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Sample records for melena

  1. Evaluation of nasogastric tubes to enable differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients with melena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Boris; Olsha, Oded; Younis, Aurwa; Daskal, Yaakov; Granovsky, Emil; Alfici, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common surgical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate how insertion of the nasogastric tube may enable differentiation between upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with melena. A retrospective study involving patients admitted to our surgery division with a melena was carried out between the years 2010 and 2012. A total of 386 patients were included in the study. Of these, 279 (72.2%) patients had negative nasogastric aspirate. The sensitivity of examination of nasogastric aspirate to establish the upper GI as the source of bleeding was only 28% and the negative predictive value of a negative nasogastric aspirate was less than 1%. Most patients who initially presented with melena and were found to have upper GI bleeding had a negative nasogastric aspirate. Insertion of a nasogastric tube does not affect the clinical decision to perform upper endoscopy and should not be routinely carried out.

  2. Gambaran Esofagogastroduodenoskopi Pasien Hematemesis dan atau Melena di RSUP M Djamil Padang Periode Januari 2010 - Desember 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhil Alfino Azmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerdarahan saluran cerna bagian atas adalah kehilangan darah dalam lumen saluran cerna yang bermula dari esofagus sampai duodenum. Manifestasi kinis berupa hematemesis (muntah darah dan atau melena (tinja hitam. Kasus ini masih banyak dilaporkan dari berbagai rumah sakit. Etiologi yang sering dilaporkan adalah varises esofagus, ulkus peptikum, gastritis erosif dan lain-lain. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui frekuensi diagnosis esofagogastroduodenoskopi (EGD pasien hematemesis dan atau melena di RSUP M Djamil Padang. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif retrospektif. Data diambil secara total sampling dari rekam medik pasien hematemesis dan atau melena yang dilakukan pemeriksaan EGD di Instalasi Diagnostik Terpadu (IDT RSUP M Djamil Padang periode.Januari.2010.–.Desember.2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 162 pasien kasus terbanyak adalah ulkus gaster (27,8%. Menurut jenis kelamin, pria lebih banyak dibanding wanita yaitu pria (64,8% dan wanita (35,2% rasio 1,8 : 1. Kelompok umur terbanyak adalah 51-60 tahun yaitu (20,0%. Lokasi lesi yang paling banyak ditemukan adalah gaster (48,8%.Kata kunci: esofagogastroduodenoskopi, perdarahan saluran cerna bagian atas, hematemesis, melena AbstractUpper gastrointestinal bleeding is a loss of blood in lumen of the gastrointestinal tract from esophagus to duodenum. Clinical manifestations are hematemesis (vomiting of blood and/or melena (black stools. Many cases were widely reported from various hospitals. The most common etiology that often being reported are esophageal varices, peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, etc. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of esophagogastroduodenoscopy(EGD findings in patients with hematemesis and/or melena in M Djamil Hospital Padang. The design of this research was retrospective descriptive. Data was taken from the result of patient's EGD examination(medical records that having hematemesis and/or melena in Integrated

  3. Squamous cell lung carcinoma presenting as melena: a case report and review of the literature

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    Ibrahim Azar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has a predilection to widely metastasize to the liver, bone, brain and adrenal glands. Metastasis of primary lung tumors to the stomach is infrequent, with only sporadic cases reported. Most cases are asymptomatic and diagnosed post-mortem on autopsy. The incidence of symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case of gastric metastasis by squamous cell lung carcinoma, presenting as melena and diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. To the best of our knowledge, only twenty other cases in the English literature have reported symptomatic gastric metastasis of lung cancer diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. A brief review of the literature shows gastric metastasis of lung cancer to have a predilection to occur most frequently in male smokers with the most common type of tumor likely to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy for Hematemesis-Melena Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis

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    Doddy de Queljoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute variceal haemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that can be life threatening. It is a pharmacist’s duty to ensure therapeutic and pharmaceutical care which is not only safe and effective for the patient but also is cost-effective in order to attain improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, pharmacoeconomic evaluation especially cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which compares costs and consequences of drug therapy, is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic cost-effectiveness of hematemesis-melena treatment in hepatic cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of 42 patients receiving vitamin K and vitamin K-transamin were studied retrospectively from patients’ medical records in 2 years and analyzed with cost-effectiveness grid and average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP Score. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness grid was dominant for vitamin K in patients with CTP Score A. ACER analysis showed a lower score for vitamin K in all patients included CTP Score classification. There was no significant difference in duration of cessation of bleeding treatment in patients with vitamin K compared with vitamin K-transamin in patients with CTP Score A and B, while significant difference was found in patients with CTP Score C. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K appeared to be more cost effective as compared with vitamin K-transamin in all patients. The use of vitamin K had greater benefit than the combination with transamin in all patients and CTP Score classification, and thus should be considered as a primary therapy. Therefore, transamin addition as an alternative therapy for hepatic cirrhosis patients with hematemesis-melena should be considered. KEYWORDS: CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis, child-turcotte-pugh score, hepatic cirrhosis, hematemesismelena, vitamin K, transamin.

  5. Hookworm infestation in children presenting with melena-case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Cheema, H.A.; Alvi, A; Suleman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hookworm infection is common in children and can present with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and severe anemia. Ten children below 5 years presenting with me lena and severe pallor were seen from December 2006 to May 2007 in the gastroenterology and hepatology department of children's hospital, Lahore. All patients had history of transfusion. Complete blood picture, eosinophil count with peripheral smear, stool complete examination for ova and cysts were performed in all cases while upper and lower gastrointestinal Endoscopies were performed in three patients to locate the source of bleeding. Stool routine examination in all these cases confirmed hook worm ova. These patients were managed with Antihelmenthic and stool complete examination was done three days after the medicine. There was no mortality. Though upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hookworm infestation is very rare but in the developing Countries it should be considered when other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are ruled out. (author)

  6. Impacto de la aplicación de un software para la programación y control de los medios mecanizados en una unidad productora del municipio Güira de Melena

    OpenAIRE

    Damián Lora Cabrera; Pedro D. Sotto Batista; Manuel Fernández Sánchez; Noel Fuentes Ramírez; Mayra Wong Barreiro

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo investigativo tiene como objetivo el estudio del impacto de la aplicación en una unidad productiva del software desarrollado por el IIMA en la programación y el control del trabajo de la maquinaria agrícola. El desarrollo agropecuario resulta imposible sin el empleo de la mecanización, pero para garantizar la máxima productividad durante la jornada, con una alta calidad y con el mínimo de gastos de trabajo se deben establecer en el sistema productivo, métodos de organización que ...

  7. Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexible sigmoidoscopy; Sigmoidoscopy - flexible; Proctoscopy; Proctosigmoidoscopy; Rigid sigmoidoscopy; Colon cancer sigmoidoscopy; Colorectal sigmoidoscopy; Rectal sigmoidoscopy; Gastrointestinal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Rectal bleeding - sigmoidoscopy; Melena - ...

  8. Peptic ulcer in the gallbladder. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E H; Diederich, P J; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1985-01-01

    Gastric mucosa can be found in the gallbladder as a congenital heterotopia. A case of a perforated peptic ulcer in the gallbladder with concomitant hemorrhage in heterotopic gastric mucosa causing hematemesis and melena is presented....

  9. Peptic ulcer in the gallbladder. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E H; Diederich, P J; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1985-01-01

    Gastric mucosa can be found in the gallbladder as a congenital heterotopia. A case of a perforated peptic ulcer in the gallbladder with concomitant hemorrhage in heterotopic gastric mucosa causing hematemesis and melena is presented.......Gastric mucosa can be found in the gallbladder as a congenital heterotopia. A case of a perforated peptic ulcer in the gallbladder with concomitant hemorrhage in heterotopic gastric mucosa causing hematemesis and melena is presented....

  10. Clinical studies in the effect of sodium alginate on radiation esophagitis and proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Hideki; Ono, Koji; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Imura, Toshio; Onoyama, Yasuto; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Narabayashi, Isamu; Yoshikawa, Yuichi

    1985-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of sodium alginate, a drug which has been used for the treatment of peptic ulcer, on radiation esophagitis or proctitis. Over seventy percent of patients suffered from swallowing pain due to radiation esophagitis were relieved from the pain within a week after an oral administration of sodium alginate. The extent of the improvement of the symptom did not significantly correlate with sex and age of the patients and with radiation doses delivered before occurrence of swallowing pain. For the treatment of radiation proctitis, an anal administration of sodium alginate was also effective. Melena, a major symptom of radiation proctitis, was decreased or disappeared in seventeen out of nineteen cases. The durations required for the improvement of melena varied from seven to seventy days. Endoscopical examinations of the rectum revealed reparation of erosions on the mucosal surface in parallel with the improvement of melena. (author).

  11. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min

    2012-01-01

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach

  13. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.

  14. Diagnosis, balances and energy indicators in municipalities of 'BASAL' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Martín, David; Soler Iglesias, Belkis; López López, Ileana; Moreno, Helsy; Matos, Yamilexis; Sanfiel, Caridad; Román, José Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Under the 'Basis for Environmental Sustainability Local Food' project (BASAL)) transverse energy-related activities were conducted. In this work we are analyzed and presented energy diagnoses in municipalities Los Palacios, Guira de Melena and Jimaguayú, capturing energy statistics in the 3 municipalities, energy balances and key energy indicators compared to support sustainability and decision making. (full text)

  15. Pyloric obstruction due to massive eosinophilic infiltration in a young adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Alexandros O; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Psalla, Dimitra; Soubasis, Nectarios; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-11-01

    A 16-month-old dog was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia, progressive weight loss, and melena. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a massive pyloric eosinophilic infiltration leading to pyloric obstruction that was treated successfully with pylorectomy. This is a novel clinical presentation of eosinophilic gastritis and highlights the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis for pyloric obstruction.

  16. Gastric diverticulosis and ulcerations in bitches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... with complaints of anorexia and persistent vomition especially after meals. History also revealed that the dog had been treated for canine parvovirus enteritis two weeks prior to presentation. The clinical signs noticed were melena, persistent emesis observed often between 20-30 minutes after meals, ...

  17. Gastroduodenal artery aneurysm - Post traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - An interesting case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Mohammad; Ali, Sajid; Majid, Abdul; Jan, ZakaUllah

    2018-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) are rare and mostly associated with pancreatitis. However, they can occur as a possible complication following gastric or pancreatic surgery and thus prior recognition and prompt treatment is mandatory (Lee et al., 2009 [1]). We report a case of a ruptured GDA aneurysm in a patient who underwent roux-en-y-cystojejunostomy for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and this has rarely been reported in the literature. Our patient presented with melena one month post operatively. CT Angiogram showed pseudoaneurysm of the GDA and the origin of right gastroepiploic artery which was embolised. Our case highlights that GDA aneurysm must be considered in the differential for a patient who presents with melena following drainage of traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst and that it can be managed successfully with angioembolization. A young boy was operated for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. One month later, he presented with the complaints of melena. Patient was resuscitated initially and then CT Angiogram was planned that showed pseudo aneurysm of the GDA and the origin of right gastroepiploic artery. The aneurysm was embolised and patient was sent home later on. On two months follow up the patient was doing well and had no episode of melena. GDA aneurysm are rare and should be suspected in a patient with GI hemorrhage after surgery for traumatic pancreatic pseudocyst. The investigation of choice is CT Angiography and endovascular angioembolization is the treatment modality of choice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Synchronous gastric and duodenal metastases from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a unique presentation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

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    Tarangelo, Nicholas P; Kistler, C Andrew; Daitch, Zachary; Jiang, Wei; Quirk, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic disease to the stomach or duodenum is an infrequent diagnosis, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the least common primary malignancies that lead to gastric or duodenal metastases. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection and previously diagnosed HNSCC who presented with melena. The patient had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed 3 months prior to his presentation. Laboratory testing was significant for normocytic anemia and a digital rectal examination was positive for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed numerous cratered nodules with contact bleeding in the stomach as well as the duodenum that appeared malignant. Biopsies of the gastric and duodenal nodules were positive for p40 and CK 5/6, consistent with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Radiation enteritis. Evaluation of surgical cases

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    Sato, M.; Sano, M.; Minakuchi, N.; Narisawa, T.; Takahashi, T. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received /sup 60/Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis.

  20. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Makoto; Sano, Masanori; Minakuchi, Naoki; Narisawa, Tomio; Takahashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received 60 Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis. (Ueda, J.)

  1. Massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to direct visceral erosion of splenic artery aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahani R

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Six male patients (age group: 30-60 years with aneurysm of the splenic artery presented with massive upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. Five patients presented with hematemesis and one with melena. Chronic pancreatitis was noted in all the patients, four of whom were chronic alcoholics. Endoscopy was not useful in diagnosis. Bleeding through the Ampulla of Vater was seen in the patient with melena. Angiography was diagnostic in all. Pancreatic resection including the aneurysm(2, and bipolar ligation with underrunning of the aneurysm (3 were the operative procedures. Distal pancreatectomy with pancreatogastrostomy was carried out in the patient with hemosuccus pancreaticus. If endoscopy is inconclusive, angiography and early intervention is recommended to reduce the high mortality associated with conservative management.

  2. Peritonitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Ki Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Various complications have been reported in scrub typhus cases including acute respiratory distress syndrome, encephalitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure. Few studies have reported on the gastrointestinal manifestations of scrub typhus. Typical gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with scrub typhus include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, melena, and diarrhea. The two cases presented in this study are the first reported cases of p...

  3. Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae with jejunal arteriovenous malformation depicted on multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Eun Jin; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Seong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    We report a symptomatic infant with very rare congenital arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae in the liver. Multislice CT after partial transcatheter embolisation revealed not only the complicated vascular architecture of the lesion, but also an incidental jejunal arteriovenous malformation which explained the patient's melena. The patient underwent ligation of the hepatic artery and resection of the jejunal arteriovenous malformation. Postoperative multislice CT clearly demonstrated the success of the treatment. (orig.)

  4. Los árboles

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    Jaime Paredes Pardo

    1964-09-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles son hijos del viento que transporta las semillas. En los valles anda de prisa, tanto que a veces alcanza a los trenes y a la melena de los caballos que espanta la algarabía de los pasajeros. Como los trenes, el viento tiene una frente de humo. De niebla como las montañas. ¿Pensará el viento?

  5. The role of endoscopy in pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Markus; Geiß, Andrea; Greiner, Peter; Wellner, Ulrich; Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Bausch, Dirk; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents accounts for up to 20 % of referrals to gastroenterologists. Detailed management guidelines exist for gastrointestinal bleeding in adults, but they do not encompass children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess gastrointestinal bleeding in pediatric patients and to determine an investigative management algorithm accounting for the specifics of children and adolescents. Patients and methods: Pediatric patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to our endoscopy unit from 2001 to 2009 (n = 154) were identified. Retrospective statistical and neural network analysis was used to assess outcome and to determine an investigative management algorithm. Results: The source of bleeding could be identified in 81 % (n = 124/154). Gastrointestinal bleeding was predominantly lower gastrointestinal bleeding (66 %, n = 101); upper gastrointestinal bleeding was much less common (14 %, n = 21). Hematochezia was observed in 94 % of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 95 of 101). Hematemesis (67 %, n = 14 of 21) and melena (48 %, n = 10 of 21) were associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of a neural network to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 98 % and 63.6 %, respectively and to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 75 % and 96 % respectively. The sensitivity and specifity of hematochezia alone to predict lower gastrointestinal bleeding were 94.2 % and 85.7 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hematemesis and melena to predict upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 82.6 % and 94 %, respectively. We then developed an investigative management algorithm based on the presence of hematochezia and hematemesis or melena. Conclusions: Hematochezia should prompt colonoscopy and hematemesis or melena should prompt esophagogastroduodenoscopy. If no

  6. Use of pertechnetate sup 99m Tc for abdominal scanning in localising an ileal duplication cyst: Case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouffe, P.; Venel, H.; Meuriot, S.; Marchandise, X. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France). Service Associe de Medecine Nucleaire); Spyckerelle, C. (Centre Hospitalier Feron Vrau, 59 - Lille (France). Service de Pediatrie A)

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with periumbilical postprandial pain and some melena. Physical examination was normal. All investigations were negative except pertechnetate Tc 99m abdominal scan which showed a very large and horn-shaped focus of high activity in the right flank. An ileal duplication was resected. It was lined by antral gastric muscosa with a large ulcer. The patient was treated successfully. Interest in abdominal pertechnetate scan is discussed. (orig.).

  7. Surgical results in cases of intestinal radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguchi, Hisatsugu; Ozawa, Tetsuro; Wada, Toshihiro; Tsugu, Yukio (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-05-01

    Surgical procedures were performed on 25 patients suffering from late-phase intestinal tract disorders induced by irradiation. The primary diseases of these cases were almost exclusively gynecological in nature, such as cancer of the uterine cervix. Symptoms observed in these cases were overwhelming ileus followed by melena, fistulation and free perforation, as well as combination thereof. The most common portion involved was the recto-sigmoidal colon, followed by the ileo-cecum and ileum. As for the relationship of symptoms to the disordered portion, ileus was seen mainly in cases of disorders at the ileocecal portion; melena was observed exclusively in cases of disorders at the rectosigmoidal colon; fistulation was manifested mainly as recto-vaginal fistula or ileo-sigmoidal fistula; free perforation was observed at both the ileum and sigmoidal colon. Colostomy was the most frequent surgical method applied. Only 3 cases were able to undergo enterectomy. Other cases were subjected to enteroanastomosis or enterostomy. In most cases it was nearly in possible to excise the disordered portions. As for the effect of surgical procedures on symptoms, cases of melena or fistulation were all subjected to colostomy; the majority of these cases showed improvement in symptoms. Moreover, a high improvement ratio was obtained in cases of ileus which were subjected to enterectomy and enteroanastomosis. Cases of free perforation showed high improvement ratio irrespective of the surgical procedure given. As for postoperative complications, one case of free perforation at the ileum showed anastomotic leakage after partial resection. For cases suffering from late-phase intestinal tract disorders induced by irradiation, immediate resection of the disordered intestinal tract and anastomosis are ideal. However, conservative operations must be considered, based on the focal condition. (author).

  8. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding following aortic valve replacement in a patient with Heyde's sindrome. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, G D; Salvatori, F; Masone, S; Simeoli, I; Rega, M; Celiento, M; Persico, G

    2007-09-01

    A 58-year old man was admitted to the hospital because of melena. He had a 1-year history of mechanical aortic valve replacement and coronary stent placement because of myocardial infarction and he was taking warfarin and clopidogrel. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were negative for bleeding. Capsule endoscopy showed bleeding diffuse angiodysplasia of the small bowel. The patient was treated with octreotide 20 mg, at monthly interval. After 25 months there had been no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. The case suggests that mechanical valve replacement may not prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in Heyde syndrome and that octreotide treatment should be considered in these cases.

  9. Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (A case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Geun; Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik

    1974-01-01

    This is a report of rare case of Peutz-Jehgers syndrome in a 13 years old boys with chief complaints of melena and intermittent abdominal pain since 3 years of age. He has multiple small melanin pigmentations in the face, lower lip, and left buccal mucosa and numerous small and large polyps in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum by roentgenologic studies. Hereditary features, mucocutaneous pigmentations, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, roentgen features, and differential diagnosis, and treatment of Peutz-Jehgers syndrome are discussed with a review of the literature

  10. Growth hormone used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang

    2015-08-21

    Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

  11. An Incidental Finding of AL-associated Amyloidosis Presenting as Gastric Ulcers

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    Nadia Huq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract amyloidosis has been reported in rare instances and related symptoms are usually nonspecific to the disease process. We present a patient who initially had melena on anticoagulation and endoscopy revealed a bleeding gastric ulcer. Hemostasis was achieved. The patient had a recurrence of symptoms despite being off anticoagulation months later and at that time repeat endoscopy showed multiple gastric ulcers with surrounding friable mucosa. Biopsy results were significant for light chain associated-amyloidosis. This case represents a rare cause of gastric ulcer.

  12. Bariatric surgery complications. Internal hernia: A potentially fatal condition. A case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadas, Raul; Lombana, Luis Jorge; Hernandez, Javier; Solano, Claudia; Suarez, Yanette; Torres, Diana; Alvarado, Jaime; Valencia, William; Garcia, Jairo; Hani, Albis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, Obesity (defined as Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2) has increased its prevalence reaching epidemic levels in countries such as The United States where it has became a national health issue. In Colombia the Obesity prevalence is figured around 14%. Treatment options for Obesity include life style modifications, pharmacologist management and surgical approach (Bariatric Surgery). This article describes a patient with previous bariatric surgery, who presents abdominal pain and melena owed to isquemic process of the alimentary limb caused by an internal hernia which is a potentially lethal condition if it is not highly suspected allowing its early diagnosis and treatment

  13. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Adib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B 7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket.

  14. Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (A case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Geun; Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chonnam University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This is a report of rare case of Peutz-Jehgers syndrome in a 13 years old boys with chief complaints of melena and intermittent abdominal pain since 3 years of age. He has multiple small melanin pigmentations in the face, lower lip, and left buccal mucosa and numerous small and large polyps in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum by roentgenologic studies. Hereditary features, mucocutaneous pigmentations, clinical manifestations, pathologic features, roentgen features, and differential diagnosis, and treatment of Peutz-Jehgers syndrome are discussed with a review of the literature.

  15. A 20-year-old man with large gastric lipoma--imaging, clinical symptoms, pathological findings and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Papathanasiou, Jiannis; Fiska, Aliki; Ververidis, Athanasios; Dimitriou, Thespis; Hristov, Zheliazko; Paskalev, George

    2010-01-01

    A broad search of the available literature yielded no other report of gastric lipoma of that size (13.5 x 6.5 x 4.5 cm) at this early age. The patient (a 20-year-old man with giant lipoma in the anterior gastric wall) presented with haematemesis and melena after excessive alcohol consumption. Gastric resection was performed. At 5-year follow up the patient is healthy and doing well. Epidemiology of gastric lipoma, the differential diagnosis, means of diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  16. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N. Fiorino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA, which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123MIBG scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and 123MIBG in evaluation and treatment.

