; Roe, S. Mark; Pearl, Laurence H.; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2015-01-01

    A helix swap involving the fifth helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules restores the normal binding environment of the conserved MEEVD peptide of Hsp90. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes with Hsp90 and Tah1. Specific co-chaperone adaptors facilitate the recruitment of client proteins to the Hsp90 system. Tah1 binds the C-terminal conserved MEEVD motif of Hsp90, thus linking an eclectic set of client proteins to the R2TP complex for their assembly and regulation by Hsp90. Rather than the normal complement of seven α-helices seen in other tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, Tah1 unusually consists of the first five only. Consequently, the methionine of the MEEVD peptide remains exposed to solvent when bound by Tah1. In solution Tah1 appears to be predominantly monomeric, and recent structures have failed to explain how Tah1 appears to prevent the formation of mixed TPR domain-containing complexes such as Cpr6–(Hsp90) 2 –Tah1. To understand this further, the crystal structure of Tah1 in complex with the MEEVD peptide of Hsp90 was determined, which shows a helix swap involving the fifth α-helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules. Dimerization of Tah1 restores the normal binding environment of the bound Hsp90 methionine residue by reconstituting a TPR binding site similar to that in seven-helix-containing TPR domain proteins. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes

  16. Coffee enhances the expression of chaperones and antioxidant proteins in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Vitaglione, Paola; Morisco, Filomena; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Zappalà, Agata; Palmigiano, Angelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Caporaso, Nicola; D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption is inversely related to the degree of liver injury in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Molecular mediators contributing to coffee's beneficial effects in NAFLD remain to be elucidated. In this study, we administrated decaffeinated espresso coffee or vehicle to rats fed an high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and examined the effects of coffee on liver injury by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) proteomic analysis combined with mass spectrometry. Rats fed an HFD and water developed panacinar steatosis, lobular inflammation, and mild fibrosis, whereas rats fed an HFD and coffee exhibited only mild steatosis. Coffee consumption increased liver expression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones glucose-related protein 78 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3; similarly, coffee drinking enhanced the expression of the mitochondrial chaperones heat stress protein 70 and DJ-1. Furthermore, in agreement with reduced hepatic levels of 8-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, proteomic analysis showed that coffee consumption induces the expression of master regulators of redox status (i.e., peroxiredoxin 1, glutathione S-transferase α2, and D-dopachrome tautomerase). Last, proteomics revealed an association of coffee intake with decreased expression of electron transfer flavoprotein subunit α, a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, involved in de novo lipogenesis. In this study, we were able to identify by proteomic analysis the stress proteins mediating the antioxidant effects of coffee; moreover, we establish for the first time the contribution of specific coffee-induced endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial chaperones ensuring correct protein folding and degradation in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tah1 helix-swap dimerization prevents mixed Hsp90 co-chaperone complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Pal, Mohinder; Roe, S. Mark; Pearl, Laurence H., E-mail: laurence.pearl@sussex.ac.uk; Prodromou, Chrisostomos, E-mail: laurence.pearl@sussex.ac.uk [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    A helix swap involving the fifth helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules restores the normal binding environment of the conserved MEEVD peptide of Hsp90. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes with Hsp90 and Tah1. Specific co-chaperone adaptors facilitate the recruitment of client proteins to the Hsp90 system. Tah1 binds the C-terminal conserved MEEVD motif of Hsp90, thus linking an eclectic set of client proteins to the R2TP complex for their assembly and regulation by Hsp90. Rather than the normal complement of seven α-helices seen in other tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, Tah1 unusually consists of the first five only. Consequently, the methionine of the MEEVD peptide remains exposed to solvent when bound by Tah1. In solution Tah1 appears to be predominantly monomeric, and recent structures have failed to explain how Tah1 appears to prevent the formation of mixed TPR domain-containing complexes such as Cpr6–(Hsp90){sub 2}–Tah1. To understand this further, the crystal structure of Tah1 in complex with the MEEVD peptide of Hsp90 was determined, which shows a helix swap involving the fifth α-helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules. Dimerization of Tah1 restores the normal binding environment of the bound Hsp90 methionine residue by reconstituting a TPR binding site similar to that in seven-helix-containing TPR domain proteins. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes.

  18. Spinal Muscular Atrophy: From Defective Chaperoning of snRNP Assembly to Neuromuscular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Lanfranco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a neuromuscular disorder that results from decreased levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that also includes Gemins 2–8 and Unrip. The SMN-Gemins complex cooperates with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 complex, whose constituents include WD45, PRMT5 and pICln. Both complexes function as molecular chaperones, interacting with and assisting in the assembly of an Sm protein core onto small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs to generate small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are the operating components of the spliceosome. Molecular and structural studies have refined our knowledge of the key events taking place within the crowded environment of cells and the numerous precautions undertaken to ensure the faithful assembly of snRNPs. Nonetheless, it remains unclear whether a loss of chaperoning in snRNP assembly, considered as a “housekeeping” activity, is responsible for the selective neuromuscular phenotype in SMA. This review thus shines light on in vivo studies that point toward disturbances in snRNP assembly and the consequential transcriptome abnormalities as the primary drivers of the progressive neuromuscular degeneration underpinning the disease. Disruption of U1 snRNP or snRNP assembly factors other than SMN induces phenotypes that mirror aspects of SMN deficiency, and splicing defects, described in numerous SMA models, can lead to a DNA damage and stress response that compromises the survival of the motor system. Restoring the correct chaperoning of snRNP assembly is therefore predicted to enhance the benefit of SMA therapeutic modalities based on augmenting SMN expression.

  19. Counteracting chemical chaperone effects on the single-molecule α-synuclein structural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreon, Allan Chris M.; Moosa, Mahdi Muhammad; Deniz, Ashok A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure and function depend on a close interplay between intrinsic folding energy landscapes and the chemistry of the protein environment. Osmolytes are small-molecule compounds that can act as chemical chaperones by altering the environment in a cellular context. Despite their importance, detailed studies on the role of these chemical chaperones in modulating structure and dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins have been limited. Here, we used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer to test the counteraction hypothesis of counterbalancing effects between the protecting osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and denaturing osmolyte urea for the case of α-synuclein, a Parkinson’s disease-linked protein whose monomer exhibits significant disorder. The single-molecule experiments, which avoid complications from protein aggregation, do not exhibit clear solvent-induced cooperative protein transitions for these osmolytes, unlike results from previous studies on globular proteins. Our data demonstrate the ability of TMAO and urea to shift α-synuclein structures towards either more compact or expanded average dimensions. Strikingly, the experiments directly reveal that a 2∶1 [urea]∶[TMAO] ratio has a net neutral effect on the protein’s dimensions, a result that holds regardless of the absolute osmolyte concentrations. Our findings shed light on a surprisingly simple aspect of the interplay between urea and TMAO on α-synuclein in the context of intrinsically disordered proteins, with potential implications for the biological roles of such chemical chaperones. The results also highlight the strengths of single-molecule experiments in directly probing the chemical physics of protein structure and disorder in more chemically complex environments. PMID:22826265

  20. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A; Bedford, Mark T; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying; Harty, Ronald N

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles.

  1. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola (EBOV and Marburg (MARV viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3, a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs, as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA. Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles.

  2. Chaperone-usher fimbriae in a diverse selection of Gallibacterium genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Bager, Ragnhild Jørgensen; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fimbriae are bacterial cell surface organelles involved in the pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Gallibacterium anatis, in which a F17-like fimbriae of the chaperone-usher (CU) family was recently shown to be an important virulence factor and vaccine candidate. To reveal...... that their expression may require other in vitro or in vivo conditions. Conclusions This is the first approach establishing a systematic fimbria classification system within Gallibacterium spp., which indicates a species-wide distribution of γ4 CU fimbriae among a diverse collection of Gallibacterium isolates...

  3. Extracellular RNA Communication (ExRNA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Until recently, scientists believed RNA worked mostly inside the cell that produced it. Some types of RNA help translate genes into proteins that are necessary for...

  4. sRNA-Mediated Regulation of P-Fimbriae Phase Variation in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Kronborg, Tina; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2015-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are capable of occupying physiologically distinct intracellular and extracellular niches within the urinary tract. This feat requires the timely regulation of gene expression and small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to mediate such rapid adjustments in response to ch...... to changing environmental cues. This study aimed to uncover sRNA-mediated gene regulation in the UPEC strain UTI89, during infection of bladder epithelial cells. Hfq is an RNA chaperone known to facilitate and stabilize sRNA and target mRNA interactions with bacterial cells. The co...... to the discovery of a novel virulence-associated trans-acting sRNA-PapR. Deletion of papR was found to enhance adhesion of UTI89 to both bladder and kidney cell lines in a manner independent of type-1 fimbriae. We demonstrate PapR mediated posttranscriptional repression of the P-fimbriae phase regulator gene pap...

  5. Histone H1 chaperone activity of TAF-I is regulated by its subtype-dependent intramolecular interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Kaori; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2017-04-01

    Linker histone H1 is involved in the regulation of gene activity through the maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure. Previously, we have shown that template activating factor-I (TAF-I or protein SET) is involved in linker histone H1 dynamics as a histone H1 chaperone. In human and murine cells, two TAF-I subtypes exist, namely TAF-Iα and TAF-Iβ. TAF-I has a highly acidic amino acid cluster in its C-terminal region and forms homo- or heterodimers through its dimerization domain. Both dimer formation and the C-terminal region of TAF-I are essential for the histone chaperone activity. TAF-Iα exhibits less histone chaperone activity compared with TAF-Iβ even though TAF-Iα and β differ only in their N-terminal regions. However, it is unclear how subtype-specific TAF-I activities are regulated. Here, we have shown that the N-terminal region of TAF-Iα autoinhibits its histone chaperone activity via intramolecular interaction with its C-terminal region. When the interaction between the N- and C-terminal regions of TAF-Iα is disrupted, TAF-Iα shows a histone chaperone activity similar to that of TAF-Iβ. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic insights into the concept that fine tuning of TAF-I histone H1 chaperone activity relies on the subtype compositions of the TAF-I dimer. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Hsp40s specify functions of Hsp104 and Hsp90 protein chaperone machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reidy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsp100 family chaperones of microorganisms and plants cooperate with the Hsp70/Hsp40/NEF system to resolubilize and reactivate stress-denatured proteins. In yeast this machinery also promotes propagation of prions by fragmenting prion polymers. We previously showed the bacterial Hsp100 machinery cooperates with the yeast Hsp40 Ydj1 to support yeast thermotolerance and with the yeast Hsp40 Sis1 to propagate [PSI+] prions. Here we find these Hsp40s similarly directed specific activities of the yeast Hsp104-based machinery. By assessing the ability of Ydj1-Sis1 hybrid proteins to complement Ydj1 and Sis1 functions we show their C-terminal substrate-binding domains determined distinctions in these and other cellular functions of Ydj1 and Sis1. We find propagation of [URE3] prions was acutely sensitive to alterations in Sis1 activity, while that of [PIN+] prions was less sensitive than [URE3], but more sensitive than [PSI+]. These findings support the ideas that overexpressing Ydj1 cures [URE3] by competing with Sis1 for interaction with the Hsp104-based disaggregation machine, and that different prions rely differently on activity of this machinery, which can explain the various ways they respond to alterations in chaperone function.

  7. A genetic screen reveals a periplasmic copper chaperone required for nitrite reductase activity in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Freda E-C; Djoko, Karrera Y; Bent, Stephen J; Day, Christopher J; McEwan, Alastair G; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Under conditions of low oxygen availability, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are able to respire via a partial denitrification pathway in which nitrite is converted to nitrous oxide. In this process, nitrite reductase (AniA), a copper (Cu)-containing protein converts nitrite to NO, and this product is converted to nitrous oxide by nitric oxide reductase (NorB). NorB also confers protection against toxic NO, and so we devised a conditional lethal screen, using a norB mutant, to identify mutants that were resistant to nitrite-dependent killing. After random-deletion mutagenesis of N. meningitidis, this genetic screen identified a gene encoding a Cu chaperone that is essential for AniA function, AccA. Purified AccA binds one Cu (I) ion and also possesses a second binding site for Cu (II). This novel periplasmic Cu chaperone (AccA) appears to be essential for provision of Cu ions to AniA of pathogenic Neisseria to generate an active nitrite reductase. Apart from the Neisseria genus, AccA is distributed across a wide range of environmental Proteobacteria species. © FASEB.

  8. Beyond genetic factors in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: protein glycation and the loss of fibrinogen's chaperone activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo da Costa

    Full Text Available Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP is a systemic conformational disease characterized by extracellular amyloid fibril formation from plasma transthyretin (TTR. This is a crippling, fatal disease for which liver transplantation is the only effective therapy. More than 80 TTR point mutations are associated with amyloidotic diseases and the most widely accepted disease model relates TTR tetramer instability with TTR point mutations. However, this model fails to explain two observations. First, native TTR also forms amyloid in systemic senile amyloidosis, a geriatric disease. Second, age at disease onset varies by decades for patients bearing the same mutation and some mutation carrier individuals are asymptomatic throughout their lives. Hence, mutations only accelerate the process and non-genetic factors must play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of disease. One of these factors is protein glycation, previously associated with conformational diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The glycation hypothesis in FAP is supported by our previous discovery of methylglyoxal-derived glycation of amyloid fibrils in FAP patients. Here we show that plasma proteins are differentially glycated by methylglyoxal in FAP patients and that fibrinogen is the main glycation target. Moreover, we also found that fibrinogen interacts with TTR in plasma. Fibrinogen has chaperone activity which is compromised upon glycation by methylglyoxal. Hence, we propose that methylglyoxal glycation hampers the chaperone activity of fibrinogen, rendering TTR more prone to aggregation, amyloid formation and ultimately, disease.

  9. Proteomic data from human cell cultures refine mechanisms of chaperone-mediated protein homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finka, Andrija; Goloubinoff, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    In the crowded environment of human cells, folding of nascent polypeptides and refolding of stress-unfolded proteins is error prone. Accumulation of cytotoxic misfolded and aggregated species may cause cell death, tissue loss, degenerative conformational diseases, and aging. Nevertheless, young cells effectively express a network of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes, termed here "the chaperome," which can prevent formation of potentially harmful misfolded protein conformers and use the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to rehabilitate already formed toxic aggregates into native functional proteins. In an attempt to extend knowledge of chaperome mechanisms in cellular proteostasis, we performed a meta-analysis of human chaperome using high-throughput proteomic data from 11 immortalized human cell lines. Chaperome polypeptides were about 10% of total protein mass of human cells, half of which were Hsp90s and Hsp70s. Knowledge of cellular concentrations and ratios among chaperome polypeptides provided a novel basis to understand mechanisms by which the Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90, and small heat shock proteins (HSPs), in collaboration with cochaperones and folding enzymes, assist de novo protein folding, import polypeptides into organelles, unfold stress-destabilized toxic conformers, and control the conformal activity of native proteins in the crowded environment of the cell. Proteomic data also provided means to distinguish between stable components of chaperone core machineries and dynamic regulatory cochaperones.

  10. Phosphorylation-mediated control of histone chaperone ASF1 levels by Tousled-like kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Pilyugin

    Full Text Available Histone chaperones are at the hub of a diverse interaction networks integrating a plethora of chromatin modifying activities. Histone H3/H4 chaperone ASF1 is a target for cell-cycle regulated Tousled-like kinases (TLKs and both proteins cooperate during chromatin replication. However, the precise role of post-translational modification of ASF1 remained unclear. Here, we identify the TLK phosphorylation sites for both Drosophila and human ASF1 proteins. Loss of TLK-mediated phosphorylation triggers hASF1a and dASF1 degradation by proteasome-dependent and independent mechanisms respectively. Consistent with this notion, introduction of phosphorylation-mimicking mutants inhibits hASF1a and dASF1 degradation. Human hASF1b is also targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation, but its stability is not affected by phosphorylation indicating that other mechanisms are likely to be involved in control of hASF1b levels. Together, these results suggest that ASF1 cellular levels are tightly controlled by distinct pathways and provide a molecular mechanism for post-translational regulation of dASF1 and hASF1a by TLK kinases.

  11. Pharmacological chaperone reshapes the energy landscape for folding and aggregation of the prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amar Nath; Neupane, Krishna; Rezajooei, Negar; Cortez, Leonardo M.; Sim, Valerie L.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2016-06-01

    The development of small-molecule pharmacological chaperones as therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases has proven challenging, partly because their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we study Fe-TMPyP, a tetrapyrrole that binds to the prion protein PrP and inhibits misfolding, examining its effects on PrP folding at the single-molecule level with force spectroscopy. Single PrP molecules are unfolded with and without Fe-TMPyP present using optical tweezers. Ligand binding to the native structure increases the unfolding force significantly and alters the transition state for unfolding, making it more brittle and raising the barrier height. Fe-TMPyP also binds the unfolded state, delaying native refolding. Furthermore, Fe-TMPyP binding blocks the formation of a stable misfolded dimer by interfering with intermolecular interactions, acting in a similar manner to some molecular chaperones. The ligand thus promotes native folding by stabilizing the native state while also suppressing interactions driving aggregation.

  12. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Charnaud

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins.

  13. Targeting Hsp90-Cdc37: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy by Inhibiting Hsp90 Chaperone Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li; Gu, Kai; Xu, Xiao-Li; Sun, Yuan; You, Qi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone protein regulates the folding, maturation and stability of a wide variety of oncoproteins. In recent years, many Hsp90 inhibitors have entered into the clinical trials while all of them target ATPase showing similar binding capacity and kinds of side-effects so that none have reached to the market. During the regulation progress, numerous protein- protein interactions (PPI) such as Hsp90 and client proteins or cochaperones are involved. With the Hsp90-cochaperones PPI networks being more and more clear, many cancerous proteins have been reported to be tightly correlated to Hsp90-cochaperones PPI. Among them, Hsp90-Cdc37 PPI has been widely reported to associate with numerous protein kinases, making it a novel target for the treatment of cancers. In this paper, we briefly review the strategies and modulators targeting Hsp90-Cdc37 complex including direct and indirect regulation mechanism. Through these discussions we expect to present inspirations for new insights into an alternative way to inhibit Hsp90 chaperone function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Human cytoplasmic copper chaperones Atox1 and CCS exchange copper ions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Svenja; Kahra, Dana; Kovermann, Michael; Dingeldein, Artur P G; Niemiec, Moritz S; Ådén, Jörgen; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2015-06-01

    After Ctr1-mediated copper ion (Cu) entry into the human cytoplasm, chaperones Atox1 and CCS deliver Cu to P1B-type ATPases and to superoxide dismutase, respectively, via direct protein-protein interactions. Although the two Cu chaperones are presumed to work along independent pathways, we here assessed cross-reactivity between Atox1 and the first domain of CCS (CCS1) using biochemical and biophysical methods in vitro. By NMR we show that CCS1 is monomeric although it elutes differently from Atox1 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This property allows separation of Atox1 and CCS1 by SEC and, combined with the 254/280 nm ratio as an indicator of Cu loading, we demonstrate that Cu can be transferred from one protein to the other. Cu exchange also occurs with full-length CCS and, as expected, the interaction involves the metal binding sites since mutation of Cu-binding cysteine in Atox1 eliminates Cu transfer from CCS1. Cross-reactivity between CCS and Atox1 may aid in regulation of Cu distribution in the cytoplasm.

  15. A molecular chaperone activity of CCS restores the maturation of SOD1 fALS mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Banci, Lucia

    2017-12-12

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an important metalloprotein for cellular oxidative stress defence, that is mutated in familiar variants of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS). Some mutations destabilize the apo protein, leading to the formation of misfolded, toxic species. The Copper Chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) transiently interacts with SOD1 and promotes its correct maturation by transferring copper and catalyzing disulfide bond formation. By in vitro and in-cell NMR, we investigated the role of the SOD-like domain of CCS (CCS-D2). We showed that CCS-D2 forms a stable complex with zinc-bound SOD1 in human cells, that has a twofold stabilizing effect: it both prevents the accumulation of unstructured mutant SOD1 and promotes zinc binding. We further showed that CCS-D2 interacts with apo-SOD1 in vitro, suggesting that in cells CCS stabilizes mutant apo-SOD1 prior to zinc binding. Such molecular chaperone function of CCS-D2 is novel and its implications in SOD-linked fALS deserve further investigation.

