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Sample records for melanoma cellular invasion

  1. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

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    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  2. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

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    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  3. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  4. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

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    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  5. Hypoxia promotes uveal melanoma invasion through enhanced Notch and MAPK activation.

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    Laura Asnaghi

    Full Text Available The transcriptional response promoted by hypoxia-inducible factors has been associated with metastatic spread of uveal melanoma. We found expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α protein in well-vascularized tumor regions as well as in four cell lines grown in normoxia, thus this pathway may be important even in well-oxygenated uveal melanoma cells. HIF-1α protein accumulation in normoxia was inhibited by rapamycin. As expected, hypoxia (1% pO2 further induced HIF-1α protein levels along with its target genes VEGF and LOX. Growth in hypoxia significantly increased cellular invasion of all 5 uveal melanoma lines tested, as did the introduction of an oxygen-insensitive HIF-1α mutant into Mel285 cells with low HIF-1α baseline levels. In contrast, HIF-1α knockdown using shRNA significantly decreased growth in hypoxia, and reduced by more than 50% tumor invasion in four lines with high HIF-1α baseline levels. Pharmacologic blockade of HIF-1α protein expression using digoxin dramatically suppressed cellular invasion both in normoxia and in hypoxia. We found that Notch pathway components, including Jag1-2 ligands, Hes1-Hey1 targets and the intracellular domain of Notch1, were increased in hypoxia, as well as the phosphorylation levels of Erk1-2 and Akt. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of Notch largely blocked the hypoxic induction of invasion as did the pharmacologic suppression of Erk1-2 activity. In addition, the increase in Erk1-2 and Akt phosphorylation by hypoxia was partially reduced by inhibiting Notch signaling. Our findings support the functional importance of HIF-1α signaling in promoting the invasive capacity of uveal melanoma cells in both hypoxia and normoxia, and suggest that pharmacologically targeting HIF-1α pathway directly or through blockade of Notch or Erk1-2 pathways can slow tumor spread.

  6. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muller, M.; Beck, Inken; Gadesmann, J.; Karschuk, N.; Paschen, A.; Proksch, E.; Djonov, V.; Reiss, K.; Sedláček, Radislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2010), s. 511-521 ISSN 0893-3952 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : melanoma * invasion * matrix metalloproteinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.176, year: 2010

  7. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

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    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  8. Embryonic chicken transplantation is a promising model for studying the invasive behaviour of melanoma cells.

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    Aparna eJayachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology which enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labelled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 hours to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5 or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5. Chick embryos are reincubated and analysed after 48 hours for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence the embryonic chicken transplantation model has potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and

  9. The fragile X mental retardation protein regulates tumor invasiveness-related pathways in melanoma cells.

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    Zalfa, Francesca; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Carotti, Simone; Zingariello, Maria; Perrone, Giuseppe; Sancillo, Laura; Pacini, Laura; Luciani, Flavie; Roberti, Vincenzo; D'Amico, Silvia; Coppola, Rosa; Abate, Simona Osella; Rana, Rosa Alba; De Luca, Anastasia; Fiers, Mark; Melocchi, Valentina; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Farace, Maria Giulia; Achsel, Tilmann; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Morini, Sergio; Bagni, Claudia

    2017-11-16

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is lacking or mutated in patients with the fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most frequent form of inherited intellectual disability. FMRP affects metastasis formation in a mouse model for breast cancer. Here we show that FMRP is overexpressed in human melanoma with high Breslow thickness and high Clark level. Furthermore, meta-analysis of the TCGA melanoma data revealed that high levels of FMRP expression correlate significantly with metastatic tumor tissues, risk of relapsing and disease-free survival. Reduction of FMRP in metastatic melanoma cell lines impinges on cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Next-generation sequencing in human melanoma cells revealed that FMRP regulates a large number of mRNAs involved in relevant processes of melanoma progression. Our findings suggest an association between FMRP levels and the invasive phenotype in melanoma and might open new avenues towards the discovery of novel therapeutic targets.

  10. Adipocytes Promote B16BL6 Melanoma Cell Invasion and the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kushiro, Kyoko; Chu, Randy A.; Verma, Akanksha; Núñez, Nomelí P.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most deadly and evasive types of cancer. On average, cancer patients with metastatic melanoma survive only 6–9 months after diagnosis. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that obesity increases the metastatic ability of malignant melanoma, though the mechanism is not known. In the present studies, we assessed the ability of 3T3L1 adipocytes to modulate B16BL6 melanoma cell invasion and the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). For this purpose, w...

  11. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

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    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  12. Inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by α-mangostin

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    Beninati, Simone, E-mail: beninati@bio.uniroma2.it [Department of Biology, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Oliverio, Serafina [Department of Biology, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Cordella, Martina [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Rossi, Stefania; Senatore, Cinzia [Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Liguori, Immacolata; Lentini, Alessandro; Piredda, Lucia [Department of Biology, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Tabolacci, Claudio [Department of Biology, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the anticancer potential of a new emerging molecule, α-mangostin (α-M). • We provide first evidences on the effects of α-M on transglutaminase activity. • We deeply examined the antimetastatic effects of α-M through many in vitro assays. • Proteomic analysis revealed that α-M promotes a reorganization at cellular level. - Abstract: In this study, we have evaluated the potential antineoplastic effects of α-mangostin (α-M), the most representative xanthone in Garcinia mangostana pericarp, on melanoma cell lines. This xanthone markedly inhibits the proliferation of high-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells. Furthermore, by deeply analyzing which steps in the metastatic process are influenced by xanthone it was observed that α-M strongly interferes with homotypic aggregation, adhesion, plasticity and invasion ability of B16-F10 cells, probably by the observed reduction of metalloproteinase-9 activity. The antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties of α-M have been established in human SK-MEL-28 and A375 melanoma cells. In order to identify pathways potentially involved in the antineoplastic properties of α-M, a comparative mass spectrometry proteomic approach was employed. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of α-M on melanoma.

  13. Comparing Melanoma Invasiveness in Dermatologist- versus Patient-Detected Lesions: A Retrospective Chart Review

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    Cindy L. Lamerson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether patient-identified melanomas were more advanced than dermatologist-identified tumors at routine clinic visits, and whether a personal or family history of skin cancer was associated with patterns of detection. A retrospective chart review was performed on melanoma patients (N=201 in a private dermatology clinic. Variables included age, gender, pattern of detection (i.e., patient or a board certified dermatologist, personal or family history of skin cancer, skin type, and previous sun exposure, as well as tumor location and severity. Dermatologist-diagnosed melanomas were less invasive (P<0.0005, and more likely present on the chest, back, and legs (P<0.01. Conversely, patient-identified lesions were more likely to occur on the face, neck and scalp, be associated with younger patients, and a family history of melanoma, but not other types of skin cancer (P<0.01. In a post-hoc analysis examining these factors as predictors of tumor invasiveness, only diagnostic source was significant. Specifically, dermatologist-identified tumors were significantly less invasive than patient-identified tumors. Although age, family history, and tumor location played roles in the early detection of melanomas, the most important factor was diagnostic source. Thus, board-certified dermatologists play a key role in the early detection of malignant melanoma.

  14. Orbital invasion routes of non-melanoma skin cancers and survival outcomes.

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    Dundar, Yusuf; Cannon, Richard; Wiggins, Richard; Monroe, Marcus M; Buchmann, Luke O; Hunt, Jason P

    2018-02-21

    Overall non-melanoma head and neck skin cancer has a good prognosis; however, rarely patients have an aggressive variant which results in orbital invasion via perineural spread or direct extension. Despite these consequences, there are limited published studies defining this clinical entity. The main objectives of the current study are to describe orbital invasion patterns of non-melanoma head and neck skin cancers and their impact on survival. Retrospective case series from a tertiary-care, academic institution performed between 2004 and 2014. Demographic and tumour characteristics are reported as well as patterns of orbital invasion, types of treatments received, and survival outcomes. There were 17 consecutive patients with non-melanoma skin cancer and orbital invasion who met inclusion criteria. Average age at orbital invasion diagnosis was 70.8 years old. 76% were male. Mean follow-up time was 28.5 months. Of these patients, 71% had squamous cell carcinoma and 29% had basal cell carcinoma. Brow (41%) was the most common primary sub-site followed by cheek (23%) and temple (12%). 76% of patients had a history of prior treatment. The lateral orbital wall (41%) was the most common site of invasion, followed by the medial orbital wall (29%) and antero-superior invasion (23%). Age, histology, and location of orbital invasion were associated with disease-specific and overall survival. Orbital invasion for non-melanoma head and neck skin cancers creates a treatment dilemma and the patterns of invasion are described. In addition, the location of orbital invasion is associated with survival outcomes.

  15. Melanotransferrin induces human melanoma SK-Mel-28 cell invasion in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Yanick; Demeule, Michel; Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Beliveau, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The expression of melanotransferrin (MTf), a membrane-bound glycoprotein highly expressed in melanomas, is correlated with tumor vascularization and progression, suggesting a proinvasive function associated with MTf in malignant tumors. To test this hypothesis, we silenced MTf in human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and examined the plasmin activity and invasiveness of MTf-silenced melanoma. In vitro, the siRNA-mediated MTf knockdown inhibited by 58% the cell surface activation of plasminogen into plasmin. In addition, decreased expression of MTf in melanoma cells reduced cell migration. In vivo, we used a nude mice invasion model in which tissue factor (TF) induces vascular [ 125 I]-fibrin deposition following injection. Using this metastasis model, the invasive potential of MTf-silenced cells into the lungs was reduced by fivefold. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that MTf overexpression in melanoma cells contributes to tumor progession by stimulating plasmin generation as well as cell migration and invasion

  16. Data Set for Pathology Reporting of Cutaneous Invasive Melanoma

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    Judge, Meagan J.; Evans, Alan; Frishberg, David P.; Prieto, Victor G.; Thompson, John F.; Trotter, Martin J.; Walsh, Maureen Y.; Walsh, Noreen M.G.; Ellis, David W.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and complete pathology report is critical for the optimal management of cutaneous melanoma patients. Protocols for the pathologic reporting of melanoma have been independently developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA), Royal College of Pathologists (United Kingdom) (RCPath), and College of American Pathologists (CAP). In this study, data sets, checklists, and structured reporting protocols for pathologic examination and reporting of cutaneous melanoma were analyzed by an international panel of melanoma pathologists and clinicians with the aim of developing a common, internationally agreed upon, evidence-based data set. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting cutaneous melanoma expert review panel analyzed the existing RCPA, RCPath, and CAP data sets to develop a protocol containing “required” (mandatory/core) and “recommended” (nonmandatory/noncore) elements. Required elements were defined as those that had agreed evidentiary support at National Health and Medical Research Council level III-2 level of evidence or above and that were unanimously agreed upon by the review panel to be essential for the clinical management, staging, or assessment of the prognosis of melanoma or fundamental for pathologic diagnosis. Recommended elements were those considered to be clinically important and recommended for good practice but with lesser degrees of supportive evidence. Sixteen core/required data elements for cutaneous melanoma pathology reports were defined (with an additional 4 core/required elements for specimens received with lymph nodes). Eighteen additional data elements with a lesser level of evidentiary support were included in the recommended data set. Consensus response values (permitted responses) were formulated for each data item. Development and agreement of this evidence-based protocol at an international level was accomplished in a timely and efficient manner, and the processes described herein may

  17. The role of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes in invasion and dissemination of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalyk, L.S.; Tsanev, P.E.; Parshikova, S.M.; Demidov, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Preoperative chemo- and radiation therapy was followed by a decrease in lysosomal cathepsins activity in metastatic lymph nodes which, however, did not reach the level established for intact lymph nodes. The pathogenetic role of proteolytic endopeptidases in invasion and sissemination of malignant melanoma is discussed as well as the value of their level measurement for assessing metastatic potential of tumor and prognosis of disease of disease on the basis of tumor site, degree of invasion regional lymph node status

  18. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1995-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  19. [The effect of Angelica sinensis on adhesion, invasion, migration and metastasis of melanoma cells].