  17. Microballoon Occlusion Test to Predict Colonic Ischemia After Transcatheter Embolization of a Ruptured Aneurysm of the Middle Colic Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Inokuchi, Hiroyuki; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden massive melena, and superior mesenteric arteriography showed an aneurysm in the middle colic artery (MCA). Because she had a history of right hemicolectomy and ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, embolization of the MCA aneurysm was considered to pose a risk comparable to that of colonic ischemia. A microballoon occlusion test during occlusion of the MCA confirmed retrograde visualization of the IMA branches through the collateral arteries by way of the left internal iliac artery, and embolization was successfully performed using microcoils. No colonic ischemia or aneurysm rupture occurred after embolization.

  18. Hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francica, G.; Marone, G.; D' Angelo, V. [Divisione di Gastroenterologia, Ospedale ' ' Cardinale Ascalesi' ' , Naples (Italy); Solbiati, L. [Divisione di Ecografia e Radiologia Interventistica, Ospedale Generale Busto Arsizio (Italy); Siani, A. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale Civile ' ' S. Maria Delle Grazie' ' , Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    A 53-year-old-man underwent US-guided percutaneous thermal ablation with a cooled-tip needle of three liver metastases from gastric cancer. Six days later, the patient was re-admitted for melena, scleral jaundice, and anemia. Abdominal US disclosed echogenic material in the gallbladder lumen (hemobilia) and a focal lesion with mixed echotexture in segment III (hepatic hematoma). On day 5 portal cavernomatosis was diagnosed at US and confirmed by color Doppler and a helical CT exam. The case described emphasizes that radio-frequency interstitial hyperthermia may cause not only traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma but also thermally mediated damage of vascular structures. (orig.)

  19. Hemobilia, intrahepatic hematoma and acute thrombosis with cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein after percutaneous thermoablation of a liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, G; Marone, G; Solbiati, L; D'Angelo, V; Siani, A

    2000-01-01

    A 53-year-old-man underwent US-guided percutaneous thermal ablation with a cooled-tip needle of three liver metastases from gastric cancer. Six days later, the patient was re-admitted for melena, scleral jaundice, and anemia. Abdominal US disclosed echogenic material in the gallbladder lumen (hemobilia) and a focal lesion with mixed echotexture in segment III (hepatic hematoma). On day 5 portal cavernomatosis was diagnosed at US and confirmed by color Doppler and a helical CT exam. The case described emphasizes that radio-frequency interstitial hyperthermia may cause not only traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma but also thermally mediated damage of vascular structures.

  20. A teenager presents with fulminant hepatic failure and acute hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Somnath; Sonny, Abraham; Rahman, Nadeem

    2015-03-01

    A teenager was admitted to an outside hospital ED following an episode of melena. He had been complaining of intermittent abdominal pain, nausea, malaise, and easy fatigability for 2 months, with significant worsening of symptoms 2 weeks prior to this episode. He had no significant medical, surgical, or family history. On presentation at the outside ED, he was found to be profoundly icteric and encephalopathic. Initial laboratories suggested anemia, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of acute fulminant liver failure necessitating transfer to our institution.

  1. Selective Management for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage caused by Choledochoduodenal Fistula

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    Pawan Chansaenroj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a patient of choledochoduodenal fistulae (CDF who presented with melena and review a specific treatment for CDF. Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective chart review using patient’s clinical data, imaging, endoscopic report, treatment review, and literature review for treatment options. Results: A 74-year-old female presented with diffuse, non-tender abdominal pain and associated melena for one week. Physical examination showed mildly icteric sclera and mild epigastric tenderness on deep palpation. Initial diagnoses included cholangitis with anemia and acute kidney injury. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed dilated common bile duct (CBD with a likely 1 cm stone at the distal common bile duct. The patient was given intravenous antibiotic and proper fluid administration. An ERCP was performed noting a fistula from the bile duct to the 2nd part of the duodenum with stone impaction. Sphincterotomy was performed from papilla to fistula. Balloon extraction of 1 cm stone from the CBD was done. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of CDF is generally quite nonspecific. In this case report, we present a presentation of a patient with gastrointestinal hemorrhage as an example of the presentation of CDF associated with a CBD stone. This study also discussed recent data concerning proposed treatment of CDF.

  2. Surgical management of radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Katsumi, Masaharu; Ishimoto, Kiwao; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yukawa, Hirofumi; Koh, Kenzo; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Ohta, Masataka; Hayashido, Motonori

    1986-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumors is effective and established. However, there are many complications in radiotherapy. A typical complication is radiation enterocolitis. It is difficult to treat severe histological damage to the irradiated tissues. This paper reports our experience with 26 patients with radiation enterocolitis for whom surgical treatment was given during a period of 16 years in our surgical department. The most frequent original disease requiring irradiation was cancer of the cervix uteri (15 cases) which was followed by cancer of the urinary bladder (7 cases). All of these patients had received external 60 Co irradiation. The ileum was the most frequent site of the lesion, followed by the rectum, sigmoid and descending colon. The period between the end of irradiation and the onset of enterocolitis ranged from 2 months to 10 years, with an average of 28 months. The main symptoms were intestinal obstruction in the ileum, and melena and fistula in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Intestinal resection was performed in 10 patients, a bypass operation in 4, and colostomy in 12. As to types of intestinal suture in these cases, Gambee's single layer method was thought useful from our experience. Colostomy as surgical management of melena and fistula did not yield satisfactory results. (author)

  3. Rectovesicovaginal fistula following rectovaginal fistula caused by radiation therapy for uterine cancer. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Tsuneo; Shiba, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Oda, Masayoshi; Koide, Takuo [Osaka Koseinenkin Hospital (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A case of rectovesicovaginal fistula caused by pelvic radiation for uterine cancer is presented. A 62-year-old woman visited our department complaining of macroscopic hematuria, mictional pain and pollakisuria. She had a history of total hysterectomy and radiation therapy for cervical cancer 26 years earlier. Melena was noted in March 1994 and an escape of stool from the vagina followed nine months later. She consulted a surgeon about it, however no active treatment was performed before coming under our care. Computed tomography demonstrated that the posterior bladder wall was extremely thin and the possibility of the formation of vesical perforation was strongly suggested. We constructed transverse-colostomy, however, a rectovesicovaginal fistula developed seven months later. Therefore, in order to regain a dry life, an ileal conduit was constructed and her quality of life began to improve. It is probable that the rectovesicovaginal fistula could have been prevented if colostomy had been carried out soon after the appearance of melena or soon after the formation of the rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  4. Rectovesicovaginal fistula following rectovaginal fistula caused by radiation therapy for uterine cancer. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Tsuneo; Shiba, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Oda, Masayoshi; Koide, Takuo

    1997-01-01

    A case of rectovesicovaginal fistula caused by pelvic radiation for uterine cancer is presented. A 62-year-old woman visited our department complaining of macroscopic hematuria, mictional pain and pollakisuria. She had a history of total hysterectomy and radiation therapy for cervical cancer 26 years earlier. Melena was noted in March 1994 and an escape of stool from the vagina followed nine months later. She consulted a surgeon about it, however no active treatment was performed before coming under our care. Computed tomography demonstrated that the posterior bladder wall was extremely thin and the possibility of the formation of vesical perforation was strongly suggested. We constructed transverse-colostomy, however, a rectovesicovaginal fistula developed seven months later. Therefore, in order to regain a dry life, an ileal conduit was constructed and her quality of life began to improve. It is probable that the rectovesicovaginal fistula could have been prevented if colostomy had been carried out soon after the appearance of melena or soon after the formation of the rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  5. Endoscopic evaluation of upper and lower gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Ray-Offor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A myriad of pathologies lead to gastro-intestinal bleeding (GIB. The common clinical presentations are hematemesis, melena, and hematochezia. Endoscopy aids localization and treatment of these lesions. Aims: The aim was to study the differential diagnosis of GIB emphasizing the role of endoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of patients with GIB referred to the Endoscopy unit of two health facilities in Port Harcourt Nigeria from February 2012 to August 2014. The variables studied included: Demographics, clinical presentation, risk score, endoscopic findings, therapeutic procedure, and outcome. Data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: A total of 159 upper and lower gastro-intestinal (GI endoscopies were performed during the study period with 59 cases of GI bleeding. There were 50 males and 9 females with an age range of 13-86 years (mean age 52.4 ΁ 20.6 years. The primary presentations were hematochezia, hematemesis, and melena in 44 (75%, 9 (15%, and 6 (10% cases, respectively. Hemorrhoids were the leading cause of lower GIB seen in 15 cases (41%. The majority of pathologies in upper GIB were seen in the stomach (39%: Gastritis and benign gastric ulcer. Injection sclerotherapy was successfully performed in the hemorrhoids and a case of gastric varices. The mortality recorded was 0%. Conclusion: Endoscopy is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Gastritis and Haemorrhoid are the most common causes of upper and lower GI bleeding respectively, in our environment

  6. Superselective embolization with microcoil in acute gastronitestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Hye; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jang, Nam Kyu

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of superselective arterial embolization using the microcoil in acute gastrointerstinal hemorrhage. We evaluated 11 of 42 patients who had undergone diagnostic angiography and transcatheter arterial embolization due to acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage and subsequently underwent superselective arterial embolization using the microcoil. Nine were males and two were females, and their age ranged from 33 to 70 (mean, 51) years. The etiologies were bleeding ulcer (n=3D5), pseudoaneurysm from pancreatitis (n=3D3), and postoperative bleeding (n=3D3). The symptoms were melena, hematemesis, and hematochzia, and the critical signs were cecreased hemoglobin and worsening of vital signs. All patients underwent superselective embolization using the microcatheter and microcoil. Bleeding occurred in the gastroduodenal artery (n=3D5), inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n=3D2), left gastric artery (n=3D2), right hepatic artery (n=3D1), and ileal branch of the superior mesenteric artery (n=3D1). All cases were treated succesfully, without complications. In one case in which there was bleeding in the right hepatic artery, reembolization with a microcoil was needed because of persistent melena. During follow up, three patients died from complications arising underlying diseases, namely disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, chronic renal failure, and adult resiratory distress syndrome. (author)=20

  7. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2-5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

  8. Ascending colonic variceal bleeding: utility of phase-contrast MR portography in diagnosis and follow-up after treatment with TIPS and variceal embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.; Motamedi, J.P.; Oddo, F.; Padovani, B.; Demuth, N.; Caroli-Bosc, F.X.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe the discovery of ascending colonic variceal veins via celiomesenteric diagnostic angiography following a bout of melena in a 44-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging, including phase-contrast MR venography, allowed visualization of the portal and systemic veins immediately after the initial angiograms. The hemorrhagic episode did not resolve until after transjugular intrahepatic shunt insertion and selective variceal embolization through the shunt. At 1 week-, 3 months-, and 6 months post treatment, follow-up MR venography no longer revealed the presence of colonic varices. Colonoscopy at 6 months was normal and the patient did not have any further episodes of bleeding until a liver transplantation was performed after 9 months. (orig.)

  9. Bevacizumab for Refractory Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Rendu-Osler-Weber Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Carlos; Santos, Sara; Loureiro, Rafaela; Borges, Verónica; Ramos, Gonçalo

    2018-01-01

    Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which is often characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and visceral arteriovenous malformations. Patients with gastrointestinal involvement can present with a wide spectrum of severity, which may vary from uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia to continuous and refractory bleeding. We present the case of a 62-year-old female, who was admitted with anemia following several episodes of melena, and whose endoscopic examination revealed multiple angiodysplasias in the stomach and small bowel. Despite endoscopic and medical treatment attempts with hormonal agents and octreotide, she developed persistent hemorrhage and severe anemia, requiring frequent red blood cell transfusions. Immediately after initiating bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg, every 3 weeks), complete cessation of bleeding episodes was observed. Currently, after 1 year of follow-up, she maintained sustained remission without the occurrence of adverse events. PMID:29662934

  10. Frequency of gastric varices in patients with portal hypertension based on endoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, A.W.; Chaudry, A.A.; Mir, S.; Ahmed, N.; Khan, A.A.; Shahzadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the frequency of gastric varices in patients with portal hypertension based on endoscopic findings. Study Design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jan to Jun 2011. Material and Methods: All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected through consecutive sampling. The patients presenting with hematemesis, melena or ascites with portal hypertension on ultrasound abdomen were admitted in the hospital. The patients were first stabilized hemodynamically and then kept empty stomach for at least four hours before endoscopy. The patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam and endoscopic findings obtained were entered on the patient proforma. Results: The overall frequency of gastric varices was 11 percent, whereas 89 percent had no gastric varices. Conclusion: A large number of patients with portal hypertension have gastric varices. It is recommended that endoscopy be carried out in all patients with identified portal hypertension. (author)

  11. Characteristics and Factors Associated with Death among Patients Hospitalized for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during May-November and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea.

  12. Conferencias anatomoclínicas: caso no. veintidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Juan de Dios Hospital

    1955-05-01

    Enfermedad Actual: Se inició hace unos dos años por la aparición de constipación pertinaz, pirosis, acedías, dolor epigástrico y sensación de hambre dolorosa que calmaba con las comidas; ocasionalmente ha presentado melenas. Hace seis días, sintió intenso dolor epigástrico de tipo punzante, irradiado hacia el ángulo inferior del omoplato izquierdo, seguido poco después de gran distención abdominal con retención de heces y gases, vómito y hematemesis inicial. Estos fenómenos fueron tratados fuera del hospital con purgantes y enemas sin ningún resultado, pues no retuvo los enemas y vomitó los purgantes. El cuadro se agudizó adquiriendo los caracteres de un abdomen agudo, por lo cual ingresa al hospital.

  13. A Giant Brunneroma Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Severe Anemia Requiring Transfusion and Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola C. Frenkel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brunner’s gland hamartoma, also called hyperplasia, adenoma, and Brunneroma, is an extremely rare benign proliferative lesion of Brunner’s glands in the duodenum. While being mostly small and asymptomatic, they can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with melena and severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. CT scans showed a large mass of 8 cm in diameter, presumably arising in the duodenum. Endoscopic biopsies were not conclusive. As we were unable to determine the nature of the mass preoperatively and due to the severe symptoms, its size, and the uncertain malignant potential, a classic Whipple procedure was performed. The resected specimen showed extensive proliferation of Brunner’s glands without signs of malignancy.

  14. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia due to a novel p.Q240H mutation in the Lipoprotein Lipase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Angela Ganan; McIntyre, Adam; Agrawal, Sungeeta; Bialo, Shara R; Hegele, Robert A; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-09-04

    Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Several mutations in the LPL gene have been identified to cause decreased activity of the enzyme. An 11-week-old, exclusively breastfed male presented with coffee-ground emesis, melena, xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and chylomicronemia. Genomic DNA analysis identified lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity including a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. His severe hypertriglyceridemia, including xanthomas, resolved with dietary long-chain fat restriction. We describe a novel mutation of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and report the response to treatment. A review of the current literature regarding LPL deficiency syndrome reveals a few potential new therapies under investigation.

  15. Imaging management of spontaneous giant esophageal intramural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bicknell, S.G.; Haniak, W. [Lions Gate Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: sbicknel@interchg.ubc.ca

    2007-04-15

    A woman, aged 84 years, presented to our emergency department with posteriorly radiating chest pain that began following dinner. She reported no change in bowel habits, hematochezia, or melena. She had previous peptic ulcer disease and a long-standing history of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Her medications included acetylsalicylic acid and rabeprazole. Electrocardiogram and troponin analyses were negative for ischemic heart disease. The emergency physician suspected an aortic dissection, and computed tomography (CT) chest and abdomen scans were performed with and without IV and oral contrast. The aorta was normal and the noncontrast images demonstrated a hyperdense mass (not shown) that did not enhance consistent with a large intramural hematoma extending from the upper esophagus (level of T2 vertebral body) to the fundus of the stomach (Figures 1A and B). (author)

  16. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the small intestine in a boy: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa has been described at various locations of the body; however, the polyp composed of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the small intestine is rare. A 15-year-old boy visited us for investigation of recurrent episodes of melena. Capsule endoscopy (CE) revealed a polypoid tumor in the ileum, with an active nearby hemorrhage. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a tumor in the right quadrant of the abdomen, with a diameter of about 18 × 14 mm. The patient was diagnosed with polypoid gastric heterotopia. We performed an operation to resect the lesion. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery and was discharged on postoperative day 7 and followed up for 3 months. He has not experienced gastrointestinal intestinal (GI) symptoms up to now. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the small intestine is extremely rare, which can express as an occasional finding with or without symptoms. Surgical resection is the preferred therapy when symptoms appear.

  17. Pediatric gastric ganglioneuroma presenting as anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina M. Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastric masses are rare in childhood, and a gastric ganglioneuroma has not been reported in the pediatric population. In this report, we describe a 12-year-old female who presented with iron deficiency anemia and melena. Endoscopy was performed to elucidate the source of her symptoms, and revealed a gastric mass with overlying ulceration. Following resection and pathologic examination, the mass was diagnosed as a solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma. A solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma is an uncommon, benign tumor of neural crest cell origin. They are most often asymptomatic and found incidentally, but can present with rectal bleeding, obstruction, pain, and changes in bowel function. Complete resection is the therapy of choice to prevent progression of symptoms or rare transformation into a malignant neuroblastic tumor, like neuroblastoma. As of the patient's last post-operative appointment, she was healthy with resolution of her anemia. Keywords: Ganglioneuroma, Pediatric, Gastric mass, Anemia, Neuroblastic tumor

  18. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach leading to gastric diverticulum and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is a rare condition. Gastric diverticulum is also a rare condition, mostly located at the fornix. Therefore, the existence of a pyloric gastric diverticulum containing a submucosal tumor proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is an extremely rare condition. The patient was a young thin male with epigastralgia chronically treated for gastritis/ulcer. Following an episode of melena, he underwent gastroscopy that diagnosed antral gastric diverticulum containing a polyp. The lesion was surgically removed. The pathology report stated: heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach with secondary development of a traction diverticulum. Heterotopic pancreas tissue of the stomach is a rare condition but the association with gastric diverticulum is completely unusual. The possibility of the ectopic tissue leading to secondary diverticulum development should be considered.

  19. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  20. Sentinel Bleeding as a Sign of Gastroaortic Fistula Formation after Oesophageal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uittenbogaart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroaortic fistula formation is a very rare complication following oesophageal resection and, in most cases, leads to sudden death. We report the case of a 65-year-old male with an adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by a minimally invasive transthoracic oesophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction and intrathoracic anastomosis. After an uneventful postoperative course and hospital discharge, the patient reported blood regurgitation on postoperative day 23. Endoscopy revealed an adherent blood clot on the oesophageal wall, which after dislocation caused exsanguination. Autopsy determined the cause of death being massive haemorrhage due to a gastroaortic fistula. The sudden onset of haemorrhage makes this condition particularly difficult to treat. Recognition of warning signs such as thoracic or epigastric pain, regurgitation of blood, or the passing of bloody stools or melena is crucial in the early detection of fistula and may improve patient outcome.

  1. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  2. Diagnostic imagings and embolotherapy for the superior mesenteric vein-inferior vena cava shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yutaka; Yamada, Masataka; Miyata, Mutsuhiko; Kubo, Kohzo.

    1994-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging and embolization therapy for the uncommon portal and mesenteric vein-inferior vena cave shunt (PV·SMV-IVC shunt) are reported. As the frequency of clinical symptoms such as hematemesis, melena and confusion caused by gastrointestinal varices, or hepatoencephalopathy was about 40%, it was important for this disease entity to be diagnosed with noninvasive diagnostic images. The careful examination of the area around the right renal vein was able to overcome the low diagnostic rate of 20-40% obtained with US and CT images. In cases of simple PV·SMV-IVC shut without gastrointestinal varices, embolization therapy using steel coils and done by the intravenous approach is easy and noninvasive. On the other hand, in cases of complex PV-SMV-IVC shunt with gastrointestinal varices, dual balloon occluded embolization therapy using a liquid sclerosing agent and done by the intravenous and portal approaches is preferable. (author)

  3. Bevacizumab-Induced Reversible Thrombocytopenia in a Patient with Adenocarcinoma of Colon: Rare Adverse Effect of Bevacizumab

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    Jeevan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of bevacizumab- (BEV- induced thrombocytopenia in a 59-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of colon. After colectomy, the patient was treated with twelve cycles of FOLFOX-4 (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin regimen. On relapse, he was treated with FOLFIRI (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan regimen along with BEV 10 mg/kg for 6 cycles. After that, BEV was continued for maintenance as a single agent at an interval of three weeks. After the13th cycle of BEV, the patient developed melena with epistaxis and thrombocytopenia, from which he recovered on withdrawal of BEV. On rechallenge with half the initial dose, there was once again a reversible drop in platelet count. The proposed mechanism of thrombocytopenia may be immune-mediated peripheral destruction of platelets.

  4. The value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in small intestinal bleeding; Report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Kuwata, Hajime; Kushibiki, Kyoko; Akimoto, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Toshiya (Showa General Hospital, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of small intestinal bleeding and assessed the value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in diagnosing the bleeding site. The patients' average age was 56.2 years. Chief complaint was melena of variable degree. In most cases neither upper endoscopy nor colonoscopy was diagnostic. RI scientigraphy (Tc-99 labeled human serum albumin) showed 75% of positive rate whereas angiography showed 66.7% (4/6) of positive rate. All four cases of leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma demonstrated hypervascular stain and/or extra-vasation in angiography whereas RI scintigraphy failed to detect active gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 of the 4 cases. Therefore angiography was considered useful for the detection of bleeding from leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma which are often hypervascular. Scintigraphy is thought of most value in the demonstration of small amount of bleeding with minimum vascular abnormality. (author).

  5. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ijland, M.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blaauw, I. de [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, Y. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boetes, C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: C.Boetes@rad.umcn.nl; van Proosdij, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St. Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein.