  16. Intracellular dynamics of the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 is dictated by Hsp90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Didier

    2006-01-01

    p23 is a component of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine. It binds and stabilizes the ATP-bound dimeric form of Hsp90. Since Hsp90 binds protein substrates in the ATP conformation, p23 has been proposed to stabilize Hsp90-substrate complexes. In addition, p23 can also function as a molecular chaperone by itself and even possesses an unrelated enzymatic activity. Whether it fulfills the latter functions in cells while bound to Hsp90 remains unknown and is difficult to extrapolate from cell-free biochemical experiments. Using the 'fluorescence recovery after photobleaching' (FRAP) technology, I have examined the dynamics of human p23, expressed as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein (GFP), in living human HeLa cells. GFP-p23 is distributed throughout the cell, and its mobility is identical in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. When the Hsp90 interaction is disrupted either with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin or by introduction of point mutations into p23, the mobility of p23 is greatly accelerated. Under these conditions, its intracellular movement may be diffusion-controlled. In contrast, when wild-type p23 is able to bind Hsp90, a more complex FRAP behavior is observed, suggesting that it is quantitatively bound in Hsp90 complexes undergoing a multitude of other interactions

  17. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; Dixon, Matthew W. A.; Nie, Catherine Q.; Chappell, Lia; Sanders, Paul R.; Nebl, Thomas; Hanssen, Eric; Berriman, Matthew; Chan, Jo-Anne; Blanch, Adam J.; Beeson, James G.; Rayner, Julian C.; Przyborski, Jude M.; Tilley, Leann; Crabb, Brendan S.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins. PMID:28732045

  18. Streptococcus mutans copper chaperone, CopZ, is critical for biofilm formation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Du, Q; Wu, H

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions such as copper. Although there is a physiologic level of copper in the saliva, the oral cavity is often challenged with an influx of copper ions. At high concentrations copper is toxic and must therefore be strictly regulated by pathogens for them to persist and cause disease. The cariogenic pathogen Streptococcus mutans manages excess copper using the copYAZ operon that encodes a negative DNA-binding repressor (CopY), the P1-ATPase copper exporter (CopA), and the copper chaperone (CopZ). These hypothetical roles of the copYAZ operon in regulation and copper transport to receptors led us to investigate their contribution to S. mutans virulence. Mutants defective in the copper chaperone CopZ, but not CopY or CopA, were impaired in biofilm formation and competitiveness against commensal streptococci. Characterization of the CopZ mutant biofilm revealed a decreased secretion of glucosyltransferases and reduced expression of mutacin genes. These data suggest that the function of copZ on biofilm and competitiveness is independent of copper resistance and CopZ is a global regulator for biofilm and other virulence factors. Further characterization of CopZ may lead to the identification of new biofilm pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fluorinated Chaperone-β-Cyclodextrin Formulations for β-Glucocerebrosidase Activity Enhancement in Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, M Isabel; de la Mata, Mario; Sánchez-Fernández, Elena M; Benito, Juan M; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Fustero, Santos; Nanba, Eiji; Higaki, Katsumi; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A; García Fernández, José M; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen

    2017-03-09

    Amphiphilic glycomimetics encompassing a rigid, undistortable nortropane skeleton based on 1,6-anhydro-l-idonojirimycin and a polyfluorinated antenna, when formulated as the corresponding inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin (βCD), have been shown to behave as pharmacological chaperones (PCs) that efficiently rescue lysosomal β-glucocerebrosidase mutants associated with the neuronopathic variants of Gaucher disease (GD), including the highly refractory L444P/L444P and L444P/P415R single nucleotide polymorphs, in patient fibroblasts. The body of work here presented includes the design criteria for the PC prototype, the synthesis of a series of candidates, the characterization of the PC:βCD complexes, the determination of the selectivity profiles toward a panel of commercial and human lysosomal glycosidases, the evaluation of the chaperoning activity in type 1 (non-neuronopathic), type 2 (acute neuronopathic), and type 3 (adult neuronopathic) GD fibroblasts, the confirmation of the rescuing mechanism by immunolabeling, and the analysis of the PC:GCase binding mode by docking experiments.

  20. Gamma-irradiation effects to posttranslational modification and chaperon function of bovine α-crystalline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, K; Matsumoto, S.; Awakura, M.; Fujii, N.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of D-asparate (D-Asp) in αA-crystallin of the aged human eye and the cataract crystalline lens has been reported. Crystalline lens keeps the transparency by forming α-crystallin which consists of a high order association of αA-and αB-crystallin. Bovine α-crystallin for investigating a chaperone function which protects the crystalline lens from getting to opaque or disordered agglutination with heat or light, is irradiated by gamma-ray (Co-60) at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy, respectively. The irradiated bovine α-crystallin are analyzed with electrophoresis, gel permeation chromatograph, and UV absorption spectrometer for checking on the agglutination and the isomerization of macromolecules. Oxidation of methionine residues (Met-1) and isomerization of asparagine residues (Asp-151) in the αA-crystallin are ascertained in molecular levels with reversed phase liquid chromatography. The Met-1 oxidation and the Asp-151 isomerization depend on gamma-irradiation doses. It is thought that OH radical and H radical in water generated by the irradiation lead to the oxidation and the isomerization. Stereoinversion in the α-crystallin following to such a chemical change are considered to lead to the agglutination of polymer and the reduction of chaperon function. (M. Suetake)

  1. Heterologous gln/asn-rich proteins impede the propagation of yeast prions by altering chaperone availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Yang

    Full Text Available Prions are self-propagating conformations of proteins that can cause heritable phenotypic traits. Most yeast prions contain glutamine (Q/asparagine (N-rich domains that facilitate the accumulation of the protein into amyloid-like aggregates. Efficient transmission of these infectious aggregates to daughter cells requires that chaperones, including Hsp104 and Sis1, continually sever the aggregates into smaller "seeds." We previously identified 11 proteins with Q/N-rich domains that, when overproduced, facilitate the de novo aggregation of the Sup35 protein into the [PSI(+] prion state. Here, we show that overexpression of many of the same 11 Q/N-rich proteins can also destabilize pre-existing [PSI(+] or [URE3] prions. We explore in detail the events leading to the loss (curing of [PSI(+] by the overexpression of one of these proteins, the Q/N-rich domain of Pin4, which causes Sup35 aggregates to increase in size and decrease in transmissibility to daughter cells. We show that the Pin4 Q/N-rich domain sequesters Hsp104 and Sis1 chaperones away from the diffuse cytoplasmic pool. Thus, a mechanism by which heterologous Q/N-rich proteins impair prion propagation appears to be the loss of cytoplasmic Hsp104 and Sis1 available to sever [PSI(+].

  2. The Cryoelectron Microscopy Structure of the Type 1 Chaperone-Usher Pilus Rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospenthal, Manuela K; Zyla, Dawid; Costa, Tiago R D; Redzej, Adam; Giese, Christoph; Lillington, James; Glockshuber, Rudi; Waksman, Gabriel

    2017-12-05

    Adhesive chaperone-usher pili are long, supramolecular protein fibers displayed on the surface of many bacterial pathogens. The type 1 and P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) play important roles during urinary tract colonization, mediating attachment to the bladder and kidney, respectively. The biomechanical properties of the helical pilus rods allow them to reversibly uncoil in response to flow-induced forces, allowing UPEC to retain a foothold in the unique and hostile environment of the urinary tract. Here we provide the 4.2-Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the type 1 pilus rod, which together with the previous P pilus rod structure rationalizes the remarkable "spring-like" properties of chaperone-usher pili. The cryo-EM structure of the type 1 pilus rod differs in its helical parameters from the structure determined previously by a hybrid approach. We provide evidence that these structural differences originate from different quaternary structures of pili assembled in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical exercise alleviates ER stress in obese humans through reduction in the expression and release of GRP78 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Kavalakatt, Sina; Abubaker, Jehad; Cherian, Preethi; Madhu, Dhanya; Al-Khairi, Irina; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Warsame, Samia; Elkum, Naser; Dehbi, Mohammed; Tiss, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has emerged as one of the prominent features of obesity and diabetes. This occurs when the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to restore ER function in key metabolic tissues. We previously reported increased inflammation and impaired heat shock response (HSR) in obese human subjects that were restored by physical exercise. Here, we investigated the status of ER stress chaperone; glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and its downstream UPR pathways in human obese, and their modulation by a supervised 3-month physical exercise. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood samples were collected from non-diabetic adult human lean (n=40) and obese (n=40, at baseline and after 3months of physical exercise). Transcriptomic profiling was used as a primary screen to identify differentially expressed genes and it was carried out on SAT samples using the UPR RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. Conventional RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot and ELISA were used to validate the transcriptomic data. Correlation analyses with the physical, clinical and biochemical outcomes were performed using Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. Levels of GRP78 and its three downstream UPR arms; activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) were increased in obese subjects. More interestingly, higher levels of circulating GRP78 protein were found in obese compared to lean subjects which correlated negatively with maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 Max) but positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and obesity indicators such as BMI, percentage body fat (PBF) and waist circumference. GRP78 increased secretion in obese was further confirmed in vitro using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells under ER stress. Finally, we showed that physical exercise significantly attenuated the expression and release of GRP78

  4. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A

    2015-08-11

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin's transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ's histone chaperone activity.

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph; Marquardt, Iris; Donsante, Anthony; Yi, Ling; Hicks, Julia D; Steinbach, Peter J; Wilson, Callum; Elpeleg, Orly; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Christodoulou, John; Kaler, Stephen G; Gärtner, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is a trace metal that readily gains and donates electrons, a property that renders it desirable as an enzyme cofactor but dangerous as a source of free radicals. To regulate cellular Cu metabolism, an elaborate system of chaperones and transporters has evolved, although no human Cu chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation in a gene coding for a Cu chaperone. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. c-Abl Mediated Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Aha1 Activates Its Co-chaperone Function in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 to hydrolyze ATP is essential for its chaperone function. The co-chaperone Aha1 stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, tailoring the chaperone function to specific “client” proteins. The intracellular signaling mechanisms directly regulating Aha1 association with Hsp90 remain unknown. Here, we show that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Y223 in human Aha1 (hAha1, promoting its interaction with Hsp90. This, consequently, results in an increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, enhances Hsp90 interaction with kinase clients, and compromises the chaperoning of non-kinase clients such as glucocorticoid receptor and CFTR. Suggesting a regulatory paradigm, we also find that Y223 phosphorylation leads to ubiquitination and degradation of hAha1 in the proteasome. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of c-Abl prevents hAha1 interaction with Hsp90, thereby hypersensitizing cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors both in vitro and ex vivo.

  7. Biology of the Heat Shock Response and Protein Chaperones: Budding Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Jacob; Abrams, Jennifer; Wang, Yanyu

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic heat shock response is an ancient and highly conserved transcriptional program that results in the immediate synthesis of a battery of cytoprotective genes in the presence of thermal and other environmental stresses. Many of these genes encode molecular chaperones, powerful protein remodelers with the capacity to shield, fold, or unfold substrates in a context-dependent manner. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be an invaluable model for driving the discovery of regulatory features of this fundamental stress response. In addition, budding yeast has been an outstanding model system to elucidate the cell biology of protein chaperones and their organization into functional networks. In this review, we evaluate our understanding of the multifaceted response to heat shock. In addition, the chaperone complement of the cytosol is compared to those of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, organelles with their own unique protein homeostasis milieus. Finally, we examine recent advances in the understanding of the roles of protein chaperones and the heat shock response in pathogenic fungi, which is being accelerated by the wealth of information gained for budding yeast. PMID:22688810

  8. DNAJB6 is a peptide-binding chaperone which can suppress amyloid fibrillation of polyglutamine peptides at substoichiometric molar ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansson, Cecilia; Kakkar, Vaishali; Monsellier, Elodie; Sourigues, Yannick; Harmark, Johan; Kampinga, Harm H.; Melki, Ronald; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    Expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches lead to protein aggregation and severe neurodegenerative diseases. A highly efficient suppressor of polyQ aggregation was identified, the DNAJB6, when molecular chaperones from the HSPH, HSPA, and DNAJ families were screened for huntingtin exon 1 aggregation

  9. System level mechanisms of adaptation, learning, memory formation and evolvability: the role of chaperone and other networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurko, David M; Soti, Csaba; Stetak, Attila; Csermely, Peter

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, network approaches became a powerful tool to describe protein structure and dynamics. Here, we describe first the protein structure networks of molecular chaperones, then characterize chaperone containing sub-networks of interactomes called as chaperone-networks or chaperomes. We review the role of molecular chaperones in short-term adaptation of cellular networks in response to stress, and in long-term adaptation discussing their putative functions in the regulation of evolvability. We provide a general overview of possible network mechanisms of adaptation, learning and memory formation. We propose that changes of network rigidity play a key role in learning and memory formation processes. Flexible network topology provides ' learning-competent' state. Here, networks may have much less modular boundaries than locally rigid, highly modular networks, where the learnt information has already been consolidated in a memory formation process. Since modular boundaries are efficient filters of information, in the 'learning-competent' state information filtering may be much smaller, than after memory formation. This mechanism restricts high information transfer to the 'learning competent' state. After memory formation, modular boundary-induced segregation and information filtering protect the stored information. The flexible networks of young organisms are generally in a 'learning competent' state. On the contrary, locally rigid networks of old organisms have lost their 'learning competent' state, but store and protect their learnt information efficiently. We anticipate that the above mechanism may operate at the level of both protein-protein interaction and neuronal networks.

  10. Study of chaperone-like activity of human haptoglobin: conformational changes under heat shock conditions and localization of interaction sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettrich, R.; Brandt, W.; Kopecký ml., V.; Baumruk, V.; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Pavlíček, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 383, č. 10 (2002), s. 1667-1676 ISSN 1431-6730 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 220/2000/B-CH; Volkswagen Foundation(DE) I/74679 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : chaperone * haptoglobin * molecular modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2002

  11. Combinatorics of RNA-RNA interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian

    2012-01-01

    RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure...... means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called "zigzag" configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including...

  12. Comparison of the carboxy-terminal DP-repeat region in the co-chaperones Hop and Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F

    2003-01-01

    Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.

  13. Regulation of human Nfu activity in Fe-S cluster delivery-characterization of the interaction between Nfu and the HSPA9/Hsc20 chaperone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachnowsky, Christine; Liu, Yushi; Yoon, Taejin; Cowan, J A

    2018-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is a complex, but highly regulated process that involves de novo cluster formation from iron and sulfide ions on a scaffold protein, and subsequent delivery to final targets via a series of Fe-S cluster-binding carrier proteins. The process of cluster release from the scaffold/carrier for transfer to the target proteins may be mediated by a dedicated Fe-S cluster chaperone system. In human cells, the chaperones include heat shock protein HSPA9 and the J-type chaperone Hsc20. While the role of chaperones has been somewhat clarified in yeast and bacterial systems, many questions remain over their functional roles in cluster delivery and interactions with a variety of human Fe-S cluster proteins. One such protein, Nfu, has recently been recognized as a potential interaction partner of the chaperone complex. Herein, we examined the ability of human Nfu to function as a carrier by interacting with the human chaperone complex. Human Nfu is shown to bind to both chaperone proteins with binding affinities similar to those observed for IscU binding to the homologous HSPA9 and Hsc20, while Nfu can also stimulate the ATPase activity of HSPA9. Additionally, the chaperone complex was able to promote Nfu function by enhancing the second-order rate constants for Fe-S cluster transfer to target proteins and providing directionality in cluster transfer from Nfu by eliminating promiscuous transfer reactions. Together, these data support a hypothesis in which Nfu can serve as an alternative carrier protein for chaperone-mediated cluster release and delivery in Fe-S cluster biogenesis and trafficking. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Improved Fab presentation on phage surface with the use of molecular chaperone coplasmid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Qiuting; Leong, Siew Wen; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-05-15

    The low presentation efficiency of Fab (fragment antigen binding) fragments during phage display is largely due to the complexity of disulphide bond formation. This can result in the presentation of Fab fragments devoid of a light chain during phage display. Here we propose the use of a coplasmid system encoding several molecular chaperones (DsbA, DsbC, FkpA, and SurA) to improve Fab packaging. A comparison was done using the Fab fragment from IgG and IgD. We found that the use of the coplasmid during phage packaging was able to improve the presentation efficiency of the Fab fragment on phage surfaces. A modified version of panning using the coplasmid system was evaluated and was successful at enriching Fab binders. Therefore, the coplasmid system would be an attractive alternative for improved Fab presentation for phage display. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Christine Bard, Sylvie Chaperon (dirs), Dictionnaire des féministes. France xviiie-

    OpenAIRE

    Rouch, Marine

    2017-01-01

    Dix années auront été nécessaires pour la réalisation de cet ouvrage, véritable événement éditorial de l’année 2017 pour celles et ceux qui s’intéressent de près ou de loin au féminisme, à ses figures, à ses groupes. Comme l’indiquent Christine Bard et Sylvie Chaperon, les directrices de publication, il est désormais le premier du genre à alimenter l’« espace mémoriel immatériel du féminisme » (p. IX) et à inviter au « voyage dans le temps et l’espace du féminisme » (p. X). Il faut souligner ...

  16. Two for the Price of One: A Neuroprotective Chaperone Kit within NAD Synthase Protein NMNAT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lavado-Roldán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fascinating properties of the brain is the ability to function smoothly across decades of a lifespan. Neurons are nondividing mature cells specialized in fast electrical and chemical communication at synapses. Often, neurons and synapses operate at high levels of activity through sophisticated arborizations of long axons and dendrites that nevertheless stay healthy throughout years. On the other hand, aging and activity-dependent stress strike onto the protein machineries turning proteins unfolded and prone to form pathological aggregates associated with neurodegeneration. How do neurons protect from those insults and remain healthy for their whole life? Ali and colleagues now present a molecular mechanism by which the enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (NMNAT2 acts not only as a NAD synthase involved in axonal maintenance but as a molecular chaperone helping neurons to overcome protein unfolding and protein aggregation.

  17. Deletion of the Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP-1 Uncovers Global Reprogramming of Metabolic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lisanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of metabolic pathways contributes to human disease, especially cancer, but the regulators of this process are unknown. Here, we have generated a mouse knockout for the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP-1, a regulator of bioenergetics in tumors. TRAP-1−/− mice are viable and showed reduced incidence of age-associated pathologies, including obesity, inflammatory tissue degeneration, dysplasia, and spontaneous tumor formation. This was accompanied by global upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis transcriptomes, causing deregulated mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, impaired cell proliferation, and a switch to glycolytic metabolism in vivo. These data identify TRAP-1 as a central regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetics, and this pathway could contribute to metabolic rewiring in tumors.

  18. Chaperone-mediated autophagy and neurodegeneration: connections, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Huang, Sihua; Wang, Xingqin; Tang, Beisha; Li, Wenming; Mao, Zixu

    2015-08-01

    Lysosomes degrade dysfunctional intracellular components via three pathways: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Unlike the other two, CMA degrades cytosolic proteins with a recognized KFERQ-like motif in lysosomes and is important for cellular homeostasis. CMA activity declines with age and is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Its impairment leads to the accumulation of aggregated proteins, some of which may be directly tied to the pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative diseases. Its induction may accelerate the clearance of pathogenic proteins and promote cell survival, representing a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize the current findings on how CMA is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Functional analysis of propeptide as an intramolecular chaperone for in vivo folding of subtilisin nattokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Liu, Hui; Bao, Wei; Weng, Meizhi; Chen, Wei; Cai, Yongjun; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin

    2010-12-01

    Here, we show that during in vivo folding of the precursor, the propeptide of subtilisin nattokinase functions as an intramolecular chaperone (IMC) that organises the in vivo folding of the subtilisin domain. Two residues belonging to β-strands formed by conserved regions of the IMC are crucial for the folding of the subtilisin domain through direct interactions. An identical protease can fold into different conformations in vivo due to the action of a mutated IMC, resulting in different kinetic parameters. Some interfacial changes involving conserved regions, even those induced by the subtilisin domain, blocked subtilisin folding and altered its conformation. Insight into the interaction between the subtilisin and IMC domains is provided by a three-dimensional structural model. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The crystal structure of the human co-chaperone P58(IPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Svärd

    Full Text Available P58(IPK is one of the endoplasmic reticulum- (ER- localised DnaJ (ERdj proteins which interact with the chaperone BiP, the mammalian ER ortholog of Hsp70, and are thought to contribute to the specificity and regulation of its diverse functions. P58(IPK, expression of which is upregulated in response to ER stress, has been suggested to act as a co-chaperone, binding un- or misfolded proteins and delivering them to BiP. In order to give further insights into the functions of P58(IPK, and the regulation of BiP by ERdj proteins, we have determined the crystal structure of human P58(IPK to 3.0 Å resolution using a combination of molecular replacement and single wavelength anomalous diffraction. The structure shows the human P58(IPK monomer to have a very elongated overall shape. In addition to the conserved J domain, P58(IPK contains nine N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat motifs, divided into three subdomains of three motifs each. The J domain is attached to the C-terminal end via a flexible linker, and the structure shows the conserved Hsp70-binding histidine-proline-aspartate (HPD motif to be situated on the very edge of the elongated protein, 100 Å from the putative binding site for unfolded protein substrates. The residues that comprise the surface surrounding the HPD motif are highly conserved in P58(IPK from other organisms but more varied between the human ERdj proteins, supporting the view that their regulation of different BiP functions is facilitated by differences in BiP-binding.