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    Gu, Qin; Xu, Jian-ya; Cheng, Luo-gen; Xia, Wei-jun

    2007-03-01

    To study the effect of Angelica sinensis on invasion, adhesion, migration and metastasis of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and discuss its functional mechanism. The proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells was evaluated by MTT assay, adhesion assay and reconstituted basement membrane invasion and migration assay in vitro respectively. Mouse spontaneous melanoma model was used to study the effect of Angelica sinensis on metastasis in vivo. The extract of Angelica sinensis inhibited the proliferation of B16-BL6 metastatic cells and its migration capacity significantly. It regulated bidirectionally the adhesion of B16-BL6 metastatic cells to the basement component laminin while it had no effect on the invasion capacity. In the mouse spotaneous melanoma model, the lung metastatic nodes number and its volume were significantly decreased after continuously treated with the extract of Angelica sinensis at the concentration of 3.67 mg/kg. The extract of Angelica sinensis can inhibit the metastasis of of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism is maybe that Angelica sinensis can inhibit the B16-BL6 cells adhering to the ECM and reduce the migration of B16-BL6 cells.

  20. [Effect of Spatholobus suberctus on adhesion, invasion, migration and metastasis of melanoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ya; Gu, Qin; Xia, Wei-Jun

    2010-10-01

    To study the effect of Spatholobus suberctus, a kind of Chinese Traditional Medicine which can dissolve the stasis by activating the blood circulation, on invasion, adhesion, migration and metastasis of B16-BL6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism. The proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells was evaluated by MTP assay, adhesion assay and reconstituted basement membrane invasion and migration assay in vitro respectively. Mouse spontaneous motility melanoma model was used to study the effect of Spatholobus suberctus on metastasis in vivo. At the highest innoxious concentration, the extracts of Spatholobus suberctus inhibited the adhesion and invasion capacity of B16-BL6 metastatic cells significantly. In the mouse spontaneous melanoma model, the lung metastatic nodes number and its volume were significantly decreased after continuously treated with the extracts of Spatholobus suberctu. The extracts of Spatholobus suberctu can inhibit the metastasis of of B16-BI6 metastatic mouse melanoma cells and its mechanism may be inhibiting the capability of B16-BL6 cells in adhering to the ECM and invading the basement membrane.

  1. The relationship between mitotic rate and depth of invasion in biopsies of malignant melanoma

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    Ghasemi Basir HR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir,1,2 Pedram Alirezaei,2 Sara Ahovan,3 Abbas Moradi3 1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psoriasis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Malignant melanoma of the skin is a potentially lethal neoplasm that generally originates from atypical melanocytes in the dermal–epidermal junction. When the neoplasm penetrates into the dermis, several variables can affect the extent of its spread, among which depth of invasion has the most important prognostic value. Mitotic rate is another prognostic factor that reflects the biological behavior of the neoplasm.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the probable relationship between the depth of invasion of malignant melanoma and its mitotic rate.Materials and methods: This study was performed on 50 excisional biopsy specimens that had received the diagnosis of malignant melanoma histopathologically. Tumor characteristics including Breslow thickness, Clark level, T-stage, and tumor mitotic rate were recorded.Results: We observed that at higher Clark levels and higher T-stages, and the mean mitotic rate was significantly increased. Moreover, there was a positive and significant correlation between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate. We demonstrated that one unit increase in mitotic rate was correlated with 0.8 mm increase in Breslow thickness of the tumor.Conclusion: In malignant melanoma, mitotic activity may probably indicate the depth of tumor invasion. Therefore, in incisional biopsies where depth of invasion cannot be accurately determined, the mitotic activity may be used to estimate Breslow thickness, which is necessary for planning surgical management. Keywords: melanoma, mitosis, Breslow, invasion, thickness, proliferation

  2. The relationship between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma

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    Parvin Rajabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant melanoma is the most invasive cutaneous tumor which is associated with an incredibly high mortality rate. The most reliable histological factors associated with melanoma prognosis are tumor thickness- measured by the Breslow index- and invasion depth- measured by Clark level. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2 gene inhibits p53-dependent apoptosis. An increase in MDM2 expression has been found in many tumors. This study aimed to investigate MDM2 expression and its correlation with tumor thickness and invasion level in malignant melanoma. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated paraffin blocks from 43 randomly selected patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who referred to the main university pathology center in Isfahan, Iran. MDM2 expression rate was assessed via immunohistochemical techniques and hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine tumor thickness and invasion level. Correlations between MDM2 expression and tumor thickness and invasion were analyzed using Spearman′s correlation coefficient in SPSS 17 . Results: The mean age of patients was 61.2 ± 15 years. Men and women constituted 55.8% and 44.2% of the participants, respectively. The rate of MDM2 positivity was 28.9%. MDM2 expression was directly associated with tumor thickness (r = 0.425; p = 0.002 and weakly with invasion level (r = 0.343; p = 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the low MDM2 expression rate observed in this study, direct relationships between MDM2 positivity and tumor thickness and invasion level were identified. MDM2 expression can thus be suggested as a potential new predictive prognostic factor.

  3. lncRNA H19 predicts poor prognosis in patients with melanoma and regulates cell growth, invasion, migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition in melanoma cells

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    Shi G

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaofeng Shi,1,2 Hu Li,2 Fengshan Gao,2 Qian Tan1 1Drum Tower Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Plastic Surgery, the Affiliated Wuxi No 4 People’s Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Melanoma is a deadly malignancy and the poor prognosis of patients with advanced disease is relatively poor. Recent studies indicate that long non-coding RNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. This study aims to investigate the role of the long non-coding RNA H19 in melanoma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: The expression levels of H19 in clinical samples and melanoma cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The cell growth and cell metastasis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit 8, cell invasion and wound healing assays. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels were determined by Western blotting assay. Results: H19 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues compared to normal adjacent skin tissues, and the tissue expression level of H19 from melanoma patients with metastasis was significantly higher than that from patients without distant metastasis. In addition, the high expression of H19 in melanoma tissues was associated with advanced tumor invasion and TNM stage, distal metastasis, lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival in patients with melanoma. The in vitro functional assays showed that knockdown of H19 inhibited cell growth, invasion and migration and also induced cell apoptosis as well as G0/G1 arrest in melanoma cells. Further quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot experiments showed that knockdown of H19 differentially regulated the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT-related gene expressions and reversed EMT in melanoma cell lines. Knockdown of H19 suppressed in vivo tumor growth and modulated the

  4. Melanoma

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    ... cancers in females aged 15 to 29 years old. Tanning-bed use contributes to this. Melanoma: Who ... Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal ...

  5. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate inhibits melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel.

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    Kuwajima, Akiko; Iwashita, Jun; Murata, Jun; Abe, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have anticancer effects. Their effects on expression of cell adhesion molecules might be related to their effects on tumor cell invasion. Murine B16-BL6 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors, butyrate or trichostatin A. Melanoma cell invasion of the artificial basement membrane, Matrigel, was examined by Transwell chamber assay. Butyrate as well as trichostatin A inhibited the cell growth mainly by arresting the cell cycle. The cell invasion of Matrigel was inhibited by butyrate and trichostatin A. The butyrate treatment increased the cell-cell aggregation, although neither E-cadherin nor N-cadherin mRNA were up-regulated. Both mRNA expression and protein levels of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, Mel-CAM and L1-CAM, were increased in the butyrate-treated cells. The HDAC inhibitor butyrate blocked the B16-BL6 melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel, although it increased the expression of Mel-CAM and L1-CAM which are important to the metastatic potential.

  6. Invasion of melanoma cells into dermal connective tissue in vitro: evidence for an important role of cysteine proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennhofer, R.; Kurschat, P.; Zigrino, P.; Klose, A.; Bosserhoff, A.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Krieg, T.; Mauch, C.; Hunzelmann, N.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion of melanoma cells into the dermal connective tissue is a major characteristic in the complex process of metastasis. Proteases play an important role in tumor cell invasion as these enzymes are able to degrade most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus enable cells to

  7. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3high or αvβ3low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3high cells but not in αvβ3low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock

  8. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3 high or αvβ3 low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3 high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3 low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3 high cells but not in αvβ3 low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3 low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3 high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock

  9. Risk of invasive melanoma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercer, Louise K; Askling, Johan; Raaschou, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    -specific general population of each register as reference, age, sex and calendar year standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of invasive histology-confirmed cutaneous melanoma were calculated within each register. Pooled SIR and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing biologic cohorts to biologic-naïve were...... calculated across countries by taking the size of the register into account. RESULTS: Overall 130 315 RA patients with a mean age of 58 years contributing 579 983 person-years were available for the analysis and 287 developed a first melanoma. Pooled SIRs for biologic-naïve, TNFi and rituximab...... with TNF inhibitors (TNFi), other biologic disease modifying drugs and non-biologic therapy. METHODS: Eleven biologic registers from nine European countries participated in this collaborative project. According to predefined exposure definitions, cohorts of patients with RA were selected. Using the country...

  10. miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Sun, Yong [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China); Han, Siqi [Department of Medical Oncology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Haiping, E-mail: zhanghaiping_2000@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi, E-mail: lianshi_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First reported deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in metastatic melanoma. • miR-203 decreased BMI1 expression by directly binding to 3′UTR. • Further found miR-203 overexpression suppressed cell invasion and stemness. • Re-expression of BMI1 rescued miR-203-mediated suppression. • miR-203-BMI1 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma metastasis. - Abstract: Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3′UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis.