  6. Treatment and follow-up of a case of bleeding duodenal varix

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    Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandrasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal varices (DV are rare in patients with portal hypertension secondary to liver disease. Their tendency to bleed is less common than in gastroesophageal varices, but can sometimes produce a life-threatening bleed. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat. We present a case of a 35-year-old man with parenchymal liver disease admitted with complaints of hematemesis and melena. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and a duodenal varix, with stigmata of a recent bleed, was noted in the second part of the duodenum. Five milliliters of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue was injected into the varix leading to obliteration. A follow-up study with an endoscopic ultrasound and repeat endoscopy showed near total obturation of the varix and success of the therapy. This report concludes that glue injection can effectively be used as a first-line treatment for bleeding duodenal varices.

  7. The stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Symptoms of epigastric pain raise the possibility of peptic ulcer disease and lead to an examination of the stomach and duodenum. Hematemesis or melena is also a strong indication. The nausea-vomiting complex on a subacute or chronic basis raises the possibility of an obstructive lesion. A palpable mass in the upper abdomen may involve the stomach. Weight loss and anorexia are less specific symptoms but can occur with gastric cancer. Major changes in indications have occurred now that ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are available. No longer is the gut studied to detect extra-gut disease. Currently, the duodenal contour is not important in the search for pancreatic disease. All intra-abdominal structures can now be seen directly using CT or ultrasound

  8. A large gastrointestinal stromal tumor of duodenum: a case report

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    Hadi Ahmadi Amoli

    2014-01-01

    Case presentation: The patient is a forty six years old man. He complained of frequent colic pain in left upper quadrant of abdomen for two months before admitting to the hospital. The pain resolved spontaneously after a few hours. This situation almost has been repeated every week. The patient had severe repeated melena and faint for two weeks. As soon as the patient was entered the Sina Hospital in 2012, supportive care was started. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed for him and the bleeding point was detected. Also abdominal and pelvic computed tomography with oral and intravenous contrast was done. Finally the patient was operated on tumor diagnosis in duodenal area according to classic Whipple procedure. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common symptom of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The bleeding is minimal and chronic. It will be progress to sudden and severe bleeding. Diagnosis is done by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The large tumors with high mitotic

  9. Bleeding in cancer patients and its treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Candice; Rich, Shayna E

    2017-12-18

    Bleeding is a common problem in cancer patients, related to local tumor invasion, tumor angiogenesis, systemic effects of the cancer, or anti-cancer treatments. Existing bleeds can also be exacerbated by medications such as bevacizumab, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and anticoagulants. Patients may develop acute catastrophic bleeding, episodic major bleeding, or low-volume oozing. Bleeding may present as bruising, petechiae, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematochezia, melena, hematuria, or vaginal bleeding. Therapeutic intervention for bleeding should start by establishing goals of care, and treatment choice should be guided by life expectancy and quality of life. Careful thought should be given to discontinuation of medications and reversal of anticoagulation. Interventions to stop or slow bleeding may include systemic agents or transfusion of blood products. Noninvasive local treatment options include applied pressure, dressings, packing, and radiation therapy. Invasive local treatments include percutaneous embolization, endoscopic procedures, and surgical treatment.

  10. Percutaneous Trans-hepatic Obliteration for Bleeding Esophagojejunal Varices After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagojejunostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Michiko; Sugimoto, Koji; Nakamura, Tetsu; Kita, Yasufumi; Zamora, Carlos A.; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-01-01

    A 72-year-old man who had undergone a total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer 6 years earlier presented to our hospital with massive hematemesis and melena. Endoscopic examination indicated esophageal varices with cherry-red spots and hemorrhage arising from beyond the anastomosis. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography and angiography revealed a dilated vein in the elevated jejunal limb supplying the varices. Percutaneous trans-hepatic obliteration (PTO) of the varices through the jejunal vein was performed using microcoils, ethanolamine oleate, and gelatin sponge cubes. Ten days after the procedure, endoscopic examination revealed reduction and thrombosis of the varices. We consider PTO to be an effective alternative method for treating ruptured esophagojejunal varices after total gastrectomy

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  12. Severe gastrointestinal tract bleeding in a two-month-old infant due to congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, R.; Ijland, M.M.; Blaauw, I. de; Hoogeveen, Y.; Boetes, C.; van Proosdij, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-month-old boy was referred for assessment of severe upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and melena. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard over the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. A splenomegaly and dilated veins were also noted on the abdominal wall. Liver functions were normal. There was no history of trauma or jaundice. Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arteriography and angiography suggested the presence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein. Management consisted of successful embolization by coiling of the phrenic artery. To our knowledge this is the first documented case report of a congenital fistula between the phrenic artery and the portal vein

  13. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Teenager

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    P. O. Okunola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare life-threatening disorder in childhood that is often misdiagnosed. CSVT encompasses cavernous sinus thrombosis, lateral sinus thrombosis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST. We present an adolescent girl who was well until two weeks earlier when she had a throbbing frontal headache and fever with chills; she later had dyspnoea, jaundice, melena stool, multiple seizures, nuchal rigidity, and monoparesis of the right lower limb a day before admission. Urine test for Salmonella typhi Vi antigen was positive, and Widal reaction was significant. Serial cranial computerized tomography scans revealed an expanding hypodense lesion in the parafalcine region consistent with SSST or a parasagittal abscess. Inadvertent left parietal limited craniectomy confirmed SSST. She recovered completely with subsequent conservative management. Beyond neuropsychiatric complications of Typhoid fever, CSVT should be highly considered when focal neurologic deficits are present.

  14. Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox for the treatment of radiation cystitis or proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, Koh; Kawana, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox, a well-known material for protection of mucous epithelia, was performed in 3 cases of radiation cystitis and one case of radiation proctitis, resulting in successful control of hemorrhage. Four cases of uterine cervical cancer with radiotherapy, including 2 cases of primary and 2 cases of postoperative radiotherapy, were managed by Maalox treatment with intervals of one to nine years between radiotherapy and Maalox instillation. One of the three patients with hemorrhagic cystitis, who had received internal iliac arterial embolization at the another hospital, was to be performed the operation of the urinary tract diversion. 50-100 ml of original or 1/2 diluted Maalox was instilled into urinary bladder or rectum with clump of catheter for 30 min. to 1 hr. after sufficient irrigation with 500 ml of 100 times diluted isodine. Blood transfusion for anemia was done in all cases, and antibiotics, or anticoagulant agents were systematically administered in some cases. Macrohematuria or melena ceased within 2 to 8 days after initiation of Maalox therapy in all cases. In one of the three cases of hemorrhagic cystitis, macroscopic hematuria, which reappeared one year later, was also successfully treated by Maalox therapy. In a case of radiation proctitis, though the melena disappeared in 5 days, diarrhea continued and the patient died of the primary disease two months later with the formation of rectovaginal fistula. No ultimate way of treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis or proctitis has been established, though both of them were clinically important and serious side effects of radiotherapy. Therefore, intravesical or intrarectal instillation of Maalox could become one of the leading ways of treatment of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis, because the technique was simple and the effectiveness was valid without any notable side effects. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the patients that followed up for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding

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    Hüseyin Gölgeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate demographic and laboratory characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal system (GIS bleeding define the factors leading to bleeding. Methods: The study included 285 patients aged between 18 and 89 years who were followed and treated for upper GIS bleeding in our Internal Medicine Clinics. Patients’ demographic and aboratory data, endoscopic findings, treatment methods, ospitalization length and need for blood transfusions were determined. Results: The mean age was 62.7±18.3 years with the male/female ratio of 2.2/1. The most common finding was melena (45.3%, and the second melena with hematemesis (33%. 76.84% of the patients had the history of drug use, mostly non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (45.26% and aspirin (23.86%. The mean hospitalization length was 8.3±4.9 days. Blood transfusion was required in 74.04% with the mean 3,14±1,41 units. Bleeding recurrence was seen in 10.25%. Duodenal ulcer was observed as the most common cause of GIS bleeding (29.82% and gastric ulcer was the second (21.75%. The treatment methods were medical in 73.34%, endoscopic sclerotherapy in 22.46%, hemoclips in 1.40% and band ligation in 0.70% of the patients. Upper GIS bleedings were mostly occurred in August (11.9% and least occurred in December (3.5%. Conclusion: The majority of the patients have history of drug use, like NSAIDs and aspirin leading to bleeding. We suggest that the usage of these drugs should be controlled and used only with accurate indications especially in elderly patients.

  16. Duodenal angiodysplasia: case report and literature review Angiodisplasia duodenal: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

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    Roberto Pelegrini Coral

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiodysplasia is a distinct mucosal vascular lesion associated with acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. It occurs most frequently in the right colon and is extremely rare. Its etiology is unknown, but theories of its pathogenesis have evolved from its similarity to colonic angiodysplasia and the lesion appears to be associated with renal insufficiency. CASE REPORT: Sixty-five-year-old woman with repeated melena and severe anemia due to angiodysplasia in the first portion of the duodenum. The diagnosis was done by upper endoscopy. As the patient presented repeated gastrointestinal bleeding with hemodynamic instability and recurrent anemia, surgery was indicated. At laparotomy the lesion was identified and resected with an Y-en-Roux reconstruction. The patient went on well at the immediate and late (four years postoperative periods with no more recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION: Although most of the patients suffering from gastrointestinal angiodysplasia goes on well with conservative management, there is a small portion of them that will need a more aggressive approach, as in this case.RACIONAL: Angiodisplasia duodenal é uma lesão vascular distinta da mucosa intestinal associada com sangramento agudo ou crônico. Embora seja extremamente rara no duodeno, ocorre com maior freqüência no cólon direito. Tem etiologia desconhecida, mas sua patogênese parece semelhante com a do cólon. Em alguns casos está associada à insuficiência renal. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 65 anos de idade com episódios repetidos de melena e anemia severa devido à presença de lesão angiodisplásica na primeira porção do duodeno, cujo diagnóstico fôra estabelecido por endoscopia digestiva alta. Como ela apresentara-se com episódios repetidos de hemorragia digestiva alta acompanhados de instabilidade hemodinâmica, foi-lhe indicada cirurgia. À laparotomia, identificou-se a lesão, que foi ressecada, sendo realizada reconstru

  17. Esofagitis necrotizante aguda: Una entidad inusual Acute esophageal necrosis: An unusual entity

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    Silvana E. Pramparo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis necrotizante aguda (ENA, también denominada esófago negro, es una rara enfermedad poco descripta en la literatura médica. Describimos el caso de un hombre de 80 años, con hemorragia digestiva alta quien desarrolló un esófago negro luego de un episodio de hipotensión. La necrosis fue confirmada histológicamente. Los pacientes se presentan con hematemesis y melena en más del 70% de los casos. Los hallazgos endoscópicos muestran una coloración negruzca de la mucosa esofágica. El diagnóstico se realiza con endoscopia y confirmación histológica. La mortalidad es alta (más del 50% aunque relacionada a las enfermedades de base del paciente. Por último, podemos decir que la sospecha es muy importante en el diagnóstico de ENA, particularmente en pacientes ancianos con enfermedades asociadas y evidencia de hemorragia digestiva alta. En este trabajo describimos las características clínicas, endoscópicas e histopatológicas de un paciente con ENA.Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN, also designated black esophagus, is a rare disorder that is poorly described in the medical literature. We present the case of an 80 years old man, with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who developed a black esophagus after hypotensive episodes. Necrosis was confirmed histologically. Hematemesis and melena are present in more than 70% of the cases. Endoscopic findings show black discoloration of the distal esophagus with proximal extension ending sharply at the gastroesophageal junction. Diagnosis is reached endoscopically with histological support. Mortality is high (up to 50% even though related to the patient's underlying condition. Finally, we may say that to keep in mind the posibility of AEN is a key factor in its diagnosis, particularly in older patients with associated morbidity and evidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present report we describe the clinical, endoscopic and histophatological characteristics of a patient with a

  18. A Rare Case of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage Secondary to Infiltrative B-Cell Lymphoma

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    Adrienne Lenhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension commonly arises in the setting of advanced liver cirrhosis and is the consequence of increased resistance within the portal vasculature. Less commonly, left-sided noncirrhotic portal hypertension can develop in a patient secondary to isolated obstruction of the splenic vein. We present a rare case of left-sided portal hypertension and isolated gastric varices in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma, who was treated with splenic artery embolization. The patient is a 73-year-old male with no previous history of liver disease, who presented with coffee ground emesis and melena. On admission to hospital, he was found to have a hemoglobin level of 3.4 g/l. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed isolated bleeding gastric varices (IGV1 by Sarin classification in the fundus and cardia with subsequent argon plasma coagulation injection. He was transferred to our tertiary center where work-up revealed normal liver function tests, and abdominal ultrasound showed patent hepatic/portal vasculature without cirrhosis. MRI demonstrated a large heterogeneously enhancing mass in the pancreatic tail, with invasion into the spleen and associated splenic vein thrombosis. Surgery consultation was obtained, but urgent splenectomy was not recommended. The patient instead underwent splenic artery embolization to prevent future bleeding from his known gastric varices. Pathology from a CT-guided biopsy was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PET imaging showed uptake in the splenic hilum/pancreatic tail region with no additional metastatic involvement. He was evaluated by the Hematology Department to initiate R-CHOP chemotherapy. During his outpatient follow-up, he reported no further episodes of melena or hematemesis. To the best of our knowledge, there have only been two published case reports of large B-cell lymphoma causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding from isolated gastric varices. These cases were treated with splenectomy or

  19. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

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    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  20. Development and Improvement of Simple Colonic Mucosal Ulcer during Treatment of Severe Ulcerative Colitis with Tacrolimus

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    Ayumi Ito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea, melena, and lower abdominal pain developed in a male in his 20s and colonoscopy showed pancolitis-type severe ulcerative colitis (UC. Treatment was initiated with 4,000 mg of 5-aminosalicylic acid and 60 mg/day of prednisolone, but the symptoms and inflammatory reaction worsened with prednisolone dose reduction. Tacrolimus was added to the treatment, which subsequently induced remission. Serial colonoscopies during the treatment showed improvement in ulcer and mucosal edema throughout the entire large intestine, but a new solitary round ulcer appeared at the end of the ileum. Since no signs of Behçet’s disease were noted, it was considered as a simple ulcer, a complication of UC. Tacrolimus treatment was continued based on continued improvement in clinical features and colonic mucosa, excluding the end of the ileum. Colonoscopy at 6 months after initiation of tacrolimus showed healing of the large intestinal mucosa, although mild congestion was still noted. The solitary round ulcer at the end of the ileum improved to a small erosion. We report the improvement of a simple ulcer that developed during tacrolimus treatment.

  1. Surgical management of bleeding esopageal varices: the Tikur Anbessa hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Endale; Jhonson, Orval

    2005-10-01

    Surgery is one of the modalities of treatment of portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices. Between 1992 and 2003, a total of 33 patients with esophageal varices secondary to hepatic or pre-hepatic causes of portal hypertension underwent proto-azygeal disconnection surgery at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa University. Twenty-five, (69. 7%) were men and 8 (24.3%) were women. Their age ranged between 13 and 54 years with a mean age of 24.3 years. Eighty two percent of the patients had hematemesis and melena. Thirty-two, (97%) patients had splenomegaly and of these; 27 (84%) had splenomegaqly with hyperslenism. Twenty-one, (63.6%) and 12 (36.6%) patients had child's A and B functional class, respectively. None of the patients was in class C. The condition of the liver as assessed macroscopically at surgery showed portal fibrosis in 22 (66.7%), cirrhosis in 3 (9.1%) and normal liver in 8 (24.2%) patients. There was no significant correlation between variceal bleeding episode and type of liver pathology. Four patients (12%) died after surgery and re-bleeding occurred in one (3%) patients. Porto-azygeal disconnection surgery can be done safely in patients with esophageal varices and good liver function in order to prevent further bleeding episode.

  2. PATHOGENESIS OF HEMORRHAGIC DUE TO DENGUE VIRUS

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    Arief Suseno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a viral disease that is mediated by a mosquito, which causes morbidity and mortality. Viruses can increase vascular permeability which can lead to hemorrhagic diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. In Indonesia, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are caused by dengue virus infection which was found to be endemic accompanied by an explosion of extraordinary events that appear at various specified period. The diagnosis of dengue is determined based on the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO, 1999, which are sudden high fever accompanied by a marked tendency to hemorrhage positive tourniquet test, petechiae, ecchymosis, purpura, mucosal hemorrhagic, hematemesis or melena and thrombocytopenia. The problem that still exists today is the mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with varying degrees of dengue involving levels of vWF (von Willebrand factor and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 can not be explained. The mechanism of hemorrhagic in dengue virus infections acquired as a result of thrombocytopenia, platelet disfunction decreased coagulation factors, vasculopathy with endothelial injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.

  3. Recidivas de hemorragia digestiva alta en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna

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    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta por úlcera péptica que hicieron resangrado, con el objetivo de caracterizarlos. Se estudiaron las variables de grupos de edades y sexo afectados, los hallazgos endoscópicos, las formas de presentación, así como factores asociados. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por los 82 pacientes, que ingresaron en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital Provincial Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, desde febrero 2012 a febrero del 2014. El sexo más afectado fue el masculino, predominando en la sexta década de la vida, la gastritis erosiva hemorrágica es el hallazgo endoscópico que se presentó con mayor frecuencia, siendo la cara anterior del bulbo duodenal la ubicación topográfica más afectada. La hipertensión arterial fue la enfermedad asociada a la hemorragia digestiva alta que predominó, en 45 pacientes, presentando como factor frecuente la ingestión de antiinflamatorios no estereoideos (AINES, constituyendo la melena la forma de aparición más frecuente

  4. Esofagitis necrotizante aguda: Una entidad inusual

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    Silvana E. Pramparo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis necrotizante aguda (ENA, también denominada esófago negro, es una rara enfermedad poco descripta en la literatura médica. Describimos el caso de un hombre de 80 años, con hemorragia digestiva alta quien desarrolló un esófago negro luego de un episodio de hipotensión. La necrosis fue confirmada histológicamente. Los pacientes se presentan con hematemesis y melena en más del 70% de los casos. Los hallazgos endoscópicos muestran una coloración negruzca de la mucosa esofágica. El diagnóstico se realiza con endoscopia y confirmación histológica. La mortalidad es alta (más del 50% aunque relacionada a las enfermedades de base del paciente. Por último, podemos decir que la sospecha es muy importante en el diagnóstico de ENA, particularmente en pacientes ancianos con enfermedades asociadas y evidencia de hemorragia digestiva alta. En este trabajo describimos las características clínicas, endoscópicas e histopatológicas de un paciente con ENA.

  5. Delayed bleeding and hemorrhage of mucosal defects after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection on second-look endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shoko; Ono, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Yuichi; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-04-01

    Although second-look endoscopy is performed within several days after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there has been no evidence supporting the usefulness of the intervention. We investigated the relationship between delayed bleeding and hemorrhage of mucosal defects after ESD on second-look endoscopy and analyzed risk factors of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy. A total of 441 consecutive ESD cases with gastric cancer or adenoma were retrospectively analyzed. Second-look endoscopy was performed in the morning after the day of ESD. Bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy was classified according to the Forrest classification, and active bleeding was defined as Forrest Ia or Ib. Delayed bleeding was defined as hematemesis or melena after second-look endoscopy. A total of 406 second-look endoscopies were performed, and delayed bleeding occurred in 11 patients. The incidence rate of delayed bleeding after second-look endoscopy in patients with Forrest Ia or Ib was significantly higher than that in patients with Forrest IIa, IIb or III (7.69 vs. 2.02 %, p 35 mm, the odds ratio of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy was 1.9. Active bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy is a risk factor for delayed bleeding.

  6. Incidence and Management of Bleeding Complications Following Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.

  7. Percutaneous transhepatic stent placement in the management of portal venous stenosis after curative surgery for pancreatic and biliary neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Rae; Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stent placement in the management of portal venous stenosis after curative surgery for pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. From September 1995 to April 2007, percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement was attempted in 19 patients with postoperative portal venous stenosis. Portal venous stenosis was a complication of surgery in 11 patients and caused by tumor recurrence in eight patients. The clinical manifestations were ascites, hematochezia, melena, esophageal varices, and abnormal liver function. Stents were placed in the stenotic or occluded lesions after percutaneous transhepatic portography. Technical and clinical success, stent patency, and complications were evaluated. Stent placement was successful in 18 patients (technical success rate, 95%). Clinical manifestations improved in 16 patients (clinical success rate, 84%). The mean patency period among the 18 patients with technical success was 21.3 ± 23.2 months. The mean patency period of the benign stenosis group (30.1 ± 25.6 months) was longer than that of the tumor recurrence group (7.3 ± 7.7 months), and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.038). There were two cases of a minor complication (transient fever) and three cases of major complications (septicemia, liver abscess, and acute portal venous thrombosis). Percutaneous transhepatic stent placement can be safe and effective in relieving portal venous stenosis after curative surgery for pancreatic and biliary neoplasms. Patients with benign stenosis had more favorable results than did those with tumor recurrence.

  8. Ileal polypoid lymphangiectasia bleeding diagnosed and treated by double balloon enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Seon; Lee, Beom Jae; Gu, Dae Hoe; Pyo, Jeung-Hui; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yun Ho; Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae

    2013-12-07

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse dilated enteric lymphatics with impaired lymph drainage. It causes protein-losing enteropathy and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. Commonly, lymphangiectasia presents as whitish spots or specks. To our knowledge, small bowel bleeding resulting from polypoid intestinal lymphangiectasia has not been reported. Here, we report a rare case of active bleeding from the small bowel caused by polypoid lymphangiectasia with a review of the relevant literature. An 80-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy could not identify the source of bleeding. Subsequent colonoscopy showed fresh bloody material gushing from the small bowel. An abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan did not reveal any abnormal findings. Video capsule endoscopy showed evidence of active and recent bleeding in the ileum. To localize the bleeding site, we performed double balloon enteroscopy by the anal approach. A small, bleeding, polypoid lesion was found in the distal ileum and was successfully removed using endoscopic snare electrocautery. © 2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting with Streptococcus intermedius Cerebral Abscess

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    Rabih Nayfe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral abscess is caused by inoculation of an organism into the brain parenchyma from a site distant from the central nervous system. Streptococcus intermedius (S. intermedius is a commensal organism that is normally present in the aerodigestive tract and was reported to be the cause of brain abscesses after esophageal dilatation or upper endoscopy. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with hematemesis and melena followed by left-sided weakness. Initially, her hemiplegia was found to be secondary to a right thalamic brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Investigations led to the diagnosis of a mid-esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We hypothesize that the cause of the abscess with this bacterium that naturally resides in the digestive tract and oral cavity is secondary to hematogenous spread from breach in the mucosal integrity from ulceration due to the cancer. Conclusion. To our knowledge, our case is the first in the literature to describe a brain abscess caused by S. intermedius in association with a previously undiagnosed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma without any prior esophageal intervention.