  1. Mitochondrial carrier protein biogenesis: role of the chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Robitaille-Foucher, Philippe; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Young, Jason C

    2009-04-15

    Metabolite carrier proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane share homology in their transmembrane domains, which also carries their targeting information. In addition, some carriers have cleavable presequences which are not essential for targeting, but have some other function before import. The cytosolic chaperones Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) and Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex with carrier precursors and interact specifically with the Tom (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane) 70 import receptor to promote import. We analysed how the presequences of the PiC (phosphate carrier) and CIC (citrate carrier) relate to the mechanisms of chaperone-mediated import. Deletion of the PiC presequence reduced the efficiency of import but, notably, not by causing aggregation. Instead, binding of the protein to Hsc70 was reduced, as well as the dependence on Hsc70 for import. Hsp90 binding and function in import was not greatly affected, but it could not entirely compensate for the lack of Hsc70 interaction. Deletion of the presequence from CIC was shown to cause its aggregation, but had little effect on the contribution to import of either Hsc70 or Hsp90. The presequence of PiC, but not that of CIC, conferred Hsc70 binding to dihydrofolate reductase fusion proteins. In comparison, OGC (oxoglutarate carrier) lacks a presequence and was more soluble, though it is still dependent on both Hsc70 and Hsp90. We propose that carrier presequences evolved to improve targeting competence by different mechanisms, depending on physical properties of the precursors in the cytosolic targeting environment.

  2. Characterization of 17 chaperone-usher fimbriae encoded by Proteus mirabilis reveals strong conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Lisa; Schaffer, Jessica N.; Zouzias, Christos D.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in patients with indwelling catheters. Sequencing of clinical isolate P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed the presence of 17 predicted chaperone-usher fimbrial operons. We classified these fimbriae into three groups by their genetic relationship to other chaperone-usher fimbriae. Sixteen of these fimbriae are encoded by all seven currently sequenced P. mirabilis genomes. The predicted protein sequence of the major structural subunit for 14 of these fimbriae was highly conserved (≥95 % identity), whereas three other structural subunits (Fim3A, UcaA and Fim6A) were variable. Further examination of 58 clinical isolates showed that 14 of the 17 predicted major structural subunit genes of the fimbriae were present in most strains (>85 %). Transcription of the predicted major structural subunit genes for all 17 fimbriae was measured under different culture conditions designed to mimic conditions in the urinary tract. The majority of the fimbrial genes were induced during stationary phase, static culture or colony growth when compared to exponential-phase aerated culture. Major structural subunit proteins for six of these fimbriae were detected using MS of proteins sheared from the surface of broth-cultured P. mirabilis, demonstrating that this organism may produce multiple fimbriae within a single culture. The high degree of conservation of P. mirabilis fimbriae stands in contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, which exhibit greater variability in their fimbrial repertoires. These findings suggest there may be evolutionary pressure for P. mirabilis to maintain a large fimbrial arsenal. PMID:24809384

  3. Mapping Hfq-RNA interaction surfaces using tryptophan fluorescence quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kirsten E.; Orans, Jillian; Kovach, Alexander R.; Link, Todd M.; Brennan, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Hfq is a posttranscriptional riboregulator and RNA chaperone that binds small RNAs and target mRNAs to effect their annealing and message-specific regulation in response to environmental stressors. Structures of Hfq-RNA complexes indicate that U-rich sequences prefer the proximal face and A-rich sequences the distal face; however, the Hfq-binding sites of most RNAs are unknown. Here, we present an Hfq-RNA mapping approach that uses single tryptophan-substituted Hfq proteins, all of which retain the wild-type Hfq structure, and tryptophan fluorescence quenching (TFQ) by proximal RNA binding. TFQ properly identified the respective distal and proximal binding of A15 and U6 RNA to Gram-negative Escherichia coli (Ec) Hfq and the distal face binding of (AA)3A, (AU)3A and (AC)3A to Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) Hfq. The inability of (GU)3G to bind the distal face of Sa Hfq reveals the (R-L)n binding motif is a more restrictive (A-L)n binding motif. Remarkably Hfq from Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) binds (GU)3G on its proximal face. TFQ experiments also revealed the Ec Hfq (A-R-N)n distal face-binding motif should be redefined as an (A-A-N)n binding motif. TFQ data also demonstrated that the 5′-untranslated region of hfq mRNA binds both the proximal and distal faces of Ec Hfq and the unstructured C-terminus. PMID:24288369

  4. Unzippers, Resolvers and Sensors: A Structural and Functional Biochemistry Tale of RNA Helicases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The centrality of RNA within the biological world is an irrefutable fact that currently attracts increasing attention from the scientific community. The panoply of functional RNAs requires the existence of specific biological caretakers, RNA helicases, devoted to maintain the proper folding of those molecules, resolving unstable structures. However, evolution has taken advantage of the specific position and characteristics of RNA helicases to develop new functions for these proteins, which are at the interface of the basic processes for transference of information from DNA to proteins. RNA helicases are involved in many biologically relevant processes, not only as RNA chaperones, but also as signal transducers, scaffolds of molecular complexes, and regulatory elements. Structural biology studies during the last decade, founded in X-ray crystallography, have characterized in detail several RNA-helicases. This comprehensive review summarizes the structural knowledge accumulated in the last two decades within this family of proteins, with special emphasis on the structure-function relationships of the most widely-studied families of RNA helicases: the DEAD-box, RIG-I-like and viral NS3 classes.

  5. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......The past decade has provided exciting insights into a novel class of central (small) RNA molecules intimately involved in gene regulation. Only a small percentage of our DNA is translated into proteins by mRNA, yet 80% or more of the DNA is transcribed into RNA, and this RNA has been found......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...

  6. The DEAD-Box Protein CYT-19 Uses Arginine Residues in Its C-Tail To Tether RNA Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busa, Veronica F; Rector, Maxwell J; Russell, Rick

    2017-07-18

    DEAD-box proteins are nonprocessive RNA helicases that play diverse roles in cellular processes. The Neurospora crassa DEAD-box protein CYT-19 promotes mitochondrial group I intron splicing and functions as a general RNA chaperone. CYT-19 includes a disordered, arginine-rich "C-tail" that binds RNA, positioning the helicase core to capture and unwind nearby RNA helices. Here we probed the C-tail further by varying the number and positions of arginines within it. We found that removing sets of as few as four of the 11 arginines reduced RNA unwinding activity (k cat /K M ) to a degree equivalent to that seen upon removal of the C-tail, suggesting that a minimum or "threshold" number of arginines is required. In addition, a mutant with 16 arginines displayed RNA unwinding activity greater than that of wild-type CYT-19. The C-tail modifications impacted unwinding only of RNA helices within constructs that included an adjacent helix or structured RNA element that would allow C-tail binding, indicating that the helicase core remained active in the mutants. In addition, changes in RNA unwinding efficiency of the mutants were mirrored by changes in functional RNA affinity, as determined from the RNA concentration dependence of ATPase activity, suggesting that the C-tail functions primarily to increase RNA affinity. Interestingly, the salt concentration dependence of RNA unwinding activity is unaffected by C-tail composition, suggesting that the C-tail uses primarily hydrogen bonding, not electrostatic interactions, to bind double-stranded RNA. Our results provide insights into how an unstructured C-tail contributes to DEAD-box protein activity and suggest parallels with other families of RNA- and DNA-binding proteins.

  7. Drug Development in Conformational Diseases: A Novel Family of Chemical Chaperones that Bind and Stabilise Several Polymorphic Amyloid Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquiza Sablón-Carrazana

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of conformational diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer, poses a global challenge at many different levels. It has devastating effects on the sufferers as well as a tremendous economic impact on families and the health system. In this work, we apply a cross-functional approach that combines ideas, concepts and technologies from several disciplines in order to study, in silico and in vitro, the role of a novel chemical chaperones family (NCHCHF in processes of protein aggregation in conformational diseases. Given that Serum Albumin (SA is the most abundant protein in the blood of mammals, and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA is an off-the-shelf protein available in most labs around the world, we compared the ligandability of BSA:NCHCHF with the interaction sites in the Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP:NCHCHF, and in the amyloid pharmacophore fragments (Aβ17-42 and Aβ16-21:NCHCHF. We posit that the merging of this interaction sites is a meta-structure of pharmacophore which allows the development of chaperones that can prevent protein aggregation at various states from: stabilizing the native state to destabilizing oligomeric state and protofilament. Furthermore to stabilize fibrillar structures, thus decreasing the amount of toxic oligomers in solution, as is the case with the NCHCHF. The paper demonstrates how a set of NCHCHF can be used for studying and potentially treating the various physiopathological stages of a conformational disease. For instance, when dealing with an acute phase of cytotoxicity, what is needed is the recruitment of cytotoxic oligomers, thus chaperone F, which accelerates fiber formation, would be very useful; whereas in a chronic stage it is better to have chaperones A, B, C, and D, which stabilize the native and fibril structures halting self-catalysis and the creation of cytotoxic oligomers as a consequence of fiber formation. Furthermore, all the

  8. Working with RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Working with RNA is not a special discipline in molecular biology. However, RNA is chemically and structurally different from DNA and a few simple work rules have to be implemented to maintain the integrity of the RNA. Alkaline pH, high temperatures, and heavy metal ions should be avoided when po...

  9. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  10. In vivo functional expression of a screened P. aeruginosa chaperone-dependent lipase in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiangping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases particularly Pseudomonas lipases are widely used for biotechnological applications. It is a meaningful work to design experiments to obtain high-level active lipase. There is a limiting factor for functional overexpression of the Pseudomonas lipase that a chaperone is necessary for effective folding. As previously reported, several methods had been used to resolve the problem. In this work, the lipase (LipA and its chaperone (LipB from a screened strain named AB which belongs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were overexpressed in E. coli with two dual expression plasmid systems to enhance the production of the active lipase LipA without in vitro refolding process. Results In this work, we screened a lipase-produced strain named AB through the screening procedure, which was identified as P. aeruginosa on the basis of 16S rDNA. Genomic DNA obtained from the strain was used to isolate the gene lipA (936 bp and lipase specific foldase gene lipB (1023 bp. One single expression plasmid system E. coli BL21/pET28a-lipAB and two dual expression plasmid systems E. coli BL21/pETDuet-lipA-lipB and E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-lipA-lipB were successfully constructed. The lipase activities of the three expression systems were compared to choose the optimal expression method. Under the same cultured condition, the activities of the lipases expressed by E. coli BL21/pET28a-lipAB and E. coli BL21/pETDuet-lipA-lipB were 1300 U/L and 3200 U/L, respectively, while the activity of the lipase expressed by E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-lipA-lipB was up to 8500 U/L. The lipase LipA had an optimal temperature of 30°C and an optimal pH of 9 with a strong pH tolerance. The active LipA could catalyze the reaction between fatty alcohols and fatty acids to generate fatty acid alkyl esters, which meant that LipA was able to catalyze esterification reaction. The most suitable fatty acid and alcohol substrates for esterification were octylic acid and hexanol

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a unique mutation in CCS, the human copper chaperone to superoxide dismutase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppke, Peter; Brendel, Cornelia; Korenke, Georg Christoph

    2012-01-01

    chaperone mutations have been described to date. We describe a child from a consanguineous family who inherited homozygous mutations in the SLC33A1, encoding an acetyl CoA transporter, and in CCS, encoding the Cu chaperone for superoxide dismutase. The CCS mutation, p.Arg163Trp, predicts substitution...... of a highly conserved arginine residue at position 163, with tryptophan in domain II of CCS, which interacts directly with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Biochemical analyses of the patient's fibroblasts, mammalian cell transfections, immunoprecipitation assays, and Lys7Δ (CCS homolog) yeast complementation...... support the pathogenicity of the mutation. Expression of CCS was reduced and binding of CCS to SOD1 impaired. As a result, this mutation causes reduced SOD1 activity and may impair other mechanisms important for normal Cu homeostasis. CCS-Arg163Trp represents the primary example of a human mutation...

  12. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation

  13. The Role of the Co-Chaperone, CHIP, in Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    C4-2 there was no evidence of lysosomal congregration, the hallmark of autophagy, rather vaculolization of cytoplasm and disintergration of cellular...RNA polymerase promoter at the 5′ end. Second-strand synthesis was followed by cRNA production incorporating a biotinylated base. Hybridization to

  14. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural biology studies of CagA from Helicobacter pylori and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Crystal structures of proteins and their complexes have become critical information for molecular-based life science. Biochemical and biological analysis based on tertiary structural information is a powerful tool to unveil complex molecular processes in the cell. Here, we present two examples of the structure-based life science study, structural biology studies of CagA, an effector protein from Helicobacter pylori, and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1, which is involved in transcription initiation. (author)

  16. A Proteomic Screen Identified Stress-Induced Chaperone Proteins as Targets of Akt Phosphorylation in Mesangial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Michelle T.; Rane, Madhavi J.; Klein, Jon B.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    The serine-threonine kinase Akt regulates mesangial cell apoptosis, proliferation, and hypertrophy. To define Akt signaling pathways in mesangial cells, we performed a functional proteomic screen for rat mesangial cell proteins phosphorylated by Akt. A group of chaperone proteins, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, Hsp90α, Hsp90β, Glucose-regulated protein (Grp) Grp78, Grp94, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were identified as potential Akt substrates by two techniques: (a) in vitro phosphoryl...

  17. The function of the yeast molecular chaperone Sse1 is mechanistically distinct from the closely related hsp70 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Lance; Trott, Amy; Goeckeler, Jennifer L; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Morano, Kevin A

    2004-05-21

    The Sse1/Hsp110 molecular chaperones are a poorly understood subgroup of the Hsp70 chaperone family. Hsp70 can refold denatured polypeptides via a C-terminal peptide binding domain (PBD), which is regulated by nucleotide cycling in an N-terminal ATPase domain. However, unlike Hsp70, both Sse1 and mammalian Hsp110 bind unfolded peptide substrates but cannot refold them. To test the in vivo requirement for interdomain communication, SSE1 alleles carrying amino acid substitutions in the ATPase domain were assayed for their ability to complement sse1Delta yeast. Surprisingly, all mutants predicted to abolish ATP hydrolysis (D8N, K69Q, D174N, D203N) complemented the temperature sensitivity of sse1Delta and lethality of sse1Deltasse2Delta cells, whereas mutations in predicted ATP binding residues (G205D, G233D) were non-functional. Complementation ability correlated well with ATP binding assessed in vitro. The extreme C terminus of the Hsp70 family is required for substrate targeting and heterocomplex formation with other chaperones, but mutant Sse1 proteins with a truncation of up to 44 C-terminal residues that were not included in the PBD were active. Remarkably, the two domains of Sse1, when expressed in trans, functionally complement the sse1Delta growth phenotype and interact by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, a functional PBD was required to stabilize the Sse1 ATPase domain, and stabilization also occurred in trans. These data represent the first structure-function analysis of this abundant but ill defined chaperone, and establish several novel aspects of Sse1/Hsp110 function relative to Hsp70.

  18. SigE Is a Chaperone for the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion Protein SigD

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin, K. Heran; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Miller, Virginia L.

    2001-01-01

    SigD is translocated into eucaryotic cells by a type III secretion system. In this work, evidence that the putative chaperone SigE directly interacts with SigD is presented. A bacterial two-hybrid system demonstrated that SigE can interact with itself and SigD. In addition, SigD was specifically copurified with SigE-His6 on a nickel column.

  19. Roles of conserved arginines in ATP-binding domains of AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takashi; Nakazaki, Yosuke; Yoshida, Masasuke; Watanabe, Yo-hei

    2011-07-01

    ClpB, a member of the expanded superfamily of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+), forms a ring-shaped hexamer and cooperates with the DnaK chaperone system to reactivate aggregated proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The ClpB protomer consists of an N-terminal domain, an AAA+ module (AAA-1), a middle domain, and a second AAA+ module (AAA-2). Each AAA+ module contains highly conserved WalkerA and WalkerB motifs, and two arginines (AAA-1) or one arginine (AAA-2). Here, we investigated the roles of these arginines (Arg322, Arg323, and Arg747) of ClpB from Thermus thermophilus in the ATPase cycle and chaperone function by alanine substitution. These mutations did not affect nucleotide binding, but did inhibit the hydrolysis of the bound ATP and slow the threading of the denatured protein through the central pore of the T. thermophilus ClpB ring, which severely impaired the chaperone functions. Previously, it was demonstrated that ATP binding to the AAA-1 module induced motion of the middle domain and stabilized the ClpB hexamer. However, the arginine mutations of the AAA-1 module destabilized the ClpB hexamer, even though ATP-induced motion of the middle domain was not affected. These results indicated that the three arginines are crucial for ATP hydrolysis and chaperone activity, but not for ATP binding. In addition, the two arginines in AAA-1 and the ATP-induced motion of the middle domain independently contribute to the stabilization of the hexamer. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  20. Counteraction of urea-induced protein denaturation by trimethylamine N-oxide: A chemical chaperone at atomic resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bennion, Brian J.; Daggett, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are very sensitive to their solvent environments. Urea is a common chemical denaturant of proteins, yet some animals contain high concentrations of urea. These animals have evolved an interesting mechanism to counteract the effects of urea by using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). The molecular basis for the ability of TMAO to act as a chemical chaperone remains unknown. Here, we describe molecular dynamics simulations of a small globular protein, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2, in 8 M urea ...

  1. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex. A molecular target for enhancement of thermosensitivity and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved heat shock protein in animal and plants, and exists abundantly in the cytoplasm in unstressed condition, accounting for 1-2% in cytoplasmic proteins. Main difference of Hsp90 from other Hsps are its substrate that Hsp90 binds to. These substrates include various signal transduction proteins, kinase, steroid receptors and transcription factors, therefore, Hsp90 plays a key role in maintaining cellular signal transduction networks. Many chaperoned proteins (client proteins) of Hsp90 are associated with cellular proliferation or malignant transformation, thus Hsp90 chaperone complex has been focused as targets for cancer therapy. Among the client proteins, there are several molecules that have been defined as targets or factors for determination or enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. Thus, it is easily speculated that Hsp90 chaperone complex inhibitors that disrupt association of Hsp90 and client protein in combination with radiation or/and heat has potential effect on enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. In this paper, possible mechanisms in enhancing radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity according to the client proteins will be summarized. (author)

  2. The Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1, Aha1, and P23 regulate adaptive responses to antifungal azoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokui Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. However, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. In this study, by susceptibility test of Neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 Hsp90/Calcineurin system member genes (including 8 Hsp90 co-chaperone genes to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the Hsp90 co-chaperones Sti1 (Hop1 in yeast, Aha1, and P23 (Sba1 in yeast were required for the basal resistance to antifungal azoles and heat stress. Deletion of any of them resulted in hypersensitivity to azoles and heat. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis showed that the toxic sterols eburicol and 14α-methyl-3,6-diol were significantly accumulated in the sti1 and p23 deletion mutants after ketoconazole treatment, which has been shown before to led to cell membrane stress. At the transcriptional level, Aha1, Sti1, and P23 positively regulate responses to ketoconazole stress by erg11 and erg6, key genes in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are highly conserved in fungi, and sti1 and p23 deletion also increased the susceptibility to azoles in Fusarium verticillioides. These results indicate that Hsp90-cochaperones Aha1, Sti1, and P23 are critical for the basal azole resistance and could be potential targets for developing new antifungal agents.

  3. The determinants and engagement patterns of chaperones and chauffeurs by Australian doctors in after-hours house-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifediora, Chris Onyebuchi

    2017-01-01

    The use of escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones) while on duty in after-hours-house-call (AHHC) is one key protective option available to doctors in the service, and has been linked to low burnout and increased satisfaction in AHHC. This study aims to explore the patterns of engagement of escorts in Australian AHHC. This is a questionnaire-based, electronic survey of all 300 doctors involved in AHHC through the National Home Doctor Service (NHDS), Australia's largest providers of the service. The survey explored the doctor's experiences over the 12-month period from October 2013 to September 2014. This survey received a total of 168 valid responses, giving a response rate of 56%. Nearly 61% of the doctors involved in AHHC engaged escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones). Of those doctors that engage chauffeurs, three-quarters do so "all or most times", while only one-quarter engaged chaperones to the same degree of frequency. Hiring escorts is very popular among Brisbane (91.7%) and Sydney-based (88.2%) practitioners, but is unpopular in the City of Gold Coast (26.1%). There were moderate patronages in Adelaide (52.9%) and Melbourne Area (46.4%). Compared to males, females were less likely to drive themselves without escorts (OR 0.20; P  doctors involved in the Australian AHHC, particularly given their proven benefits in the service. Future studies may be needed to fully explore the real reasons behind the significant associations identified in this study.

  4. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase......, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required...... for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling...

  5. Mapping the ER Interactome: The P Domains of Calnexin and Calreticulin as Plurivalent Adapters for Foldases and Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Castro, Karla; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-09-05

    The lectin chaperones calreticulin (CRT) and calnexin (CNX) contribute to the folding of glycoproteins in the ER by recruiting foldases such as the protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 and the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase CypB. Recently, CRT was shown to interact with the chaperone ERp29. Here, we show that ERp29 directly binds to the P domain of CNX. Crystal structures of the D domain of ERp29 in complex with the P domains from CRT and calmegin, a tissue-specific CNX homolog, reveal a commonality in the mechanism of binding whereby the tip of the P domain functions as a plurivalent adapter to bind a variety of folding factors. We show that mutation of a single residue, D348 in CNX, abrogates binding to ERp29 as well as ERp57 and CypB. The structural diversity of the accessory factors suggests that these chaperones became specialized for glycoprotein folding through convergent evolution of their P-domain binding sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory coiled-coil domains promote head-to-head assemblies of AAA+ chaperones essential for tunable activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroni, Marta; Franke, Kamila B; Maurer, Michael; Jäger, Jasmin; Hantke, Ingo; Gloge, Felix; Linder, Daniela; Gremer, Sebastian; Turgay, Kürşad; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-11-22

    Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA. ClpC forms large two-helical assemblies that associate via head-to-head contacts between coiled-coil middle domains (MDs). MecA converts this resting state to an active planar ring structure by binding to MD interaction sites. Loss of ClpC repression in MD mutants causes constitutive activation and severe cellular toxicity. These findings unravel an unexpected regulatory concept executed by coiled-coil MDs to tightly control AAA+ chaperone activity.