  11. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, augments the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic potential of sorafenib in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish C; Diamond, Ariana C; Strickland, Leah R; Kappes, John C; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2016-01-12

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly form of cutaneous neoplasm due to its propensity to metastasize. Oncogenic BRAF drives sustained activation of the BRAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) pathway and cooperates with PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K) signaling to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to cell invasion and metastasis. Therefore, targeting these pathways is a promising preventive/therapeutic strategy. We have shown that fisetin, a flavonoid, reduces human melanoma cell invasion by inhibiting EMT. In addition, fisetin inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth by downregulating the PI3K pathway. In this investigation, we aimed to determine whether fisetin can potentiate the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effects of sorafenib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. We found that combination treatment (fisetin + sorafenib) more effectively reduced the migration and invasion of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells both in vitro and in raft cultures compared to individual agents. Combination treatment also effectively inhibited EMT as observed by a decrease in N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin and an increase in E-cadherin both in vitro and in xenograft tumors. Furthermore, combination therapy effectively inhibited Snail1, Twist1, Slug and ZEB1 protein expression compared to monotherapy. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in xenograft tumors was further reduced in combination treatment compared to individual agents. Bioluminescent imaging of athymic mice, intravenously injected with stably transfected CMV-luciferase-ires-puromycin.T2A.EGFP-tagged A375 melanoma cells, demonstrated fewer lung metastases following combination treatment versus monotherapy. Our findings demonstrate that fisetin potentiates the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effects of sorafenib. Our data suggest that fisetin may be a worthy adjuvant chemotherapy for the management of melanoma.

  12. Quantifying rates of cell migration and cell proliferation in co-culture barrier assays reveals how skin and melanoma cells interact during melanoma spreading and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Parvathi; Penington, Catherine J; McGovern, Jacqui A; McElwain, D L Sean; Simpson, Matthew J

    2017-06-21

    Malignant spreading involves the migration of cancer cells amongst other native cell types. For example, in vivo melanoma invasion involves individual melanoma cells migrating through native skin, which is composed of several distinct subpopulations of cells. Here, we aim to quantify how interactions between melanoma and fibroblast cells affect the collective spreading of a heterogeneous population of these cells in vitro. We perform a suite of circular barrier assays that includes: (i) monoculture assays with fibroblast cells; (ii) monoculture assays with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells; and (iii) a series of co-culture assays initiated with three different ratios of SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and fibroblast cells. Using immunostaining, detailed cell density histograms are constructed to illustrate how the two subpopulations of cells are spatially arranged within the spreading heterogeneous population. Calibrating the solution of a continuum partial differential equation to the experimental results from the monoculture assays allows us to estimate the cell diffusivity and the cell proliferation rate for the melanoma and the fibroblast cells, separately. Using the parameter estimates from the monoculture assays, we then make a prediction of the spatial spreading in the co-culture assays. Results show that the parameter estimates obtained from the monoculture assays lead to a reasonably accurate prediction of the spatial arrangement of the two subpopulations in the co-culture assays. Overall, the spatial pattern of spreading of the melanoma cells and the fibroblast cells is very similar in monoculture and co-culture conditions. Therefore, we find no clear evidence of any interactions other than cell-to-cell contact and crowding effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. miR-137 inhibits the invasion of melanoma cells through downregulation of multiple oncogenic target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chonglin; Tetteh, Paul W; Merz, Patrick R; Dickes, Elke; Abukiwan, Alia; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Sinnberg, Tobias; Schittek, Birgit; Schadendorf, Dirk; Diederichs, Sven; Eichmüller, Stefan B

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have important roles in various types of cancer. Previously, miR-137 was reported to act as a tumor suppressor in different cancers, including malignant melanoma. In this study, we show that low miR-137 expression is correlated with poor survival in stage IV melanoma patients. We identified and validated two genes (c-Met and YB1) as direct targets of miR-137 and confirmed two previously known targets, namely enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Functional studies showed that miR-137 suppressed melanoma cell invasion through the downregulation of multiple target genes. The decreased invasion caused by miR-137 overexpression could be phenocopied by small interfering RNA knockdown of EZH2, c-Met, or Y box-binding protein 1 (YB1). Furthermore, miR-137 inhibited melanoma cell migration and proliferation. Finally, miR-137 induced apoptosis in melanoma cell lines and decreased BCL2 levels. In summary, our study confirms that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in malignant melanoma and reveals that miR-137 regulates multiple targets including c-Met, YB1, EZH2, and MITF.

  14. Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Cellular Migration and Invasion in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fathers, Kelly E

    2007-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII and CrkL) play an important role during cellular signalling by mediating the formation of protein-protein complexes and are involved in cellular migration, invasion, and adhesion...

  15. Role of Crk Adaptor Proteins in Cellular Migration and Invasion in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fathers, Kelly E

    2008-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (CrkI, CrkII and CrkL) play an important role during cellular signalling by mediating the formation of protein-protein complexes and are involved in cellular migration, invasion, and adhesion...

  16. NFIB Mediates BRN2 Driven Melanoma Cell Migration and Invasion Through Regulation of EZH2 and MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell E. Fane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While invasion and metastasis of tumour cells are the principle factor responsible for cancer related deaths, the mechanisms governing the process remain poorly defined. Moreover, phenotypic divergence of sub-populations of tumour cells is known to underpin alternative behaviors linked to tumour progression such as proliferation, survival and invasion. In the context of melanoma, heterogeneity between two transcription factors, BRN2 and MITF, has been associated with phenotypic switching between predominantly invasive and proliferative behaviors respectively. Epigenetic changes, in response to external cues, have been proposed to underpin this process, however the mechanism by which the phenotypic switch occurs is unclear. Here we report the identification of the NFIB transcription factor as a novel downstream effector of BRN2 function in melanoma cells linked to the migratory and invasive characteristics of these cells. Furthermore, the function of NFIB appears to drive an invasive phenotype through an epigenetic mechanism achieved via the upregulation of the polycomb group protein EZH2. A notable target of NFIB mediated up-regulation of EZH2 is decreased MITF expression, which further promotes a less proliferative, more invasive phenotype. Together our data reveal that NFIB has the ability to promote dynamic changes in the chromatin state of melanoma cells to facilitate migration, invasion and metastasis.

  17. 17-AAG inhibits vemurafenib-associated MAP kinase activation and is synergistic with cellular immunotherapy in a murine melanoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sandeep S; Jiang, Shunlin; Unni, Emmanual; Goding, Stephen R; Fan, Tao; Antony, Paul A; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which stabilizes client proteins with important roles in tumor growth. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of HSP90 ATPase activity, occupies the ATP binding site of HSP90 causing a conformational change which destabilizes client proteins and directs them towards proteosomal degradation. Malignant melanomas have active RAF-MEK-ERK signaling which can occur either through an activating mutation in BRAF (BRAFV600E) or through activation of signal transduction upstream of BRAF. Prior work showed that 17-AAG inhibits cell growth in BRAFV600E and BRAF wildtype (BRAFWT) melanomas, although there were conflicting reports about the dependence of BRAFV600E and BRAFWT upon HSP90 activity for stability. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFWT and CRAF are bound by HSP90 in BRAFWT, NRAS mutant melanoma cells. HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth by destabilizing CRAF but not BRAFWT in the majority of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. The highly-selective BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032 (vemurafenib), inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth in mutant BRAF melanoma cells, but paradoxically enhances signaling in cells with wild-type BRAF. In our study, we examined whether 17-AAG could inhibit PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling in BRAFWT melanoma cells. As expected, PLX4032 alone enhanced ERK signaling in the BRAFWT melanoma cell lines Mel-Juso, SK-Mel-2, and SK-Mel-30, and inhibited signaling and cell growth in BRAFV600E A375 cells. However, HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibited PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling and inhibited cell growth by destabilizing CRAF. Surprisingly, 17-AAG also stimulated melanin production in SK-Mel-30 cells and enhanced TYRP1 and DCT expression without stimulating TYR production in all three BRAFWT cell lines studied as well as in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In vivo, the combination of 17-AAG and cellular immunotherapy directed against Tyrp1 enhanced the inhibition of

  18. 17-AAG inhibits vemurafenib-associated MAP kinase activation and is synergistic with cellular immunotherapy in a murine melanoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Emmanual; Goding, Stephen R.; Fan, Tao; Antony, Paul A.; Hornyak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which stabilizes client proteins with important roles in tumor growth. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of HSP90 ATPase activity, occupies the ATP binding site of HSP90 causing a conformational change which destabilizes client proteins and directs them towards proteosomal degradation. Malignant melanomas have active RAF-MEK-ERK signaling which can occur either through an activating mutation in BRAF (BRAFV600E) or through activation of signal transduction upstream of BRAF. Prior work showed that 17-AAG inhibits cell growth in BRAFV600E and BRAF wildtype (BRAFWT) melanomas, although there were conflicting reports about the dependence of BRAFV600E and BRAFWT upon HSP90 activity for stability. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFWT and CRAF are bound by HSP90 in BRAFWT, NRAS mutant melanoma cells. HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth by destabilizing CRAF but not BRAFWT in the majority of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. The highly-selective BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032 (vemurafenib), inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth in mutant BRAF melanoma cells, but paradoxically enhances signaling in cells with wild-type BRAF. In our study, we examined whether 17-AAG could inhibit PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling in BRAFWT melanoma cells. As expected, PLX4032 alone enhanced ERK signaling in the BRAFWT melanoma cell lines Mel-Juso, SK-Mel-2, and SK-Mel-30, and inhibited signaling and cell growth in BRAFV600E A375 cells. However, HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibited PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling and inhibited cell growth by destabilizing CRAF. Surprisingly, 17-AAG also stimulated melanin production in SK-Mel-30 cells and enhanced TYRP1 and DCT expression without stimulating TYR production in all three BRAFWT cell lines studied as well as in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In vivo, the combination of 17-AAG and cellular immunotherapy directed against Tyrp1 enhanced the inhibition of

  19. Invasão do nervo óptico por melanoma peripapilar: relato de caso Optic nerve invasion by juxtapapillary melanoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumores pigmentados localizados sobre o disco óptico são raros e representam desafio diagnóstico. Paciente masculino, 60 anos, apresenta baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo devido à lesão pigmentada que cobre o disco óptico. Foi indicada a enucleação com recusa pelo paciente. O quadro evoluiu com descolamento de retina. Examinado em outro serviço teve indicação de vitrectomia também recusada. Retorna aos nossos cuidados; feita a enucleação o diagnóstico anatomopatológico revelou melanoma maligno da coróide com invasão pós-laminar do nervo óptico. A importância prognóstica da invasão do nervo óptico por melanoma da coróide ainda não está totalmente esclarecida. Embora raro, tumor pigmentado cobrindo o nervo óptico pode representar melanoma maligno. O diagnóstico diferencial destes casos é geralmente difícil, porém seu reconhecimento à ultra-sonografia ocular é patente e descolamento de retina associado é sinal de atividade tumoral. Os riscos de disseminação da doença exigem atenção na suspeita diagnóstica e conduta precisa.Small-pigmented lesions over the optic disc are very rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge. To report a case of a small malignant choroidal melanoma invading the optic nerve. A 60-year-old male presents with low vision in the left eye due to a small, pigmented lesion over the optic disc. At first the patient refused enucleation. One month later, after further drop in visual acuity, the patient was seen at another service, diagnosed as having a retinal detachment, and pars plana vitrectomy was proposed but also refused by the patient. Returning to our service, the eye was enucleated and a final diagnosis of choroidal melanoma with post-laminar optic nerve invasion was made. Although rare, pigmented lesions over the optic disc may represent a malignant melanoma. The prognostic significance of optic nerve invasion by choroidal melanoma is not clear yet. The differential

  20. Wogonin suppresses melanoma cell B16-F10 invasion and migration by inhibiting Ras-medicated pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available The patients diagnosed with melanoma have a bad prognosis for early regional invasion and distant metastases. Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone is one of the active components of flavonoids that extracts from Scutellariae radix. Several previous studies reported that wogonin possesses antitumor effect against leukemia, gastrointestinal cancer and breast cancer. In this study, we used melanoma cell B16-F10 to further investigate the anti-invasive and anti-migratory activity of wogonin. Our date showed that wogonin caused suppression of cell migration, adhesion, invasion and actin remodeling by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and Rac1 in vitro. Wogonin also reduced the number of the tumor nodules on the whole surface of the lung in vivo. Furthermore, the examination of mechanism revealed that wogonin inhibited Extracellular Regulated protein Kinases and Protein Kinase B pathways, which are both medicated by Ras. Insulin-like growth factor-1-induced or tumor necrosis factor-α-induced invasion was also inhibited by wogonin. Therefore, the inhibitory mechanism of melanoma cell invasion by wogonin might be elucidated.