  10. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  11. The role of surgery in the therapeutic approach of gastric cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastoraki, Aikaterini; Benetou, Christina; Mastoraki, Sotiria; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Danias, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) currently prevails as the second cause of death by malignancy worldwide. Estimations suggest that 35 % of affected patients appear with synchronous distant metastases. The vast majority of patients present with hepatic metastatic disease, sometimes accompanied by synchronous peritoneal and lung dissemination. The disease mostly remains asymptomatic at an early stage, with few reported cases of incidental abdominal discomfort. As the cancer advances, symptoms such as nausea or vomiting arise, along with indigestion and dysphagia, blood loss in the form of melena or hematemesis, as well as anorexia and weight loss. Having spread to the liver, it also causes jaundice due to hepatomegaly and general inanition. Despite recent research on the therapeutic strategies against GC metastatic disease, surgical resection appears the only potentially curative approach. Unfortunately, the majority of patients are not eligible to undergo surgical intervention. With regard to treatment modalities of the advanced stage disease, the role of metastasectomy is still debatable and quite unclear, while prolonged survival was succeeded only under certain specific circumstances. Systemic chemotherapy remains however another option, as well as local management in the form of cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The aims of this review were to evaluate the results of surgical treatment for metastatic GC with special reference to the extent of its histological spread and to present the recent literature in order to provide an update on the current concepts of advanced surgical management of this entity. Relevant publications in the last two decades are briefly reviewed.

  12. Actions aimed at reducing the vulnerability of a mangrove sector south of the province of Artemisa, Cuba

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    Jorge Luis López Pérez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the geographical location of the area under study, Playa Cajío, Güira de Melena municipality, Artemisa province; The mangroves have suffered serious alterations, mainly due to global climate changes, especially sea level rise, hurricanes and storms, which have caused severe sea penetrations, as well as prolonged droughts. The present investigation had as starting point four fundamental studies carried out, as main antecedents, following as a general objective, proposing actions aimed at the restoration of the mangrove of the "El Cajío" sector, based on an integral program (water rehabilitation project, reforestation, monitoring and control, vulnerability. To do this, theoretical methods of documentary research were used, as well as in situ diagnosis, as the first descriptive stage that demonstrated the state of deterioration of the forest, in a second stage or integral management, the water rehabilitation and mitigation projects were elaborated. sources that affect the good development of the mangrove, reforestation and monitoring and control, all with community participation and involved organisms, culminating with the reforestation and the success of it. In addition, vulnerability studies were carried out in the area, which places it in a medium to high position.

  13. [The usefullness of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty in the management of budd-Chiari syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hwan; Yu, Kyung Sool; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Seung Yup; Kim, Hyun Su; Tak, Won Young; Kweon, Young Oh; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan; Chung, Joon Mo

    2002-06-01

    Membranous obstruction is the most common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Orientals. Recently, percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTBA) has been successfully applied as a treatment of membranous obstruction. We evaluated etiologies and clinical manifestations in our cases and the usefulness of PTBA. Twelve cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome were analyzed. 50.3 years was the average age of the cases (ranging from 37 to 67 years). Major symptoms or signs were superficial collateral vessels on the chest or the abdomen in 6 cases, ascites in 3, abdominal pain in 4, hepatomegaly in 4, splenomegaly in 3, melena or hematemesis in 2, and leg edema in 2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed esophageal varices in 6 cases and two of these 6 cases had gastric varices. Of 8 cases with liver cirrhosis, 4 were classified as Child-Pugh class A and 4 as B. Four patients with cirrhosis had concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma including 1 patient who was HBs Ag positive. Etiologies were membranous obstruction in 11 cases and protein C deficiency in 1 case. The main site of obstruction was IVC in 8 and hepatic vein in 4. PTBA was successfully performed in 8 cases of membranous obstruction. During the mean follow-up period of 27.6 months (12-40 months), there were no reobstructions except in 2 cases. The most common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome in our cases was membranous obstruction of IVC. Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty is a very useful treatment method.

  14. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

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    Natanel Jourabchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  15. Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for common bile duct stones in liver cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-min; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Qiu; Qin, Hua; Wang, Bo; Li, Rong-xiang; Zhang, Min; Hu, Ji-fen; Yang, Min

    2014-08-01

    In order to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograpy (ERCP) in liver cirrhosis patients with common bile duct stones, we retrospectively analyzed data of 46 common bile duct stones patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent ERCP between 2000 and 2008. There were 12 cases of Child-Pugh A, 26 cases of Child-Pugh B, and 8 cases of Child-Pugh C. 100 common bile duct stones patients without liver cirrhosis were randomly selected. All the patients were subjected to ERCP for biliary stones extraction. The rates of bile duct clearance and complications were compared between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. The success rate of selective biliary cannulation was 95.6% in liver cirrhotic patients versus 97% in non-cirrhotic patients (P>0.05). The bile duct clearance rate was 87% in cirrhotic patients versus 96% in non-cirrhotic patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. Two liver cirrhotic patients (4.35%, 2/46) who were scored Child-Pugh C had hematemesis and melena 24 h after ERCP. The hemorrhage rate after ERCP in non-cirrhotic patients was 3%. The hemorrhage rate associated with ERCP in Child-Pugh C patients was significantly higher (25%, 2/8) than that (3%, 3/100) in non-cirrhotic patients (Pbile duct stones. Hemorrhage risk in ERCP is higher in Child-Pugh C patients.

  16. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A rare case of iron-pill induced gastritis in a female teenager: A case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Mocanu, Simona; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with oral iron supplements can present side-effects on the GI tract mucosa including necrosis, ulceration, or ischemia. The particular endoscopic findings and the histopathological exam will establish the diagnosis of erosive gastritis with iron deposits in the gastric mucosa. We present the case of a 14-year-old female admitted in our clinic for upper digestive hemorrhage, nausea, melena, and abdominal pain. Her personal history revealed iron deficiency anemia receiving oral iron supplements for approximately 2 weeks. The laboratory tests at the moment of admission pointed out anemia, increased level of serum iron, increased liver transaminases, a decreased level of ferritin, but with normal levels of both total iron-binding capacity and transferrin. The eso-gastro-duodenoscopy revealed multiple brown deposits on the surface of the gastric mucosa and multiple hemorrhagic lesions, under the aspect of erosions all over the gastric mucosa, but more severe in the antral part, and the histopathological exam confirmed the presence of iron deposits at this level. Iron-pill induced gastritis is a rare, under-diagnosed entity that can be present even at pediatric ages with potential severe clinical impact.

  18. Menetriere's disease associated with gastric adenocarcinoma in a child: imaging aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Ramos Quintino da; Batista, Renan Pedroso; Rigo, Paula; Toma, Ricardo Katsuya; Oliveira, Luiz Antonio Nunes de; Suzuki, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Female patient aged 18 years and 8 months, with diagnosis of hypertrophic gastritis since the age of 10, when she started having sporadic vomiting, weight loss, and anemia (Hb = 5.0 at diagnosis in August 2007). On her first upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) performed at the Instituto da Crianca (ICr) at HC-FMUSP, in August 2007, it was seem globally hypertrophied and swollen gastric mucosa, with an infiltrative lesion with ill-defined margins. A biopsy confirmed hyperplastic gastritis with a pattern of Menetrier's disease. Outpatient follow-up was initiated at Pediatric Gastroenterology Service of ICr in January 2008, with periodic clinical evaluation and UGE. The patient progressed in the following months with poor appetite and episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and melena, requiring hospitalization in the city of origin and transfusions of blood concentrates. In the following years, she showed less recurrent episodes of bleeding than as seen in the first years after diagnosis, but continued undergoing serial UGEs for disease control and malignant surveillance, maintaining the same macroscopic and microscopic pattern. The patient has been submitted to extensive research for Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies, all with negative results, the same occurring with immunophenotyping for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Clinically, she continued to show poor weight gain, but with proper growth and no generalized edema at any time. (author)

  19. Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a clinical case with dramatic presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João; Magalhães, Adriana; Moura, Conceição Souto; Hespanhol, Venceslau

    2010-01-01

    A case study involving a 55-year-old Caucasian male with end-stage glomerulosclerosis is presented here. Kidney biopsies showed no deposits on imunofluorescent microscopy. Relapsing massive haemoptysis and suspected bronchovascular malformation required lung lobectomy which revealed malformative and tortuous small blood vessels, with no vasculitis. Blood antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were undetectable. Seric immunoglobulins and complement levels were normal. Three months later, arthralgia and joint oedema first appeared. Skin biopsy revealed vasculitis immune-reactive to immunoglobulin A. Systemic corticotherapy was then started. Two weeks later, the patient presented with abdominal pain melena and rectal bleeding (haematoquesia). Endoscopic study showed diffuse gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Angiographic study revealed diffuse lesions compatible with vasculitis and haemorrhage from multiple spots. Cyclophosphamide and then intravenous immunoglobulin were associated to treatment without response. Increasing blood loss occurred, with massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage and haemorrhagic ascitis. Death occurred due to uncontrolled diffuse bleeding. Necropsy findings showed generalised small vessels vasculitis compatible with Henoch–Schönlein purpura. PMID:22778211

  20. A Patient with Microcytic Anemia and Fever

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    Sacha Bhatia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man with a history of mechanical aortic valve insertion and ascending aorta replacement in 1997 presented to his family doctor in August 2004 with a two-week history of melena after recently returning from a six-month vacation in Mexico. The patient had no other abdominal complaints. He took warfarin but did not take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetylsalicylic acid or alcohol. The patient had no history of liver or peptic ulcer disease. He had lost 7 kg over the past month, but did not complain of fever or night sweats. On physical examination, vital signs were normal, the second heart sound was mechanical, and there were no abnormal findings. Laboratory investigations showed a borderline microcytic anemia (hemoglobin 76 g/L; mean corpuscular volume 79 fL; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration 323 g/L, a therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.6 and an elevated creatinine level (112 µmol/L. His stool was positive for occult blood, although the ferritin level was high (623 µg/L. Other routine blood work was normal. The patient was admitted to hospital for investigation of the anemia.

  1. Bleeding ectopic duodenal varix: use of a new microvascular plug (MVP) device along with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Richa; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Bee, Erik; Karagozian, Raffi

    2017-08-16

    Ectopic varices (ECV) occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract outside the common variceal sites and represent 2%-5% of all GI variceal bleeds with mortality rates up to 40%. Management is challenging because of inaccessibility and increased risk of rebleeding. We report what is to our knowledge the first clinical use of a new microvascular plug (MVP) with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) for a bleeding duodenal varix (DV). A 68-year-old man presented with melena. Endoscopy demonstrated a grade II varix in the second part of the duodenum with red wale sign. TIPSS was performed and portogram revealed a single DV. Poststent placement venogram revealed a persistent varix and hence a 5-7 mm MVP was deployed. Subsequent imaging showed cessation of blood through the DV. The patient had no further bleeding. TIPSS with embolisation is an effective treatment for ECV. This MVP offers advantages due to its size and compatibility and can be redeployed in case of suboptimal placement. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

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    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  3. Radiation proctitis and its surgical problems

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    Ichikawa, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Shiro; Yasuna, Osamu; Yamaura, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    Radiation proctitis was investigated in terms of clinico-pathological findings, the method of treatment and therapeutic results in 11 patients (7 with cervical cancer, 1 with ovarian cancer, and 3 with cancer of the bladder). Four of the patients with cervical cancer were treated with 4,136-5,000 rad of WCo combined with brachytherapy of WCo or TXCs, one patient with 6,000 rad of WCo alone, one with 3,000 rad of x-ray alone, and one with 4,900 rad of x-ray combined with brachytherapy of TXCs. A patient with ovarian cancer was treated with 6,000 rad of x-ray and three patients with cancer of the bladder were treated with 4,200-6,330 rad of x-ray. Radiation proctitis developed early (4 months to 1 year after therapy) in 8 patients and late (4 years to 19 years after therapy) in the other 3 patients. Common symptoms were melena, constipation and sensation of gastric fullness. According to the Sherman's classification, proctitis was grade III or IV (showing constriction, ulcer or fistula) in all patients. Although the lesion could be resected in one patient, only colostomy was performed in the other 10 patients. It is recommended that care should be taken in deciding the method of exposure to the pelvic viscera and exposure doses for the prevention of radiation proctitis, and that intestinal lesions should be resected before far-advanced intestinal disturbance developes. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Evaluation of Superselective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in Treating Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Retrospective Study on Seven Cases

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    Yuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the safety and efficacy of superselective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA in treating lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. Methods. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical data of the patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding caused by angiodysplasia. The patients were treated with superselective TAE with NBCA between September 2013 and March 2015. Angiography was performed after the embolization. The clinical signs including melena, anemia, and blood transfusion treatment were evaluated. The complications including abdominal pain and intestinal ischemia necrosis were recorded. The patients were followed up to evaluate the efficacy in the long run. Results. Seven cases (2 males, 5 females; age of 69.55±2.25 were evaluated in the study. The embolization was successfully performed in all cases. About 0.2–0.8 mL (mean 0.48±0.19 mL NCBA was used. Immediate angiography after the embolization operation showed that the abnormal symptoms disappeared. The patients were followed up for a range of 2–19 months and six patients did not reoccur. No serious complications, such as femoral artery puncture point anomaly, vascular injury, and intestinal necrosis perforation were observed. Conclusion. For the patients with refractory and repeated lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to angiodysplasia, superselective TAE with NBCA seem to be a safe and effective alternative therapy when endoscopy examination and treatment do not work.

  5. An outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in dogs associated with aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Angelica Terezinha Barth; Casagrande, Renata Assis; Wouters, Flademir; Watanabe, Tatiane Terumi Negrão; Boabaid, Fabiana Marques; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier, David

    2013-03-01

    An aflatoxicosis outbreak affected 65 dogs from 9 different farms after they were fed diets with cooked corn meal as a common ingredient. Of the dogs, 60 died. Numerous dogs died on additional farms, but those dogs were not included in the study. The farmers acquired the contaminated maize products, in the form of whole corn grain or as corn meal, from the same supplier. The corn product was mixed with meat that was left over from home or commercial rations to form corn polenta, which was fed to the dogs. Necropsy was performed on 3 dogs. Two of the dogs died after a few days of refusing food, showing anorexia, polydipsia, icteric mucous membranes, hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena, and bleeding of the skin, eye, ear, and mouth. The primary necropsy findings included jaundice, hemorrhages in several organs, and yellowish enlarged liver with enhanced lobular pattern. The dog that experienced chronic ascites had a yellowish liver with reduced volume, irregular surface, and increased consistency. The main histological findings included hepatocyte fatty degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, cholestasis and, in the chronic case, hepatic fibrosis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the corn meal from 2 affected farms revealed 1,640 ppb and 1,770 ppb of aflatoxin B1, respectively. The current study demonstrates an additional way that dogs can be exposed to, poisoned, and killed by aflatoxin.

  6. Enteroscopic Tattooing for Better Intraoperative Localization of a Bleeding Jejunal GIST Facilitates Minimally Invasive Laparoscopically-assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Razvan; Dimitriu, Anca; Stanciulea, Oana; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old man that was admitted for melena and severe anemia. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the lesion responsible for bleeding, and enteroCT scan was also non-contributive to the diagnosis. Capsule endoscopy indicated possible jejunal bleeding but could not indicate the source of bleeding, recommending anterograde enteroscopy. Single balloon enteroscopy identified a 2 cm submucosal tumour in the distal part of the jejunum, with a macroscopic appearance suggesting a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The tumor location was marked using SPOT tattoo and subsequently easily identified by the surgeon and resected via minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis indicated a low risk GIST. The unusual small size of the GIST as a modality of presentation, with digestive bleeding and anemia and the ability to use VCE/enteroscopy to identify and mark the lesion prior to minimally invasive surgery, represent the particularities of the presented case.

  7. A rare case of digestive hemorrhage in an elderly patient: diagnosis and treatment difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinga, Mariana; Jurcuţ, C; Vasilescu, Florina; Becheanu, G; Stancu, Simona Hildegard; Ciobaca, L; Mircescu, G; Jinga, V

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal pain represents one of the most common clinical conditions. However, there are some challenging cases in which an extensive work-up is mandatory for the diagnosis. We present the case report of a 65-year-old man admitted to our department for diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, painful joints and rectal tenesmus. He initially had an urticarial rash, followed by palpable purpura involving the lower extremities. The diarrheic stools evolved towards melena. Endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract showed hiatal hernia, superficial erosions in the stomach and multiple areas of deep and superficial ulcerations disseminated from the second to the third portion of the duodenum. Terminal ileum intubation at colonoscopy showed redness, edema, swelling, petechiae and ecchymosis, irregular erosions and ulcers. Endoscopic biopsy specimens showed non-specific inflammation. Computed tomography showed moderate ascites, small pleural effusion, mesenteric lymphadenopathy and small bowel wall thickening at the level of the second duodenum, proximal jejunum and segments of ileum. The urine analysis revealed microscopic hematuria with nephrotic range proteinuria, red cells and cellular casts. Therapy with corticosteroids and pulses of cyclophosphamide was started with significant clinical improvement. Three weeks after the first admission, the patient developed an acute peritonitis due to an intestinal perforation and acute mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel. We concluded that the patient had a Henoch-Schönlein type vasculitis with acute mesenteric ischemia and perforation of the small bowel.

  8. Prospective study of cardiac troponin I release in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, David M; Thompson, Alexander J V; Sia, Koon Ket; Yeomans, Neville D; Chen, Robert Y M

    2008-06-01

    The rate of cardiac injury in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine prospectively the risk of cardiac troponin I release and associated adverse cardiac events in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. From January to September 2003, we prospectively studied patients with documented hematemesis and melena referred to the gastroenterology unit in a tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Serial assays for cardiac troponin I were performed at 0, 12 and 24 h. Serial creatine kinase levels and electrocardiographs were also performed. Clinical and biochemical data were collected. The primary endpoint was a troponin level >0.5 microg/L within 24 h of recruitment. Various clinical variables were then compared between the groups of patients with or without troponin rise. A total of 156 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 67 years (range 19-96). There were 104 (67%) male patients. A troponin level of greater than 0.5 microg/L was found in 30/156 (19%); 126 (81%) patients had normal troponin levels. Age greater than 65 years, signs of hemodynamic instability at presentation, a recent history of cardiac disease, cardiovascular compromise following endoscopy, and re-bleeding were associated with troponin release. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with a risk of cardiac injury of up to 19%. Troponin assay could be used to screen for cardiac damage, especially in elderly patients who present with hemodynamic instability.

  9. Clinical picture and treatment of complications of lower part of large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshihito; Sunagawa, Keishin; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Masaoka, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    The authors described clinical pictures and those treatments of 40 patients with complications of the lower part of the large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, ovarium or the penis. As the radiotherapy, 60 Co-telecobalt (6,000-16,000R) and 60 Co-needle (1,000-8,568 mch) intracavitary irradiation were used alone or in combination. Findings in the complications of the lower part of the large intestine were classified into Grade I (13 cases), II (14), III (14), and IV (4) according to Sherman. The prodromal symptoms of the complications appeared in 2-6 months following the irradiation in more than a half of the patients, and it appeared within a year in most of the patients. Most of the patients complained about melena, anemia, proctagra, tenesmus and diarrhea. In the cases of Grade III, the symptoms of ileus such as constipation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain appeared. Internal treatment was given principally, and preternal anus was made when frequent blood transfusion was required. Fourteen cases of those in Grade I and II recovered within 1-3 years. The cases which received proctostomy, including those who had bleeding, stricture and fistulation, had favorable prognosis. This result suggested that the radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer should be controlled to prevent further development of the complications in the rectum beyond Grade I. (Serizawa, K.)

  10. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  11. Clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in dogs with fatal acute pancreatitis: 70 cases (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, R.S.; Saunders, H.M.; Van Winkle, T.J.; Shofer, F.S.; Washabau, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and coagulation abnormalities in dogs in which acute pancreatitis was fatal. Retrospective study. 70 dogs. History, clinical signs, and physical examination findings at the time of initial evaluation at the veterinary teaching hospital; results of pretreatment laboratory tests, abdominal radiography, and ultrasonography; and histologic abnormalities were obtained from medical records. Clinical signs included anorexia, vomiting, Weakness, diarrhea, polyuria and polydipsia, neurologic abnormalities, melena, weight loss, hematemesis, and passage of frank blood in feces. At the time of initial examination at the veterinary teaching hospital, 68 (97%) dogs were dehydrated, 18 (26%) were icteric, 22 (32%) were febrile, 40 (58%) had signs of abdominal pain, and 30 (43%) were classified as overweight or obese. Most dogs had leukocytosis, neutrophilia with a left shift, and thrombocytopenia. Various serum biochemical abnormalities were identified, including hypoglycemia, azotemia, hypercalcemia and other electrolyte abnormalities, hypoalbuminemia, high hepatic and pancreatic enzyme activities, hypercholesterolemia, and lipemia. For 17 of 28 (61%) dogs, results of coagulation function tests were abnormal. Results of abdominal ultrasonography and radiography were consistent with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in 23 of 34 (68%) and 10 of 41 (24%) dogs, respectively. For 2 dogs, results of abdominal ultrasonography were not suggestive of acute pancreatitis, but results of abdominal radiography were. Clinical signs and results of clinicopathologic tests are inconsistent. Abdominal ultrasonography may be valuable in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs suspected to have acute pancreatitis

  12. GIST gástrico: revisión de la literatura a propósito de un caso

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    Daniela V Blanco-Echezuría

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal son los tumores mesenquimales más frecuentes del tubo digestivo. Corresponden a 0.1% a 3% de las neoplasias gastrointestinales y 5% a 6% de todos los sarcomas. Se trata de paciente femenina de 59 años de edad quien refiere en Enero de 2009 Rectorragia roja con coágulos, posteriormente Melena. La realización de una endoscopia digestiva superior reporta Tumor submucoso en fundus que se complementa con US endoscópico, evidenciando lesión submucosa en fundus gástrico, GIST gástrico. La sintomatología depende de la localización del proceso neoproliferativo, hallándose con mayor frecuencia en el estómago (60-70%. La supervivencia tras citorreducción R0 a 5 años es de 40% a 65%, con recurrencia del 20%, sin embargo, disminuye a 9-12 meses si la reducción fue incompleta.