  7. Lactic acid induces aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing by promoting its interaction with endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid, a natural by-product of glycolysis, is produced at excess levels in response to impaired mitochondrial function, high-energy demand, and low oxygen availability. The enzyme involved in the production of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ of Alzheimer's disease, BACE1, functions optimally at lower pH, which led us to investigate a potential role of lactic acid in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lactic acid increased levels of Aβ40 and 42, as measured by ELISA, in culture medium of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, whereas it decreased APP metabolites, such as sAPPα. In cell lysates, APP levels were increased and APP was found to interact with ER-chaperones in a perinuclear region, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy studies. Lactic acid had only a very modest effect on cellular pH, did increase the levels of ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94 and led to APP aggregate formation reminiscent of aggresomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that sustained elevations in lactic acid levels could be a risk factor in amyloidogenesis related to Alzheimer's disease through enhanced APP interaction with ER chaperone proteins and aberrant APP processing leading to increased generation of amyloid peptides and APP aggregates.

  8. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia; Hödl, Martina; Strandsby, Anne; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Chen, Shoudeng; Groth, Anja; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-08-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling histones genome wide during DNA replication.

  9. The DNLZ/HEP zinc-binding subdomain is critical for regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Zhai, Peng; Lee, Juhye; Guerra, Cecilia; Liu, Shirley; Gustin, Michael C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2012-02-01

    Human mitochondrial DNLZ/HEP regulates the catalytic activity and solubility of the mitochondrial hsp70 chaperone HSPA9. Here, we investigate the role that the DNLZ zinc-binding and C-terminal subdomains play in regulating HSPA9. We show that truncations lacking portions of the zinc-binding subdomain (ZBS) do not affect the solubility of HSPA9 or its ATPase domain, whereas those containing the ZBS and at least 10 residues following this subdomain enhance chaperone solubility. Binding measurements further show that DNLZ requires its ZBS to form a stable complex with the HSPA9 ATPase domain, and ATP hydrolysis measurements reveal that the ZBS is critical for full stimulation of HSPA9 catalytic activity. We also examined if DNLZ is active in vivo. We found that DNLZ partially complements the growth of Δzim17 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we discovered that a Zim17 truncation lacking a majority of the C-terminal subdomain strongly complements growth like full-length Zim17. These findings provide direct evidence that human DNLZ is a functional ortholog of Zim17. In addition, they implicate the pair of antiparallel β-strands that coordinate zinc in Zim17/DNLZ-type proteins as critical for binding and regulating hsp70 chaperones. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  10. Sigma-1 receptor chaperones at the ER-mitochondrion interface regulate Ca(2+) signaling and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2007-11-02

    Communication between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion is important for bioenergetics and cellular survival. The ER supplies Ca(2+) directly to mitochondria via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) at close contacts between the two organelles referred to as mitochondrion-associated ER membrane (MAM). We found here that the ER protein sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), which is implicated in neuroprotection, carcinogenesis, and neuroplasticity, is a Ca(2+)-sensitive and ligand-operated receptor chaperone at MAM. Normally, Sig-1Rs form a complex at MAM with another chaperone, BiP. Upon ER Ca(2+) depletion or via ligand stimulation, Sig-1Rs dissociate from BiP, leading to a prolonged Ca(2+) signaling into mitochondria via IP3Rs. Sig-1Rs can translocate under chronic ER stress. Increasing Sig-1Rs in cells counteracts ER stress response, whereas decreasing them enhances apoptosis. These results reveal that the orchestrated ER chaperone machinery at MAM, by sensing ER Ca(2+) concentrations, regulates ER-mitochondrial interorganellar Ca(2+) signaling and cell survival.

  11. Loss-of-function mutations in co-chaperone BAG3 destabilize small HSPs and cause cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xi; Bogomolovas, Julius; Wu, Tongbin; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Canzhao; Veevers, Jennifer; Stroud, Matthew J; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Ma, Xiaolong; Mu, Yongxin; Lao, Dieu-Hung; Dalton, Nancy D; Gu, Yusu; Wang, Celine; Wang, Michael; Liang, Yan; Lange, Stephan; Ouyang, Kunfu; Peterson, Kirk L; Evans, Sylvia M; Chen, Ju

    2017-08-01

    Defective protein quality control (PQC) systems are implicated in multiple diseases. Molecular chaperones and co-chaperones play a central role in functioning PQC. Constant mechanical and metabolic stress in cardiomyocytes places great demand on the PQC system. Mutation and downregulation of the co-chaperone protein BCL-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) are associated with cardiac myopathy and heart failure, and a BAG3 E455K mutation leads to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the role of BAG3 in the heart and the mechanisms by which the E455K mutation leads to DCM remain obscure. Here, we found that cardiac-specific Bag3-KO and E455K-knockin mice developed DCM. Comparable phenotypes in the 2 mutants demonstrated that the E455K mutation resulted in loss of function. Further experiments revealed that the E455K mutation disrupted the interaction between BAG3 and HSP70. In both mutants, decreased levels of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) were observed, and a subset of proteins required for cardiomyocyte function was enriched in the insoluble fraction. Together, these observations suggest that interaction between BAG3 and HSP70 is essential for BAG3 to stabilize sHSPs and maintain cardiomyocyte protein homeostasis. Our results provide insight into heart failure caused by defects in BAG3 pathways and suggest that increasing BAG3 protein levels may be of therapeutic benefit in heart failure.

  12. Overexpression of molecular chaperons GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Babak; Ghasemi-Dizgah, Armin; Vaseghi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS showed different proportion of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population was as MCF7hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features.

  13. An Intramolecular Chaperone Inserted in Bacteriophage P22 Coat Protein Mediates Its Chaperonin-independent Folding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhanovsky, Margaret M.; Teschke, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteriophage P22 coat protein has the common HK97-like fold but with a genetically inserted domain (I-domain). The role of the I-domain, positioned at the outermost surface of the capsid, is unknown. We hypothesize that the I-domain may act as an intramolecular chaperone because the coat protein folds independently, and many folding mutants are localized to the I-domain. The function of the I-domain was investigated by generating the coat protein core without its I-domain and the isolated I-domain. The core coat protein shows a pronounced folding defect. The isolated I-domain folds autonomously and has a high thermodynamic stability and fast folding kinetics in the presence of a peptidyl prolyl isomerase. Thus, the I-domain provides thermodynamic stability to the full-length coat protein so that it can fold reasonably efficiently while still allowing the HK97-like core to retain the flexibility required for conformational switching during procapsid assembly and maturation. PMID:24126914

  14. The prenyl-binding protein PrBP/δ: a chaperone participating in intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houbin; Constantine, Ryan; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2012-12-15

    Expressed ubiquitously, PrBP/δ functions as chaperone/co-factor in the transport of a subset of prenylated proteins. PrBP/δ features an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold for lipid binding, and interacts with diverse partners. PrBP/δ binds both C-terminal C15 and C20 prenyl side chains of phototransduction polypeptides and small GTP-binding (G) proteins of the Ras superfamily. PrBP/δ also interacts with the small GTPases, ARL2 and ARL3, which act as release factors (GDFs) for prenylated cargo. Targeted deletion of the mouse Pde6d gene encoding PrBP/δ resulted in impeded trafficking to the outer segments of GRK1 and cone PDE6 which are predicted to be farnesylated and geranylgeranylated, respectively. Rod and cone transducin trafficking was largely unaffected. These trafficking defects produce progressive cone-rod dystrophy in the Pde6d(-/-) mouse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ADAM10 missense mutations potentiate β-amyloid accumulation by impairing prodomain chaperone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jaehong; Choi, Se Hoon; Romano, Donna M; Gannon, Moira A; Lesinski, Andrea N; Kim, Doo Yeon; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2013-10-16

    The generation of Aβ, the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is precluded by α-secretase cleavage within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We identified two rare mutations (Q170H and R181G) in the prodomain of the metalloprotease, ADAM10, that cosegregate with late-onset AD (LOAD). Here, we addressed the pathogenicity of these mutations in transgenic mice expressing human ADAM10 in brain. In Tg2576 AD mice, both mutations attenuated α-secretase activity of ADAM10 and shifted APP processing toward β-secretase-mediated cleavage, while enhancing Aβ plaque load and reactive gliosis. We also demonstrated ADAM10 expression potentiates adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is reduced by the LOAD mutations. Mechanistically, both LOAD mutations impaired the molecular chaperone activity of ADAM10 prodomain. Collectively, these findings suggest that diminished α-secretase activity, owing to LOAD ADAM10 prodomain mutations, leads to AD-related pathology, strongly supporting ADAM10 as a promising therapeutic target for this devastating disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-chaperone p23 regulates C. elegans Lifespan in Response to Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Horikawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature potently modulates various physiologic processes including organismal motility, growth rate, reproduction, and ageing. In ectotherms, longevity varies inversely with temperature, with animals living shorter at higher temperatures. Thermal effects on lifespan and other processes are ascribed to passive changes in metabolic rate, but recent evidence also suggests a regulated process. Here, we demonstrate that in response to temperature, daf-41/ZC395.10, the C. elegans homolog of p23 co-chaperone/prostaglandin E synthase-3, governs entry into the long-lived dauer diapause and regulates adult lifespan. daf-41 deletion triggers constitutive entry into the dauer diapause at elevated temperature dependent on neurosensory machinery (daf-10/IFT122, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (daf-16/FOXO, and steroidal signaling (daf-12/FXR. Surprisingly, daf-41 mutation alters the longevity response to temperature, living longer than wild-type at 25°C but shorter than wild-type at 15°C. Longevity phenotypes at 25°C work through daf-16/FOXO and heat shock factor hsf-1, while short lived phenotypes converge on daf-16/FOXO and depend on the daf-12/FXR steroid receptor. Correlatively daf-41 affected expression of DAF-16 and HSF-1 target genes at high temperature, and nuclear extracts from daf-41 animals showed increased occupancy of the heat shock response element. Our studies suggest that daf-41/p23 modulates key transcriptional changes in longevity pathways in response to temperature.

  17. Activation of sigma-1 receptor chaperone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and its clinical implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER protein sigma-1 receptor represents unique chaperone activity in the central nervous system, and it exerts a potent influence on a number of neurotransmitter systems. Several lines of evidence suggest that activation of sigma-1 receptor plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as in the mechanisms of some therapeutic drugs and neurosteroids. Preclinical studies showed that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, excitalopram, donepezil, and ifenprodil act as sigma-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, sigma-1 receptor agonists could improve the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP-induced cognitive deficits in mice. A study using positron emission tomography have demonstrated that an oral administration of fluvoxamine or donepezil could bind to sigma-1 receptor in the healthy human brain, suggesting that sigma-1 receptor might be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of these drugs. Moreover, case reports suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, and ifenprodil, may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, delirium in elderly people, and flashbacks in post-traumatic stress disorder. In this review article, the author would like to discuss the clinical implication of sigma-1 receptor agonists, including endogenous neurosteroids, in the neuropsychiatric diseases.

  18. Possible involvement of the Sigma-1 receptor chaperone in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomohisa, Mori; Junpei, Ohya; Aki, Masumoto; Masato, Harumiya; Mika, Fukase; Kazumi, Yoshizawa; Teruo, Hayashi; Tsutomu, Suzuki

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that ligands of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone (Sig-1R) regulate pain-related behaviors. Clinical use of chemotherapeutics is often compromised due to their adverse side effects, particularly those related to neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that repeated administration of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel produces neuropathy in rodents. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of the Sig-1R in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy by examining the effects of oxaliplatin and paclitaxel on the Sig-1R levels in the spinal cord, and by examining the effects of Sig-1R agonist and antagonist on oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in rats. Chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathic pain was accompanied by a significant reduction of the Sig-1R level in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the administration of paclitaxel to CHO cells that stably overexpressed Sig-1Rs induced the clustering of Sig-1Rs. We also found that the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 potently inhibited the neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin- and paclitaxel, whereas this action was abolished by the Sig-1R antagonist NE-100. These results suggest that the reduction of Sig-1R activity is involved in chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy, and the Sig-1R agonist SA4503 could serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of chemotherapeutic-induced neuropathy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mouse zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone important for maternal-to-zygotic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Wook Shin

    2012-11-01

    During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT, maternal proteins in oocytes are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS, and new proteins are synthesized from the zygotic genome. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the UPS at the MZT are not well understood. We identified a molecule named zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone (ZPAC that is specifically expressed in mouse gonads, and expression of ZPAC was transiently increased at the mouse MZT. ZPAC formed a complex with Ump1 and associated with precursor forms of 20S proteasomes. Transcription of ZPAC genes was also under the control of an autoregulatory feedback mechanism for the compensation of reduced proteasome activity similar to Ump1 and 20S proteasome subunit gene expression. Knockdown of ZPAC in early embryos caused a significant reduction of proteasome activity and decrease in Ump1 and mature proteasomes, leading to accumulation of proteins that need to be degraded at the MZT and early developmental arrest. Therefore, a unique proteasome assembly pathway mediated by ZPAC is important for progression of the mouse MZT.

  20. Chaperone-mediated autophagy components are upregulated in sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciottolo, M; Nogalska, A; D'Agostino, C; Engel, W K; Askanas, V

    2013-12-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is an age-associated degenerative muscle disease. Characteristic features are muscle-fibre vacuolization and intramuscle-fibre accumulations of multiprotein aggregates, which may result from the demonstrated impairments of the 26S proteasome and autophagy. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective form of lysosomal degradation targeting proteins carrying the KFERQ motif. Lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2A) and the heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) constitute specific CMA components. Neither CMA components nor CMA activity has been studied in normal or disease human muscle, to our knowledge. We studied CMA components by immunocytochemistry, immunoblots, real-time PCR and immunoprecipitation in: (a) 16 s-IBM, nine aged-matched normal and nine disease control muscle biopsies; and (b) cultured human muscle fibres (CHMFs) with experimentally inhibited activities of either the 26S proteasome or autophagy. Compared with age-matched controls, in s-IBM muscle, LAMP2A and Hsc70 were on a given transverse section accumulated as aggregates in approximately 5% of muscle fibres, where they (a) colocalized with each other and α-synuclein (α-syn), a CMA-targeted protein; and (b) were bound to each other and to α-syn by immunoprecipitation. By immunoblots, LAMP2A was increased sevenfold P pathogenic aspect in s-IBM. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  1. In vitro thermodynamic dissection of human copper transfer from chaperone to target protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Moritz S; Weise, Christoph F; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2012-01-01

    Transient protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions are fundamental components of biological activity. To understand biological activity, not only the structures of the involved proteins are important but also the energetics of the individual steps of a reaction. Here we use in vitro biophysical methods to deduce thermodynamic parameters of copper (Cu) transfer from the human copper chaperone Atox1 to the fourth metal-binding domain of the Wilson disease protein (WD4). Atox1 and WD4 have the same fold (ferredoxin-like fold) and Cu-binding site (two surface exposed cysteine residues) and thus it is not clear what drives metal transfer from one protein to the other. Cu transfer is a two-step reaction involving a metal-dependent ternary complex in which the metal is coordinated by cysteines from both proteins (i.e., Atox1-Cu-WD4). We employ size exclusion chromatography to estimate individual equilibrium constants for the two steps. This information together with calorimetric titration data are used to reveal enthalpic and entropic contributions of each step in the transfer process. Upon combining the equilibrium constants for both steps, a metal exchange factor (from Atox1 to WD4) of 10 is calculated, governed by a negative net enthalpy change of ∼10 kJ/mol. Thus, small variations in interaction energies, not always obvious upon comparing protein structures alone, may fuel vectorial metal transfer.

  2. Corticosteroid Receptors, Their Chaperones and Cochaperones: How Do They Modulate Adipogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Toneatto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are part of the list of hormones that control adipogenesis as well as different aspects of the physiology of the adipose tissue. Their actions are mediated through their binding to the glucocorticoid and the mineralocorticoid receptors (GR and MR, respectively, in complex with heat shock proteins (Hsps and high molecular weight immunophilins (IMMs. Albeit many aspects of the molecular mechanism of the corticosteroid receptors are not fully elucidated yet, it was not until recently that the first evidences of the functional importance of Hsps and IMMs in the process of adipocyte differentiation have been described. Hsp90 and the high molecular weight IMM FKBP51 modulate GR and MR activity at multiple levels, that is, hormone binding affinity, their subcellular distribution, and the transcriptional status, among other aspects of the NR function. Interestingly, it has recently been described that Hsp90 and FKBP51 also participate in the control of PPARγ, a key transcription factor in the control of adipogenesis and the maintenance of the adipocyte phenotype. In addition, novel roles have been uncovered for FKBP51 in the organization of the nuclear architecture through its participation in the reorganization of the nuclear lamina and the control of the subnuclear distribution of GR. Thus, the aim of this review is to integrate and discuss the actual understanding of the role of corticosteroid receptors, their chaperones and cochaperones, in the process of adipocyte differentiation.

  3. Breaking BAG: The Co-Chaperone BAG3 in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins form a family of antiapoptotic proteins that currently consists of six members (BAG1-6) all sharing the BAG protein domain from which the name arises. Via this domain, BAG proteins bind to the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), thereby acting as a co-chaperone regulating the activity of Hsp70. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, all human BAG proteins have distinct functions in health and disease, and BAG3 in particular is the focus of many investigations. BAG3 has a modular protein domain composition offering the possibility for manifold interactions with other proteins. Various BAG3 functions are implicated in disorders including cancer, myopathies, and neurodegeneration. The discovery of its role in selective autophagy and the description of BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy as an adaptive mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis, under stress as well as during aging, make BAG3 a highly interesting target for future pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary tract infections of Escherichia coli strains of chaperone-usher system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata M

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a very serious health and economic problem affecting millions of people each year worldwide. The most common etiologic agent of this type of bacterial infections, involving the upper and lower urinary tract, are E. coli strains representing approximately 80% of cases. Uropathogenic E. coli strains produce several urovirulence factors which can be divided into two main types, surface virulence factors and exported virulence factors. Surface-exposed structures include mainly extracellular adhesive organelles such as fimbriae/pili necessary in adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation and cytokine induction. Among the surface-exposed polymeric adhesive structures there are three most invasive groups, type 1 pili, type P pili and Dr family of adhesins which are bioassembled via the conserved, among Gram-negative bacteria, chaperone-usher secretion system. Type 1 and P-piliated E. coli cause cystitis and pyelonephritis. The Dr family of adhesins recognizing DAF receptor is responsible for cystitis, pyelonephritis (especially in pregnant women) and diarrhoea (in infants). In addition, Dr-positive E. coli strains carry the risk of recurrent urinary tract infections. Pyelonephritis in pregnant women leads to a series of complications such as bacteremia, urosepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death. In the era of increasing drug resistance of bacteria, the development of vaccines, drugs termed pilicides and inhibitors of adhesion may be a promising tool in the fight against urogenital infections.

  5. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  6. High-quality draft genome sequence of Ensifer meliloti Mlalz-1, a microsymbiont of Medicago laciniata (L.) miller collected in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wan Adnawani Meor; van Berkum, Peter; León-Barrios, Milagros; Velázquez, Encarna; Elia, Patrick; Tian, Rui; Ardley, Julie; Gollagher, Margaret; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T B K; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Baeshen, Mohamed N; Baeshen, Naseebh Nabeeh; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    10.1601/nm.1335 Mlalz-1 (INSDC = ATZD00000000) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing nodule of Medicago laciniata (L.) Miller from a soil sample collected near the town of Guatiza on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, Spain. This strain nodulates and forms an effective symbiosis with the highly specific host M. laciniata . This rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) sequencing project. Here the features of 10.1601/nm.1335 Mlalz-1 are described, together with high-quality permanent draft genome sequence information and annotation. The 6,664,116 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 99 scaffolds of 100 contigs, containing 6314 protein-coding genes and 74 RNA-only encoding genes. Strain Mlalz-1 is closely related to 10.1601/nm.1335 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DIAM+12611 T , 10.1601/nm.1334 A 321 T and 10.1601/nm.17831 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DORS+1407 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. gANI values of ≥98.1% support the classification of strain Mlalz-1 as 10.1601/nm.1335. Nodulation of M. laciniata requires a specific nodC allele, and the nodC gene of strain Mlalz-1 shares ≥98% sequence identity with nodC of M. laciniata -nodulating 10.1601/nm.1328 strains, but ≤93% with nodC of 10.1601/nm.1328 strains that nodulate other Medicago species. Strain Mlalz-1 is unique among sequenced 10.1601/nm.1335 strains in possessing genes encoding components of a T2SS and in having two versions of the adaptive acid tolerance response lpiA-acvB operon. In 10.1601/nm.1334 strain 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DWSM+419, lpiA is essential for enhancing survival in lethal acid conditions. The second copy of the lpiA-acvB operon of strain Mlalz-1 has highest sequence identity (> 96%) with that of 10.1601/nm.1334 strains, which suggests genetic

  7. RNA decay by messenger RNA interferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Overgaard, Martin; Winther, Kristoffer Skovbo

    2008-01-01

    Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mR...... cleaving enzymes such as RelE of Escherichia coli and the corresponding antitoxin RelB. In particular, we describe a set of plasmid vectors useful for the detailed analysis of cleavage sites in model mRNAs.......Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mRNA...