  1. Cellular Blue Nevus Diagnosed following Excision of Melanoma: A Challenge in Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Jonjić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 41-year-old woman with a history of nodular melanoma (NM, associated with an indurated dome-shaped blue-black nodule with a diameter of 1.2 cm in the gluteal region, is presented. Clinical diagnosis of the lesion, present from birth, was blue nevus. Recently, the nodule has been showing a mild enlargement and thus complete resection was performed. Histological analysis revealed a pigmented lesion with an expansive pattern of extension into the dermis and the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The lesion displayed an alveolar pattern as well as a pigmented dendritic cell pattern. The histology was consistent with cellular blue nevus (CBN; however, the history of NM which was excised one year earlier, as well as the clinical information about the slow growing lesion, included a differential diagnosis of CBN, borderline melanocytic tumor, and malignant blue nevus. Additional immunohistochemical (HMB-45, p16, and Ki-67 and molecular (BRAF V600E mutation analyses were performed on both lesions: the CBN-like and the previously excised NM. Along with lesion history and histological analyses, p16 staining and BRAF were useful diagnostic tools for confirming the benign nature of CBN in this case.

  2. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and invasion in A2058 melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villano, C.M.; Murphy, K.A.; Akintobi, A.; White, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a 34% increase in melanoma related mortality in the United States from 1973 to 1992. Although few successful treatments for malignant melanoma exist, it is known that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of melanoma. Excessive UV exposure is considered the main etiological factor in melanoma initiation, however, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to environmental carcinogens contribute to melanoma. We propose that exposure to environmental chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway contribute to melanoma progression, specifically through stimulation of the expression and activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Therefore, we investigated the effect of AhR activation on normal human melanocytes and several melanoma cell lines. The data presented here demonstrate that normal melanocytes and melanoma cells express the AhR and Arnt and are responsive to activation by TCDD. Furthermore, activation of this pathway in transformed melanoma cells (A2058) results in increased expression and activity of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as increased invasion using in vitro invasion assays. Furthermore, TCDD-induced expression of the MMP-1 promoter in melanoma cells appears to require different elements than those required in untransformed cells, indicating that this pathway may have multiple mechanisms for activation of MMP expression

  3. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, simvastatin, lovastatin and mevastatin inhibit proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, Sharon A; O'Sullivan, Dermot; Eustace, Alex J; Clynes, Martin; O'Donovan, Norma

    2008-01-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that cancer incidence rates may be lower in patients receiving statin treatment for hypercholesterolemia. We examined the effects of statin drugs on in vitro proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells. The ability of lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin to inhibit the melanoma cell proliferation was examined using cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. Effects on cell migration and invasion were assessed using transwell invasion and migration chambers. Hypothesis testing was performed using 1-way ANOVA, and Student's t-test. Lovastatin, mevastatin and simvastatin inhibited the growth, cell migration and invasion of HT144, M14 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. The concentrations required to inhibit proliferation of melanoma cells (0.8–2.1 μM) have previously been achieved in a phase I clinical trial of lovastatin in patients with solid tumours, (45 mg/kg/day resulted in peak plasma concentrations of approximately 3.9 μM). Our results suggest that statin treatment is unlikely to prevent melanoma development at standard doses. However, higher doses of statins may have a role to play in adjuvant therapy by inhibiting growth and invasion of melanoma cells

  4. Effects of Mechanical Properties on Tumor Invasion: Insights from a Cellular Model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, YZ

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the regulating mechanism of tumor invasion is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical applications. Previous in vivo experiments have shown that invasive cancer cells dissociate from the primary tumor and invade into the stroma, forming an irregular invasive morphology. Although cell movements involved in tumor invasion are ultimately driven by mechanical forces of cell-cell interactions and tumor-host interactions, how these mechanical properties affect tumor invasion is still poorly understood. In this study, we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the effects of mechanical properties on tumor invasion. We study the effects of cell-cell adhesions as well as the degree of degradation and stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM). Our simulation results show that cell-cell adhesion relationship must be satisfied for tumor invasion. Increased adhesion to ECM and decreased adhesion among tumor cells result in invasive tumor behaviors. When this invasive behavior occurs, ECM plays an important role for both tumor morphology and the shape of invasive cancer cells. Increased stiffness and stronger degree of degradation of ECM promote tumor invasion, generating more aggressive tumor invasive morphologies. It can also generate irregular shape of invasive cancer cells, protruding towards ECM. The capability of our model suggests it a useful tool to study tumor invasion and might be used to propose optimal treatment in clinical applications.

  5. Fisetin inhibits human melanoma cell invasion through promotion of mesenchymal to epithelial transition and by targeting MAPK and NFκB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chandra Pal

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of skin cancer-related deaths. BRAF plays an important role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade in melanoma with activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF occurring in 60-70% of malignant melanomas. The BRAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK pathway is a key regulator of melanoma cell invasion. In addition, activation of NFκB via the MAPK pathway is regulated through MEK-induced activation of IKK. These pathways are potential targets for prevention and treatment of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin, a phytochemical present in fruits and vegetables, on melanoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and delineated the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of multiple human malignant melanoma cell lines with fisetin (5-20 µM resulted in inhibition of cell invasion. BRAF mutated melanoma cells were more sensitive to fisetin treatment, and this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin inhibited the activation of IKK leading to a reduction in the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of MEK1/2 (PD98059 or of NFκB (caffeic acid phenethyl ester also reduced melanoma cell invasion. Furthermore, treatment of fisetin promoted mesenchymal to epithelial transition in melanoma cells, which was associated with a decrease in mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and fibronectin and an increase in epithelial markers (E-cadherin and desmoglein. Employing three dimensional skin equivalents consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded onto a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix, we found that treatment of fisetin reduced the invasive potential of melanoma cells into the dermis and increased the expression of E-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in vimentin. These results indicate that

  6. Fisetin Inhibits Human Melanoma Cell Invasion through Promotion of Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition and by Targeting MAPK and NFκB Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Sharma, Samriti; Strickland, Leah Ray; Katiyar, Santosh K.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of skin cancer-related deaths. BRAF plays an important role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in melanoma with activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF occurring in 60–70% of malignant melanomas. The BRAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is a key regulator of melanoma cell invasion. In addition, activation of NFκB via the MAPK pathway is regulated through MEK-induced activation of IKK. These pathways are potential targets for prevention and treatment of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin, a phytochemical present in fruits and vegetables, on melanoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and delineated the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of multiple human malignant melanoma cell lines with fisetin (5–20 µM) resulted in inhibition of cell invasion. BRAF mutated melanoma cells were more sensitive to fisetin treatment, and this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin inhibited the activation of IKK leading to a reduction in the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of MEK1/2 (PD98059) or of NFκB (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) also reduced melanoma cell invasion. Furthermore, treatment of fisetin promoted mesenchymal to epithelial transition in melanoma cells, which was associated with a decrease in mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and fibronectin) and an increase in epithelial markers (E-cadherin and desmoglein). Employing three dimensional skin equivalents consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded onto a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix, we found that treatment of fisetin reduced the invasive potential of melanoma cells into the dermis and increased the expression of E-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in vimentin. These results indicate that fisetin

  7. The Air Liquid-interface, a Skin Microenvironment, Promotes Growth of Melanoma Cells, but not Their Apoptosis and Invasion, through Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Yee, Chong; Aoki, Shigehisa; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Yamasaki, Fumio; Misago, Noriyuki; Piao, Meihua; Tetsuji, Uemura; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    The air-liquid interface (ALI) is a common microenvironment of the skin, but it is unknown whether the ALI affects melanoma cell behaviors. Using a collagen gel invasion assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blots, here we show that melanoma cell proliferation in cultures with an ALI is higher than melanoma cell proliferation in submerged cultures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake, an indicator of cell proliferation, of melanoma cells at the ALI was about 3 times that of submerged cells, while ALI and submerged melanoma cells had similar levels of single-stranded DNA (a marker of apoptosis). The ALI enhanced the expression of Raf-1, MEK-1 and pERK-1/2 components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, in cells more than the submerged condition did. The increases in BrdU uptake and pERK-1/2 expression promoted by ALI was abolished by the MEK inhibitor, PD-98059. ALI-treated and submerged melanoma cells did not infiltrate into the collagen gel, and they showed no significant difference in the expression of the invasion- and motility-related molecules, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9, laminin 5, and filamin A. Our data indicate that the ALI, a skin microenvironment, accelerates the growth, but not the apoptosis or invasion, of melanoma cells through MAPK activation

  8. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  9. Role of β-catenin signaling in the anti-invasive effect of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Simona; Zinzi, Antonio; Ottes Vasconcelos, Renata; Fasano, Elena; Riillo, Maria Greca; Celleno, Leonardo; Trombino, Sonia; Cassano, Roberta; Calviello, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    We previously found that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid present at high level in fatty fish, inhibited cell growth and induced differentiation of melanoma cells in vitro by increasing nuclear β-catenin content. An anti-neoplastic role of nuclear β-catenin was suggested in melanoma, and related to the presence in the melanocyte lineage of the microphtalmia transcription factor (MITF), which interferes with the transcription of β-catenin/TCF/LEF pro-invasive target genes. In the present work we investigated if DHA could inhibit the invasive potential of melanoma cells, and if this effect could be related to DHA-induced alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including changes in MITF expression. WM115 and WM266-4 human melanoma, and B16-F10 murine melanoma cell lines were used. Cell invasion was evaluated by Wound Healing and Matrigel transwell assays. Protein expression was analyzed by Western Blotting and β-catenin phosphorylation by immunoprecipitation. The role of MITF in the anti-invasive effect of DHA was analyzed by siRNA gene silencing. We found that DHA inhibited anchorage-independent cell growth, reduced their migration/invasion in vitro and down-regulated several Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP: MMP-2, MT1-MMP and MMP-13), known to be involved in melanoma invasion. We related these effects to the β-catenin increased nuclear expression and PKA-dependent phosphorylation, as well as to the increased expression of MITF. The data obtained further support the potential role of dietary DHA as suppressor of melanoma progression to invasive malignancy through its ability to enhance MITF expression and PKA-dependent nuclear β-catenin phosphorylation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Nonlethal Levels of Zeaxanthin Inhibit Cell Migration, Invasion, and Secretion of MMP-2 via NF-κB Pathway in Cultured Human Uveal Melanoma Cells

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    Ming-Chao Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin at nonlethal dosages (3–10 μM significantly inhibited the cell migration of cultured uveal melanoma cells (C918 cell line as determined by wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Matrigel invasion assay showed that cell invasion of uveal melanoma cells could be significantly inhibited by zeaxanthin. Secretion of MMP-2 by melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by zeaxanthin in a dose-dependent manner as measured by ELISA kit. Zeaxanthin also significantly inhibited the NF-κB levels in nuclear extracts of the UM cells, which is the upstream of the MMP-2 secretion. These results suggest that zeaxanthin might be a potentially therapeutic approach in the prevention of metastasis in uveal melanoma.