  13. Occurrence of acute febrile dermatitis at the site of chronic radiodermatitis of 25 years duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Ikuko; Furukawa, Hiroo

    1994-01-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old female who underwent radiation therapy following surgical treatment for an ovarian tumor in 1963. Radiation therapy resulted in chronic radiodermatitis which has persisted since then. Twenty-five years after radiation therapy, painful indurative erythema appeared on her leoins (the site of irradiation) accompanied by fever. Histologically, acanthosis, edema and capillary dilatation in the upper dermis, amorphous collagen fibers and scarcity of vasculature in the deep dermis were observed. We found no mitosis but did observe swollen keratinocytes in the epidermal layer. The patient did not respond to antibiotics; however, the administration of oral steroids gradually alleviated the fever and local symptoms. Steroids could not be completely discontinued; she was given low-dose steroids for maintenance of remission. We speculated that the acute inflammatory reaction which was superimposed on the patient's chronic radiodermatitis constituted the earliest signs of malignant transformation. Intermittent bloody stools due to radiation colitis had been present since 3 years before, but after administration of steroids, melena was no longer seen. (author)

  14. Occurrence of acute febrile dermatitis at the site of chronic radiodermatitis of 25 years duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoshima, Toshiyuki; Furukawa, Ikuko; Furukawa, Hiroo (Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Shiga (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old female who underwent radiation therapy following surgical treatment for an ovarian tumor in 1963. Radiation therapy resulted in chronic radiodermatitis which has persisted since then. Twenty-five years after radiation therapy, painful indurative erythema appeared on her leoins (the site of irradiation) accompanied by fever. Histologically, acanthosis, edema and capillary dilatation in the upper dermis, amorphous collagen fibers and scarcity of vasculature in the deep dermis were observed. We found no mitosis but did observe swollen keratinocytes in the epidermal layer. The patient did not respond to antibiotics; however, the administration of oral steroids gradually alleviated the fever and local symptoms. Steroids could not be completely discontinued; she was given low-dose steroids for maintenance of remission. We speculated that the acute inflammatory reaction which was superimposed on the patient's chronic radiodermatitis constituted the earliest signs of malignant transformation. Intermittent bloody stools due to radiation colitis had been present since 3 years before, but after administration of steroids, melena was no longer seen. (author).

  15. Two cases of colorectal cancer complicating radiation enterocolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Kaneatsu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Toshiomi; Tokumine, Akio; Okushima, Norihiko; Tamashiro, Tetsuo

    1993-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman presented with bowel movement disorder. She had received radiation therapy with 60 Gy for uterine cervical cancer approximately 20 years before. Barium enema and colonofiberscopy revealed radiation enterocolitis. Thereafter, the patient was admitted to the hospital due to stricture of the sigmoid colon and an increased CEA and was diagnosed as having Borrmann II type colorectal well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histological examination revealed stage I with no associated lymph node metastases. She is alive 3 years and 10 month after surgery. The other patient was a 65 year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer. Twenty-one years after combined hysterectomy and postoperative external irradiation of 45 Gy, the patient presented with melena. Detailed examination revealed colorectal adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, barium enema revealed radiation enterocolitis. At surgery, intrapelvic area was found to be frozen due to irradiation. She has no evidence of metastasis 2 years after surgery. As can be shown in the two patients, patients developing radiation enterocolitis should be followed up periodically for the early detection of coexistent colorectal cancer. (N.K.)

  16. Large gangliocytic paraganglioma of the duodenum: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandra Gordillo; Lanuza, Eduardo Dominguez-Adame; Matias, Auxiliadora Cano; Huertas, Rosario Perez; Rodriguez, Katherine Maria Gallardo; Perez, Purificacion Gallinato; Mompean, Fernando Oliva

    2015-08-27

    Gangliocytic paragangliomas are rare tumors that almost exclusively occur within the second portion of the duodenum. Although these tumors generally have a benign clinical course, they have the potential to recur or metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The case report presented here describes a 57-year-old female patient with melena, progressive asthenia, anemia, and a mass in the second-third portion of the duodenum that was treated by local excision. The patient was diagnosed with a friable bleeding tumor. The histologic analysis showed that the tumor was a 4 cm gangliocytic paraganglioma without a malignant cell pattern. In the absence of local invasion or distant metastasis, endoscopic resection represents a feasible, curative therapy. Although endoscopic polypectomy is currently considered the treatment of choice, it is not recommended if the size of the tumor is > 3 cm and/or there is active or recent bleeding. Patients diagnosed with a gangliocytic paraganglioma should be closely followed-up for possible local recurrence.

  17. May 2016 critical care case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jashaami L

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. History of Present Illness: A 50-year-old African American woman presented with weakness, altered mental status and constipation of 12 days duration. She was complaining of abdominal distension with diffuse pain and bloating. She denied melena, hematochezia or hematemesis. She had a history weight loss, anorexia and fatigue which had evolved over the past few months leading to recent severe weakness and inability to get out of bed. Past Medical History, Social History and Family History: Her past medical history included HIV infection with AIDS and noncompliance with her antiretroviral medications. Her most recent CD4 count was <20 cells/uL and viral load of 554,483 copies/mL. Physical Examination: Vital signs: Blood pressure, 120/80 mmHg, heart rate, 105/min, temperature, 98.6° and respiratory rate, 20/min. General: Physical examination showed a lethargic female who was poorly responsive to questioning. Abdomen: Distended, tympanic abdomen with hypoactive bowel sounds and diffuse tenderness. Radiography: Plain x-ray examination of ...

  18. Brunner’s Gland Hamartoma: A Rare Cause of Gastrointestinal Bleeding – Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    David R Stolpman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is described in a previously healthy 45-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with weakness and fatigue, and had experienced an episode of melena two days before admission. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable. Upon admission to hospital, he showed evidence of iron-deficiency anemia, with a hemoglobin concentration of 61 g/L (normal range 135 to 175 g/L, a mean corpuscular volume of 73 fL (normal range 85.0 to 95.0 fL and a ferritin concentration of 1.0 µg/L (normal range in males 15 to 400 µg/L. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 3.5 cm ulcerated submucosal mass in the third portion of the duodenum, for which mucosal biopsies were nondiagnostic. A subsequent endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 2.7×4.0 cm hyperechoic, cystic, submucosal tumour in the third portion of the duodenum. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration revealed no malignant cells. The patient eventually underwent a resection of the third portion of his duodenum. Surgical pathology revealed that this tumour was a Brunner’s gland hamartoma, 4.5 cm in its greatest dimension.

  19. Colonoscopic findings and management of patients with outbreak typhoid fever presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhani, Mohammad A R; Husein, Hiwa A B; Karbuli, Taha A; Mohamed, Mohamed Abdulrahman

    2013-09-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) along with intestinal perforation is a well-known complication of typhoid fever. Reports of colonoscopic appearance and intervention of typhoid perforation involve only few cases. This series reports the colonoscopic findings and the role of colonoscopic hemostatic interventions in controlling the bleeding ileocolonic lesions. During the typhoid fever outbreak in Sulaymaniyah City in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, we received 52 patients with LGIB manifesting as fresh bleeding per rectum or melena. We performed total colonoscopy with ileal intubation for all cases. The findings were recorded and endoscopic hemostatic intervention with adrenaline-saline injection and argon plasma coagulation was applied to actively bleeding lesion. These patients were young, 11-30 years of age, with female preponderance. Blood culture was positive in 50 %. Colonoscopic findings were mostly located in the ileocecal region, although other areas of the colon were involved in many cases. Twenty-four percent of the cases required endoscopic hemostatic intervention by adrenaline injection with argon plasma coagulation which was effective in all patients except one who died in spite of surgical intervention in addition of endoscopic hemostasis. Dual endoscopic hemostatic intervention can be a safe and effective management option for patients with LGIB due to typhoid fever.

  20. Adenocarcinoma at Anastomotic Site of Ureterosigmoidostomy Potentially of Urothelial Origin Spreading to the Upper Urinary Tract

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    Katsuhiro Makino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureterosigmoidostomy is associated with the risk of several late complications including cancer development at anastomotic sites. We present an unusual case with adenocarcinoma of the anastomotic site associated with multiple adenocarcinoma lesions in the upper urinary tract. A 69-year-old man complained of persistent melena and hematuria. He had undergone radical cystectomy for high-grade bladder cancer and ureterosigmoidostomy 30 years before. Colonoscopy showed a tumor at the right ureterocolonic anastomosis, which was endoscopically resected and histologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Seven years later, a tumor of the left ureterocolonic anastomosis associated with hydronephrosis was found. He underwent temporal percutaneous nephrostomy followed by sigmoidectomy and left ureterocutaneostomy. Eighteen months after the operation, computed tomography (CT detected left renal pelvic tumor with a mass along the former nephrostomy tract. Left nephroureterectomy and resection of the nephrostomy tract tumor revealed adenocarcinoma with multiple lesions of adenocarcinoma in the ureter. These tumors showed atypical immunohistochemistry as a colonic adenocarcinoma: positive for cytokeratin 7, negative for cytokeratin 20, and negative for β-catenin nuclear accumulation. Anastomotic site adenocarcinoma of the present case is potentially of urothelial origin because of unusual clinical manifestation and immunohistochemistry as a colon cancer.

  1. Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman was referred to our department because of melena. These symptoms combined with severe anemia prompted us to perform an emergency upper endoscopy, which showed bleeding from an ulcerated 30 mm submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. A computed tomography scan revealed a homogeneously enhanced mass, and endoscopic ultrasonography identified a well-demarcated mass in the third and fourth layers of the gastric wall. Because analysis of the possible medical causes remained inconclusive and the risk of rebleeding, laparoscopy-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed after administration of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Histological and immunohistological analysis revealed the tumor to be a gastric glomus tumor. Gastric submucosal tumors remain challenging to diagnose preoperatively as they show a variety of radiologic and clinicopathologic features and are associated with the risk of bleeding upon biopsy, as is indicated in the guidelines for gastric submucosal tumors. Gastric glomus tumors characteristically present with exsanguinating gastrointestinal hemorrhaging that often requires blood transfusion. Additionally, gastric submucosal tumors typically occur in elderly patients; however, this case involved a young patient who was 24 years old. Here, we describe this case in order to identify features that may aid in early differentiation of gastric submucosal tumors.

  2. Primary aortoduodenal fistula after radiotherapy. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Oshima, Akira; Minami, Tomohito; Matsumine, Takao [Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Aortoduodenal fistula is a rare and life-threatening cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The patient was a 44-year-old woman who repeated intermittent hematemesis and melena after hysterectomy, para-aortic lymph node dissection, and subsequent radiotherapy. Angiography revealed no bleeding point. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an ulcer at the third portion of the duodenum. Emergency laparotomy revealed an aortoduodenal fistula which was inferred to be caused by radiotherapy because no recurrence of malignancy was detected. After the fistula was closed, the patient repeated hematemesis and anal bleeding. She died of acute hemorrhagic shock, in spite of three operations including axillo-femoral bypass. We propose that radiation might have played a role in the pathogenesis of the aortoduodenal fistula in our case. The new case of primary aortoduodenal fistula following radiotherapy is added to four cases previously reported in the literature. Six cases in which the lesion of the duodenum could be demonstrated by endoscopy, have been reported in Japan. Aortoduodenal fistula should be considered as a probable diagnosis in patients presenting massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage after radiotherapy. Rapid surgical treatments are needed, and operative procedures to be considered include resection of the aorta with aortic stump closure and axillo-femoral bypass. (author)

  3. Incidence and Management of Bleeding Complications Following Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Nieun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a serious complication that sometimes occurs after percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG). We evaluated the incidence of bleeding complications after a PRG and its management including transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). We retrospectively reviewed 574 patients who underwent PRG in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Eight patients (1.4%) had symptoms or signs of upper GI bleeding after PRG. The initial presentation was hematemesis (n = 3), melena (n = 2), hematochezia (n = 2) and bloody drainage through the gastrostomy tube (n = 1). The time interval between PRG placement and detection of bleeding ranged from immediately after to 3 days later (mean: 28 hours). The mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 3.69 g/dL (range, 0.9 to 6.8 g/dL). In three patients, bleeding was controlled by transfusion (n = 2) or compression of the gastrostomy site (n = 1). The remaining five patients underwent an angiography because bleeding could not be controlled by transfusion only. In one patient, the bleeding focus was not evident on angiography or endoscopy, and wedge resection including the tube insertion site was performed for hemostasis. The other four patients underwent prophylactic (n = 1) or therapeutic (n = 3) TAEs. In three patients, successful hemostasis was achieved by TAE, whereas the remaining one patient underwent exploration due to persistent bleeding despite TAE. We observed an incidence of upper GI bleeding complicating the PRG of 1.4%. TAE following conservative management appears to be safe and effective for hemostasis.

  4. PROPOSAL OF A CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Nakao, Frank Shigueo; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Paulo, Gustavo Andrade de; Libera, Ermelindo Della

    2015-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs.

  5. PROPOSAL OF A CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cavalcante FRANCO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. Objective - The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. Methods - It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. Results - The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. Conclusion - The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis of Cyanoacrylate Injection versus Hemoclip Placement for Bleeding Dieulafoy’s Lesion in Duodenum

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    Yu Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL is a rare disease that may lead to lethal hemorrhage in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The best technique for endoscopic intervention still remains unclear. In the present study, we performed a retrospective analysis of cyanoacrylate injection versus hemoclip placement for treating bleeding DLs. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed eighteen patients from three medical centers between October 2008 and February 2016; six patients received cyanoacrylate injection, while hemoclips were placed in 12 patients during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results. All patients received first endoscopic examination and/or endotherapy within 12 hours of admission to hospital. No difference was observed in the primary hemostasis rate or the recurrent hemorrhage rate between the cyanoacrylate injection (CI group and the hemoclip placement (HP group, except that in one patient from the HP group melena was found three days after the first endotherapy. This patient received cyanoacrylate injection once again. Conclusion. Both cyanoacrylate injection and hemoclip placement are effective in treating duodenal DL, and neither of them causes significant side effects.

  7. Menetriere's disease associated with gastric adenocarcinoma in a child: imaging aspect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Ramos Quintino da; Batista, Renan Pedroso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Rigo, Paula; Toma, Ricardo Katsuya; Oliveira, Luiz Antonio Nunes de; Suzuki, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.suzuki@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto da Crianca

    2016-09-15

    Female patient aged 18 years and 8 months, with diagnosis of hypertrophic gastritis since the age of 10, when she started having sporadic vomiting, weight loss, and anemia (Hb = 5.0 at diagnosis in August 2007). On her first upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) performed at the Instituto da Crianca (ICr) at HC-FMUSP, in August 2007, it was seem globally hypertrophied and swollen gastric mucosa, with an infiltrative lesion with ill-defined margins. A biopsy confirmed hyperplastic gastritis with a pattern of Menetrier's disease. Outpatient follow-up was initiated at Pediatric Gastroenterology Service of ICr in January 2008, with periodic clinical evaluation and UGE. The patient progressed in the following months with poor appetite and episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and melena, requiring hospitalization in the city of origin and transfusions of blood concentrates. In the following years, she showed less recurrent episodes of bleeding than as seen in the first years after diagnosis, but continued undergoing serial UGEs for disease control and malignant surveillance, maintaining the same macroscopic and microscopic pattern. The patient has been submitted to extensive research for Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies, all with negative results, the same occurring with immunophenotyping for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Clinically, she continued to show poor weight gain, but with proper growth and no generalized edema at any time. (author)

  8. [The diagnostic performance of color Doppler ultrasonography for newborn four cases of midgut volvulus accompanied by intestinal malrotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshima, Yukari; Hisano, Katsuya; Morisawa, Takeshi; Inoue, Kozue; Shimamoto, Masahiro; Koujitani, Toshiaki; Yonetani, Masahiko; Yasufuku, Masao

    2014-03-01

    Midgut volvulus accompanied by intestinal malrotation is classified as a surgical emergency disease of the newborn, which emerges with the bilious vomiting or melena. This report presents four patients of this disease in our hospital, evaluated by color Doppler ultrasonography before surgical operation. All four patients were presented by bilious vomiting at the onset. By color Doppler ultrasonography method, the whirlpool sign which is the view of intestine and superior mesenteric vein rotated around with the axis of superior mesenteric artery, were shown in all cases. This whirlpool sign led to the diagnosis of midgut volvulus accompanied by intestinal malrotation. Intestinal contrast imaging was tested in three patients for the purpose of confirming the diagnosis. Repair of the volvulus and a ladd operation was performed in all four patients, without the excision of intestine because of no intestinal ischemic change. The clinical courses of four cases were good, and all patients were discharged within 17 days. Early diagnosis and timely surgical operation are essential for decreasing the possibility of occurring intestinal ischemic changes and improving clinical outcome after surgical operation. We propose that color Doppler ultrasonography is the powerful tool for the diagnosis of this disease, especially for the newborn, for whom the available diagnostic tests are limited.

  9. Intussusception of the small intestine caused by a primary melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld, M; De Vogelaere, K; Van De Winkel, N; Hoorens, A; Delvaux, G

    2012-01-01

    Although the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly frequent site of melanoma metastases, reports of small bowel intussusception caused by melanoma are very rare. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain, melena and anaemia. After clinical examination, laboratory evaluation and radiological work-up the diagnosis of a jejunal intussusception was made. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed a large tumour arising from the jejunum, approximately 20 cm distal to the angle of Treitz. Small bowel resection with an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histological examination showed an intestinal melanoma. There are different theories concerning the origin of malignant melanoma in the small bowel. Although the small and large intestines normally contain no melanocytes, these cells have occasionally been found in the alimentary and respiratory tracts and even in lymph nodes, which supports the theory of a primary origin of melanoma at these sites. Since this was a solitary intestinal lesion and there was no history of cutaneous melanoma, we conclude that this could be an example of a very rare primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  10. Intussusception of the Small Intestine Caused by a Primary Melanoma

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    M. Schoneveld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the gastrointestinal tract is a fairly frequent site of melanoma metastases, reports of small bowel intussusception caused by melanoma are very rare. We report the case of a 77-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain, melena and anaemia. After clinical examination, laboratory evaluation and radiological work-up the diagnosis of a jejunal intussusception was made. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed a large tumour arising from the jejunum, approximately 20 cm distal to the angle of Treitz. Small bowel resection with an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histological examination showed an intestinal melanoma. There are different theories concerning the origin of malignant melanoma in the small bowel. Although the small and large intestines normally contain no melanocytes, these cells have occasionally been found in the alimentary and respiratory tracts and even in lymph nodes, which supports the theory of a primary origin of melanoma at these sites. Since this was a solitary intestinal lesion and there was no history of cutaneous melanoma, we conclude that this could be an example of a very rare primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  11. Clinicopathological features and managements of radiation enterocolitis

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    Takashima, Shigeki; Kinami, Yoshio [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)

    1990-11-01

    During the past 12 years, delayed radiation enterocolitis developed in 22 patients treated for uterine cervical cancer or endometrial cancer. Their ages ranged from 36 to 77 years with an average age of 62. Ten patients received external irradiation and the other 12 patients received the combined external and internal irradiation. Radiation doses were 50 Gy-156 Gy with an average dose of 80 Gy. All patients had early radiation effects manifested by myxoid bloody stool (82%), diarrhea (46%), defecation disorder (18%), and tenesmus like symptoms (9%). These symptoms resolved within one month after irradiation. The most common symptom for delayed radiation effects was anal hemorrhage and melena (73%), followed by ileus like symptoms and abdominal pain (14%). Defecation disorder, diarrhea, and anemia were observed in one each patient (5%). Latency period ranged from 4 months to 13 years after radiation treatment, with the greatest number (86%) having it within one year and 3 months. There was no definitive correlation between radiation doses and latency period. Histopathological features included marked proliferation extending from the submucosal layer to the muscular layer, endometrial thickening of the small vessels, and thrombopoiesis. Although surgical treatment was performed in 20 patients, favorable outcome was not achieved. (N.K.).