  8. Computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the hsp90 chaperones: a statistical ensemble analysis of protein structure networks and allosteric communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Blacklock

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in regulating functional activity of diverse protein clients is essential for the integrity of signaling networks. In this work we have combined biophysical simulations of the Hsp90 crystal structures with the protein structure network analysis to characterize the statistical ensemble of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in the Hsp90 chaperones. We have found that principal structurally stable communities could be preserved during dynamic changes in the conformational ensemble. The dominant contribution of the inter-domain rigidity to the interaction networks has emerged as a common factor responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the active chaperone form during the ATPase cycle. Structural stability analysis using force constant profiling of the inter-residue fluctuation distances has identified a network of conserved structurally rigid residues that could serve as global mediating sites of allosteric communication. Mapping of the conformational landscape with the network centrality parameters has demonstrated that stable communities and mediating residues may act concertedly with the shifts in the conformational equilibrium and could describe the majority of functionally significant chaperone residues. The network analysis has revealed a relationship between structural stability, global centrality and functional significance of hotspot residues involved in chaperone regulation. We have found that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may be mediated by modules of structurally stable residues that display high betweenness in the global interaction network. The results of this study have suggested that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may operate via a mechanism that combines rapid and efficient communication by a single optimal pathway of structurally rigid residues and more robust signal transmission using an ensemble of suboptimal multiple

  9. Topology of RNA-RNA interaction structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Huang, Fenix Wenda; Penner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The topological filtration of interacting RNA complexes is studied, and the role is analyzed of certain diagrams called irreducible shadows, which form suitable building blocks for more general structures. We prove that, for two interacting RNAs, called interaction structures, there exist...

  10. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    , regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA......Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  11. Cell cycle- and chaperone-mediated regulation of H3K56ac incorporation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Tommy; Liu, Chih Long; Erkmann, Judith A; Holik, John; Grunstein, Michael; Kaufman, Paul D; Friedman, Nir; Rando, Oliver J

    2008-11-01

    Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 is a covalent modification best known as a mark of newly replicated chromatin, but it has also been linked to replication-independent histone replacement. Here, we measured H3K56ac levels at single-nucleosome resolution in asynchronously growing yeast cultures, as well as in yeast proceeding synchronously through the cell cycle. We developed a quantitative model of H3K56ac kinetics, which shows that H3K56ac is largely explained by the genomic replication timing and the turnover rate of each nucleosome, suggesting that cell cycle profiles of H3K56ac should reveal most first-time nucleosome incorporation events. However, since the deacetylases Hst3/4 prevent use of H3K56ac as a marker for histone deposition during M phase, we also directly measured M phase histone replacement rates. We report a global decrease in turnover rates during M phase and a further specific decrease in turnover at several early origins of replication, which switch from rapidly replaced in G1 phase to stably bound during M phase. Finally, by measuring H3 replacement in yeast deleted for the H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109 and its two co-chaperones Asf1 and Vps75, we find evidence that Rtt109 and Asf1 preferentially enhance histone replacement at rapidly replaced nucleosomes, whereas Vps75 appears to inhibit histone turnover at those loci. These results provide a broad perspective on histone replacement/incorporation throughout the cell cycle and suggest that H3K56 acetylation provides a positive-feedback loop by which replacement of a nucleosome enhances subsequent replacement at the same location.

  12. Cell cycle- and chaperone-mediated regulation of H3K56ac incorporation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Kaplan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 is a covalent modification best known as a mark of newly replicated chromatin, but it has also been linked to replication-independent histone replacement. Here, we measured H3K56ac levels at single-nucleosome resolution in asynchronously growing yeast cultures, as well as in yeast proceeding synchronously through the cell cycle. We developed a quantitative model of H3K56ac kinetics, which shows that H3K56ac is largely explained by the genomic replication timing and the turnover rate of each nucleosome, suggesting that cell cycle profiles of H3K56ac should reveal most first-time nucleosome incorporation events. However, since the deacetylases Hst3/4 prevent use of H3K56ac as a marker for histone deposition during M phase, we also directly measured M phase histone replacement rates. We report a global decrease in turnover rates during M phase and a further specific decrease in turnover at several early origins of replication, which switch from rapidly replaced in G1 phase to stably bound during M phase. Finally, by measuring H3 replacement in yeast deleted for the H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109 and its two co-chaperones Asf1 and Vps75, we find evidence that Rtt109 and Asf1 preferentially enhance histone replacement at rapidly replaced nucleosomes, whereas Vps75 appears to inhibit histone turnover at those loci. These results provide a broad perspective on histone replacement/incorporation throughout the cell cycle and suggest that H3K56 acetylation provides a positive-feedback loop by which replacement of a nucleosome enhances subsequent replacement at the same location.

  13. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  14. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu

    Full Text Available Basophil has been implicated in anti-parasite defense, allergy and in polarizing T(H2 response. Mouse model has been commonly used to study basophil function although the difference between human and mouse basophils is underappreciated. As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival during stress. The roles of gp96 in basophil development are unknown.We genetically delete gp96 in mice and examined the expression of gp96 in basophils by Western blot and flow cytometry. We compared the expression pattern of gp96 between human and mouse basophils.We found that gp96 was dispensable for murine basophil development. Moreover, gp96 was cleaved by serine protease(s in murine but not human basophils leading to accumulation of a nun-functional N-terminal ∼50 kDa fragment and striking induction of the unfolded protein response. The alteration of gp96 was unique to basophils and was not observed in any other cell types including mast cells. We also demonstrated that the ectopic expression of a mouse-specific tryptase mMCP11 does not lead to gp96 cleavage in human basophils.Our study revealed a remarkable biochemical event of gp96 silencing in murine but not human basophils, highlighting the need for caution in using mouse models to infer the function of basophils in human immune response. Our study also reveals a novel mechanism of shutting down gp96 post-translationally in regulating its function.

  15. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Staron, Matthew; Li, Zihai

    2012-01-01

    Basophil has been implicated in anti-parasite defense, allergy and in polarizing T(H)2 response. Mouse model has been commonly used to study basophil function although the difference between human and mouse basophils is underappreciated. As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival during stress. The roles of gp96 in basophil development are unknown. We genetically delete gp96 in mice and examined the expression of gp96 in basophils by Western blot and flow cytometry. We compared the expression pattern of gp96 between human and mouse basophils. We found that gp96 was dispensable for murine basophil development. Moreover, gp96 was cleaved by serine protease(s) in murine but not human basophils leading to accumulation of a nun-functional N-terminal ∼50 kDa fragment and striking induction of the unfolded protein response. The alteration of gp96 was unique to basophils and was not observed in any other cell types including mast cells. We also demonstrated that the ectopic expression of a mouse-specific tryptase mMCP11 does not lead to gp96 cleavage in human basophils. Our study revealed a remarkable biochemical event of gp96 silencing in murine but not human basophils, highlighting the need for caution in using mouse models to infer the function of basophils in human immune response. Our study also reveals a novel mechanism of shutting down gp96 post-translationally in regulating its function.

  16. Gene expression and molecular characterization of a chaperone protein HtpG from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Fen; Chen, Bo-En; Lin, Min-Guan; Chi, Meng-Chun; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lin, Long-Liu

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90/HtpG) is a highly abundant and ubiquitous ATP-dependent molecular chaperone consisting of three flexibly linked regions, an N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain, middle domain, and a C-terminal domain. Here the putative htpG gene of Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli M15 cells. Native-gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, and cross-linking analysis revealed that the recombinant protein probably exists as a mixture of monomer, dimer and other oligomers in solution. The optimal conditions for the ATPase activity of B. licheniformis HtpG (BlHtpG) were 45°C and pH 7.0 in the presence of 0.5mM Mg(2+) ions. The molecular architecture of this protein was stable at higher temperatures with a transition point (Tm) of 45°C at neutral pH, whereas the Tm value was reduced to 40.8°C at pH 10.5. Acrylamide quenching experiment further indicated that the dynamic quenching constant (Ksv) of BlHtpG became larger at higher pH values. BlHtpG also experienced a significant change in the protein conformation upon the addition of ATP and organic solvents. Collectively, our experiment data may provide insights into the molecular properties of BlHtpG and identify the alteration of protein structure to forfeit the ATPase activity at alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The molecular chaperone α-crystallin inhibits UV-induced protein aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkman, R.F.; Knight, Grady; Obi, Bettie

    1996-01-01

    Solutions of γ-crystallin, and various enzymes, at neutral pH and 24-26 o C, became turbid upon exposure to UV radiation at 295 or 308 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed interchain cross-linking and aggregate formation compared to dark control solutions as reported previously. When α-crystallin was added to the protein solutions in stoichiometric amounts. UV irradiation resulted in significantly less turbidity than in the absence of α-crystallin. For example, addition of 0.5 mg of α-crystallin to 0.5 mg of γ-crystallin in 1.0 ml solution yielded only 25% of the turbidity seen in the absence of α-crystallin. Addition of 2.0 mg of α-crystallin resulted in 20% of the turbidity. Given the molecular weights of α- and γ-crystallin (about 800 kDa and 20 kDa, respectively), A γ/α 1:1 weight ratio corresponds to a 40:1 molar ratio, and a γ-/α 1:4 weight ratio corresponds to a 10:1 molar ratio. Hence, the molar ratio of α-crystallin needed to effectively protect γ-crystallin from photochemical opacification was γ/α = n:1, where n was in the range 10-40. In terms of subunits, this ratio is γ/α = 1:m, where m = 1-4. Thus, each γ-crystallin molecule needs 1-4 α subunits for protection. Similar stoichiometries were observed for protection of the other proteins studied. The protection stems in part from screening of UV radiation by α-crystallin but more importantly from a chaperone effect analogous to that seen in thermal aggregation experiments. (author)

  18. The Role of Sigma-1 Receptor, an Intracellular Chaperone in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Botond; Fulop, Livia; Szucs, Maria; Frecska, Ede

    2018-01-01

    Widespread protein aggregation occurs in the living system under stress or during aging, owing to disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis. Many neurodegenerative diseases may have a common mechanism: the failure of protein homeostasis. Perturbation of ER results in unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged chronical UPR may activate apoptotic pathways and cause cell death. Research articles on Sigma-1 receptor were reviewed. ER is associated to mitochondria by the mitochondria-associated ER-membrane, MAM. The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a well-known ER-chaperone localizes in the MAM. It serves for Ca2+-signaling between the ER and mitochondria, involved in ion channel activities and especially important during neuronal differentiation. Sig-1R acts as central modulator in inter-organelle signaling. Sig-1R helps cell survival by attenuating ER-stress. According to sequence based predictions Sig-1R is a 223 amino acid protein with two transmembrane (2TM) domains. The X-ray structure of the Sig-1R [1] showed a membrane-bound trimeric assembly with one transmembrane (1TM) region. Despite the in vitro determined assembly, the results of in vivo studies are rather consistent with the 2TM structure. The receptor has unique and versatile pharmacological profile. Dimethyl tryptamine (DMT) and neuroactive steroids are endogenous ligands that activate Sig-1R. The receptor has a plethora of interacting client proteins. Sig-1R exists in oligomeric structures (dimer-trimer-octamer-multimer) and this fact may explain interaction with diverse proteins. Sig-1R agonists have been used in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD and PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Utilization of Sig-1R agents early in AD and similar other diseases has remained an overlooked therapeutic opportunity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Rescue of glaucoma-causing mutant myocilin thermal stability by chemical chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. Nicole; Orwig, Susan D.; Harris, Julia L.; Watkins, J. Derrick; Vollrath, Douglas; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in myocilin cause an inherited form of open angle glaucoma, a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased intraocular pressure. Myocilin forms part of the trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix presumed to regulate intraocular pressure. Missense mutations, clustered in the olfactomedin (OLF) domain of myocilin, render the protein prone to aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum of trabecular meshwork cells, causing cell dysfunction and death. Cellular studies have demonstrated temperature-sensitive secretion of myocilin mutants, but difficulties in expression and purification have precluded biophysical characterization of wild-type (wt) myocilin and disease-causing mutants in vitro. We have overcome these limitations by purifying wt and select glaucoma-causing mutant (D380A, I477N, I477S, K423E) forms of the OLF domain (228–504) fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) from E. coli. Monomeric fusion proteins can be isolated in solution. To determine the relative stability of wt and mutant OLF domains, we developed a fluorescence thermal stability assay without removal of MBP, and provide the first direct evidence that mutated OLF is folded but less thermally stable than wt. We tested the ability of seven chemical chaperones to stabilize mutant myocilin. Only sarcosine and trimethylamine N-oxide were capable of shifting the melting temperature of all mutants tested to near that of wt OLF. Our work lays the foundation for the identification of tailored small molecules capable of stabilizing mutant myocilin and promoting secretion to the extracellular matrix, to better control intraocular pressure and ultimately delay the onset of myocilin glaucoma. PMID:20334347

  20. A conserved small RNA promotes silencing of the outer membrane protein YbfM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Aamann; Johansen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jesper S

    2009-01-01

    important physiological role of regulatory RNA molecules in Gram-negative bacteria is to modulate the cell surface and/or to prevent accumulation of OMPs in the envelope. Here, we extend the OMP-sRNA network by showing that the expression of the outer membrane protein YbfM is silenced by a conserved sRNA......In the past few years an increasing number of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in enterobacteria have been found to negatively regulate the expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs act under various growth and stress conditions, suggesting that one......, designated MicM (also known as RybC/SroB). The regulation is strictly dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq, and mutational analysis indicates that MicM sequesters the ribosome binding site of ybfM mRNA by an antisense mechanism. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Hfq strongly enhances the on-rate of duplex...

  1. Quantitative proteomics and network analysis of SSA1 and SSB1 deletion mutants reveals robustness of chaperone HSP70 network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Eyers, Claire E; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Grant, Christopher M; Hubbard, Simon J

    2015-09-01

    Molecular chaperones play an important role in protein homeostasis and the cellular response to stress. In particular, the HSP70 chaperones in yeast mediate a large volume of protein folding through transient associations with their substrates. This chaperone interaction network can be disturbed by various perturbations, such as environmental stress or a gene deletion. Here, we consider deletions of two major chaperone proteins, SSA1 and SSB1, from the chaperone network in Sacchromyces cerevisiae. We employ a SILAC-based approach to examine changes in global and local protein abundance and rationalise our results via network analysis and graph theoretical approaches. Although the deletions result in an overall increase in intracellular protein content, correlated with an increase in cell size, this is not matched by substantial changes in individual protein concentrations. Despite the phenotypic robustness to deletion of these major hub proteins, it cannot be simply explained by the presence of paralogues. Instead, network analysis and a theoretical consideration of folding workload suggest that the robustness to perturbation is a product of the overall network structure. This highlights how quantitative proteomics and systems modelling can be used to rationalise emergent network properties, and how the HSP70 system can accommodate the loss of major hubs. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The chaperone action of bovine milk αS1- and αS2-caseins and their associated form αS-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Teresa M; Thorn, David C; Price, William E; Carver, John A

    2011-06-01

    α(S)-Casein, the major milk protein, comprises α(S1)- and α(S2)-casein and acts as a molecular chaperone, stabilizing an array of stressed target proteins against precipitation. Here, we report that α(S)-casein acts in a similar manner to the unrelated small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) and clusterin in that it does not preserve the activity of stressed target enzymes. However, in contrast to sHsps and clusterin, α-casein does not bind target proteins in a state that facilitates refolding by Hsp70. α(S)-Casein was also separated into α- and α-casein, and the chaperone abilities of each of these proteins were assessed with amorphously aggregating and fibril-forming target proteins. Under reduction stress, all α-casein species exhibited similar chaperone ability, whereas under heat stress, α-casein was a poorer chaperone. Conversely, α(S2)-casein was less effective at preventing fibril formation by modified κ-casein, whereas α- and α(S1)-casein were comparably potent inhibitors. In the presence of added salt and heat stress, α(S1)-, α- and α(S)-casein were all significantly less effective. We conclude that α(S1)- and α-casein stabilise each other to facilitate optimal chaperone activity of α(S)-casein. This work highlights the interdependency of casein proteins for their structural stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Hsc/Hsp70 co-chaperone network controls antigen aggregation and presentation during maturation of professional antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Kettern

    Full Text Available The maturation of mouse macrophages and dendritic cells involves the transient deposition of ubiquitylated proteins in the form of dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS. Transient DALIS formation was used here as a paradigm to study how mammalian cells influence the formation and disassembly of protein aggregates through alterations of their proteostasis machinery. Co-chaperones that modulate the interplay of Hsc70 and Hsp70 with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and the autophagosome-lysosome pathway emerged as key regulators of this process. The chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase CHIP and the ubiquitin-domain protein BAG-1 are essential for DALIS formation in mouse macrophages and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. CHIP also cooperates with BAG-3 and the autophagic ubiquitin adaptor p62 in the clearance of DALIS through chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA. On the other hand, the co-chaperone HspBP1 inhibits the activity of CHIP and thereby attenuates antigen sequestration. Through a modulation of DALIS formation CHIP, BAG-1 and HspBP1 alter MHC class I mediated antigen presentation in mouse BMDCs. Our data show that the Hsc/Hsp70 co-chaperone network controls transient protein aggregation during maturation of professional antigen presenting cells and in this way regulates the immune response. Similar mechanisms may modulate the formation of aggresomes and aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS in other mammalian cell types.

  4. Identification and characterization of a type III secretion-associated chaperone in the type III secretion system 1 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Okayama, Kanna; Kimura, Tomomi; Dryselius, Rikard; Kodama, Toshio; Oishi, Kazunori; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes human gastroenteritis. Genomic sequencing of this organism has revealed that it has two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2, both of which are important for its pathogenicity. However, the mechanism of protein secretion via T3SSs is unknown. A characteristic of many effectors is that they require specific chaperones for efficient delivery via T3SSs; however, no chaperone has been experimentally identified in the T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. In this study, we identified candidate T3SS1-associated chaperones from genomic sequence data and examined their roles in effector secretion/translocation and binding to their cognate substrates. From these experiments, we concluded that there is a T3S-associated chaperone, VecA, for a cytotoxic T3SS1-dependent effector, VepA. Further analysis using pulldown and secretion assays characterized the chaperone-binding domain encompassing the first 30-100 amino acids and an amino terminal secretion signal encompassing the first 5-20 amino acids on VepA. These findings will provide a strategy to clarify how the T3SS1 of V. parahaemolyticus secretes its specific effectors.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.; Zhang, K; Andres, S; Fnag, Y; Kaniuk, N; Hannemann, M; Brumell, J; Foster, L; Junop, M; Coombes, B

    2010-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2) is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2) and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  6. Structural and biochemical characterization of SrcA, a multi-cargo type III secretion chaperone in Salmonella required for pathogenic association with a host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Cooper

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2 is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 A revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2 and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  7. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate acts as a chemical chaperone on misfolded myocilin to rescue cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Gaplovska-Kysela, Katarina; Zuber, Christian; Roth, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of chemical chaperones on the trafficking of secretion-incompetent primary open-angle glaucoma-associated mutant myocilin and the possibility to rescue cells coexpressing mutant and wild-type myocilin from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. CHO-K1, HEK293 and human trabecular meshwork cells were transfected to express wild-type or mutant (C245Y, G364V, P370L, Y437H) myocilin-green fluorescent protein fusion protein and were treated or not with various chemical chaperones (glycerol, dimethylsulfoxide, or sodium 4-phenylbutyrate) for different time periods. The secretion, Triton X-100 solubility, and intracellular distribution of wild-type and mutant myocilin were analyzed by immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and confocal double immunofluorescence. The effect of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate on ER stress proteins and apoptosis was examined in cells coexpressing mutant and wild-type myocilin. Treatment with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, but not with glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide, reduced the amount of detergent-insoluble myocilin aggregates, diminished myocilin interaction with calreticulin, and restored the secretion of mutant myocilin. Heteromeric complexes formed by mutant and wild-type myocilin induced the ER stress-associated phosphorylated form of ER-localized eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-2alpha kinase and the active form of caspase 3, which resulted in an increased rate of apoptosis. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment of cells coexpressing mutant and wild-type myocilin relieved ER stress and significantly reduced the rate of apoptosis. These findings indicate that sodium 4-phenylbutyrate protects cells from the deleterious effects of ER-retained aggregated mutant myocilin. These data point to the possibility of a chemical chaperone treatment for myocilin-caused primary open-angle glaucoma.