  11. Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Melanoma in Denmark From 1985 Through 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helvind, Neel Maria; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Smith, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    in melanoma incidence. Results may indicate the importance of secondary melanoma prevention in Denmark. Future efforts could intensify primary prevention aimed at young adults, adolescents, and children and maintain and target secondary prevention at the population older than 60 years........0% to -2.6%] in men and -3.4% [-4.0% to -2.8%] in women). More proximal tumor location occurred over time (P defined by codes...

  12. Minimally invasive liver resection to obtain tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Downing Melissa M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoptive cell therapy (ACT with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL in patients with metastatic melanoma has been reported to have a 56% overall response rate with 20% complete responders. To increase the availability of this promising therapy in patients with advanced melanoma, a minimally invasive approach to procure tumor for TIL generation is warranted. Methods A feasibility study was performed to determine the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic liver resection to generate TIL for ACT. Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified 22 patients with advanced melanoma and visceral metastasis (AJCC Stage M1c who underwent laparoscopic liver resection between 1 October 2005 and 31 July 2011. The indication for resection in all patients was to receive postoperative ACT with TIL. Results Twenty patients (91% underwent resection utilizing a closed laparoscopic technique, one required hand-assistance and another required conversion to open resection. Median intraoperative blood loss was 100 mL with most cases performed without a Pringle maneuver. Median hospital stay was 3 days. Three (14% patients experienced a complication from resection with no mortality. TIL were generated from 18 of 22 (82% patients. Twelve of 15 (80% TIL tested were found to have in vitro tumor reactivity. Eleven patients (50% received the intended ACT. Two patients were rendered no evidence of disease after surgical resection, with one undergoing delayed ACT with generated TIL after relapse. Objective tumor response was seen in 5 of 11 patients (45% who received TIL, with one patient experiencing an ongoing complete response (32+ months. Conclusions Laparoscopic liver resection can be performed with minimal morbidity and serve as an effective means to procure tumor to generate therapeutic TIL for ACT to patients with metastatic melanoma.

  13. Genistein suppresses adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1998-07-03

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation occurs as one of the earlier events in cancer cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction. With immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, genistein was found to suppress the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins located at the cell periphery, including a 125 kDa protein, when B16-BL6 melanoma cells attached to and interacted with ECM. When accompanied by the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, the invasive potential of B16-BL6 cells through reconstituted basement membrane was decreased significantly. However, neither adhesive capability nor cell growth was significantly affected by genistein. Therefore, the interruption of cancer cell-ECM interaction by suppression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to invasion prevention of genistein.

  14. miR-125b induces cellular senescence in malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, Anne Marie; Lerche, Catharina M; Manfé, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    transfected melanoma cell line Mel-Juso and then investigated the effect of the presence of a stable overexpression of miR-125b on growth by western blotting, flow cytometry and β-galactosidase staining. The tumourogenicity of the transfected cells was tested using a murine model and the tumours were further...... examined with in-situ-hybridization. RESULTS: In primary human tumours and in lymph node metastases increased expression of miR-125b was found in single, large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. A stable overexpression of miR-125b in human melanoma cell line Mel-Juso resulted in a G0/G1 cell cycle block...... and emergence of large cells expressing senescence markers: senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p21, p27 and p53. Mel-Juso cells overexpressing miR-125b were tumourigenic in mice, but the tumours exhibited higher level of cell senescence and decreased expression of proliferation markers, cyclin D1 and Ki...

  15. Burden of Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Holterhues (Cynthia)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. More than 95% of all melanomas occur in the skin, but rarely in the pigmented cells of the eye, meninges or mucosa. This thesis will only regard the invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas.

  16. In vivo overexpression of tumstatin domains by tumor cells inhibits their invasive properties in a mouse melanoma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasco, Sylvie; Ramont, Laurent; Venteo, Lydie; Pluot, Michel; Maquart, Francois-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a synthetic peptide encompassing residues 185-203 of the noncollagenous (NC1) domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen, named tumstatin, inhibits in vitro melanoma cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, B16F1 melanoma cells were stably transfected to overexpress the complete tumstatin domain (Tum 1-232) or its C-terminal part, encompassing residues 185-203 (Tum 183-232). Tumstatin domain overexpression inhibited B16F1 in vitro cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasive properties. For studying the in vivo effect of overexpression, representative clones were subcutaneously injected into the left side of C57BL6 mice. In vivo tumor growth was decreased by -60% and -56%, respectively, with B16F1 cells overexpressing Tum 1-232 or Tum 183-232 compared to control cells. This inhibitory effect was associated with a decrease of in vivo cyclin D1 expression. We also demonstrated that the overexpression of Tum 1-232 or Tum 183-232 induced an in vivo down-regulation of proteolytic cascades involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially the production or activation of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, as well as MMP-14. The plasminogen activation system was also altered in tumors with a decrease of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and a strong increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumstatin or its C-terminal antitumor fragment, Tum 183-232, inhibits in vivo melanoma progression by triggering an intracellular transduction pathway, which involves a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent mechanism

  17. Investigating the role of melanin in UVA/UVB- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalwell, Helen; Latimer, Jennifer; Haywood, Rachel M; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer incidence is dramatically increasing worldwide, with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) a predominant factor. The UVA component initiates oxidative stress in human skin, although its exact role in the initiation of skin cancer, particularly malignant melanoma, remains unclear and is controversial because there is evidence for a melanin-dependent mechanism in UVA-linked melanoma studies. Nonpigmented (CHL-1, A375), moderately pigmented (FM55, SKmel23), and highly pigmented (FM94, hyperpigmented FM55) human melanoma cell lines have been used to investigate UVA-induced production of reactive oxygen species using FACS analysis, at both the cellular (dihydrorhodamine-123) and the mitochondrial (MitoSOX) level, where most cellular stress is generated. For the first time, downstream mtDNA damage (utilizing a quantitative long-PCR assay) has been investigated. Using UVA, UVB, and H(2)O(2) as cellular stressors, we have explored the dual roles of melanin as a photoprotector and photosensitizer. The presence of melanin has no influence over cellular oxidative stress generation, whereas, in contrast, melanin protects against mitochondrial superoxide generation and mtDNA damage (one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's analysis, Pmelanin binds directly to DNA, it acts as a direct photosensitizer of mtDNA damage during UVA irradiation (Pmelanin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Profiling of ABC transporters ABCB5, ABCF2 and nestin-positive stem cells in nevi, in situ and invasive melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Abbas, Ossama; Sousa, Yessica; Garb, Jane L; Mahalingam, Meera

    2012-08-01

    Distinct ABCB5 forms and ABCF2, members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, are normally expressed in various tissues and cells, and enhanced expression of both has been demonstrated in select cancers. In melanoma cell lines, gene expression profiling of ABC transporters has revealed enhanced expression of melanocyte-specific ABCB5 and ABCF2 proteins. Given this, our primary aim was to ascertain immunohistochemical expression of the ABC transporters ABCB5 and ABCF2 and, the stem cell marker, nestin in a spectrum of benign and malignant nevomelanocytic proliferations, including nevi (n=30), in situ (n=31) and invasive (n=24) primary cutaneous melanomas to assess their role in the stepwise development of malignancy. In addition, their expression was compared with established melanoma prognosticators to ascertain their utility as independent prognosticators. A semiquantitative scoring system was utilized by deriving a cumulative score (based on percentage positivity cells and intensity of expression) and statistical analyses was carried out using analysis of variance with linear contrasts. Mean cumulative score in nevi, in situ and invasive melanoma were as follows: 3.8, 4.4 and 5.3 for ABCB5, respectively (P1, after controlling for the presence of ulceration and mitotic activity, the expression of both proteins did not significantly correlate with known melanoma prognosticators. The gradual increase in the expression of ABCB5 from benign nevus to in situ to invasive melanoma suggests that it plays a role in melanomagenesis. On the basis of our findings, a prospective study with follow-up data is required to ascertain the utility of ABCB5 as a therapeutic target.

  19. Characterisation of Human Keratinocytes by Measuring Cellular Repair Capacity of UVB-Induced DNA Damage and Monitoring of Cytogenetic Changes in Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greinert, R.; Breibart, E.W.; Mitchell, D.; Smida, J.; Volkmer, B

    2000-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms for UV-induced photocarcinogenesis are far from being understood in detail, especially in the case of malignant melanoma of the skin. Nevertheless, it is known that deficiencies in cellular repair processes of UV-induced DNA damage (e.g. in the case of Xeroderma pigmentosum) represent important aetiological factors in the multistep development of skin cancer. The repair kinetics have therefore been studied of an established skin cell line (HaCaT), primary human keratinocytes, melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Our data show a high degree of interindividual variability in cellular repair capacity for UV-induced DNA lesions, which might be due to individual differences in the degree of tolerable damage and/or the onsets of saturation of the enzymatic repair system. The cytogenetic analysis of melanoma cell lines, using spectral karyotyping (SKY) furthermore proves that malignant melanoma of the skin are characterised by high numbers of chromosomal aberrations. (author)

  20. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubina, Kseniya A.; Surkova, Ekaterina I.; Semina, Ekaterina V.; Sysoeva, Veronika Y.; Kalinina, Natalia I.; Poliakov, Alexei A.; Treshalina, Helena M.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2015-01-01

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate that T-cadherin overexpression leads to the increase in the expression of anti-angiogenic molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells

  1. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubina, Kseniya A., E-mail: rkseniya@mail.ru; Surkova, Ekaterina I.; Semina, Ekaterina V.; Sysoeva, Veronika Y.; Kalinina, Natalia I. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Poliakov, Alexei A. [Division of Developmental Neurobiology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Treshalina, Helena M. [Federal State Budgetary Scietific Institution «N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center» (FSBSI “N.N.Blokhin RCRC”), Kashirskoe Shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tkachuk, Vsevolod A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky av., 31/5, Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-21