  12. Caracterización de pacientes con sangramiento digestivo alto Characterization of patients presenting with high digestive bleeding

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    Jean Le'Clerc Nicolás

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El sangramiento digestivo alto continúa siendo un problema de salud, y junto al abdomen agudo, las heridas y los traumatismos es prácticamente la razón de ser de una guardia de cirugía. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes con este diagnóstico ingresados en el Hospital Docente Clinicoquirúrgico «Joaquín Albarrán», entre enero del 2006 y diciembre del 2007 (2 años. RESULTADOS. Las edades más frecuentes estuvieron entre los 70 y 79 años, y fue más frecuente el sexo masculino y el antecedente de enfermedad cardiovascular. La melena fue la principal manifestación clínica. La endoscopia solo se realizó en el 25,16 % de los casos, y en ella se observó principalmente duodenitis y gastritis. Como medidas terapéuticas más comunes se practicaron la hidratación y el uso sondas de Levine. Solo el 20,48 % de los pacientes recibieron tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días o más. CONCLUSIONES. Las medidas generales de apoyo hemodinámico y la estrecha vigilancia de los pacientes pueden lograr salvaguardar sus vidas aunque no se disponga de un diagnóstico certero. La infección por Helicobacter pylori y su asociación a lesiones erosivas o ulcerosas de la mucosa gastroduodenal no ha sido totalmente asimilada en el pensamiento médico de los cirujanos. La función de la cirugía es cada vez menor en la terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto, a pesar de ser uno de los pilares fundamentales para enfrentarlo.INTRODUCTION. High digestive bleeding remains as health problem and together with acute abdomen, wounds and traumatisms is practically the main responsibility of a surgery rounds. METHODS. A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in a sample including all patients with this diagnosis admitted in "Joaquín Albarrán" Clinical Surgical

  13. Trombosis portal y mesentérica asociada al déficit de la proteína S Portal and mesenteric thrombosis associated with protein S deficiency

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    J. A. Chirinos Vega

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la causa más frecuente de trombosis portal (TP es la cirrosis hepática, mientras que los estados hipercoagulables son raramente identificados como etiología de la TP. Presentamos un caso de TP y mesentérica secundaria al déficit de la proteína S (pS. Caso clínico: paciente mujer de 74 años, que debuta con dolor abdominal difuso de 2 semanas de evolución y hemorragia digestiva alta tipo melena secundaria a varices esofágicas. En el estudio se objetiva un hígado heterogéneo, esplenomegalia y ascitis, así como una trombosis portal completa no oclusiva del hilio hepático y de sus ramas y de la vena mesentérica superior con circulación colateral. El estudio etiológico de hepatopatía fue negativo, incluyendo una biopsia hepática que mostraba cambios arquitecturales secundarios al flujo hemático disminuido compatible con hipertensión portal no cirrótica. El estudio de hipercoagulabilidad fue positivo para un déficit de proteína S. pS libre 56%, pS total 107%. Desde entonces se inició tratamiento anticoagulante sin presentar descompensaciones posteriores. Discusión: la trombosis portal suele manifestarse con síntomas inespecíficos, siendo la forma de presentación más frecuente la hemorragia digestiva alta como el caso que nos ocupa. La cirrosis es una de las causas más frecuentes de trombosis portal, sin embargo existe hasta un 65% de estos pacientes que tienen una enfermedad protrombótica asociada, como es el déficit de proteína S. Nuestro caso remarca la importancia de realizar estudios de factores trombogénicos en pacientes con TP, incluso cuando la etiología se puede atribuir a una cirrosis.Introduction: liver cirrhosis is the main cause of portal thrombosis (PT, while hypercoagulability syndromes are rarely found as the etiology of PT. We report a case of portal and mesenteric thrombosis secondary to protein S deficiency. Case report: a 74-year-old woman was admitted with melena secondary to upper

  14. Carcinoma basalóide escamoso: uma forma rara e agressiva de câncer do esôfago e revisão da literatura Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the esophagus: a rare and aggressive form of esophageal cancer and literature review

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    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O carcinoma basalóide escamoso ocorre com maior freqüência no trato aerodigestivo superior e raramente acomete o esôfago. OBJETIVO: Apresentar os aspectos clínico-patológicos e os atributos imunoistoquímicos de um paciente com carcinoma basalóide escamoso do esôfago. RELATO DO CASO: Dos 134 pacientes com câncer do esôfago atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Botucatu-Unesp, São Paulo, de 1990 a 1999, somente um paciente (0,74% apresentou carcinoma basalóide escamoso do esôfago. Tratava-se de paciente masculino, 41 anos, branco, lavrador com disfagia, regurgitação e emagrecimento há três meses. Referia tabagismo e etilismo há muitos anos. O esofagograma e o exame endoscópico revelaram lesão vegetante no terço distal do esôfago. A biópsia demonstrou neoplasia intraepitelial de alto grau associada a blocos de células basalóides que infiltravam o cório da mucosa, caracterizando o carcinoma basalóide escamoso. Os marcadores imunoistoquímicos foram positivos para o antígeno carcinoembriônico e para citoceratinas de alto peso molecular. A tomografia computadorizada revelou múltiplas metástases nos pulmões, fígado, e nódulos linfáticos regionais, documentando a fase avançada de evolução da doença. O tratamento consistiu apenas na realização de gastrostomia. O paciente apresentou queda acentuada do estado geral e evoluiu para óbito com quadro de melena quatro meses após o diagnóstico. CONCLUSÃO: O carcinoma basalóide escamoso é uma forma rara e agressiva de câncer do esôfago e o prognóstico depende do estadiamento da lesão e das condições clínicas do paciente no momento do diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: Basaloid squamous carcinoma is more frequently found in the upper aerodigestive tract, being rarely found in the esophagus. AIM: To present the pathological and clinical aspects, as well as immunhistochemical attributes of a basaloid squamous carcinoma of the esophagus patient. CASE REPORT: Of

  15. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  16. Caracterización clínico-terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto: Hospital "Dr. Salvador Allende". Primer semestre 2006 Clinicotherapeutical characterization of upper digestive bleeding: "Dr. Salvador Allende" Hospital. First semester 2006

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    José de Jesús Rego Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia digestiva constituye una de las principales causas de ingreso hospitalario por enfermedades del tracto gastrointestinal, En la mayoría de casos se presenta de forma aguda y con importantes repercusiones sistémicas, por lo que obliga a adoptar medidas urgentes para estabilizar a los pacientes y permitir efectuar un tratamiento específico adecuado, Esta entidad sigue ocasionando una mortalidad elevada, que se acumula en determinados grupos de riesgo como son los pacientes con edad avanzada y enfermedades graves asociadas, por lo que se decide realizar la caracterización clínico-terapéutica del sangramiento digestivo alto en el Hospital "Dr, Salvador Allende" durante el primer semestre del 2006 mediante un estudio descriptivo que tomó como fuente la revisión de las 161 historias clínicas de los pacientes egresados con este diagnóstico en ese período, El 73,3 % de los pacientes con sangramiento digestivo alto fueron mayores de 60 años de edad; no existieron diferencias en cuanto al sexo; el café y el tabaquismo fueron los hábitos tóxicos más reportados; los antiinflamatorios no esteroides, el grupo farmacológico más relacionado con esta entidad y dentro de ellos, el ácido acetilsalicílico, y la melena, la manifestación clínica más frecuente, En el 91,9 % la pauta de tratamiento fue adecuada, así como el tratamiento en general; hubo solo la asociación irracional de un inhibidor de la bomba de protones con un anti-H2Digestive haemorrhage is one of the main cause of hospital admission due to gastrointestinal tract diseases. In most of the cases, it appears in an acute form, and with important systemic repercussions that lead to the adoption of emergency measures to stabilize the patients and to apply an adequate specific treatment. This entity is still causing a high mortality that is accumulated in certain risk groups as the elderly patients with severe associated diseases. That's why, it was decided to make the

  17. Sangramento intracraniano em paciente hemofílico

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    Maria Carolina Pereira da Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A hemofilia é uma coagulopatia congênita ou adquirida na qual há deficiência de fatores VIII (Hemofilia A e IX (Hemofilia B. A doença não tem cura e é classificada em leve, moderada ou grave conforme o grau de atividade coagulante do fator deficiente. O quadro clínico clássico é a presença e hematomas e hemartroses, mas também pode haver hematúria, hemorragia de rinofaringe ou língua, epistaxe, melena, hematêmese, sangramentos abdominais, torácicos e no sistema nervoso central. Objetivos: Relatar um caso de hemorragia intracraniana em um paciente portador de hemofilia A e comparar com os dados da literatura. Metodologia: As informações foram obtidas por meio de revisão do prontuário e acompanhamento da evolução do paciente, entrevista com o acompanhante do paciente e revisão da literatura. Relato do Caso: Paciente de 20 meses, portador de hemofilia A moderada, é levado ao Pronto Atendimento com queixa de irritabilidade, sonolência e náuseas há 3 dias. É encaminhado ao Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba por suspeita de sangramento intracraniano. Conclusão: O diagnóstico de hemorragia intracraniana em pacientes hemofílicos deve ser questionado sempre que há alterações do estado de consciência ou do estado neurológico normal, mesmo que discretas. As medidas apropriadas aumentam as chances de bom prognóstico e ausência de sequelas neurológicas.

  18. Hemorragia digestiva alta no varicosa: comportamiento e índice de Rockall

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    John Karol Ramírez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta no varicosa es actualmente una emergencia quirúrgica de difícil manejo, hecho que motivó el conocer su comportamiento y, usando el índice de Rockall, el riesgo de los afectados de sufrir resultados adversos durante su evolución, aquellos de posible alta precoz y las causas que la impiden. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado en el Hospital General Docente "Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" con 182 pacientes atendidos entre 2009 y 2010. Resultados: los hombres fueron los más afectados (54,4 % y el grupo de 60-80 años tuvo el mayor número de casos. La úlcera gastroduodenal fue la primera causa (52,7 %. La melena se presentó como manifestación inicial en el 60,4 % de los pacientes. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (60,7 %. El 44,5 % de los pacientes necesitó transfusión sanguínea. La mortalidad fue del 8,2 %. La mayor parte de la muestra se ubicó en el grupo de riesgo intermedio de Rockall (40,1 %. Recibió alta precoz solo el 11,5 % de los pacientes, y la inestabilidad hemodinámica (38 % fue la mayor responsable de este bajo número. El Rockall tuvo sensibilidad del 98,3 %, especificidad del 56,9 %, valor predictivo positivo del 52,3 %, valor predictivo negativo del 98,6 % y una exactitud del 70,9 %. En los pacientes clasificados de bajo riesgo la única complicación fue la recidiva (1,4 %. Conclusiones: el alta precoz puede ser dada a pacientes con Rockall bajo, siempre que se preste especial atención a la estabilidad hemodinámica.

  19. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  20. Degradation of Red Ferralitic (Rhodic Ferralsol soils grown with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. in the Artemisa province, Cuba

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    Óscar Ricote Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Partido” is a tobacco growing area which extends for some 3000 hectares among the municipalities of San Antonio de los Baños, Güira de Melena and Alquízar in the Cuban province of Artemisa. Predominant soils are Red Ferralitic (Rhodic Ferralsol according to the World Reference Base, with a strong tendency to alkalinization which has a negative impact on the quality of their agricultural use. The aim of this research was to quantify the geographical extension of the degradation process, to determine how deep it happens along the soil profile and to establish its possible relationship with the quality and quantity of water applied to tobacco fields. The chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses of two test pits carried out in the area were compared: one profile without agricultural use with one characteristic soil profile under continuous production. After being subjected to the same irrigation regime in laboratory conditions, it was concluded that degradation affects to 89.56% of the area of tobacco soils evaluated. This phenomenon occurs very deeply along the soil profile and happens downwards, causing the accumulation of calcium and the loss of sodium and potassium in the superficial horizon, what is shown in pH rises. Such processes, associated to irrigation water and to insufficient rainfall regime which are traditional in the territory, have led to changes in the mineralogical composition of these tobacco soils appearance of minerals such as gibbsite which was absent in uncultivated Red Ferralitic soils, which involve the modification of soil classification at gender level.

  1. A crimean - congo hemorrhagic fever outbreak in northern balochistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ali, N.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, predictors of fatal outcome (PFO), and management effects of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) patients during an outbreak in Northern Balochistan. Patients presenting with a fever of less than 2 weeks duration and bleeding manifestations were included. Clinical history was recorded and patients were placed on oral ribavirin, and hematological support. Diagnosis was established by PCR for CCHF or detection of CCHF specific IgM and IgG. Eighty-four patients were received, 34 (40.5%) were suspected of suffering from classical CCHF. All 34 (100%) patients presented with a history of fever and bleeding (epistaxis, gum bleeding, melena or haematuria). Mean platelet count was 30 x 109/L and mean ALT (alanine transferase) was 288 U/L. Among fatal cases, the mean platelet count was 18.4 x 10 9/L and ALT was 781 units/L. PCR for CCHF viral RNA performed on 10 patients was positive in 3 (30%) patients. CCHF specific IgM and IgG was positive in 17.6% (6/34). Four patients were brought in moribund condition and expired before treatment could be started, 4 patients expired during treatment and 76.5% (26/34) were cured. The overall mortality was 23.5% (8/34). Main predictors of fatal outcome were ALT z 150 units/L, activated partial thromboplastin time(aPT) z 60 seconds, prothrombin time (PT) z 34 seconds, aspartate transferase (AST) z 200 units/L, platelets o 20 x 109/L, and fibrinogen o 110 mg/dL. In this series of CCHF occurring in Northern parts of Balochistan, gastrointestinal tract bleeding was the worst prognostic factor associated with fatal outcome. Providing education to healthcare workers and at risk populations, hematological support, antiviral drugs, and barrier nursing may help reduce mortality. (author)

  2. A retrospective, unicentric evaluation of complicated diverticulosis jejuni: Symptoms, treatment and postoperative course

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    Patrick eTeoule

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn contrast to the diverticulosis of the colon jejunal diverticulosis is a rare condition. The incidence is 0.06% up to 5% in large autopsy series. Complicated diverticulosis jejuni (CDJ often presents with unspecific symptoms. Therefore diagnosis is often a challenging diagnosis and due to the clinical rarity no generally valid recommendation of perioperative management exists. Patients and MethodsWe considered only patients that were operated in our centre between April 2007 and August 2014. Patients were identified by data bank search via International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD diagnosis code K57.10. Data was manually screened and patients with Meckel’s and duodenal diverticula were excluded from this study. Eleven consecutive patients with CDJ were finally included in this study. We analysed symptoms, diagnostic procedures, surgical treatment and postoperative morbidity and mortality. ResultsThe median age of our patients was 76 years (range 34 87. CDJ presented most frequently as intestinal bleeding or as diverticulitis. Clinical symptoms were unspecific abdominal pain, hematemesis or melena, ileus, nausea and emesis as well as patients with acute abdomen. Esophagogastroduodenoscopies confirmed CDJ in two of three patients. An abdominal CT-scan only helped to diagnose CDJ in two of ten patients. Eight (72.7% patients received an open segmental resection with primary anastomosis. In three (27.3% cases a reoperation was necessary. Overall morbidity rate was 45.5% and perioperative mortality was 9.1%. Conclusions Due to the acute character of the disease patients with CDJ are seriously ill. To diagnose patients with CDJ remains challenging as diagnostic investigations are usually not helpful in confirming diagnosis. Still, diagnosis of CDJ is most frequently confirmed intraoperatively.Keywords: complicated jejunal diverticulitis, perioperative management, acute abdomen, visceral surgery

  3. Acquired hemophilia as the cause of life-threatening hemorrhage in a 94-year-old man: a case report

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    Blanchard Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acquired factor VIII deficiency is a rare entity that can lead to severe and life-threatening bleeding. We describe a case of severe bleeding from the tongue secondary to acquired hemophilia and discuss treatment options, including aminocaproic acid and recombinant factor VIII, which have not been widely reported in the literature for the management of such patients. Case presentation A 94-year-old Caucasian man presented to our institution with diffuse bruising and extensive bleeding from the tongue secondary to mechanical trauma. He had no prior history of bleeding and his medical history was unremarkable except for dementia and hypertension. Coagulation studies revealed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and a mixing study was consistent with the presence of an inhibitor. Quantitative assays revealed a reduced level of factor VIII activity (1% and the presence of a factor VIII inhibitor, measured at seven Bethesda units, in the serum. Oral prednisone therapy (60mg/day was given. He also received intravenous aminocaproic acid and human concentrate of factor VIII (Humate-P and topical anti-thrombolytic agents (100 units of topical thrombin cream. His hospital course was prolonged because of persistent bleeding and the development of profuse melena. He required eight units of packed red blood cells for transfusion. Hospitalization was also complicated by bradycardia of unclear etiology, which started after infusion of aminocaproic acid. His activated partial thromboplastin time gradually normalized. He was discharged to a rehabilitation facility three weeks later with improving symptoms, stable hematocrit and resolving bruises. Conclusions Clinicians should suspect a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia in older patients with unexplained persistent and profound bleeding from uncommon soft tissues, including the tongue. Use of factor VIII (Humate-P and aminocaproic acid can be useful in this coagulopathy but

  4. Profile of peptic ulcer disease and its risk factors in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaqawi, Afaf Shuaib Badi; El-Fetoh, Nagah Mohamed Abo; Alanazi, Reem Faleh Abdullah; Alanazi, Najah Salah Farhan; Alrayya, Sara Emad; Alanazi, Arwa Nughaymish Mulfi; Alenezi, Shoug Zeid Trad; Alanazi, Rehab Abdallah Alrkowi; Alshalan, Anfal Muaddi; Alenezi, Omar Tabaan; Ali, Wafaa Mohamed Bakr

    2017-11-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial health problem, and its prevalence and risk factors have changed considerably within the past century. To determine the prevalence of peptic ulcer among the population of Arar city and to identify risk factors for peptic ulcer and to estimate their relative impact on ulcer incidence. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia from November 01, 2016 to April 30, 2017. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistics, prevalence, and Chi-square test. Total prevalence of peptic ulcer among the studied respondents was thus: 21.9% had peptic ulcer; 16.2% gastric ulcer and 5.6% duodenal ulcer. In 19.7% of the cases, the pain was severe, 92.4% reported that pain was precipitated by certain food. In addition to heartburn, 78.8% reported loss of appetite, 71.2% indigestion, 66.7% regurgitation, 59.1% nausea and vomiting and 42.4% with chest pain. Regarding the risk factors, coffee drinking came in first place (81.8%) followed by physical stress in 77.3%, spicy food in 57.6%, prolonged use of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 33.3% and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in 24.2%. A further 22.7% reported melena as a complication while only 10.6% reported hematemesis. This is the first population-based study in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia reporting point prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. The rate of 16.2% for gastric ulcer and 5.6% for duodenal ulcers are substantially high. Coffee drinking, physical stress, spicy food, prolonged use of NSAID and H. pylori infection were the reported risk factors. Population-based endoscopic studies are recommended.

  5. Outcomes of patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer disease diagnosed in acute upper endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmi, Hanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Virta, Lauri J; Färkkilä, Martti A

    2017-11-01

    The incidence and complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have declined, but mortality from bleeding ulcers has remained unchanged. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the significance of PUD among patients admitted for acute upper endoscopy and to evaluate the survival of PUD patients. In this prospective, observational cohort study, data on 1580 acute upper endoscopy cases during 2012-2014 were collected. A total of 649 patients were included with written informed consent. Data on patients' characteristics, living habits, comorbidities, drug use, endoscopy and short-term and long-term survival were collected. Of all patients admitted for endoscopy, 147/649 (23%) had PUD with the main symptom of melena. Of these PUD patients, 35% had major stigmata of bleeding (Forrest Ia-IIb) in endoscopy. Patients with major stigmata had significantly more often renal insufficiency, lower level of blood pressure with tachycardia and lower level of haemoglobin, platelets and ratio of thromboplastin time. No differences in drug use, Charlson comorbidity class, BMI, smoking or alcohol use were found. Of the PUD patients, 31% were Helicobacter pylori positive. The 30-day mortality was 0.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.01-4.7), 1-year mortality was 12.9% (8.4-19.5) and the 2-year mortality was 19.4% (13.8-26.8), with no difference according to major or minor stigmata of bleeding. Comorbidity (Charlson>1) was associated with decreased survival (P=0.029) and obesity (BMI≥30) was associated with better survival (P=0.023). PUD is still the most common cause for acute upper endoscopy with very low short-term mortality. Comorbidity, but not the stigmata of bleeding, was associated with decreased long-term survival.