  8. The DnaK Chaperone Uses Different Mechanisms To Promote and Inhibit Replication of Vibrio cholerae Chromosome 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti K. Jha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome 2 (Chr2 depends on molecular chaperone DnaK to facilitate binding of the initiator (RctB to the replication origin. The binding occurs at two kinds of site, 12-mers and 39-mers, which promote and inhibit replication, respectively. Here we show that DnaK employs different mechanisms to enhance the two kinds of binding. We found that mutations in rctB that reduce DnaK binding also reduce 12-mer binding and initiation. The initiation defect is suppressed by second-site mutations that increase 12-mer binding only marginally. Instead, they reduce replication inhibitory mechanisms: RctB dimerization and 39-mer binding. One suppressing change was in a dimerization domain which is folded similarly to the initiator of an iteron plasmid—the presumed progenitor of Chr2. In plasmids, DnaK promotes initiation by reducing dimerization. A different mutation was in the 39-mer binding domain of RctB and inactivated it, indicating an alternative suppression mechanism. Paradoxically, although DnaK increases 39-mer binding, the increase was also achieved by inactivating the DnaK binding site of RctB. This result suggests that the site inhibits the 39-mer binding domain (via autoinhibition when prevented from binding DnaK. Taken together, our results reveal an important feature of the transition from plasmid to chromosome: the Chr2 initiator retains the plasmid-like dimerization domain and its control by chaperones but uses the chaperones in an unprecedented way to control the inhibitory 39-mer binding.

  9. The chaperone role of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and its implications for rare diseases involving B6-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Barbara; Montioli, Riccardo; Oppici, Elisa; Astegno, Alessandra; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2014-02-01

    The biologically active form of the B6 vitamers is pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which plays a coenzymatic role in several distinct enzymatic activities ranging from the synthesis, interconversion and degradation of amino acids to the replenishment of one-carbon units, synthesis and degradation of biogenic amines, synthesis of tetrapyrrolic compounds and metabolism of amino-sugars. In the catalytic process of PLP-dependent enzymes, the substrate amino acid forms a Schiff base with PLP and the electrophilicity of the PLP pyridine ring plays important roles in the subsequent catalytic steps. While the essential role of PLP in the acquisition of biological activity of many proteins is long recognized, the finding that some PLP-enzymes require the coenzyme for refolding in vitro points to an additional role of PLP as a chaperone in the folding process. Mutations in the genes encoding PLP-enzymes are causative of several rare inherited diseases. Patients affected by some of these diseases (AADC deficiency, cystathionuria, homocystinuria, gyrate atrophy, primary hyperoxaluria type 1, xanthurenic aciduria, X-linked sideroblastic anaemia) can benefit, although at different degrees, from the administration of pyridoxine, a PLP precursor. The effect of the coenzyme is not limited to mutations that affect the enzyme-coenzyme interaction, but also to those that cause folding defects, reinforcing the idea that PLP could play a chaperone role and improve the folding efficiency of misfolded variants. In this review, recent biochemical and cell biology studies highlighting the chaperoning activity of the coenzyme on folding-defective variants of PLP-enzymes associated with rare diseases are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Escherichia coli common pilus chaperone EcpB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, James A.; Diallo, Mamou; Matthews, Steve J., E-mail: s.j.matthews@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-20

    In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. Initial attempts at crystallizing the chaperone EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. This is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones. Pili are key cell-surface components that allow the attachment of bacteria to both biological and abiotic solid surfaces, whilst also mediating interactions between themselves. In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher (CU) pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. The chaperone EcpB is involved in the biogenesis of the filament, which is composed of EcpA and EcpD. Initial attempts at crystallizing EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.4 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.65, c = 121.14 Å and one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was unsuccessful, but selenomethionine-substituted protein and heavy-atom derivatives are being prepared for phasing. The three-dimensional structure of EcpB will provide invaluable information on the subtle mechanistic differences in biogenesis between the alternative and classical CU pathways. Furthermore, this is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones, and it

  11. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Kristoffer T.; Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise...... not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement...

  12. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 A without changing the crystallization conditions.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Escherichia coli common pilus chaperone EcpB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, James A.; Diallo, Mamou; Matthews, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. Initial attempts at crystallizing the chaperone EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. This is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones. Pili are key cell-surface components that allow the attachment of bacteria to both biological and abiotic solid surfaces, whilst also mediating interactions between themselves. In Escherichia coli, the common pilus (Ecp) belongs to an alternative chaperone–usher (CU) pathway that plays a major role in both early biofilm formation and host-cell adhesion. The chaperone EcpB is involved in the biogenesis of the filament, which is composed of EcpA and EcpD. Initial attempts at crystallizing EcpB using natively purified protein from the bacterial periplasm were not successful; however, after the isolation of EcpB under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding, crystals were obtained at pH 8.0 using the sitting-drop method of vapour diffusion. Diffraction data have been processed to 2.4 Å resolution. These crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.65, c = 121.14 Å and one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Molecular replacement was unsuccessful, but selenomethionine-substituted protein and heavy-atom derivatives are being prepared for phasing. The three-dimensional structure of EcpB will provide invaluable information on the subtle mechanistic differences in biogenesis between the alternative and classical CU pathways. Furthermore, this is the first time that this refolding strategy has been used to purify CU chaperones, and it could be

  14. The Intrinsically Disordered Domain of the Antitoxin Phd Chaperones the Toxin Doc against Irreversible Inactivation and Misfolding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. PMID:25326388

  15. The determinants and engagement patterns of chaperones and chauffeurs by Australian doctors in after-hours house-call services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Onyebuchi Ifediora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The use of escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones while on duty in after-hours-house-call (AHHC is one key protective option available to doctors in the service, and has been linked to low burnout and increased satisfaction in AHHC. This study aims to explore the patterns of engagement of escorts in Australian AHHC. Method This is a questionnaire-based, electronic survey of all 300 doctors involved in AHHC through the National Home Doctor Service (NHDS, Australia’s largest providers of the service. The survey explored the doctor’s experiences over the 12-month period from October 2013 to September 2014. Results This survey received a total of 168 valid responses, giving a response rate of 56%. Nearly 61% of the doctors involved in AHHC engaged escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones. Of those doctors that engage chauffeurs, three-quarters do so “all or most times”, while only one-quarter engaged chaperones to the same degree of frequency. Hiring escorts is very popular among Brisbane (91.7% and Sydney-based (88.2% practitioners, but is unpopular in the City of Gold Coast (26.1%. There were moderate patronages in Adelaide (52.9% and Melbourne Area (46.4%. Compared to males, females were less likely to drive themselves without escorts (OR 0.20; P < 0.01; CI [0.07–0.57], but more likely to engage chauffeurs (OR 5.87; P = 0.03; CI [1.16–29.77]. Practitioners who were apprehensive were three times more likely to either engage escorts as chauffeurs (OR 3.10; P = 0.04; CI [1.05–9.15] or as an accompanying chaperone if they self-drive (OR 3.03; P = 0.02; CI [1.16–7.89]. Conclusion More needs to be done to increase the engagement of escorts by doctors involved in the Australian AHHC, particularly given their proven benefits in the service. Future studies may be needed to fully explore the real reasons behind the significant associations identified in this study.

  16. The Hydrophobic Region of the DmsA Twin-Arginine Leader Peptide Determines Specificity with Chaperone DmsD

    OpenAIRE

    Winstone, Tara M. L.; Tran, Vy A.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The system specific chaperone DmsD plays a role in the maturation of the catalytic subunit of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, DmsA. Pre-DmsA contains a 45-amino acid twin-arginine leader peptide that is important for targeting and translocation of folded and cofactor-loaded DmsA by the twin-arginine translocase. DmsD has previously been shown to interact with the complete twin-arginine leader peptide of DmsA. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the the...

  17. Assembling RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanoparticles are designed and self-assembled according to noncanonical interactions of naturally conserved RNA motifs and/or canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, which have potential applications in gene therapy and nanomedicine. These artificially engineered nanoparticles are mainly synthesized from in vitro transcribed RNAs, purified by denaturing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and characterized with native PAGE, AFM, and TEM technologies. The protocols of in vitro transcription, denaturing and native PAGE, and RNA nanoparticle self-assembly are described in detail.

  18. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  19. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  20. Blocking the chaperone kinome pathway: Mechanistic insights into a novel dual inhibition approach for supra-additive suppression of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Abhinav [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shandilya, Ashutosh [Supercomputing Facility for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Agrawal, Vibhuti; Pratik, Piyush; Bhasme, Divya; Bisaria, Virendra S. [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sundar, Durai, E-mail: sundar@dbeb.iitd.ac.in [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Withaferin A and 17-DMAG synergistically inhibit the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone pair. {yields} Binding of WA to Cdc37 cleft suppresses its kinase binding activity. {yields} 17-DMAG binding to the association complex results in H-bonds with 60% clustering. {yields} The ligands' bound complex was found structurally and thermodynamically stable. -- Abstract: The chaperone Hsp90 is involved in regulating the stability and activation state of more than 200 'client' proteins and takes part in the cancer diseased states. The major clientele-protein kinases depend on Hsp90 for their proper folding and functioning. Cdc37, a kinase targeting co-chaperone of Hsp90, mediates the interactions between Hsp90 and protein kinases. Targeting of Cdc37 has the prospect of delivering predominantly kinase-selective molecular responses as compared to the current pharmacologic Hsp90 inhibitors. The present work reports a bio-computational study carried out with the aim of exploring the dual inhibition of Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone/co-chaperone association complex by the naturally occurring drug candidates withaferin A and 17-DMAG along with their possible modes of action. Our molecular docking studies reveal that withaferin A in combination with 17-DMAG can act as potent chaperone system inhibitors. The structural and thermodynamic stability of the ligands' bound complex was also observed from molecular dynamics simulations in water. Our results suggest a novel tumor suppressive action mechanism of herbal ligands which can be looked forward for further clinical investigations for possible anticancer drug formulations.

  1. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu Xing; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2014-02-01

    Understanding of pilus bioassembly in Gram-negative bacteria stems mainly from studies of P pili and type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which are mediated by the classic chaperone-usher pathway (CUP). However, CFA/I fimbriae, a class 5 fimbria and intestinal colonization factor for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), are proposed to assemble via the alternate chaperone pathway (ACP). Both CUP and ACP fimbrial bioassembly pathways require the function of a periplasmic chaperone, but their corresponding proteins share very low similarity in primary sequence. Here, the crystallization of the CFA/I periplasmic chaperone CfaA by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method is reported. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected from a native CfaA crystal to 2 Å resolution and to 1.8 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively, from a lead and a platinum derivative. These crystals displayed the symmetry of space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 28.68, c = 90.60 Å, β = 119.7°. Initial phases were derived from multiple isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering experiments using the data from the platinum and lead derivatives. This resulted in an interpretable electron-density map showing one CfaA molecule in an asymmetric unit. Sequence assignments were aided by anomalous signals from the heavy-atom derivatives. Refinement of the atomic model of CfaA is ongoing, which is expected to further understanding of the essential aspects and allowable variations in tertiary structure of the greater family of chaperones involved in chaperone-usher mediated bioassembly.

  2. Remote Network Access (RNA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Remote Network Access (RNA) includes or is associated with all communication devices/software, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and virus protection applications to ensure security of the OIG, DoD, Network from remote...

  3. RNA/PNA Approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this approach we want to develop structural analogue of the leader that might have higher affinity towards the Phosphoprotein, but would impair the dimerization process and viral leader RNA binding.

  4. Determinants for simultaneous binding of copper and platinum to human chaperone Atox1: hitchhiking not hijacking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Palm-Espling

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is an anticancer agent that has been used for decades to treat a variety of cancers. CisPt treatment causes many side effects due to interactions with proteins that detoxify the drug before reaching the DNA. One key player in CisPt resistance is the cellular copper-transport system involving the uptake protein Ctr1, the cytoplasmic chaperone Atox1 and the secretory path ATP7A/B proteins. CisPt has been shown to bind to ATP7B, resulting in vesicle sequestering of the drug. In addition, we and others showed that the apo-form of Atox1 could interact with CisPt in vitro and in vivo. Since the function of Atox1 is to transport copper (Cu ions, it is important to assess how CisPt binding depends on Cu-loading of Atox1. Surprisingly, we recently found that CisPt interacted with Cu-loaded Atox1 in vitro at a position near the Cu site such that unique spectroscopic features appeared. Here, we identify the binding site for CisPt in the Cu-loaded form of Atox1 using strategic variants and a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. We directly prove that both metals can bind simultaneously and that the unique spectroscopic signals originate from an Atox1 monomer species. Both Cys in the Cu-site (Cys12, Cys15 are needed to form the di-metal complex, but not Cys41. Removing Met10 in the conserved metal-binding motif makes the loop more floppy and, despite metal binding, there are no metal-metal electronic transitions. In silico geometry minimizations provide an energetically favorable model of a tentative ternary Cu-Pt-Atox1 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that Atox1 can deliver CisPt to the fourth metal binding domain 4 of ATP7B (WD4, indicative of a possible drug detoxification mechanism.

  5. The ribosome-bound chaperones RAC and Ssb1/2p are required for accurate translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakwalska, Magdalena; Rospert, Sabine

    2004-10-01

    The chaperone homologs RAC (ribosome-associated complex) and Ssb1/2p are anchored to ribosomes; Ssb1/2p directly interacts with nascent polypeptides. The absence of RAC or Ssb1/2p results in a similar set of phenotypes, including hypersensitivity against the aminoglycoside paromomycin, which binds to the small ribosomal subunit and compromises the fidelity of translation. In order to understand this phenomenon we measured the frequency of translation termination and misincorporation in vivo and in vitro with a novel reporter system. Translational fidelity was impaired in the absence of functional RAC or Ssb1/2p, and the effect was further enhanced by paromomycin. The mutant strains suffered primarily from a defect in translation termination, while misincorporation was compromised to a lesser extent. Consistently, a low level of soluble translation termination factor Sup35p enhanced growth defects in the mutant strains. Based on the combined data we conclude that RAC and Ssb1/2p are crucial in maintaining translational fidelity beyond their postulated role as chaperones for nascent polypeptides.

  6. The Escherichia coli thioredoxin homolog YbbN/Trxsc is a chaperone and a weak protein oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Thérèse; Malki, Abderrahim; Kern, Renée; Abdallah, Jad; Richarme, Gilbert

    2006-05-12

    Escherichia coli contains two thioredoxins, Trx1 and Trx2, and a thioredoxin-like protein, YbbN, which presents a strong homology in its N-terminal part with thioredoxin 1 and 2. YbbN, however, does not possess the canonical Cys-x-x-Cys active site of thioredoxins, but instead a Ser-x-x-Cys site. In addition to Cys-38, located in the SxxC site, it contains a second cysteine, Cys-63, close to Cys-38 in the 3D model. Cys-38 and Cys-63 undergo an oxidoreduction process, suggesting that YbbN functions with two redox cysteines. Accordingly, YbbN catalyzes the oxidation of reduced RNase and the isomerization of scrambled RNase. Moreover, upon oxidation, its oligomeric state changes from dimers to tetramers and higher oligomers. YbbN also possesses chaperone properties, promoting protein folding after urea denaturation and forming complexes with unfolded proteins. This is the first biochemical characterization of a member of the YbbN class of bacterial thioredoxin-like proteins, and in vivo experiments will allow to determine the importance of its redox and chaperone properties in the cellular physiology.

  7. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The combination of leucine-to-methionine substitutions and optimization of cryoconditions improved the resolution of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions, allowing successful structure determination of SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT by the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method. One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions

  8. Evolutionary Conservation and Emerging Functional Diversity of the Cytosolic Hsp70:J Protein Chaperone Network of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit K; Diwan, Danish; Raut, Sandeep; Dobriyal, Neha; Brown, Rebecca E; Gowda, Vinita; Hines, Justin K; Sahi, Chandan

    2017-06-07

    Heat shock proteins of 70 kDa (Hsp70s) partner with structurally diverse Hsp40s (J proteins), generating distinct chaperone networks in various cellular compartments that perform myriad housekeeping and stress-associated functions in all organisms. Plants, being sessile, need to constantly maintain their cellular proteostasis in response to external environmental cues. In these situations, the Hsp70:J protein machines may play an important role in fine-tuning cellular protein quality control. Although ubiquitous, the functional specificity and complexity of the plant Hsp70:J protein network has not been studied. Here, we analyzed the J protein network in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana and, using yeast genetics, show that the functional specificities of most plant J proteins in fundamental chaperone functions are conserved across long evolutionary timescales. Detailed phylogenetic and functional analysis revealed that increased number, regulatory differences, and neofunctionalization in J proteins together contribute to the emerging functional diversity and complexity in the Hsp70:J protein network in higher plants. Based on the data presented, we propose that higher plants have orchestrated their "chaperome," especially their J protein complement, according to their specialized cellular and physiological stipulations. Copyright © 2017 Verma et al.

  9. Targeting HSP90 and monoclonal protein trafficking modulates the unfolded protein response, chaperone regulation and apoptosis in myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, E J; Hartman, S V; Holstein, S A

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is characterized by the production of substantial quantities of monoclonal protein. We have previously demonstrated that select inhibitors of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway (IBP) induce apoptosis of myeloma cells via inhibition of Rab geranylgeranylation, leading to disruption of monoclonal protein trafficking and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors disrupt protein folding and are currently under clinical investigation in myeloma. The effects of combining IBP and HSP90 inhibitors on cell death, monoclonal protein trafficking, the UPR and chaperone regulation were investigated in monoclonal protein-producing cells. An enhanced induction of cell death was observed following treatment with IBP and HSP90 inhibitors, which occurred through both ER stress and non-ER stress pathways. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the effects of the IBP inhibitors on intracellular monoclonal protein levels and localization as well as induction of the UPR in myeloma cells. Disparate effects on chaperone expression were observed in myeloma vs amyloid light chain cells. Here we demonstrate that the novel strategy of targeting MP trafficking in concert with HSP90 enhances myeloma cell death via a complex modulation of ER stress, UPR, and cell death pathways

  10. Copper transporters and chaperones CTR1, CTR2, ATOX1, and CCS as determinants of cisplatin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompiani, Kristin M; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Achatz, Felix P; Liebig, Janika K; Howell, Stephen B

    2016-09-01

    The development of resistance to cisplatin (cDDP) is commonly accompanied by reduced drug uptake or increased efflux. Previous studies in yeast and murine embryonic fibroblasts have reported that the copper (Cu) transporters and chaperones participate in the uptake, efflux, and intracellular distribution of cDDP. However, there is conflicting data from studies in human cells. We used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to individually knock out the human copper transporters CTR1 and CTR2 and the copper chaperones ATOX1 and CCS. Isogenic knockout cell lines were generated in both human HEK-293T and ovarian carcinoma OVCAR8 cells. All knockout cell lines had slowed growth compared to parental cells, small changes in basal Cu levels, and varying sensitivities to Cu depending on the gene targeted. However, all of the knockouts demonstrated only modest 2 to 5-fold changes in cDDP sensitivity that did not differ from the range of sensitivities of 10 wild type clones grown from the same parental cell population. We conclude that, under basal conditions, loss of CTR1, CTR2, ATOX1, or CCS does not produce a change in cisplatin sensitivity that exceeds the variance found within the parental population, suggesting that they are not essential to the mechanism by which cDDP enters these cell lines and is transported to the nucleus.

  11. Induced ER-chaperones regulate a novel receptor-like kinase to mediate a viral innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Zhu, Xiaohong; Mamillapalli, Padmavathi; Marathe, Rajendra; Anandalakshmi, Radhamani; Dinesh-Kumar, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The plant innate immune response requires a rapid, global reprogramming of cellular processes. Here we employed two complementary proteomic methods, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and iTRAQ, to identify differentially regulated proteins early during a defense response. Besides defense-related proteins, the constituents of the largest category of up-regulated proteins were cytoplasmic- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing molecular chaperones. Silencing of ER-resident protein disulfide isomerases, NbERp57 and NbP5, and the calreticulins, NbCRT2 and NbCRT3, lead to a partial loss of N immune receptor-mediated defense against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Furthermore, NbCRT2 and NbCRT3 are required for the expression of a novel induced receptor-like kinase (IRK). IRK is a plasma membrane-localized protein required for the N-mediated hypersensitive response programmed cell death (HR-PCD) and resistance to TMV. These data support a model in which ER-resident chaperones are required for the accumulation of membrane bound or secreted proteins that are necessary for innate immunity. PMID:19917500

  12. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-06-08

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese.

  13. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Mori

    Full Text Available The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  14. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  15. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  16. Switching off small RNA regulation with trap-mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Johansen, Jesper; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    to operate at the level of transcription initiation. By employing a highly sensitive genetic screen we uncovered a novel RNA-based regulatory principle in which induction of a trap-mRNA leads to selective degradation of a small regulatory RNA molecule, thereby abolishing the sRNA-based silencing of its...