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate that T-cadherin overexpression leads to the increase in the expression of anti-angiogenic molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  2. T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya A. Rubina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored member of the cadherin superfamily involved in the guidance of migrating cells. We have previously shown that in vivo T-cadherin overexpression leads to increased melanoma primary tumor growth due to the recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as the enhanced metastasis. Since tumor progression is highly dependent upon cell migration and invasion, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of T-cadherin participation in these processes. Herein we show that T-cadherin expression results in the increased invasive potential due to the upregulated expression of pro-oncogenic integrins, chemokines, adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix components. The detected increase in chemokine expression could be responsible for the stromal cell recruitment. At the same time our previous data demonstrated that T-cadherin expression inhibited neoangiogenesis in the primary tumors. We demonstrate molecules and reduction in pro-angiogenic factors. Thus, T-cadherin plays a dual role in melanoma growth and progression: T-cadherin expression results in anti-angiogenic effects in melanoma, however, this also stimulates transcription of genes responsible for migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  3. MicroRNA-9 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via targeting NRP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dan Xu,1 Xiaofeng Chen,2 Quanyong He,1 Chengqun Luo1 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the gene expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNA, thus resulting in mRNA degradation or translational repression. miR-9 has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development and progression of malignant melanoma (MM, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-9 in the malignant phenotypes of MM still remains largely unknown. In this study, a total of 73 pairs of MM tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of miR-9. MTT assay, wound healing assay, and transwell assay were conducted to determine the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting relationship between miR-9 and NRP1. Our data demonstrated that miR-9 expression was significantly downregulated in MM tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. The decreased miR-9 level was significantly associated with the tumor stage and metastasis of MM. We also found that the expression level of miR-9 was decreased in MM cell lines (G361, B16, A375, and HME1 compared with normal skin HACAT cells. Ectopic expression of miR-9 led to a significant decrease in the ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion in A375 cells. NRP1 was further identified as a direct target gene of miR-9, and the protein expression of NRP1 was negatively regulated by miR-9 in A375 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NRP1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-9 on the malignant phenotypes of A375 cells. In vivo study revealed that miR-9

  4. A Fork in the Road: The Effects of Different Cellular Pathways on Melanoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most deadly forms of cancer because of its high capacity to metastasize and because there are few treatments effective in stopping its progression. The extensive body of research on melanoma has identified several important protein mutations that contribute to development of the disease. One of these proteins, Ras, is mutated in 25 percent of

  5. Potential ability of hot water adzuki (Vigna angularis) extracts to inhibit the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Umekawa, Hayato; Furuichi, Yukio

    2005-03-01

    The 40% ethanol eluent of the fraction of hot-water extract from adzuki beans (EtEx.40) adsorbed onto DIAION HP-20 resin has many biological activities, for example, antioxidant, antitumorigenesis, and intestinal alpha-glucosidase suppressing activities. This study examined the inhibitory effect of EtEx.40 on experimental lung metastasis and the invasion of B16-BL6 melanoma cells. EtEx.40 was found significantly to reduce the number of tumor colonies. It also inhibited the adhesion and migration of B16-BL6 melanoma cells into extracellular matrix components and their invasion into reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel) without affecting cell proliferation in vitro. These in vivo data suggest that EtEx.40 possesses a strong antimetastatic ability, which might be a lead compound in functional food development.

  6. Melanoma cells revive an embryonic transcriptional network to dictate phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Niels; Berx, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the overwhelming amount of literature describing how epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors orchestrate cellular plasticity in embryogenesis and epithelial cells, the functions of these factors in non-epithelial contexts, such as melanoma, are less clear. Melanoma is an aggressive tumor arising from melanocytes, endowed with unique features of cellular plasticity. The reversible phenotype-switching between differentiated and invasive phenotypes is increasingly appreciated as a mechanism accounting for heterogeneity in melanoma and is driven by oncogenic signaling and environmental cues. This phenotypic switch is coupled with an intriguing and somewhat counterintuitive signaling switch of EMT-inducing transcription factors. In contrast to carcinomas, different EMT-inducing transcription factors have antagonizing effects in melanoma. Balancing between these different EMT transcription factors is likely the key to successful metastatic spread of melanoma.

  7. Confocal fluorescence microscopy for rapid evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity of inflammatory breast carcinoma core needle biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Kyrish, Matthew; Benveniste, Ana Paula; Yang, Wei; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Tissue sampling is a problematic issue for inflammatory breast carcinoma, and immediate evaluation following core needle biopsy is needed to evaluate specimen adequacy. We sought to determine if confocal fluorescence microscopy provides sufficient resolution to evaluate specimen adequacy by comparing invasive tumor cellularity estimated from standard histologic images to invasive tumor cellularity estimated from confocal images of breast core needle biopsy specimens. Grayscale confocal fluorescence images of breast core needle biopsy specimens were acquired following proflavine application. A breast-dedicated pathologist evaluated invasive tumor cellularity in histologic images with hematoxylin and eosin staining and in grayscale and false-colored confocal images of cores. Agreement between cellularity estimates was quantified using a kappa coefficient. 23 cores from 23 patients with suspected inflammatory breast carcinoma were imaged. Confocal images were acquired in an average of less than 2 min per core. Invasive tumor cellularity estimated from histologic and grayscale confocal images showed moderate agreement by kappa coefficient: κ = 0.48 ± 0.09 (p confocal images require less than 2 min for acquisition and allow for evaluation of invasive tumor cellularity in breast core needle biopsy specimens with moderate agreement to histologic images. We show that confocal fluorescence microscopy can be performed immediately following specimen acquisition and could indicate the need for additional biopsies at the initial visit.

  8. PAX2 regulates ADAM10 expression and mediates anchorage-independent cell growth of melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Boyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PAX transcription factors play an important role during development and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated PAX2 protein levels in melanocytes and melanoma cells by Western Blot and immunofluorescence analysis and characterized the role of PAX2 in the pathogenesis of melanoma. In vitro we found weak PAX2 protein expression in keratinocytes and melanocytes. Compared to melanocytes increased PAX2 protein levels were detectable in melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, in tissue sections of melanoma patients nuclear PAX2 expression strongly correlated with nuclear atypia and the degree of prominent nucleoli, indicating an association of PAX2 with a more atypical cellular phenotype. In addition, with chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PAX2 overexpression and PAX2 siRNA we present compelling evidence that PAX2 can regulate ADAM10 expression, a metalloproteinase known to play important roles in melanoma metastasis. In human tissue samples we found co-expression of PAX2 and ADAM10 in melanocytes of benign nevi and in melanoma cells of patients with malignant melanoma. Importantly, the downregulation of PAX2 by specific siRNA inhibited the anchorage independent cell growth and decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of melanoma cells. Furthermore, the downregulation of PAX2 abrogated the chemoresistance of melanoma cells against cisplatin, indicating that PAX2 expression mediates cell survival and plays important roles during melanoma progression.

  9. Loss of Cdh1 and Pten Accelerates Cellular Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in the Mouse Uterus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E.; Stodden, Genna R.; King, Mandy L.; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1d/d Ptend/d) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice died at Postnatal Days 15–19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death. PMID:23740945

  10. Loss of CDH1 and Pten accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis in the mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E; Stodden, Genna R; King, Mandy L; MacLean, James A; Mann, Jordan L; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-07-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d)) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice died at Postnatal Days 15-19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death.

  11. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai; Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning; Boehm, Beate; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Dummer, Reinhard; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Gutwein, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. → ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. → TGF-β can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. → Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. → Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ and TGF-β downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  12. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  13. Cytoplasmic BRMS1 expression in malignant melanoma is associated with increased disease-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipicevic Ana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/aims Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1 blocks metastasis in melanoma xenografts; however, its usefulness as a biomarker in human melanomas has not been widely studied. The goal was to measure BRMS1 expression in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanomas and evaluate its impact on disease progression and prognosis. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue from 155 primary melanomas, 69 metastases and 15 nevi was examined for BRMS1 expression using immunohistochemistry. siRNA mediated BRMS1 down-regulation was used to study impact on invasion and migration in melanoma cell lines. Results A significantly higher percentage of nevi (87%, compared to primary melanomas (20% and metastases (48%, expressed BRMS1 in the nucelus (p Waf1/Cip1 (p = 0.009. Cytoplasmic score index was inversely associated with nuclear p-Akt (p = 0.013 and positively associated with cytoplasmic p-ERK1/2 expression (p = 0.033. Nuclear BRMS1 expression in ≥ 10% of primary melanoma cells was associated with thicker tumors (p = 0.016 and decreased relapse-free period (p = 0.043. Nuclear BRMS1 was associated with expression of fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7; p = 0.011, a marker of invasion in melanomas. In line with this, repression of BRMS1 expression reduced the ability of melanoma cells to migrate and invade in vitro. Conclusion Our data suggest that BRMS1 is localized in cytoplasm and nucleus of melanocytic cells and that cellular localization determines its in vivo effect. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic BRMS1 restricts melanoma progression while nuclear BRMS1 possibly promotes melanoma cell invasion. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/19

  14. Endocytic vesicle rupture is a conserved mechanism of cellular invasion by amyloid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, William P; Bousset, Luc; Green, Zachary C; Chu, Yaping; Skarpathiotis, Stratos; Chaney, Michael J; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Melki, Ronald; Campbell, Edward M

    2017-10-01

    Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis. We observe that the ability to induce vesicle rupture is a common feature of α-synuclein (α-syn) assemblies, as assemblies derived from WT or familial disease-associated mutant α-syn all exhibited the ability to induce vesicle rupture. Similarly, different conformational strains of WT α-syn assemblies, but not monomeric or oligomeric forms, efficiently induced vesicle rupture following endocytosis. The ability to induce vesicle rupture was not specific to α-syn, as amyloid assemblies of tau and huntingtin Exon1 with pathologic polyglutamine repeats also exhibited the ability to induce vesicle rupture. We also observe that vesicles ruptured by α-syn are positive for the autophagic marker LC3 and can accumulate and fuse into large, intracellular structures resembling Lewy bodies in vitro. Finally, we show that the same markers of vesicle rupture surround Lewy bodies in brain sections from PD patients. These data underscore the importance of this conserved endocytic vesicle rupture event as a damaging mechanism of cellular invasion by amyloid assemblies of multiple neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, and suggest that proteinaceous inclusions such as Lewy bodies form as a consequence of continued fusion of autophagic vesicles in cells unable to degrade ruptured vesicles and their amyloid contents.

  15. Primary malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferhat Mısır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas (MM of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period.