  6. Correlation of metastasis characteristics with prognosis in gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Zili; Chen, Jinhuang; Di, Maojun; Ji, Jintong; Yuan, Wenzheng; Liu, Zhengyi; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Xudan; Li, Kang; Shu, Xiaogang

    2017-12-01

    This article is aimed to retrospect the clinicopathological data of 2 cases of gastric MANENCs. MANEC is a rare biphasic tumor type that is coexistence of dual neuroendocrine and adenocarcinoma differentiation with each composing exceeding 30% volume. Gastric MANEC have just been reported anecdotally in the literature due to their rarity and heterogeneity. According to our study, these neoplasms have 3 different metastasis patterns: only adenocarcinomatous or neuroendocrine carcinoma and both of the 2 components. We first focus on the correlation of metastasis characteristics with prognosis in gastric MANEC, which may be potential implications for the choice of chemotherapy. The 2 cases of patient shared several symptoms: epigastric discomfort, weight loss, hematemesis, or melena. The 2 patients were diagnosis as MANEC based on the identification of histopathological analysis. In case 1, the poor differentiated adenocarcinoma accounted for 30%, the neuroendocrine part account for 70% and both of the 2 components metastasized to the lymph nodes, whereas in case 2, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma accounted for 70%, the neuroendocrine part for 30% and only the glandular component invaded regional lymph nodes. The first patient underwent laparoscopic radical gastrectomy and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, combination of cisplatin, and etoposide successfully. The second patient received radical gastronomy, and did not receive any chemotherapy due to general weakness. The first patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence, and the second patient died 6 months after the operation. The assessment of metastatic sites should be a routine pathological practice, which is crucial for clinical decision-making and the selection of management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical utility of dabigatran in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Abdulla; Elnour, Asim A.; Sadik, Adel; Mandil, Mahmoud Abu; AlShamsi, Ali; Suwaidi, Aesha Al; Bhagavathula, AkshayaSrikanth; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Hamad, Farah; Nuaimi, Saif K. Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide early data regarding clinical utility of dabigatran in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This was an ethics approved retrospective cross sectional study. We retrieved a total of 76 patients who were using dabigatran from September to December 2014 in the Cardiology Clinic at Al-Ain Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE. The primary analysis was designed to test the frequency of bleeding events (rate) with dabigatran 75, 110, and 150 mg. Results: The mean age ± standard deviation of cohort was 67.9 ± 1.5 years (range; 29-98 years), composed of males (52.6%) with mean age of 66.3 ± 1.7 years, and females (47.4%) with mean age of 69.6 ± 1.1 years. The highest age group was those between 61-80 years (60.5%). Most comprised the age strata of ≤75 years (73.7%). The main indication for dabigatran use was atrial fibrillation. The rate of bleeding with dabigatran was 18/76 (23.7%), and melena was the leading cause of bleeding 8/76 (10.7%). The hospitalization rate was 67.1%, dabigatran withdrawal rate was 0.01%, and mortality rate was 6.5%. The cohort had exhibited incidences of minor bleeding with one fatal major bleeding, high co-morbidities, admission, and readmission, which was not directly linked to dabigatran. We did not identify any relation of death due to dabigatran. Conclusion: Dabigatran is a suitable alternative to warfarin obviating the need for repetitive international normalized ratio monitoring, however, it may need plasma drug monitoring. PMID:26593161

  8. A case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following total remnant pancreatectomy: A case report

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    Atsushi Fujio

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pseudoaneurysm is a serious complication after pancreatic surgery, which mainly depends on the presence of a preceding pancreatic fistula. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage following total pancreatectomy is a rare complication due to the absence of a pancreatic fistula. Here we report an unusual case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to right hepatic artery (RHA pseudoaneurysm following total remnant pancreatectomy. Presentation of case: A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma recurrence following distal pancreatectomy and underwent total remnant pancreatectomy. After discharge, he was readmitted to our hospital with melena because of the diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to detect the origin of bleeding, but an obvious bleeding point could not be detected. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated an expansive growth, which indicated RHA pseudoaneurysm. Emergency angiography revealed gastrointestinal bleeding into the jejunum from the ruptured RHA pseudoaneurysm. Transcatheter arterial embolization was performed; subsequently, bleeding was successfully stopped for a short duration. Because of improvements in his general condition, the patient was discharged. Discussion: To date, very few cases have described postpancreatectomy hemorrhage following total remnant pancreatectomy. We suspect that the aneurysm ruptured into the jejunum, possibly because of the scarring and inflammation associated with his two complex surgeries. Conclusion: Pseudoaneurysm should be considered when the fragility of blood vessels is suspected, despite no history of anastomotic leak and intra-abdominal abscess. Our case also highlighted that detecting gastrointestinal bleeding is necessary to recognize sentinel bleeding if the origin of bleeding is undetectable. Abbreviations: PPH, RHA, CT, IPMC, RCCs, POD, LHA, GIE, TAE, Keywords: Case report, Pseudoaneurysm, Total

  9. Sirolimus alternative to blood transfusion as a life saver in blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Ling; Ma, Shu-Fang; Pang, Ling-Yu; Zhang, Meng-Na; Hu, Lin-Yan; Liu, Meng-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by multiple venous malformations. The gastrointestinal bleeding and secondary iron deficiency anemia are the most common complications. There are currently no effective treatments for BRBNS. Here, we report a case of successful treatment with a small dose of sirolimus of a BRBN patient with a de novo gene mutation. A 12-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with multiple hemangiomas for 12 years. The patient often displayed melena; she recently received transfusion of 2 units of red blood cells once every 2 weeks. Multiple fist-sized hemangiomas were piled up on both sides and back of the neck, and were also noted on the arms, legs, chest, back, and on the tip of the tongue. The laboratory findings demonstrated severe anemia. Blood sample sequencing detected a heterozygous de novo mutation c.2545C > Tin the TEK gene. Based on these findings, final diagnosis of Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) was made. After the diagnosis, low-dose sirolimus was orally administered. The patient's hemoglobin was increased after treatment with sirolimus for 1 month. Since the initial treatment with sirolimus, she had not received any blood transfusions. The skin and mucosal hemangioma decreased significantly, and new digestive tract hemorrhage, muscle hematoma, or adverse drug reactions were not observed. we report a case of a mutation in exon 15 of the TEK gene leading to BRBN. It was successfully treated with a small dose of sirolimus as an alternative to blood transfusion in order to save the of BRBN patient's life.

  10. Portal hypertension and an atypical reactive arthritis like presentation in a patient infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 3

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    Moushumi Lodh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive arthritis (ReA is defined as a peripheral arthritis lasting longer than 1 month, associated with urethritis, cervicitis, or diarrhea. The reported annual incidence of ReA is approximately 30-40 cases per 100,000 adults, occurring commonly in the age group of 16 and 35 years. It is known to be associated with gastrointestinal infections with Shigella, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species and other microorganisms, as well as with genitourinary infections (especially with Chlamydia trachomatis. Case Report: This article reports the case of a 53-year-old, post-right total hip replacement, Indian man, with ReA, who presented with fever, respiratory distress, and abdominal discomfort. He complained of itching, tingling sensation, pain on urination, and retention of urine. He had right hip joint pain for 3 weeks, inability to move right leg since 10 days, and melena since 1 week. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, high liver and kidney function tests, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, procalcitonin and occult blood in stool. He tested positive for hepatitis C virus genotype 3. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple apthoid ulcers at D2 and large gastric varix. Ultrasonography of whole abdomen revealed cholelithiasis and splenomegaly. Skin lesions and arthritis led to the diagnosis of associated ReA. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged in a stable condition. Conclusions: Our case is unlike classical ReA because the patient is older, HLA B27 negative, and without florid urethritis. Admitted for fever and lower urinary tract symptoms, along with respiratory distress, the primary objective of the emergency doctors was to prevent the patient from progressing to organ failure. The diagnosis of underlying atypical/incomplete ReA could easily have been missed without adequate awareness, dermatological consultation, and a skin biopsy.

  11. Effect of Gastric Acid Suppressant Prophylaxis on Incidence of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

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    Tahoora Abdollahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Critically ill children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress related mucosal injury. Reducing gastric acid by acid suppressant medication is the accepted prophylaxis treatment, but there is not any definitive guideline for using prophylaxis in PICU patients. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI and H2 Blocker (H2B prophylaxis on gastrointestinal bleeding in admitted patients of PICU, Mashhad- Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients admitted in PICU divided into two equal groups on the first day of admission. They received ranitidine or pantoprazole as prophylaxis of stress ulcer. Those patients who had history of gastrointestinal bleeding or coagulation disorder were excluded. 100 PICU patients who had not received prophylaxis during last 6 months retrospectively evaluated as control of the study. Data were collected as demographic characteristics, admission reason, definitive diagnosis, receiving corticosteroid and mechanical ventilation in each patient. Gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground aspirate, and melena and clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding were daily monitored. Data analyzed through descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, t-test and using SPSS-16 software.Results: Among 204 patients (control group=105 and case group=99, incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GB was 13.2% in which 6.9% of cases presented with clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding (CSGB. Loss of consciousness and respiratory distress were the main reason of admission. There was no significant differences between the incidence of (GB and (CSGB in experimental and control groups (P>0.05 as well as ranitidine and pantoprazole prophylaxis (P>0.05. Significant risk factors of (GB were mechanical ventilation and loss of consciousness and corticosteroid therapy

  12. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors: A single institution phase i-ii study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Wunderink, Wouter [Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hussain, Shahid M. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (US). Dept. of Radiology] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The feasibility, toxicity and tumor response of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for treatment of primary and metastastic liver tumors was investigated. From October 2002 until June 2006, 25 patients not suitable for other local treatments were entered in the study. In total 45 lesions were treated, 34 metastases and 11 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Median follow-up was 12.9 months (range 0.5-31). Median lesion size was 3.2 cm (range 0.5-7.2) and median volume 22.2 cm{sup 3} (range 1.1-322). Patients with metastases, HCC without cirrhosis, and HCC < 4 cm with cirrhosis were mostly treated with 3x12.5 Gy. Patients with HCC =4cm and cirrhosis received 5x5 Gy or 3x10 Gy. The prescription isodose was 65%. Acute toxicity was scored following the Common Toxicity Criteria and late toxicity with the SOMA/LENT classification. Local failures were observed in two HCC and two metastases. Local control rates at 1 and 2 years for the whole group were 94% and 82%. Acute toxicity grade =3 was seen in four patients; one HCC patient with Child B developed a liver failure together with an infection and died (grade 5), two metastases patients presented elevation of gamma glutamyl transferase (grade 3) and another asthenia (grade 3). Late toxicity was observed in one metastases patient who developed a portal hypertension syndrome with melena (grade 3). SBRT was feasible, with acceptable toxicity and encouraging local control. Optimal dose-fractionation schemes for HCC with cirrhosis have to be found. Extreme caution should be used for patients with Child B because of a high toxicity risk.

  13. Esophageal diverticula and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbella, F A M; Dubecz, A; Patti, M G

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal diverticula are rare. The association of cancer and diverticula has been described. Some authors adopt a conservative non-surgical approach in selected patients with diverticula whereas others treat the symptoms by diverticulopexy or myotomy only, leaving the diverticulum in situ. However, the risk of malignant degeneration should be may be taken in account if the diverticulum is not resected. The correct evaluation of the possible risk factors for malignancy may help in the decision making process. We performed a literature review of esophageal diverticula and cancer. The incidence of cancer in a diverticulum is 0.3-7, 1.8, and 0.6% for pharyngoesophageal, midesophageal, and epiphrenic diverticula, respectively. Symptoms may mimic those of the diverticulum or underlying motor disorder. Progressive dysphagia, unintentional weight loss, the presence of blood in the regurgitated material, regurgitation of peaces of the tumor, odynophagia, melena, hemathemesis, and hemoptysis are key symptoms. Risk factors for malignancy are old age, male gender, long-standing history, and larger diverticula. A carcinoma may develop in treated diverticula, even after resection. Outcomes are usually quoted as dismal because of a delayed diagnosis but several cases of superficial carcinoma have been described. The treatment follows the same principals as the therapy for esophageal cancer; however, diverticulectomy is enough in cases of superficial carcinomas. Patients must be carefully evaluated before therapy and a long-term follow-up is advisable. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

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    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  15. A novel hemostatic powder for upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a multicenter study (the "GRAPHE" registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddara, Sami; Jacques, Jeremie; Lecleire, Stéphane; Branche, Julien; Leblanc, Sarah; Le Baleur, Yann; Privat, Jocelyn; Heyries, Laurent; Bichard, Philippe; Granval, Philippe; Chaput, Ulriikka; Koch, Stephane; Levy, Jonathan; Godart, Bruno; Charachon, Antoine; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Metivier-Cesbron, Elodie; Chabrun, Edouard; Quentin, Vincent; Perrot, Bastien; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Coron, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Background and study aims: The hemostatic powder TC-325 (Hemospray; Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) has shown promising results in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in expert centers in pilot studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of TC-325 in a large prospective registry of use in routine practice. Patients and methods: The data of all patients treated with TC-325 were prospectively collected through a national registry. Outcomes were the immediate feasibility and efficacy of TC-325 application, as well as the rates of rebleeding at Day 8 and Day 30. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictive factors of rebleeding. Results: A total of 202 patients were enrolled and 64 endoscopists participated from 20 centers. TC-325 was used as salvage therapy in 108 patients (53.5 %). The etiology of bleeding was an ulcer in 75 patients (37.1 %), tumor in 61 (30.2 %), postendoscopic therapy in 35 (17.3 %), or other in 31 (15.3 %). Application of the hemostatic powder was found to be very easy or easy in 31.7 % and 55.4 %, respectively. The immediate efficacy rate was 96.5 %. Recurrence of UGIB was noted at Day 8 and Day 30 in 26.7 % and 33.5 %, respectively. Predictive factors of recurrence at Day 8 were melena at initial presentation and use of TC-325 as salvage therapy. Conclusion: These multicenter data confirmed the high rate of immediate hemostasis, excellent feasibility, and good safety profile of TC-325, which could become the treatment of choice in bleeding tumors or postendoscopic bleeding but not in bleeding ulcers where randomized studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02595853). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, O.; Almeida, C.A.; Fitzimons, C.; Rial, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  17. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: audit of a single center experience in Western India

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    Jignesh B. Rathod

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The most important aspect of management of GI bleeding is to locate the site and cause of bleeding. The aim of the study is to find out the common etiology, presentation and management, including the role of upper GI endoscopy. Recent advances have meant that endoscopic hemostatic methods are now associated with a reduced rate of re-bleeding, cost, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay and mortality. A prospective study of 50 cases was carried out between August 2001 and July 2003. Patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of upper GI bleeding (UGIB such as hematemesis, melena, aspirated blood from nasogastric tubes, profuse hematochezia, etc., were included in the study. The patients were selected randomly. The most common cause of UGIB in the present study was acute erosive gastritis (34% followed by portal hypertension (24% and peptic ulcer (22%. All 50 patients underwent upper GI endoscopy, of whom 39 patients were treated conservatively and 11 patients underwent endotherapy to control bleeding. Out of 39 patients treated non-endoscopically, 6 cases required laparotomy to control UGIB. 8 of 50 cases had past history of UGIB, 5 of whom had a previous history of endotherapy. One case was treated with devascularization as routine hemostatic methods failed. So, initial method of choice to control the bleeding was endotherapy and surgery was undertaken if an endoscopic method failed. The most common cause of hematemesis in our setting was acute erosive gastritis followed by portal hypertension. Endoscopy is a valuable minimal invasive method to diagnose and treat upper GI bleeding.

  18. Is Endoscopic Therapy Safe for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Supratherapeutic International Normalized Ratios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Choong Nam; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) presents a challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic INR in terms of rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. One hundred ninety-two anticoagulated patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for UGIB were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the occurrence of rebleeding within 30 days of the initial therapeutic endoscopy: no-rebleeding group (n = 168) and rebleeding group (n = 24). The overall rebleeding rate was 12.5%. Bleeding from gastric cancer and bleeding at the duodenum were significantly related to rebleeding in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis determined that presenting symptoms other than melena (hematemesis, hematochezia, or others) (odds ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-10.76) and bleeding from gastric cancer (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-29.25) were significant factors predictive of rebleeding. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy was not significantly associated with rebleeding in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Significant differences in bleeding-related mortality, additional intervention to control bleeding, length of hospital stay, and transfusion requirements were revealed between the rebleeding and no-rebleeding groups. There were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between patients with INR within the therapeutic range and those with supratherapeutic INR. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy did not change rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. Thus, we should consider endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients, irrespective of INR at the time of endoscopic therapy.

  19. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

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    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  20. Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report

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    Dutta Sudhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. Case presentation A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation. Conclusion Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.

  1. Caracterización clínica de los casos de dengue hospitalizados en la E.S.E. Hospital ""Antonio Roldán Betancur"", Apartadó, Antioquia, Colombia, 2000.

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    Margarita Arboleda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1998 se vienen notificando casos de dengue hemorrágico en el municipio de Apartadó y actualmente el dengue se considera endemo-epidémico. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento clínico del dengue en pacientes hospitalizados por esta causa en la Empresa Social del Estado Hospital Antonio Roldán Betancur de Apartadó en el año 2000. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por dengue. Resultados. Se hospitalizaron 45 casos con diagnóstico serológico de dengue. Tres (6,7% pacientes con dengue clásico, 22 (48,9% con dengue con manifestaciones hemorrágicas y 20 (44,4% con dengue hemorrágico. La edad osciló entre 4 meses y 68 años con un promedio de 22,1 años. La mayoría procedía del área urbana (82,8%. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (100%, mialgias y artralgias (71,1%, cefalea (70,5% y dolor abdominal (67,5%. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas más frecuentes fueron petequias (60%, hematuria (31,7%, equimosis en sitios de venopunción (24,4%, melenas (22,2%, hematemesis (15,5% y hemorragias vaginales anormales (15,5%. El recuento de plaquetas osciló entre 11.000 y 186.000/mm3, con un promedio de 48.688. Los hematocritos oscilaron entre 26 y 59%, con un promedio de 41,5%. Fallecieron 4 (8,8% pacientes, tres de éstos menores de un año. En el 40% de los casos se hicieron otros diagnósticos simultáneamente, siendo malaria la coinfección más frecuente, con 17,7% (8/45 de los casos. Conclusión. En este estudio las personas en edad productiva tuvieron mayor riesgo de sufrir dengue y la población menor de un año fue la de mayor riesgo de letalidad; existe, además, la posibilidad de coinfección con otras enfermedades, particularmente malaria.

  2. Acute GI bleeding by multiple jejunal gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour associated with neurofibromatosis type I Urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor intestinal de nervios autónomos asociados a neurofibromatosis tipo I

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    M. Keese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a surgical emergency due to GI-bleeding caused by gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours (GANT's in a patient with von Recklinghausen's disease. A 72 year old female patient with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted with maelena. Endoscopy showed no active bleeding in the stomach and the colon. Therefore an angio-CT-scan was performed which revealed masses of the proximal jejunum as source of bleeding. Laparotomy was indicated and a 20 cm segment of jejunum which carried multiple extraluminal tumours was resected. The source of the bleeding was a 2 cm tumour which had eroded the mucosal surface. Immunohistologically, evidence of neuronal differentiation could be shown in the spindle-formed cells with positive staining for C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34, and a locally positive staining for synaptophysine and S100. This case report illustrates the association between neurofibromatosis and stromal tumours and should alert surgeons and gastroenterologist about gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.Se describe una urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor gastrointestinal de nervios autónomos (GANT asociado a enfermedad de von Recklinghausen. Una mujer de 72 años con neurofibromatosis fue ingresada con signos de melena. La endoscopia digestiva alta y baja fue negativa. Se indicó TAC con contraste que advirtió tumores yeyunales como causa del sangrado. Se realizó laparotomía y resección de un segmento de 20 cm de yeyuno que incluía varios tumores. La causa del sangrado activo fue lesión en mucosa intestinal por erosión tumoral. El análisis por inmunohistoquímica de la pieza mostró diferenciación neuronal, con células fusiformes con tinción positiva para el C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34. Esta nota clínica pone de manifiesto la asociación entre la neurofibromatosis y los tumores estromales y debe alertar a gastroenterólogos y cirujanos sobre las posibles manifestaciones

  3. Abscesso renal em recém-nascidos: um relato de caso

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    Izilda das Eiras Tamega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O abscesso renal se caracteriza pela coleção de material purulento dentro do parênquima e pode ser causado por disseminação hematogênica, ascensão pelo trato urinário e infecção de área adjacente. Sua clínica na infância é inespecífica, e pode envolver dor abdominal ou lombar, febre e calafrios, mal- estar, anorexia e perda de peso. Sua ocorrência na infância é rara, mas o diagnóstico e tratamento precoces são fundamentais para a reduzir a mortalidade. Objetivo: Relatar caso de RN admitida no CHS com abdome agudo devido a um abscesso renal. Metodologia: Informações obtidas por meio de revisão de prontuário e literatura. Relato de caso: RN de EPB, sexo feminino, 13 dias de vida, encaminhada de Tietê com queixa de irritabilidade e distensão abdominal iniciadas no primeiro dia de vida, 2 episódios de hematêmese e 4 episódios de melena. Medicada na origem com ampicilina e gentamicina e transferida para o CHS. RN de parto normal, IG =39 semanas, peso ao nascimento=3750g, sem intercorrências relatadas no pré-natal e parto. Ao exame, apresentava-se em REG, descorada 2+/4, com abdome globoso, distendido, RHA +, flácido, doloroso à palpação, fígado a 2cm RCD, baço não palpável, sem demais alterações. Foi introduzida antibioticoterapia e realizado transfusão de concentrado de hemácias, mas a paciente evoluiu com instabilidade hemodinâmica e indicada laparotomia de urgência. No intra- operatório, foi identificado abscesso renal à direita, submetido à drenagem. A paciente evoluiu bem, com boa aceitação do leite materno e sem distensão abdominal e recebeu alta. Conclusão: O abscesso renal em recém-nascido é uma doença rara de difícil diagnóstico, cujo manejo adequado é imprescindível a fim de evitar lesão renal.

  4. Fístula bilio-duodenal pós colecistite aguda: Relato de caso

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    Marina Araújo Fonte Boa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As fístulas biliares internas espontâneas são comunicações estabelecidas entre qualquer segmento da árvore biliar e dos órgãos abdominais. Elas constituem uma afecção rara apesar de compreender uma complicação da colecistite, patologia freqüente da prática cirúrgica. As fístulas bilioentericas ocorrem em 3-5% dos doentes com colelitíase, sendo 68% destas bilioduodenais. O objetivo desse manuscrito é relatar um caso de fístula bilioduodenal complicada com hemobilia e hemorragia digestiva, descrevendo a conduta adotada. Os dados foram coletados entre dezembro/2015 a abril/2016 através da analise de prontuário fornecido pelo Hospital Universitário Sul Fluminense (HUSF. Trata-se de um paciente masculino, 75 anos, atendido no HUSF-Vassouras/RJ com diagnóstico sindrômico de abdome agudo inflamatório por colecistite aguda, submetido a tratamento conservador para regressão da inflamação peri-colecística, diminuindo assim, o risco de lesões iatrogênicas da árvore biliar em posterior cirurgia. Evoluiu com melena, que foi investigada por endoscopia digestiva alta onde foi observada úlcera de bulbo duodenal com drenagem de secreção purulenta pela sua luz; e tomografia computadorizada de abdome que evidenciou presença de aerobilia indicando presença de fístula bileodigestiva. O tratamento conservador consistiu-se em antibioticoterapia e reposição volêmica, optado devido à remissão do quadro de colecistite após desobstrução pela fístula, devido à hemorragia que cessou espontaneamente e também pelo risco da realização do procedimento cirúrgico em paciente idoso com intensa resposta inflamatória sistêmica. Não é comum na literatura médica a ocorrência de fístulas biliodigestivas com sinais e sintomas hemorrágicos. O quadro clínico geralmente é inespecífico e frequentemente atrasado devido à falta de sinais e sintomas patognomônicos.