  17. Bag1 Co-chaperone Promotes TRC8 E3 Ligase-dependent Degradation of Misfolded Human Ether a Go-Go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, Christine; Williamson, Brittany; Valinsky, William C; Solomon, Joshua; Shrier, Alvin; Young, Jason C

    2017-02-10

    Cardiac long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, many of which cause misfolding and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of normal trafficking to the cell surface. The Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones assist the folding of the hERG cytosolic domains. Here, we demonstrate that the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Bag1 promotes hERG degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system at the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate hERG levels and channel activity. Dissociation of hERG complexes containing Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP requires the interaction of Bag1 with Hsp70, but this does not involve the Bag1 ubiquitin-like domain. The interaction with Bag1 then shifts hERG degradation to the membrane-anchored E3 ligase TRC8 and its E2-conjugating enzyme Ube2g2, as determined by siRNA screening. TRC8 interacts through the transmembrane region with hERG and decreases hERG functional expression. TRC8 also mediates degradation of the misfolded hERG-G601S disease mutant, but pharmacological stabilization of the mutant structure prevents degradation. Our results identify TRC8 as a previously unknown Hsp70-independent quality control E3 ligase for hERG. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A ribosome without RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S Bernhardt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It was Francis Crick who first asked why the ribosome contains so much RNA, and discussed the implications of this for the direct flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the ribosome and protein synthesis, including the recent publication of two mammalian mitochondrial ribosome structures, have shed new light on this intriguing aspect of evolution in molecular biology. We examine here whether RNA is indispensable for coded protein synthesis, or whether an all-protein ‘ribosome’ (or ‘synthosome’ might be possible, with a protein enzyme catalyzing peptide synthesis, and release factor-like protein adaptors able to read a message composed of deoxyribonucleotides. We also compare the RNA world hypothesis with the alternative ‘proteins first’ hypothesis in terms of their different understandings of the evolution of the ribosome, and whether this might have been preceded by an ancestral form of nonribosomal peptide synthesis catalyzed by protein enzymes.

  19. Pyrite footprinting of RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatterer, Jörg C.; Wieder, Matthew S.; Jones, Christopher D.; Pollack, Lois; Brenowitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RNA structure is mapped by pyrite mediated · OH footprinting. ► Repetitive experiments can be done in a powdered pyrite filled cartridge. ► High · OH reactivity of nucleotides imply dynamic role in Diels–Alderase catalysis. -- Abstract: In RNA, function follows form. Mapping the surface of RNA molecules with chemical and enzymatic probes has revealed invaluable information about structure and folding. Hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) map the surface of nucleic acids by cutting the backbone where it is accessible to solvent. Recent studies showed that a microfluidic chip containing pyrite (FeS 2 ) can produce sufficient · OH to footprint DNA. The 49-nt Diels–Alder RNA enzyme catalyzes the C–C bond formation between a diene and a dienophile. A crystal structure, molecular dynamics simulation and atomic mutagenesis studies suggest that nucleotides of an asymmetric bulge participate in the dynamic architecture of the ribozyme’s active center. Of note is that residue U42 directly interacts with the product in the crystallized RNA/product complex. Here, we use powdered pyrite held in a commercially available cartridge to footprint the Diels–Alderase ribozyme with single nucleotide resolution. Residues C39 to U42 are more reactive to · OH than predicted by the solvent accessibility calculated from the crystal structure suggesting that this loop is dynamic in solution. The loop’s flexibility may contribute to substrate recruitment and product release. Our implementation of pyrite-mediated · OH footprinting is a readily accessible approach to gleaning information about the architecture of small RNA molecules.

  20. Functional interaction of the DNA-binding transcription factor Sp1 through its DNA-binding domain with the histone chaperone TAF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toru; Muto, Shinsuke; Miyamoto, Saku; Aizawa, Kenichi; Horikoshi, Masami; Nagai, Ryozo

    2003-08-01

    Transcription involves molecular interactions between general and regulatory transcription factors with further regulation by protein-protein interactions (e.g. transcriptional cofactors). Here we describe functional interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone. Affinity purification of factors interacting with the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Sp1 showed Sp1 to interact with the histone chaperone TAF-I, both alpha and beta isoforms. This interaction was specific as Sp1 did not interact with another histone chaperone CIA nor did other tested DNA-binding regulatory factors (MyoD, NFkappaB, p53) interact with TAF-I. Interaction of Sp1 and TAF-I occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Interaction with TAF-I results in inhibition of DNA-binding, and also likely as a result of such, inhibition of promoter activation by Sp1. Collectively, we describe interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone which results in negative regulation of the former. This novel regulatory interaction advances our understanding of the mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription through DNA-binding regulatory transcription factors by protein-protein interactions, and also shows the DNA-binding domain to mediate important regulatory interactions.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum proteins SDF2 and SDF2L1 act as components of the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Tsutomu; Suno, Ryoji; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Wada, Ikuo; Hosokawa, Nobuko

    2017-08-01

    The folding of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is assisted by ER-resident chaperone proteins. BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), a member of the HSP70 family, plays a central role in protein quality control. The chaperone function of BiP is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity, which is stimulated by ER-resident proteins of the HSP40/DnaJ family, including ERdj3. Here, we report that two closely related proteins, SDF2 and SDF2L1, regulate the BiP chaperone cycle. Both are ER-resident, but SDF2 is constitutively expressed, whereas SDF2L1 expression is induced by ER stress. Both luminal proteins formed a stable complex with ERdj3 and potently inhibited the aggregation of different types of misfolded ER cargo. These proteins associated with non-native proteins, thus promoting the BiP-substrate interaction cycle. A dominant-negative ERdj3 mutant that inhibits the interaction between ERdj3 and BiP prevented the dissociation of misfolded cargo from the ERdj3-SDF2L1 complex. Our findings indicate that SDF2 and SDF2L1 associate with ERdj3 and act as components in the BiP chaperone cycle to prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins, partly explaining the broad folding capabilities of the ER under various physiological conditions. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of CfaA, a molecular chaperone essential for the assembly of CFA/I fimbriae of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Rui; Esser, Lothar; Poole, Steven; McVeigh, Annette; Chen, Yu-xing; Savarino, Stephen J.; Xia, Di, E-mail: xiad@mail.nih.gov

    2014-01-21

    The molecular chaperone CfaA plays a critical role in the bioassembly of the surface-adhesive CFA/I fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli. Purified CfaA was crystallized and the phase solution was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement coupled with anomalous scattering method.

  3. Off-pathway assembly of fimbria subunits is prevented by chaperone CfaA of CFA/I fimbriae from enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rui; Liu, Yang; Savarino, Stephen J; Xia, Di

    2016-12-01

    The assembly of the class 5 colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae of enterotoxigenic E. coli was proposed to proceed via the alternate chaperone-usher pathway. Here, we show that in the absence of the chaperone CfaA, CfaB, the major pilin subunit of CFA/I fimbriae, is able to spontaneously refold and polymerize into cyclic trimers. CfaA kinetically traps CfaB to form a metastable complex that can be stabilized by mutations. Crystal structure of the stabilized complex reveals distinctive interactions provided by CfaA to trap CfaB in an assembly competent state through donor-strand complementation (DSC) and cleft-mediated anchorage. Mutagenesis indicated that DSC controls the stability of the chaperone-subunit complex and the cleft-mediated anchorage of the subunit C-terminus additionally assist in subunit refolding. Surprisingly, over-stabilization of the chaperone-subunit complex led to delayed fimbria assembly, whereas destabilizing the complex resulted in no fimbriation. Thus, CfaA acts predominantly as a kinetic trap by stabilizing subunit to avoid its off-pathway self-polymerization that results in energetically favorable trimers and could serve as a driving force for CFA/I pilus assembly, representing an energetic landscape unique to class 5 fimbria assembly. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The S/T-Rich Motif in the DNAJB6 Chaperone Delays Polyglutamine Aggregation and the Onset of Disease in a Mouse Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Mansson, Cecilia; de Mattos, Eduardo P.; Bergink, Steven; van der Zwaag, Marianne; van Waarde-Verhagen, M A W H; Kloosterhuis, Niels J.; Melki, Ronald; van Cruchten, Remco T. P.; Al-Karadaghi, Salam; Arosio, Paolo; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Bates, Gillian P.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Linse, Sara; van de Sluis, Bart; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2016-01-01

    Expanded CAG repeats lead to debilitating neurodegenerative disorders characterized by aggregation of proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts. The mechanism of aggregation involves primary and secondary nucleation steps. We show how a noncanonical member of the DNAJ-chaperone family,

  5. Mimicking the action of folding chaperones by Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations : Application in the refinement of de novo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Periole, Xavier; Mark, Alan E.

    The efficiency of using a variant of Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (Chaperone H-replica-exchange molecular dynamics [CH-REMD]) for the refinement of protein structural models generated de novo is investigated. In CH-REMD, the interaction between the protein and its environment,

  6. Analysis of the role of the gene bipA, encoding the major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein in the secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in black Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Gemeren, I.A. van; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, J.; Hessing, J.G.M.; Muijlwijk van - Harteveld, G.M.; Beijersbergen, A.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    The function of the endoplasmic-reticulum-localized chaperone binding protein (BiP) in relation to protein secretion in filamentous fungi was studied. It was shown that the overproduction of several homologous and heterologous recombinant proteins by Aspergillus strains induces the expression of

  7. Oligomeric structure and chaperone-like activity of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial small heat shock protein Hsp22 and arginine mutants in the alpha-crystallin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbaghizadeh, Afrooz; Finet, Stéphanie; Morrow, Genevieve; Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha; Tanguay, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    The structure and chaperone function of DmHsp22WT, a small Hsp of Drosophila melanogaster localized within mitochondria were examined. Mutations of conserved arginine mutants within the alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) domain (R105G, R109G, and R110G) were introduced, and their effects on oligomerization and chaperone function were assessed. Arginine to glycine mutations do not induce significant changes in tryptophan fluorescence, and the mutated proteins form oligomers that are of equal or smaller size than the wild-type protein. They all form oligomer with one single peak as determined by size exclusion chromatography. While all mutants demonstrate the same efficiency as the DmHsp22WT in a DTT-induced insulin aggregation assay, all are more efficient chaperones to prevent aggregation of malate dehydrogenase. Arginine mutants of DmHsp22 are efficient chaperones to retard aggregation of CS and Luc. In summary, this study shows that mutations of arginine to glycine in DmHsp22 ACD induce a number of structural changes, some of which differ from those described in mammalian sHsps. Interestingly, only the R110G-DmHsp22 mutant, and not the expected R109G equivalent to human R140-HspB1, R116-HspB4, and R120-HspB5, showed different structural properties compared with the DmHsp22WT.

  8. HspB8 Participates in Protein Quality Control by a Non-chaperone-like Mechanism That Requires eIF2 alpha Phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carra, Serena; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques; Kampinga, Harm H.

    2009-01-01

    Aggregation of mutated proteins is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease. We previously reported that overexpression of the HspB8 . Bag3 chaperone complex suppresses mutated huntingtin aggregation via autophagy. Classically, HspB proteins are thought to act as

  9. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.

  10. RNA Regulation of Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Berglund, Rodger Voelker, Paul Barber and Julien Diegel 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...estrogen  receptors  [reviewed  in  (3,  4)],  also   functions   by  interacting  directly  with  RNA  to  alter  RNA...Mog myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 6.06 207115_x_at mbtd1 mbt domain containing 1 6.06 208004_at Prol1 proline rich, lacrimal 1 6.06 205247_at

  11. RNA Regulation by Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Julien Diegel, Amy Mahady, and Micah Bodner 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: aberglund@molbio.uoregon.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...4)],  also   functions   by  interacting  directly  with  RNA  to  alter  RNA  processing  events  such  as  splicing...1 6.06 208004_at Prol1 proline rich, lacrimal 1 6.06 205247_at NOTCH4 Notch homolog 4 (Drosophila) 6.06 211203_s_at Cntn1 contactin 1 6.06 220689_at

  12. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  13. Retraction for Ramos et al., The second RNA chaperone, Hfq2, is also required for survival under stress and full virulence of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Volume 193, no. 7, p.1515–1526, 2011. Problems related to images published in this paper have been brought to our attention. Figure 8 contains duplicated images as well as images previously published in articles in Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, i.e., the following: S. A. Sousa, C. G. Ramos, L. M. Moreira, and J. H. Leitão, Microbiology 156:896–908, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.035139-0. C. G. Ramos, S. A. Sousa, A. M. Grilo, L. Eberl, and J. H. Leitão, Microb. Pathog. 48:168–177, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.micpath.2010.02.006. Therefore, we retract the paper.Wedeeply regret this situation and apologize for any inconvenience to the editors and readers of Journal of Bacteriology, Microbial Pathogenesis, and Microbiology.

  14. RNA STRAND: The RNA Secondary Structure and Statistical Analysis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronescu Mirela

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to access, search and analyse secondary structures of a large set of known RNA molecules is very important for deriving improved RNA energy models, for evaluating computational predictions of RNA secondary structures and for a better understanding of RNA folding. Currently there is no database that can easily provide these capabilities for almost all RNA molecules with known secondary structures. Results In this paper we describe RNA STRAND – the RNA secondary STRucture and statistical ANalysis Database, a curated database containing known secondary structures of any type and organism. Our new database provides a wide collection of known RNA secondary structures drawn from public databases, searchable and downloadable in a common format. Comprehensive statistical information on the secondary structures in our database is provided using the RNA Secondary Structure Analyser, a new tool we have developed to analyse RNA secondary structures. The information thus obtained is valuable for understanding to which extent and with which probability certain structural motifs can appear. We outline several ways in which the data provided in RNA STRAND can facilitate research on RNA structure, including the improvement of RNA energy models and evaluation of secondary structure prediction programs. In order to keep up-to-date with new RNA secondary structure experiments, we offer the necessary tools to add solved RNA secondary structures to our database and invite researchers to contribute to RNA STRAND. Conclusion RNA STRAND is a carefully assembled database of trusted RNA secondary structures, with easy on-line tools for searching, analyzing and downloading user selected entries, and is publicly available at http://www.rnasoft.ca/strand.

  15. Studying RNA-protein interactions in vivo by RNA immunoprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selth, Luke A; Close, Pierre; Svejstrup, Jesper Q

    2011-01-01

    and have significant effects on gene expression. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) is a powerful technique used to detect direct and indirect interactions between individual proteins and specific RNA molecules in vivo. Here, we describe RIP methods for both yeast and mammalian cells.......The crucial roles played by RNA-binding proteins in all aspects of RNA metabolism, particularly in the regulation of transcription, have become increasingly evident. Moreover, other factors that do not directly interact with RNA molecules can nevertheless function proximally to RNA polymerases...

  16. Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aviñó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. These structures were used to obtain branched siRNA. The branched siRNA duplexes had similar inhibitory capacity as those of unmodified siRNA duplexes, as deduced from gene silencing experiments of the TNF-α protein. Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems.

  17. Role of the HSPA9/HSC20 chaperone pair in promoting directional human iron-sulfur cluster exchange involving monothiol glutaredoxin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Joshua A; Cowan, J A

    2018-07-01

    Iron‑sulfur clusters are essential cofactors found across all domains of life. Their assembly and transfer are accomplished by highly conserved protein complexes and partners. In eukaryotes a [2Fe-2S] cluster is first assembled in the mitochondria on the iron‑sulfur cluster scaffold protein ISCU in tandem with iron, sulfide, and electron donors. Current models suggest that a chaperone pair interacts with a cluster-bound ISCU to facilitate cluster transfer to a monothiol glutaredoxin. In humans this protein is glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) and the cluster can then be exchanged with a variety of target apo proteins. By use of circular dichroism spectroscopy, the kinetics of cluster exchange reactivity has been evaluated for human GLRX5 with a variety of cluster donor and acceptor partners, and the role of chaperones determined for several of these. In contrast to the prokaryotic model, where heat-shock type chaperone proteins HscA and HscB are required for successful and efficient transfer of a [2Fe-2S] cluster from the ISCU scaffold to a monothiol glutaredoxin. However, in the human system the chaperone homologs, HSPA9 and HSC20, are not necessary for human ISCU to promote cluster transfer to GLRX5, and appear to promote the reverse transfer. Cluster exchange with the human iron‑sulfur cluster carrier protein NFU1 and ferredoxins (FDX's), and the role of chaperones, has also been evaluated, demonstrating in certain cases control over the directionality of cluster transfer. In contrast to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, NFU1 is identified as a more likely physiological donor of [2Fe-2S] cluster to human GLRX5 than ISCU. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in functional regulation of the Hsp70 J-protein co-chaperone Sis1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyun Young; Ziegelhoffer, Thomas; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Ciesielski, Szymon J; Baranowski, Maciej; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-10

    Unlike other Hsp70 molecular chaperones, those of the eukaryotic cytosol have four residues, EEVD, at their C-termini. EEVD(Hsp70) binds adaptor proteins of the Hsp90 chaperone system and mitochondrial membrane preprotein receptors, thereby facilitating processing of Hsp70-bound clients through protein folding and translocation pathways. Among J-protein co-chaperones functioning in these pathways, Sis1 is unique, as it also binds the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, little is known about the role of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction. We found that deletion of EEVD(Hsp70) abolished the ability of Sis1, but not the ubiquitous J-protein Ydj1, to partner with Hsp70 in in vitro protein refolding. Sis1 co-chaperone activity with Hsp70∆EEVD was restored upon substitution of a glutamic acid of the J-domain. Structural analysis revealed that this key glutamic acid, which is not present in Ydj1, forms a salt bridge with an arginine of the immediately adjacent glycine-rich region. Thus, restoration of Sis1 in vitro activity suggests that intramolecular interactions between the J-domain and glycine-rich region control co-chaperone activity, which is optimal only when Sis1 interacts with the EEVD(Hsp70) motif. However, we found that disruption of the Sis1:EEVD(Hsp70) interaction enhances the ability of Sis1 to substitute for Ydj1 in vivo. Our results are consistent with the idea that interaction of Sis1 with EEVD(Hsp70) minimizes transfer of Sis1-bound clients to Hsp70s that are primed for client transfer to folding and translocation pathways by their preassociation with EEVD binding adaptor proteins. These interactions may be one means by which cells triage Ydj1- and Sis1-bound clients to productive and quality control pathways, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A S52P mutation in the 'α-crystallin domain' of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18 reduces its oligomeric size and chaperone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sandip K; Rehna, Elengikal A A; Panda, Alok K; Shiburaj, Sugathan; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Biswas, Ashis

    2013-12-01

    Mycobacterium leprae HSP18 is a small heat shock protein (sHSP). It is a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen. Previously, we have reported the existence of two M. leprae HSP18 variants in various leprotic patients. One of the variants has serine at position 52, whereas the other one has proline at the same position. We have also reported that HSP18 having proline at position 52 (HSP18P(52)) is a nonameric protein and exhibits chaperone function. However, the structural and functional characterization of wild-type HSP18 having serine at position 52 (HSP18S(52)) is yet to be explored. Furthermore, the implications of the S52P mutation on the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 are not well understood. Therefore, we cloned and purified these two HSP18 variants. We found that HSP18S(52) is also a molecular chaperone and an oligomeric protein. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and far-UV CD measurements revealed that the S52P mutation altered the tertiary and secondary structure of HSP18. This point mutation also reduced the oligomeric assembly and decreased the surface hydrophobicity of HSP18, as revealed by HPLC and 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid binding studies, respectively. Mutant protein was less stable against thermal and chemical denaturation and was more susceptible towards tryptic cleavage than wild-type HSP18. HSP18P(52) had lower chaperone function and was less effective in protecting thermal killing of Escherichia coli than HSP18S(52). Taken together, our data suggest that serine 52 is important for the larger oligomerization and chaperone function of HSP18. Because both variants differ in stability and function, they may have different roles in the survival of M. leprae in infected hosts. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Hydroimidazolone modification of the conserved Arg12 in small heat shock proteins: studies on the structure and chaperone function using mutant mimics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram H Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MGO is an α-dicarbonyl compound present ubiquitously in the human body. MGO reacts with arginine residues in proteins and forms adducts such as hydroimidazolone and argpyrimidine in vivo. Previously, we showed that MGO-mediated modification of αA-crystallin increased its chaperone function. We identified MGO-modified arginine residues in αA-crystallin and found that replacing such arginine residues with alanine residues mimicked the effects of MGO on the chaperone function. Arginine 12 (R12 is a conserved amino acid residue in Hsp27 as well as αA- and αB-crystallin. When treated with MGO at or near physiological concentrations (2-10 µM, R12 was modified to hydroimidazolone in all three small heat shock proteins. In this study, we determined the effect of arginine substitution with alanine at position 12 (R12A to mimic MGO modification on the structure and chaperone function of these proteins. Among the three proteins, the R12A mutation improved the chaperone function of only αA-crystallin. This enhancement in the chaperone function was accompanied by subtle changes in the tertiary structure, which increased the thermodynamic stability of αA-crystallin. This mutation induced the exposure of additional client protein binding sites on αA-crystallin. Altogether, our data suggest that MGO-modification of the conserved R12 in αA-crystallin to hydroimidazolone may play an important role in reducing protein aggregation in the lens during aging and cataract formation.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-z, an Hsp110 homologue, exhibits independent chaperone activity and interacts with Hsp70-1 in a nucleotide-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zininga, Tawanda; Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Hoppe, Heinrich; Prinsloo, Earl; Dirr, Heini W; Shonhai, Addmore

    2016-05-01

    The role of molecular chaperones, among them heat shock proteins (Hsps), in the development of malaria parasites has been well documented. Hsp70s are molecular chaperones that facilitate protein folding. Hsp70 proteins are composed of an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD), which confers them with ATPase activity and a C-terminal substrate binding domain (SBD). In the ADP-bound state, Hsp70 possesses high affinity for substrate and releases the folded substrate when it is bound to ATP. The two domains are connected by a conserved linker segment. Hsp110 proteins possess an extended lid segment, a feature that distinguishes them from canonical Hsp70s. Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-z (PfHsp70-z) is a member of the Hsp110 family of Hsp70-like proteins. PfHsp70-z is essential for survival of malaria parasites and is thought to play an important role as a molecular chaperone and nucleotide exchange factor of its cytosolic canonical Hsp70 counterpart, PfHsp70-1. Unlike PfHsp70-1 whose functions are fairly well established, the structure-function features of PfHsp70-z remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we established that PfHsp70-z possesses independent chaperone activity. In fact, PfHsp70-z appears to be marginally more effective in suppressing protein aggregation than its cytosol-localized partner, PfHsp70-1. Furthermore, based on coimmunoaffinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analyses, PfHsp70-z associated with PfHsp70-1 in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Our findings suggest that besides serving as a molecular chaperone, PfHsp70-z could facilitate the nucleotide exchange function of PfHsp70-1. These dual functions explain why it is essential for parasite survival.