  16. Targeting antisense mitochondrial ncRNAs inhibits murine melanoma tumor growth and metastasis through reduction in survival and invasion factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos-González, Lorena; Silva, Verónica; Araya, Mariela; Restovic, Franko; Echenique, Javiera; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Briones, Macarena; Villegas, Jaime; Villota, Claudio; Vidaurre, Soledad; Borgna, Vincenzo; Socias, Miguel; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Lopez, Constanza; Socias, Teresa; Varas, Manuel; Díaz, Jorge; Burzio, Luis O; Burzio, Verónica A

    2016-09-06

    We reported that knockdown of the antisense noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ASncmtRNAs) induces apoptotic death of several human tumor cell lines, but not normal cells, suggesting this approach for selective therapy against different types of cancer. In order to translate these results to a preclinical scenario, we characterized the murine noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs) and performed in vivo knockdown in syngeneic murine melanoma models. Mouse ncmtRNAs display structures similar to the human counterparts, including long double-stranded regions arising from the presence of inverted repeats. Knockdown of ASncmtRNAs with specific antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduces murine melanoma B16F10 cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro through downregulation of pro-survival and metastasis markers, particularly survivin. For in vivo studies, subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors in C57BL/6 mice were treated systemically with specific and control antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). For metastasis studies, tumors were resected, followed by systemic administration of ASOs and the presence of metastatic nodules in lungs and liver was assessed. Treatment with specific ASO inhibited tumor growth and metastasis after primary tumor resection. In a metastasis-only assay, mice inoculated intravenously with cells and treated with the same ASO displayed reduced number and size of melanoma nodules in the lungs, compared to controls. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNAs could be potent targets for melanoma therapy. To our knowledge, the ASncmtRNAs are the first potential non-nuclear targets for melanoma therapy.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela P. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs. Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique

  18. Expression of human papilloma virus type 16 E5 protein in amelanotic melanoma cells regulates endo-cellular pH and restores tyrosinase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coccia Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanin synthesis, the elective trait of melanocytes, is regulated by tyrosinase activity. In tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas this rate limiting enzyme is inactive because of acidic endo-melanosomal pH. The E5 oncogene of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 is a small transmembrane protein with a weak transforming activity and a role during the early steps of viral infections. E5 has been shown to interact with 16 kDa subunit C of the trans-membrane Vacuolar ATPase proton pump ultimately resulting in its functional suppressions. However, the cellular effects of such an interaction are still under debate. With this work we intended to explore whether the HPV16 E5 oncoprotein does indeed interact with the vacuolar ATPase proton pump once expressed in intact human cells and whether this interaction has functional consequences on cell metabolism and phenotype. Methods The expression of the HPV16-E5 oncoproteins was induced in two Tyrosinase-positive amelanotic melanomas (the cell lines FRM and M14 by a retroviral expression construct. Modulation of the intracellular pH was measured with Acridine orange and fluorescence microscopy. Expression of tyrosinase and its activity was followed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and enzyme assay. The anchorage-independence growth and the metabolic activity of E5 expressing cells were also monitored. Results We provide evidence that in the E5 expressing cells interaction between E5 and V-ATPase determines an increase of endo-cellular pH. The cellular alkalinisation in turn leads to the post-translational activation of tyrosinase, melanin synthesis and phenotype modulation. These effects are associated with an increased activation of tyrosine analogue anti-blastic drugs. Conclusion Once expressed within intact human cells the HPV16-E5 oncoprotein does actually interact with the vacuolar V-ATPase proton pump and this interaction induces a number of functional effects. In amelanotic melanomas these

  19. Casticin Inhibits A375.S2 Human Melanoma Cell Migration/Invasion through Downregulating NF-κB and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zih-Yun Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Casticin is one of the main components from Fructus Viticis, which is widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The mechanism of how casticin affects melanoma cell migration and invasion is still not well known. Here we studied the anti-metastasis effects of casticin on A375.S2 melanoma cells by using a non-lethal concentration. First; we used an adhesion assay to test the A375.S2 cells’ adhesion ability after treatment with casticin. We next investigated the cell migration ability after casticin treatment by using a wound healing assay to prove that the migration of A375.S2 cells can be inhibited by casticin and double checked the results using the transwell-migration assay. The suppressive effects on matrix metalloproteinase-2; and -9 (MMP-2; and -9 activities were examined by gelatin zymography. Furthermore, western blotting was used to investigate the protein level changes in A375.S2 cells. We found that p-EGFR; Ras and p-ERK1/2 are decreased by casticin, indicating that casticin can down-regulate the migration and invasion ability of A375.S2 cells via the p-EGFR/Ras/p-ERK pathway. The NF-κB p65 and p-ERK levels in nuclear proteins are also decreased by treatment with casticin. An EMSA assay also discovered that the NF-κB p65 and DNA interaction is decreased. NF-κB p65 protein level was examined by immunofluorescence staining and also decreased. Our findings suggest that casticin has anti-metastatic potential by decreasing the invasiveness of A375.S2 cells. We also found that casticin suppressed A375.S2 cell proliferation and cell adhesion ability, but did not affect cell death, as examined using cytometry and a collagen adhesion assay. Based on these observations, casticin could be used as an inhibitor of migration and invasion of human melanoma cells in the future.

  20. siRNA - Mediated LRP/LR knock-down reduces cellular viability of malignant melanoma cells through the activation of apoptotic caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Thalia M; Vania, Leila; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2018-07-01

    The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is over-expressed in tumor cells and has been implicated in several tumourigenic processes such as metastasis and telomerase activation, however, more importantly the focus of the present study is on the maintenance of cellular viability and the evasion of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (A375) and late stage (A375SM) malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that A375SM cells contain more cell-surface and total LRP/LR levels in comparison to the A375 cells, respectively. In order to determine the effect of LRP/LR on cell viability and apoptosis, LRP was down-regulated via siRNA technology. MTT assays revealed that LRP knock-down led to significant reductions in the viability of A375 and A375SM cells. Confocal microscopy indicated nuclear morphological changes suggestive of apoptotic induction in both cell lines and Annexin-V FITC/PI assays confirmed this observation. Additionally, caspase-3 activity assays revealed that apoptosis was induced in both cell lines after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of LRP. Caspase-8 and -9 activity assays suggested that post LRP knock-down; A375 cells undergo apoptosis solely via the extrinsic pathway, while A375SM cells undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway. siRNAs mediated LRP knock-down might represent a powerful alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma through the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Noscapinoids bearing silver nanocrystals augmented drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1, mouse melanoma skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Naina; Jyoti, Kiran; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2017-06-01

    Noscapine (Nos) and reduced brominated analogue of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos) prevent cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs. However, owing to poor physicochemical properties, Nos and Red-Br-Nos have demonstrated their anticancer activity at higher and multiple doses. Therefore, in present investigation, silver nanocrystals of noscapinoids (Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals) were customized to augment drug delivery, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cellular uptake in B16F1 mouse melanoma cancer cells. Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals were prepared separately by precipitation method. The mean particle size of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was measured to be 25.33±3.52nm, insignificantly (P>0.05) different from 27.43±4.51nm of Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals. Furthermore, zeta-potential of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals was determined to be -25.3±3.11mV significantly (Pcellular uptake. The Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals exhibited an IC 50 of 16.6μM and 6.5μM, significantly (Pcellular morphological alterations in B16F1 cells upon internalization of Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals provided the evidences for accumulation within membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles and in enlarged lysosomes and thus triggered mitochondria mediated apoptosis via caspase activation. Preliminary investigations substantiated that Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals and Red-Br-Nos-Ag 2+ nanocrystals must be further explored and utilized for the delivery of noscapinoids to melanoma cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Mechanical Properties on Tumor Invasion: Insights from a Cellular Model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, YZ; Naveed, H; Liang, J; Xu, LX

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the regulating mechanism of tumor invasion is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical applications. Previous in vivo experiments have shown that invasive cancer cells dissociate from the primary tumor

  3. Quercetin inhibits the invasion of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Huang, Shao-Peng; Xu, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the invasion of melanoma B16-BL6 cells previously reported by us, the mechanisms of quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion were further investigated in the present study. The ability of B16-BL6 cells to invade and migrate was evaluated in terms of the numbers of cells penetrating a reconstituted basement membrane in the Transwell coculture system. The relative levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 were determined by gelatin zymography and quantified using LabWorks 4.0 software. The quercetin-mediated inhibition of invasion was partially blocked by phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDB), a PKC (protein kinase C) activator, and by doxorubicin, a PKC inhibitor. Only the proforms of MMP-9 (92 kDa) and MMP-2 (72 kDa) were detected by gelatin zymography. Quercetin dose-dependently decreased the gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9. Doxorubicin also markedly reversed the quercetin-induced decrease. Quercetin showed a dose-dependent antagonism of increases in gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 induced by PDB and free fatty acid (another PKC activator). Together with the report that quercetin directly reduces PKC activity, the results reported here suggest that quercetin may inhibit the invasion of B16-BL6 cells by decreasing pro-MMP-9 via the PKC pathway.

  4. Ligand-directed targeting of lymphatic vessels uncovers mechanistic insights in melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Dawn R; Dobroff, Andrey S; Proneth, Bettina; Zurita, Amado J; Salameh, Ahmad; Dondossola, Eleonora; Makino, Jun; Bologa, Cristian G; Smith, Tracey L; Yao, Virginia J; Calderone, Tiffany L; O'Connell, David J; Oprea, Tudor I; Kataoka, Kazunori; Cahill, Dolores J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-02-24

    Metastasis is the most lethal step of cancer progression in patients with invasive melanoma. In most human cancers, including melanoma, tumor dissemination through the lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis. Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between melanoma cells and lymphatic vessels are unknown. Here, we developed an unbiased approach based on molecular mimicry to identify specific receptors that mediate lymphatic endothelial-melanoma cell interactions and metastasis. By screening combinatorial peptide libraries directly on afferent lymphatic vessels resected from melanoma patients during sentinel lymphatic mapping and lymph node biopsies, we identified a significant cohort of melanoma and lymphatic surface binding peptide sequences. The screening approach was designed so that lymphatic endothelium binding peptides mimic cell surface proteins on tumor cells. Therefore, relevant metastasis and lymphatic markers were biochemically identified, and a comprehensive molecular profile of the lymphatic endothelium during melanoma metastasis was generated. Our results identified expression of the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit A, α-isoform (PPP2R1A) on the cell surfaces of both melanoma cells and lymphatic endothelial cells. Validation experiments showed that PPP2R1A is expressed on the cell surfaces of both melanoma and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro as well as independent melanoma patient samples. More importantly, PPP2R1A-PPP2R1A homodimers occur at the cellular level to mediate cell-cell interactions at the lymphatic-tumor interface. Our results revealed that PPP2R1A is a new biomarker for melanoma metastasis and show, for the first time to our knowledge, an active interaction between the lymphatic vasculature and melanoma cells during tumor progression.