  5. Locations and Mucosal Lesions Responsible for Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients on Warfarin or Dabigatran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Flack, Kathryn Friedman; Chatterjee-Murphy, Prapti; Desai, Jay; Wallentin, Lars C; Ezekowitz, Michael; Connolly, Stuart; Reilly, Paul; Brueckmann, Martina; Ilgenfritz, John; Aisenberg, James

    2018-03-27

    Different oral anticoagulants may be associated with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) from different locations or mucosal lesions. We aimed to test this hypothesis. Two blinded gastroenterologists independently analyzed source documents from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial of dabigatran 150 mg BID (D150), dabigatran 110 mg BID (D110) versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Major GIB events (total n = 546) and life-threatening GIB events (n = 258) were more common with D150 versus warfarin (RR 1.57 [1.28-1.92] and RR 1.62 [1.20-2.18], respectively) and similar for D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.11 [0.89-1.38] and RR 1.16 [0.84-1.61], respectively). Fatal bleeding was similarly rare across treatment groups. Lower GI major bleeding and life-threatening bleeding were more common with D150 compared to warfarin (RR 2.23 [1.47, 3.38] and RR 2.64 [1.36, 5.13], respectively) and with D110 compared to warfarin (RR 1.78 [1.16, 2.75] and RR 2.00 [1.00, 4.00], respectively). MGIB from colonic angiodysplasia was increased with dabigatran versus warfarin (P < 0.01 for both dose comparisons). Subacute and chronic MGIB events were more common with D150 than with warfarin (RR 1.72 [1.06, 2.78] and RR 1.66 [1.12, 2.45], respectively), as were hematochezia or melena (RR 1.67 [1.18, 2.36] and RR 1.72 [1.20, 2.47], respectively). In a chronic NVAF population, D150 but not D110 is associated with increased major and life-threatening GI bleeding in comparison with warfarin. At both dabigatran doses, increased bleeding from the colorectum, in particular from angiodysplasia, is seen.

  6. Radiologic features of gastric leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of stomach are unusual tumors, accounting for 1-3% of primary gastric malignancies. Diagnosis of these tumors is important because of the more favorable prognosis of this tumor than that of gastric carcinoma. A retrospective study was made in 18 patients who had pathology-proven gastric leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma to identify radiologic characteristics for recent 6 years from Jan. 1978 to July. 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age of 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 36 to 70 with average of 51 and the male to female ratio was 10 ; 3. Age of 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma ranged from 24 to 67 with average of 44 and the male to female ratio was 3 : 2. 2. Clinically, gastric leiomyosarcoma had epigastric pain in 7 cases, palpable mass in 4 cases, melena in 3 cases, haematemesis in 2 cases, 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma also had above symptoms respectively. 3. Of the 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma studied by upper gastrointestinal examination, 6 cases (32%) involved the fundus, 10 cases (50%) in the body, 3 cases (18%) in the antrum. Of the 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma, 4 cases were confined to the fundus and 1 case in the body. 4. The size of the 13 gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 5 to more than 20 cm in diameter. The size of the 5 gastric leiomyomas ranged from 3 to 9 cm in diameter. 5. The growth type of gastric leiomysarcoma was exophytic in 8 cases, endogastric in 1 case and mixed pattern in 4 cases. The growth type of gastric leiomyoma were exophytic in 1 case, endogastric in 2 cases and mixed in 2 cases. 6. Mucosal pattern of gastric leiomyosarcoma were mainly effaced pattern in 10 cases (77%), but 3 cases (23%) showed irregular destruction. 1 case of gastric leiomyoma showed mucosal irregularity. 7. Ulceration was present in 10 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma either single or multiple. 2 cases of gastric leiomyoma showed small ulcerations. Calciflation

  7. The Co- Infection of Crime Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Brucellosis: A Case Report

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    A Saghafipour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease transmitted to ruminants or human by the bite of mature tick vectors. It can be transmitted through contact with the infectious blood or viraemic tissues during slaughter and hospital contacts. 80% of the cases are sub clinical and the rest of them are presenting with an acute febrile and occasionally hemorrhagic disease. The mortality rate of the fulminate form of the disease is equal to 20% to 50%. The hemorrhage is usually in the form of hematoma, melena, nose, conjunctiva, uterine or subcutaneous bleeding. CCHF complications are: encephalitis, optic neuropathy, hepatitis, renal failure and myocardial necrosis.

     

    Case Report: In this article, we’ve discussed a CCHF patient who presented with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous and gingival hemorrhage during the course of the disease while the patient was hospitalized. Profound jaundice, petechia and global ecchymosis were considerable. Lab data showed at the beginning of hospitalization that the number of liver enzymes was increased up to 8-10 times. The number of placates were lower than 150000 ml. Moreover, during the first three days there was a decrease in the number of white blood cells and PTT was abnormal. (AST was higher than 100 units per litre. The results of serologic examination of IgM- ELISA virus for CCHF on day 5 and IgG-ELISA on day 10–which were carried out in pasture Institute-were reported to be positive. According to the patient’s history and clinical symptoms, he was also suspicious for Brucellosis and the lab data demonstrated that he is also infected with Brucella. (Wright=1.320, 2ME=1.160 (The patient was a 22 year old man, sheep farmer, residing in the GhalehKamkar area of Qom City.

     

  8. Clinical manifestations and hematological and serological findings in children with dengue infection

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    Mulya Rahma Karyanti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is endemic to Indonesia and remains a public health problem, with its highest incidence in children. There have been few reports on the clinical, hematological and serological data in children \\\\lith dengue. Objective To assess the clinical and laboratory profiles of children \\\\lith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods Clinical, hematological and serological infonnation from children diagnosed v.ith dengue infection in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were collected from 2007 to 2009. Results Of611 children admitted with dengue, 143 (23.4% had dengue fever (DF, 252 (41.2% had DHF grades I and II; and 216 (35.4% had DHF grades III and IV. Of the 81 cases where dengue serotypes were identified, 12.3% were DENV1, 35.8% were DENV-2, 48.2% were DENV-3 and 3.7% were DENV-4. Mean age of subjects was 8.9 years (SD 4.4, and 48.4% of cases were boys. The mean length of fever before hospital admission was 4.2 days (SD 1.1 and mean length of stay in the hospital was 4 days (SD 2.7. Common symptoms observed were petechiae, hepatomegaly and epistaxis. Complications found mostly in those with dengue shock syndrome (DSS were hematemesis (30 cases, 4.9% of all patients, encephalopathy (19 cases, 3.1 % and melena (17 cases, 2.8%. Conclusion Signs and symptoms of fever, bleeding manifestations and thrombocytopenia were present in children 'With DF and DHF, while signs of increased vascular permeability were found only in those 'With DHF. Encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding were found mostly in DSS cases. At admission, leukopenia was found in more DF patients than in DHF patients. Absence of leukopenia may be a sign of more severe dengue infection.

  9. Therapeutic Endoscopy for the Control of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banc-Husu, Anna M; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jaffe, David L; Kochman, Michael L; Rajala, Michael W; Mamula, Petar

    2017-04-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most common indications for urgent endoscopy in the pediatric setting. The majority of these procedures are performed for control of variceal bleeding, with few performed for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (NVUGI) bleeding. The data on therapeutic endoscopy for NVUGI are sparse. The aims of our study were to review our experience with NVUGI bleeding, describe technical aspects and outcomes of therapeutic endoscopy, and determine gastroenterology fellows' training opportunities according to the national training guidelines. We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy database (Endoworks, Olympus Inc, Center Valley, PA) from January 2009 to December 2014. The search used the following keywords: bleeding, hematemesis, melena, injection, epinephrine, cautery, clip, and argon plasma coagulation. The collected data included demographics, description of bleeding lesion and medical/endoscopic therapy, rate of rebleeding, relevant laboratories, physical examination, and need for transfusion and surgery. The study was approved by the institutional review board. During the study period 12,737 upper endoscopies (esophagogastroduodenoscopies) were performed. A total of 15 patients underwent 17 esophagogastroduodenoscopies that required therapeutic intervention to control bleeding (1:750 procedures). The mean ± standard deviation (median) age of patients who required endoscopic intervention was 11.6 ± 6.0 years (14.0 years). Seven out of 17 patients received dual therapy to control the bleeding lesions. All but 3 patients received medical therapy with intravenous proton pump inhibitor, and 3 received octreotide infusions. Six of the patients experienced rebleeding (40%), with 4 out of 6 initially only receiving single modality therapy. Two of these patients eventually required surgical intervention to control bleeding and both patients presented with bleeding duodenal ulcers. There were no cases of aspiration

  10. Evaluation of hepatocyte-derived microRNA-122 for diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs

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    S. R. Eman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miRNA-122 in acute and chronic hepatitis of dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 26 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 16 dogs out of 26 showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hematobiochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs out of 16 dogs were found to be suffering from acute hepatitis and 9 dogs suffering from chronic hepatitis. 10 clinically healthy dogs were kept as control. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all dogs. Results: The dogs suffering from acute hepatitis manifested jaundice, vomiting, and depression while dogs with chronic hepatitis manifested anorexia, abdominal distension, weight loss, and melena. Hematological parameters showed normocytic normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia in both acute and chronic hepatitis groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were significantly higher than control values in acute hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis, total protein and albumin were significantly lower than control values with normal ALT, AST, ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase values. Ultrasonography revealed a diffuse decrease in hepatic echogenicity in acute hepatitis while the increase in hepatic echogenicity and anechoic ascetic fluid in chronic hepatitis. Cytology revealed hepatic vacuolar degeneration and histopathology revealed necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocyte in acute hepatitis while revealed massive fibrous tissue proliferation in hepatic parenchyma in chronic hepatitis. Serum miRNA-122 analysis, normalized for glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase expression

  11. The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shizheng; Ren Xiaojun; Zhang Qiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T 1 -weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T 1 WI, high signal on T 2 WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão portal esquistossomótica no hc/ufpe: análise de 131 casos

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    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A hipertensão portal esquistossomótica com antecedente de hemorragia digestiva foi tratada com esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda (LVGE + desvascularização da grande curvatura do estômago + esclerose endoscópica pós-operatória. Quando da existência de varizes de fundo gástrico, realizamos a abertura do fundo gástrico e sutura obliterante destas varizes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a recidiva de hemorragia digestiva, repercussões laboratoriais e mortalidade do tratamento cirúrgico/endoscópico. MÉTODOS: Entre 1992 e 1998, foram operados no HC-UFPE 131 pacientes. O seguimento médio foi de 30 meses, em 111 pacientes, que foram solicitados a retornar ao ambulatório do HC-UFPE para a realização de controle clínico e laboratorial. RESULTADOS: A recidiva hemorrágica foi de 14,4% (16/111 e uma mortalidade de 5,4% (6/111. A recidiva de hemorragia digestiva alta foi exteriorizada através de hematemese em oito pacientes e oito por melena. Dos seis pacientes que foram a óbito, três apresentavam diagnóstico de linfoma, hepatocarcinoma e infarto agudo do miocárdio, respectivamente. Dois pacientes foram a óbito no pós-operatório imediato (sepse e coagulação intravascular disseminada. O sexto paciente foi a óbito por recidiva da hemorragia digestiva alta. Em nove pacientes, 13,2%, foi diagnosticada trombose da veia porta. Os dados laboratoriais, hematológicos e de função hepática também foram analisados. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores concluíram que o tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão portal esquistossomótica, através da esplenectomia + LVGE + desvascularização da grande curvatura do estômago + esclerose endoscópica pós-operatória determina resultados compatíveis com a literatura em relação à recidiva de sangramento, mas preserva a funcionalidade hepática.

  13. [Gastric Cancer in Early Stage: study of 371 lesions in 340 patients in the E. Rebagliati National, Lima-Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo Romero, Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    lesions in 54.6% in other types of cancer 12.7%. Present in 65%, of which 50% of them were uncompleted. Dyspepsia 82.2%, hyperoxia 32.9%, loss of weight 23.3%, non-characteristic pain 23.3%, ulcer pain 20.5%, melena 8.2%, anemia 7.7%, diarrhea and/or constipation 7.4%, vomiting 2.2%, hematemesis 1.9%. O (63.2%) A (24.7%) B (11.3%) AB (0.6%). This was determined in 70 patients: In 55 with ulcer, none showed achlorhydria 0%, 20 (36%) hypochlorhydria, 20 (36%) normochlorhydria and 15 (28%) hyperacidity. In 16 in an elevated form 13 (87.5%) with achlorhydria, 1 (6.5%) with hypochlorhydria, 1 (6.5%) with normal acidity. Average in ulcerated cases DAB 3.04 +/- 1.25 mEqh and DAM 12.31 +/- 8.00. In elevated cases: DAB 0.89 +/- 0.32 and DAM 2.20 +/- 0.95 mEqh.

  14. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erlan

    2017-01-01

    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts

  15. Clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever on human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hamzehpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a febrile and acute viral disease, and it is sporadic and epidemic in human societies, although it is special for animals (1. The disease was first identified in the Crimean Peninsula in the years 1945-1944 and was called the Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever. In 1956, the epidemic of the disease in the Congo also occurred, and due to the similarity of the disease agent, the combination of names of these two regions was used for naming the disease (2. The cause of this disease is a single-stranded viraemia virus from the genus Neurovirus and the Bunyaviridae family (3. One of the ways to transmit the disease is tick bites, and the hyaloma ticks are the most important constituent of the Crimean-Congo fever vein and the reservoir. In addition to transmitting the disease to vertebrates, due to a vertical and horizontal transmission, they transmit it to the next generation (4. Also, human contact with meat, blood and contaminated secretions of livestock in a livestock eradication period causes the transmission of the disease (5. Human to human transmission, which is more often seen as a hospital infection, is also a means of transmitting the disease (6. The incubation period after a tick bite is 1 to 3 days and a maximum of 9 days, and is slightly longer after contact with contaminated blood or tissue about 5-6 days, and finally 14 days (7. In the early stages of the disease, symptoms are sudden which include severe headaches, fever, chills, muscle pain, especially the back and leg muscles, neck stiffness, dizziness, reddening of the eyes, fear of light, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Then, a severe generalized muscle pain appears, mostly at the back and hamstring, and the patient complains of back pain and epigastric pain (8. In the examination of patients, facial flushing and chest thigtness, hyperemia of throat mucusand petechialsare common symptoms which draw attention. Hemorrhagic phenomena include melena

  16. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Yield of Endoscopy in Patients with Elevated INR and Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloquin, Joanna M; Seraj, Siamak M; King, Lindsay Y; Campbell, Emily J; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Richter, James M

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a well-known risk of systemic anticoagulation. However, bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic anticoagulation may have a milder natural history than unprovoked bleeding. It is a common clinical gestalt that endoscopy is common, but bleeding source identification or intervention is uncommon, yet few data exist to inform this clinical impression. Consequently, we sought to examine our institutional experience with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) with the aim of identifying predictors of endoscopically identifiable lesions, interventions, and outcomes. A retrospective review was conducted at a tertiary referral academic medical center to identify patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of warfarin and a supratherapeutic INR (>3.5) who underwent an endoscopic procedure. Relevant clinical covariates, endoscopic findings, need for intervention, and outcomes were collected by review of the medical record. Logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders identified predictors of endoscopically significant lesions as well as intervention and outcomes. A total of 134 patients with INR 3.5 or greater (mean 5.5, range 3.5-17.1) presented with symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, most commonly as melena or symptomatic anemia. Antiplatelet agents were used by 54% of patients, and 60% of patients were on concomitant acid suppression on admission. Procedures included esophagogastroduodenoscopy (upper endoscopy; EGD) (n = 128), colonoscopy (n = 73), and video capsule endoscopy (n = 32). Active bleeding at first EGD or colonoscopy was found in only 19 patients (18%), with endoscopic intervention in only 26 patients (25%). At a critical threshold of INR 7.5 at presentation, the likelihood of finding an endoscopically significant lesion fell to therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-5.94), timing of EGD within 12 hours of

  17. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) of the Stomach: Retrospective Experience with Surgical Resection at the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAGUIB, Sh.F.; ZAGHLOUL, A.S.; El MARAKBY, H.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric Gist's account for more than half of all gastrointestinal stromal tumors and represent less than 5% of all gastric tumors. The peak age for harboring Gist of the stomach is around 60 years and a slight male preponderance is reported. These tumors are identified by expression of CD117 or CD34 antigen. Symptoms at presentation usually include bleeding, ab¬dominal pain or abdominal mass. Endoscopically, they typically appear as a submucosal mass with or without ulceration and on CT scans an extra gastric mass is usually seen. Complete surgical resection provides the only chance for cure, with only l-2 cm free margins needed. However, local recurrence and/or metastases supervene in almost half the patients treated with surgery alone, even when no gross residual is left. Thereby imatinib mesylate was advocated as an adjuvant to surgery, which appears to have improved disease-free and overall survival. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work was to assess clinico-pathological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) of the stomach and to appraise the results of treatment by surgery in patients treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of Cairo between January 2002 and December 2007. Patients and Methods: Nineteen patients with histologically and immuno-histochemically proven GIST of the stomach were treated by surgery at the NCI during the 6-year study period. Preoperative assessment included detailed history, clinical examination, full laboratory tests, endoscopy, abdominal ultrasound and CT. General medical assessment included chest X-ray, ECG and echocardiography. Results: The patients' age ranged from 26 to 77 years with a median of 51 years. Obvious male/female preponderance was noticed (68.4% to 31.6%). Tumors were located at the upper 1/3 in 42.1%, at the middle 1/3 in 31.6% and at the lower 1/3 in 26.3%. The most common clinical presentation was related to bleeding (hematemesis, melena or anaemia) and was seen in 63.2%. No tumors were

  18. THROMBOCYTOPENIA AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Ravindra Kumar Sudarsi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The aetiologies of thrombocytopenia are diverse. Various studies on thrombocytopenia done in the past have related to specific aetiologies. This study attempts to determine the common aetiologies of thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations in adult patients admitted under Department of Medicine. METHODS Patients older than 18 years of age who were first time found to have thrombocytopenia at admission under Department of Medicine between 1st October 2014 and 31st September 2015 were followed up during their stay in hospital and the diagnosis made, bleeding manifestations, and requirement of platelet transfusions were recorded. RESULTS 200 patients were included in the study. Dengue/dengue-like fever was the diagnosis made in 30% of patients followed by malaria (22%, undiagnosed aetiology (9%, HELLP (6%, snake bite and sepsis 5% each, ITP and megaloblastic anaemia 4.5% each, haematological malignancies and CTD 3% each, and other rare causes formed the rest. Bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia was seen in 36 patients. 22.2% of them were diagnosed as dengue, 19.4% had malaria, 16.7% had ITP, 11.1% of patients with HELLP, 8.3% each had malignancy and undiagnosed viral infections, 5.6% each had CTD and MDS, and 2.8% had aplastic anaemia. Dengue fever was responsible for thrombocytopenia-related bleeding in 8 cases, ITP in 6 cases, malaria in 7 cases, HELLP in 4 cases, malignancy and undiagnosed aetiology 3 cases each, CTD and MDS 2 cases each, and aplastic anaemia in 1 case. The common bleeding manifestations were GIT (Melena, petechial rash, and menorrhagia occurring in 33.3%, 22.2% and 13.8% of total number of patients respectively. 30.5% of those who had bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia had platelet count <5000/μL. 68.7% of those with platelet count <5000/μL had bleeding manifestation. 36.6% of those who had bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia had platelet count 5,000-10,000/μL. 65.0% of those with

  19. Margem de segurança do meloxicam em cães: efeitos deletérios nas células sangüíneas e trato gastrintestinal Margin of safety of meloxicam in dogs: deleterious effects on blood cells and gastrointestinal tract

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    Marilac Maria Arnaldo Alencar

    2003-06-01

    accomplished. In group I there were no significative alterations. In group II, all the dogs showed moderate episodes of vomit and diarrhea. The blood-cell profile was not modified. Two dogs had hematocrit and hemoglobin reduction. In the necropsy, hemorrhagic spots and moderate gastroduodenal lesions were seen. The microscopic analysis revealed the presence of gastritis and ulcerative enteritis. In group III, four dogs (80% showed vomit and diarrhea, without alteration in blood-cell profile. The microscopic analysis showed mild lesions in the gastric mucosa and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of four dogs. Histology showed lesions suggesting mild gastroenteritis. In group IV, all the dogs (n=5 showed vomit and blood diarrhea. Four of them showed anemia (p <0.05. Four and five dogs, respectively, had hematocrit and hemoglobin reduction. In addition, there was a significant (p<0.05 leukocytosis, neutrophilia and linfopenia in 60% of the dogs. The necropsy showed hiperemia, hemorrhage and severe gastric ulcers in all the dogs. In the microscopic analyses, gastroenteritis ulcerative was present in all the animals. In group V, the dogs (n=5 had serious vomit, diarrhea and melena episodes. The dogs that bore the treatment (n=4 had anemia and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and linfopenia significatives (p<0.05. All the dogs had hematocrit and hemoglobin reduction. In the necropsy, hemorrhages and severe gastroduodenal ulceration were seen. The microscopic analysis showed severe gastroenteritis. It can be concluded that, although meloxicam is a COX-2 selective inhibitor, it induces deleterious effects on gastrointestinal tract and blood cells of dogs, when given five or ten times the therapeutic dose, which demonstrate its low margin of safety in this animal specie.

  20. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

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    Fung, Claire Y; Kachnic, Lisa A; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-07-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  1. Value of Glasgow-Blatchford score in predicting early prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding

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    CUI Shu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP score, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score in predicting the 1- and 6-week prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding via a comparative analysis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 202 cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding who were hospitalized in Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2014. According to the endpoint of death at 6 weeks after admission, the patients were divided into 1-week death group (10 patients, 6-week death group (23 patients, and survival group (179 patients. The Glasgow-Blatchford score, MELD score, CTP score, and CTP score and classification were calculated on admission, and these scores were compared between the three groups. The two-independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups. The chi-square test or the Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Z test was used for comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of these three scoring systems. ResultsThere were significant differences between the 1-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer with vascular invasion or metastasis (χ2=4.559, P=0.033, hepatic encephalopathy (χ2=25.568, P<0.01, melena (χ2=0.842, P=0.04, and heart failure (P=0.003, pulse rate (Z=-2.943, P=0.003, CTP classification (χ2=12.22, P=0.002, CTP score (Z=-2.505, P=0.012, MELD score (t=-2.395, P=0.018, and GBS score (Z=-2545, P=0.011. There were significant differences between the 6-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer (χ2=9.374, P=0.002, liver