  2. The RNA gene information: retroelement-microRNA entangling as the RNA quantum code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and retroelements may be a master of regulator in our life, which are evolutionally involved in the origin of species. To support the Darwinism from the aspect of molecular evolution process, it has tremendously been interested in the molecular information of naive RNA. The RNA wave model 2000 consists of four concepts that have altered from original idea of the miRNA genes for crosstalk among embryonic stem cells, their niche cells, and retroelements as a carrier vesicle of the RNA genes. (1) the miRNA gene as a mobile genetic element induces transcriptional and posttranscriptional silencing via networking-processes (no hierarchical architecture); (2) the RNA information supplied by the miRNA genes expands to intracellular, intercellular, intraorgan, interorgan, intraspecies, and interspecies under the cycle of life into the global environment; (3) the mobile miRNAs can self-proliferate; and (4) cells contain two types information as resident and genomic miRNAs. Based on RNA wave, we have developed an interest in investigation of the transformation from RNA information to quantum bits as physicochemical characters of RNA with the measurement of RNA electron spin. When it would have been given that the fundamental bases for the acquired characters in genetics can be controlled by RNA gene information, it may be available to apply for challenging against RNA gene diseases, such as stress-induced diseases.

  3. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Mäkinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and

  4. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kristiina; Lõhmus, Andres; Pollari, Maija

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and their individual

  5. Sylvie Chaperon, La médecine du sexe et les femmes, Paris, La Musardine, 2008, 198 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Quin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Après un travail fouillé sur les origines de la sexologie, Sylvie Chaperon, historienne spécialiste d’histoire des femmes et du genre, maîtresse de conférences à l’Université de Toulouse 2, propose dans son nouveau livre une anthologie de textes que des médecins du XIXe siècle ont produits sur la sexualité féminine et ses diverses pathologies. L’ouvrage est construit autour d’une cinquantaine de cas de quelques-unes de ces pathologies associées à la sexualité des femmes : l’onanisme, la nymph...

  6. Sylvie Chaperon, La médecine du sexe et les femmes, Paris, La Musardine, 2008, 198 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Quin, Grégory

    2010-01-01

    Après un travail fouillé sur les origines de la sexologie, Sylvie Chaperon, historienne spécialiste d’histoire des femmes et du genre, maîtresse de conférences à l’Université de Toulouse 2, propose dans son nouveau livre une anthologie de textes que des médecins du XIXe siècle ont produits sur la sexualité féminine et ses diverses pathologies. L’ouvrage est construit autour d’une cinquantaine de cas de quelques-unes de ces pathologies associées à la sexualité des femmes : l’onanisme, la nymph...

  7. Complex formation of CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystal vs. molecular chaperone in aqueous solution by hydrophobic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Hiromi; Iwami, Noriya; Tachibana, Fumi; Ohtaki, Akashi; Iizuka, Ryo; Zako, Tamotsu; Oda, Masaru; Yohda, Masafumi; Tani, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    Feasibilities to stabilize CdSe/ZnS/trioctylphosphineoxide (TOPO) nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) in aqueous solutions with prefoldin macromolecules in their bioactive states are reported. Prefoldin is a jellyfish-shaped hexameric co-chaperone of the group II chaperonins. As a protein folding intermediate is captured within its central cavity, so CdSe/ZnS/TOPO QDs would also be included within this cavity. It is also found the QDs can be much more dispersed in aqueous solutions and suspended for certain period of time by adding trace amount of t-butanol in the buffer prior to the mixing of the QDs mother solution. While biochemical procedures are evaluated with ordinary fluorescence measurements, possible complex formations are also evaluated with TIRFM single-molecule detection techniques

  8. The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-12-05

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Induction and adaptation of chaperone-assisted selective autophagy CASA in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Anna; Gehlert, Sebastian; Leciejewski, Barbara; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a tension-induced degradation pathway essential for muscle maintenance. Impairment of CASA causes childhood muscle dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, the importance of CASA for muscle function in healthy individuals has remained elusive so far. Here we describe the impact of strength training on CASA in a group of healthy and moderately trained men. We show that strenuous resistance exercise causes an acute induction of CASA in affected muscles to degrade mechanically damaged cytoskeleton proteins. Moreover, repeated resistance exercise during 4 wk of training led to an increased expression of CASA components. In human skeletal muscle, CASA apparently acts as a central adaptation mechanism that responds to acute physical exercise and to repeated mechanical stimulation.

  10. Development and characterization of membrane surface display system using molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, June-Hyung; Park, In-Suk; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2005-01-01

    We report a new membrane surface display system based on molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis. Clostridium thermocellum cellulase, celA, was fused to C-terminal end of PrsA. Cellulase activity of B. subtilis protoplast, which expressed PrsA-CelA was 15 times higher compared to control strain. More than 85% of total cellulase activity was observed in surface displayed format and less than 15% of total cellulase activity was found in supernatant. Flow cytometric analysis of protoplast of PrsA-CelA fusion expressing bacteria provided another proof of uniform expression of fusion protein onto cytoplasmic membrane of B. subtilis. Without lysozyme treatment, only part of cellulase activity (10%) was observed in whole cell fraction

  11. Selective chaperone effect of aminocyclitol derivatives on G202R and other mutant glucocerebrosidases causing Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Díaz, Lucía; Gutiérrez-de Terán, Hugo; Sánchez-Ollé, Gessamí; Bujons, Jordi; Michelakakis, Helen; Mavridou, Irene; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Delgado, Antonio; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Casas, Josefina

    2014-09-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by the accumulation of glucosylceramide as a result of a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Several competitive glucocerebrosidase inhibitors are able to act as pharmacological chaperones for an efficient rescue of the mutated, misfolded forms of the enzyme. Along this line, we report in this work on the ability of several aminocyclitols to increase the residual glucocerebrosidase activity in patient fibroblasts with different genotypes. Some of the compounds were slightly active on fibroblasts bearing some mutations, including the highly prevalent N370S mutation. All compounds were highly active as enzyme activity enhancers on fibroblasts from Gaucher disease patients containing the G202R mutation. Moreover, using the novel tagged sphingolipid ω-azidosphingosine, a reduction in the tagged glucosylceramide accumulation was also observed for selected aminocyclitols. Attempts to explain the activity impairment observed in glucocerebrosidase bearing the G202R mutation by comparative molecular dynamic studies on wild type and the G202R mutated proteins (free and isofagomine-bound, in both cases) were unsuccessful. Under the simulation conditions used, no clear effect of the G202R mutation neither over the global structure of the protein nor on the loops that constitute the glucocerebrosidase active site was observed. Since the G202R residue is located on the protein surface, altered protein-membrane or protein-protein interactions could account for the observed differences. In conclusion, we have tested novel compounds that have shown some chaperone effect on particular glucocerebrosidase mutant enzymes, supporting the enhancement therapy as an alternative approach for Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Augmenting brain metabolism to increase macro- and chaperone-mediated autophagy for decreasing neuronal proteotoxicity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ben; Klionsky, Daniel J; Wong, Esther

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in the nerve cells is a hallmark of neuronal diseases and brain aging. Mechanisms to enhance neuronal surveillance to improve neuronal proteostasis have a direct impact on promoting neuronal health and forestalling age-related decline in brain function. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway pivotal for neuronal protein quality control. Different types of autophagic mechanisms participate in protein handling in neurons. Macroautophagy targets misfolded and aggregated proteins in autophagic vesicles to the lysosomes for destruction, while chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) degrades specific soluble cytosolic proteins delivered to the lysosomes by chaperones. Dysfunctions in macroautophagy and CMA contribute to proteo- and neuro-toxicity associated with neurodegeneration and aging. Thus, augmenting or preserving both autophagic mechanisms pose significant benefits in delaying physiological and pathological neuronal demises. Recently, life-style interventions that modulate metabolite ketone bodies, energy intake by caloric restriction and energy expenditure by exercise have shown to enhance both autophagy and brain health. However, to what extent these interventions affect neuronal autophagy to promote brain fitness remains largely unclear. Here, we review the functional connections of how macroautophagy and CMA are affected by ketone bodies, caloric restriction and exercise in the context of neurodegeneration. A concomitant assessment of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is performed to reveal the conserved nature of such autophagic responses to substrate perturbations. In doing so, we provide novel insights and integrated evidence for a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy to intervene in the neuronal decline in neurodegenerative diseases by controlling both macroautophagy and CMA fluxes favorably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chaperone roles for TMAO and HSP70 during hyposmotic stress in the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Robyn J; Tunnah, Louise; Barnett, David; Wright, Patricia A; MacCormack, Tyson; Currie, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Salinity decreases are experienced by many marine elasmobranchs. To understand how these fishes cope with hyposmotic stress on a cellular level, we used the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) as a model to test whether a reciprocal relationship exists between the cell's two primary protein protection mechanisms, the chemical (e.g., trimethylamine oxide, TMAO) and molecular (e.g., heat shock protein 70, HSP70) chaperone systems. This relationship is interesting given that many elasmobranchs are expected to gain water and lose osmolytes, chemical chaperones, and ions as they osmoconform to new, lowered salinity. Dogfish were cannulated for repeated blood sampling and exposed to 70% seawater (SW) for 48 h. These hyposmotic conditions had no effect on red blood cell (RBC) and white muscle TMAO concentrations, and did not result in HSP70 induction or signs of protein damage (i.e., increased ubiquitin), suggesting that TMAO levels were sufficiently protective in these tissues. However, in the gill, we observed a significant decrease in TMAO concentration and a significant induction of HSP70 as well as signs of protein damage. In the face of this cellular stress response, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity significantly increased during hyposmotic conditions, as expected. We suggest that this functional preservation in the gill is partly the result of HSP70 induction with lowered salinity. We conclude a reciprocal relationship between TMAO and HSP70 in the gills of dogfish as a result of in vivo hyposmotic stress. When osmotically induced protein damage surpasses the protective capacity of remaining TMAO, HSP70 is induced to preserve tissue and organismal function.

  14. Species-specific activation of Cu/Zn SOD by its CCS copper chaperone in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Julie E; Li, Cissy X; Odeh, Hana M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2014-06-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast of important public health relevance. Virulence of C. albicans requires a copper and zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the biology of C. albicans SOD1 is poorly understood. To this end, C. albicans SOD1 activation was examined in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a eukaryotic expression system that has proven fruitful for the study of SOD1 enzymes from invertebrates, plants, and mammals. In spite of the 80% similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans SOD1 molecules, C. albicans SOD1 is not active in S. cerevisiae. The SOD1 appears incapable of productive interactions with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS1) of S. cerevisiae. C. albicans SOD1 contains a proline at position 144 predicted to dictate dependence on CCS1. By mutation of this proline, C. albicans SOD1 gained activity in S. cerevisiae, and this activity was independent of CCS1. We identified a putative CCS1 gene in C. albicans and created heterozygous and homozygous gene deletions at this locus. Loss of CCS1 resulted in loss of SOD1 activity, consistent with its role as a copper chaperone. C. albicans CCS1 also restored activity to C. albicans SOD1 expressed in S. cerevisiae. C. albicans CCS1 is well adapted for activating its partner SOD1 from C. albicans, but not SOD1 from S. cerevisiae. In spite of the high degree of homology between the SOD1 and CCS1 molecules in these two fungal species, there exists a species-specific barrier in CCS-SOD interactions which may reflect the vastly different lifestyles of the pathogenic versus the noninfectious yeast.

  15. Activation of CuZn superoxide dismutases from Caenorhabditis elegans does not require the copper chaperone CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Laran T; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2005-12-16

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as the direct result of aerobic metabolism and can cause damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. A principal defense against reactive oxygen species involves the superoxide dismutases (SOD) that act to detoxify superoxide anions. Activation of CuZn-SODs in eukaryotic cells occurs post-translationally and is generally dependent on the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS), which inserts the catalytic copper cofactor and catalyzes the oxidation of a conserved disulfide bond that is essential for activity. In contrast to other eukaryotes, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans does not contain an obvious CCS homologue, and we have found that the C. elegans intracellular CuZn-SODs (wSOD-1 and wSOD-5) are not dependent on CCS for activation when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CCS-independent activation of CuZn-SODs is not unique to C. elegans; however, this is the first organism identified that appears to exclusively use this alternative pathway. As was found for mammalian SOD1, wSOD-1 exhibits a requirement for reduced glutathione in CCS-independent activation. Unexpectedly, wSOD-1 was inactive even in the presence of CCS when glutathione was depleted. Our investigation of the cysteine residues that form the disulfide bond in wSOD-1 suggests that the ability of wSODs to readily form this disulfide bond may be the key to obtaining high levels of activation through the CCS-independent pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the CuZn-SODs of C. elegans have uniquely evolved to acquire copper without the copper chaperone and this may reflect the lifestyle of this organism.

  16. Switch I-dependent allosteric signaling in a G-protein chaperone-B12 enzyme complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanello, Gregory C; Lofgren, Michael; Yokom, Adam L; Southworth, Daniel R; Banerjee, Ruma

    2017-10-27

    G-proteins regulate various processes ranging from DNA replication and protein synthesis to cytoskeletal dynamics and cofactor assimilation and serve as models for uncovering strategies deployed for allosteric signal transduction. MeaB is a multifunctional G-protein chaperone, which gates loading of the active 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin cofactor onto methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) and precludes loading of inactive cofactor forms. MeaB also safeguards MCM, which uses radical chemistry, against inactivation and rescues MCM inactivated during catalytic turnover by using the GTP-binding energy to offload inactive cofactor. The conserved switch I and II signaling motifs used by G-proteins are predicted to mediate allosteric regulation in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in MeaB. Herein, we targeted conserved residues in the MeaB switch I motif to interrogate the function of this loop. Unexpectedly, the switch I mutations had only modest effects on GTP binding and on GTPase activity and did not perturb stability of the MCM-MeaB complex. However, these mutations disrupted multiple MeaB chaperone functions, including cofactor editing, loading, and offloading. Hence, although residues in the switch I motif are not essential for catalysis, they are important for allosteric regulation. Furthermore, single-particle EM analysis revealed, for the first time, the overall architecture of the MCM-MeaB complex, which exhibits a 2:1 stoichiometry. These EM studies also demonstrate that the complex exhibits considerable conformational flexibility. In conclusion, the switch I element does not significantly stabilize the MCM-MeaB complex or influence the affinity of MeaB for GTP but is required for transducing signals between MeaB and MCM. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  18. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: emerging links between cardiovascular disease and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close relationship between depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although it is known that the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to this relationship, the detailed mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone sigma-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a role in the pathophysiology of CVD and depression. Several meta-analysis studies have showed that levels of BDNF in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are lower than normal controls, indicating that blood BDNF might be a biomarker for depression. Furthermore, blood levels of BDNF in patients with CVD are also lower than normal controls. A recent study using conditional BDNF knock-out mice in animal models of myocardial infarction highlighted the role of CNS-mediated mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of BDNF. In addition, a recent study shows that decreased levels of sigma-1 receptor in the mouse brain contribute to the association between heart failure and depression. Moreover, sigma-1 receptor agonists, including the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine, show potent cardioprotective and antidepressive effects in rodents, via sigma-1 receptor stimulation. Interestingly, agonist activation of sigma-1 receptors increased the secretion of mature BDNF from its precursor proBDNF via chaperone activity in the ER. Given the role of ER stress in the pathophysiology of CVD and MDD, the author will discuss the potential link between sigma-1 receptors and BDNF-TrkB pathway in the pathophysiology of these two diseases. Finally, the author will make a case for potent sigma-1 receptor agonists and TrkB agonists as new potential therapeutic drugs for depressive patients with CVD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA-Catalyzed Polymerization and Replication of RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, D. P.; Samantha, B.; Tjhung, K. F.; Joyce, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to reconstruct RNA-based life, in vitro evolution was used to obtain an RNA polymerase ribozyme that can synthesize a variety of complex functional RNAs and can catalyze the exponential amplification of short RNAs.

  20. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called comp......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA....

  1. Strategies underlying RNA silencing suppression by negative strand RNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the strategies of negative strand RNA viruses to counteract antiviral RNA silencing. In plants and insects, RNA silencing has been shown to act as a sequence specific antiviral defence mechanism that is characterised by the processing of double

  2. RNA Interference - Towards RNA becoming a Medicine -42 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research. A brief history of the development ofRNAi is shown in. Box 2. Mechanism of ... new RNA strand using target RNA as the template and thereby converting it ... thought to excise precursor stRNA from their -70 nt stem loop precursor to ...

  3. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database...... and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster......: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...

  4. Comparative RNA genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backofen, Rolf; Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades it has become clear that RNA is much more than just a boring intermediate in protein expression. Ancient RNAs still appear in the core information metabolism and comprise a surprisingly large component in bacterial gene regulation. A common theme with these types of mostly...... small RNAs is their reliance of conserved secondary structures. Large scale sequencing projects, on the other hand, have profoundly changed our understanding of eukaryotic genomes. Pervasively transcribed, they give rise to a plethora of large and evolutionarily extremely flexible noncoding RNAs...... that exert a vastly diverse array of molecule functions. In this chapter we provide a—necessarily incomplete—overview of the current state of comparative analysis of noncoding RNAs, emphasizing computational approaches as a means to gain a global picture of the modern RNA world....

  5. MicroRNA from tuberculosis RNA: A bioinformatics study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2012-01-01

    The role of microRNA in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis is the interesting topic in chest medicine at present. Recently, it was proposed that the microRNA can be a useful biomarker for monitoring of pulmonary tuberculosis and might be the important part in pathogenesis of disease. Here, the authors perform a bioinformatics study to assess the microRNA within known tuberculosis RNA. The microRNA part can be detected and this can be important key information in further study of the p...

  6. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a component of pre-ribosomal particles that interacts with the DExD/H-box RNA helicase DOB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Masami; Yamazoe, Takeshi; Hara, Yoshimitsu; Tani, Katsuko; Tsuji, Akihiko; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear VCP/p97-like protein 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family with two conserved ATP-binding modules. Our previous studies have shown that NVL2 is localized to the nucleolus by interacting with ribosomal protein L5 and may participate in ribosome synthesis, a process involving various non-ribosomal factors including chaperones and RNA helicases. Here, we show that NVL2 is associated with pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleus. Moreover, we used yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays to identify an NVL2-interacting protein that could yield insights into NVL2 function in ribosome biogenesis. We found that NVL2 interacts with DOB1, a DExD/H-box RNA helicase, whose yeast homologue functions in a late stage of the 60S subunit synthesis. DOB1 can interact with a second ATP-binding module mutant of NVL2, which shows a dominant negative effect on ribosome synthesis. In contrast, it cannot interact with a first ATP-binding module mutant, which does not show the dominant negative effect. When the dominant negative mutant of NVL2 was overexpressed in cells, DOB1 appeared to remain associated with nuclear pre-ribosomal particles. Such accumulation was not observed upon overexpression of wild-type NVL2 or a nondominant-negative mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that NVL2 might regulate the association/dissociation reaction of DOB1 with pre-ribosomal particles by acting as a molecular chaperone

  7. RNA binding and replication by the poliovirus RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberste, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    RNA binding and RNA synthesis by the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were studied in vitro using purified polymerase. Templates for binding and RNA synthesis studies were natural RNAs, homopolymeric RNAs, or subgenomic poliovirus-specific RNAs synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones using SP6 or T7 RNA polymerases. The binding of the purified polymerase to poliovirion and other RNAs was studied using a protein-RNA nitrocellulose filter binding assay. A cellular poly(A)-binding protein was found in the viral polymerase preparations, but was easily separated from the polymerase by chromatography on poly(A) Sepharose. The binding of purified polymerase to 32 P-labeled ribohomopolymeric RNAs was examined, and the order of binding observed was poly(G) >>> poly(U) > poly(C) > poly(A). The K a for polymerase binding to poliovirion RNA and to a full-length negative strand transcript was about 1 x 10 9 M -1 . The polymerase binds to a subgenomic RNAs which contain the 3' end of the genome with a K a similar to that for virion RNA, but binds less well to 18S rRNA, globin mRNA, and subgenomic RNAs which lack portions of the 3' noncoding region

  8. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by l