  5. Meningeal Melanomas Associated With Transforming Ota Nevus to Malignant Melanoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial invasion of cellular blue nevus (CBN from the skin is extremely rare and such a condition with malignant transformation is even rarer.A case of meningeal melanoma with malignant transformation which was derived from an Ota   nevus is presented in this report.   A21-year-old man with a neurocutaneous syndrome since childhood was referred with headache and mild left hemiparesia. CT scan and MRI demonstrated intracranial lesions and conjunctival biopsy leads to the pathologic diagnosis of blue nevus.Thereafter his parietal lesion was operated by craniotomy with total gross excision.On histopathological examination, diagnosis of malignant melanoma was confirmed.Approximately 2 months after radiotherapy and chemotherapy, he afflicted to diplopia and blurred vision on the leftside due to enlargement of orbital and cavernous sinus lesion. Following one year follow-up,he was survived and thrived with diffuse leptomeningeal nodular enhancement in favor of melanoma dissemination.Primary intracranial melanomas are though rare, but it should be suspected especially in the presence of periorbital blue nevus or nevus of Ota. Moreover, although CBN is considered benign, scalp or periorbital CBN has the potential for intracranial invasion and malignant ransformation.

  6. Tumour volume response, initial cell kill and cellular repopulation in B16 melanoma treated with cyclophosphamide and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T. C.; Peacock, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between tumour volume response and cell kill in B16 melanoma following treatment in vivo with cyclophosphamide (CY) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) was investigated. Tumour volume response, expressed as growth delay, was estimated from measurements of tumour dimensions. Depression of in vitro colony-forming ability of cells from treated tumours was used as the measure of tumour cell kill. The relationship between these parameters was clearly different for the two agents studied. CY produced more growth delay (7.5 days) per decade of tumour cell kill than CCNU (2 to 3.5 days). The possibility that this was due to a technical artefact was rejected in favour of an alternative explanation that different rates of cellular repopulation in tumours treated with CY and CCNU might be responsible. Cellular repopulation was measured directly, by performing cell-survival assays at various times after treatment with doses of CY and CCNU which produced about 3 decades of cell kill. The rate of repopulation by clonogenic cells was much slower after treatment with CY than with CCNU, and this appears to account for the longer duration of the growth delay obtained with CY. PMID:921888

  7. The antimicrobial peptide nisin Z induces selective toxicity and apoptotic cell death in cultured melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewies, Angélique; Wentzel, Johannes Frederik; Miller, Hayley Christy; Du Plessis, Lissinda Hester

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anticancer therapies. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the anti-melanoma potential of the antimicrobial peptide, nisin Z, was evaluated in vitro. Nisin Z was shown to induce selective toxicity in melanoma cells compared to non-malignant keratinocytes. Furthermore, nisin Z was shown to negatively affect the energy metabolism (glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of melanoma cells, increase reactive oxygen species generation and cause apoptosis. Results also indicate that nisin Z can decrease the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells demonstrating its potential use against metastasis associated with melanoma. As nisin Z seems to place a considerable extra burden on the energy metabolism of melanoma cells, combination therapies with known anti-melanoma agents may be effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  9. Downregulation of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM/CD146) Accelerates Cellular Senescence in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ji Hye; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Yun Kyung; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating various diseases have increased in recent years. To ensure that treatment is effective, an adequate MSC dosage should be determined before these cells are used for therapeutic purposes. To obtain a sufficient number of cells for therapeutic applications, MSCs must be expanded in long-term cell culture, which inevitably triggers cellular senescence. In this study, we investigated the surface markers of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) associated with cellular senescence using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and 242 cell surface-marker antibodies. Among these surface proteins, we selected the melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146) for further study with the aim of validating observed expression differences and investigating the associated implications in hUCB-MSCs during cellular senescence. We observed that CD146 expression markedly decreased in hUCB-MSCs following prolonged in vitro expansion. Using preparative sorting, we found that hUCB-MSCs with high CD146 expression displayed high growth rates, multilineage differentiation, expression of stemness markers, and telomerase activity, as well as significantly lower expression of the senescence markers p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase, compared with that observed in hUCB-MSCs with low-level CD146 expression. In contrast, CD146 downregulation with small interfering RNAs enhanced the senescence phenotype. In addition, CD146 suppression in hUCB-MSCs caused downregulation of other cellular senescence regulators, including Bmi-1, Id1, and Twist1. Collectively, our results suggest that CD146 regulates cellular senescence; thus, it could be used as a therapeutic marker to identify senescent hUCB-MSCs. One of the fundamental requirements for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies is the expansion of MSCs during long-term culture because a sufficient number of functional cells is required

  10. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal

  11. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  12. Quercetin inhibits the invasion and mobility of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells through inducing apoptosis via decreasing Bcl-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Xu, Q; Saiki, I

    2000-01-01

    Quercetin has been known to have anti-tumor and anti-oxidation activities. In the present study, we have investigated its in vitro anti-metastatic activity. Quercetin inhibited the invasion and mobility of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells in a dose-dependent manner but did not affect their adhesion to either laminin, fibronectin, or type VI collagen. Moreover, quercetin significantly inhibited the proliferation of B16-BL6 cells only in the case of time incubation longer than 48 h. Quercetin dose-dependently decreased the cell rates in S and G2-M phases of cell cycle. The effect of quercetin to cause a remarkable apoptosis of B16-BL6 cells was also demonstrated by flow cytometric assay as well as DNA fragmentation with a typical 180-bp ladder band in agarose electrophoresis and a quantitative analysis. Furthermore, quercetin markedly inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 but hardly influenced Bcl-XL. These results suggest that the inhibition of quercetin on invasiveness and migration of B16-BL6 cells are closely associated with the arrest of cell cycle as well as the induction of apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl-2 expression.

  13. Irradiations of human melanoma cells by 14 MeV neutrons; survival curves interpretation; physical simulation of neutrons interactions in the cellular medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodez, Veronique

    2000-01-01

    14 MeV neutrons are used to irradiate human melanoma cells in order to study survival curves at low dose and low dose rate. We have simulated with the MCNP code, transport of neutrons through the experimental setup to evaluate the contamination of the primary beam by gamma and electrons, for the feasibility of our experiments. We have shown a rapid decrease of the survival curve in the first cGy followed by a plateau for doses up to 30 cGy; after we observed an exponential decrease. This results are observed for the first time, for neutrons at low dose rate (5 cGy/h). In parallel with this experimental point, we have developed a simulation code which permitted the study of neutrons interactions with the cellular medium for individual cells defined as in our experimental conditions. We show that most of the energy is deposited by protons from neutron interactions with external medium, and by heavy ions for interactions into the cell. On the other hand the code gives a good order of magnitude of the dose rate, compared to the experimental values given by silicon diodes. The first results show that we can, using a theory based on induced repair of cells, give an interpretation of the observed experimental plateau. We can give an estimation of the radial distribution of dose for the tracks of charged ions, we show the possibility of calculate interaction cross sections with cellular organelles. Such a work gives interesting perspectives for the future in radiobiology, radiotherapy or radioprotection. (author) [fr

  14. Salmonella adhesion, invasion and cellular immune responses are differentially affected by iron concentrations in a combined in vitro gut fermentation-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Gagnon, Mélanie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; O'Mahony, Liam; Lacroix, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In regions with a high infectious disease burden, concerns have been raised about the safety of iron supplementation because higher iron concentrations in the gut lumen may increase risk of enteropathogen infection. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium with intestinal cells under different iron concentrations encountered in the gut lumen during iron deficiency and supplementation using an in vitro colonic fermentation system inoculated with immobilized child gut microbiota combined with Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture monolayers. Colonic fermentation effluents obtained during normal, low (chelation by 2,2'-dipyridyl) and high iron (26.5 mg iron/L) fermentation conditions containing Salmonella or pure Salmonella cultures with similar iron conditions were applied to cellular monolayers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion capacity, cellular integrity and immune response were assessed. Under high iron conditions in pure culture, Salmonella adhesion was 8-fold increased compared to normal iron conditions while invasion was not affected leading to decreased invasion efficiency (-86%). Moreover, cellular cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α secretion as well as NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells were attenuated under high iron conditions. Low iron conditions in pure culture increased Salmonella invasion correlating with an increase in IL-8 release. In fermentation effluents, Salmonella adhesion was 12-fold and invasion was 428-fold reduced compared to pure culture. Salmonella in high iron fermentation effluents had decreased invasion efficiency (-77.1%) and cellular TNF-α release compared to normal iron effluent. The presence of commensal microbiota and bacterial metabolites in fermentation effluents reduced adhesion and invasion of Salmonella compared to pure culture highlighting the importance of the gut microbiota as a barrier during pathogen invasion. High iron concentrations as

  15. FHOD1 formin is upregulated in melanomas and modifies proliferation and tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peippo, Minna; Gardberg, Maria; Lamminen, Tarja; Kaipio, Katja; Carpén, Olli; Heuser, Vanina D.

    2017-01-01

    The functional properties of actin-regulating formin proteins are diverse and in many cases cell-type specific. FHOD1, a formin expressed predominantly in cells of mesenchymal lineage, bundles actin filaments and participates in maintenance of cell shape, migration and cellular protrusions. FHOD1 participates in cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer. The role of FHOD1 in melanomas has not been characterized. Here, we show that FHOD1 expression is typically strong in cutaneous melanomas and cultured melanoma cells while the expression is low or absent in benign nevi. By using shRNA to knockdown FHOD1 in melanoma cells, we discovered that FHOD1 depleted cells are larger, rounder and have smaller focal adhesions and inferior migratory capacity as compared to control cells. Importantly, we found FHOD1 depleted cells to have reduced colony-forming capacity and attenuated tumor growth in vivo, a finding best explained by the reduced proliferation rate caused by cell cycle arrest. Unexpectedly, FHOD1 depletion did not prevent invasive growth at the tumor margins. These results suggest that FHOD1 participates in key cellular processes that are dysregulated in malignancy, but may not be essential for melanoma cell invasion.

  16. Primary cilium depletion typifies cutaneous melanoma in situ and malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Kim

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal malignancy that arises spontaneously or via in situ precursor neoplasms. While melanoma in situ and locally invasive malignant melanoma can be cured surgically, these lesions can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanocytic nevi. Thus, the identification of histolopathologic or molecular features that distinguish these biologically distinct lesions would represent an important advance. To this end, we determined the abundance of melanocytic primary cilia in a series of 62 cases composed of typical cutaneous melanocytic nevi, melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. Primary cilia are sensory organelles that modulate developmental and adaptive signaling and notably, are substantially depleted from the neoplastic epithelium of pancreatic carcinoma at a stage equivalent to melanoma in situ. In this series, we find that while nearly all melanocytes in 22 melanocytic nevi possessed a primary cilium, a near-complete loss of this organelle was observed in 16 cases of melanoma in situ, in 16 unequivocal primary invasive melanomas, and in 8 metastatic tumors, each associated with a cutaneous primary lesion. These findings suggest that the primary cilium may be used to segregate cutaneous invasive melanoma and melanoma in situ from melanocytic nevi. Moreover, they place the loss of an organelle known to regulate oncogenic signaling at an early stage of melanoma development.

  17. Semi-automated non-invasive diagnostics method for melanoma differentiation from nevi and pigmented basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihacova, I.; Bolocko, K.; Lihachev, A.

    2017-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is still increasing mostly in in industrialized countries with light- skinned people. Late tumour detection is the main reason of the high mortality associated with skin cancer. The accessibility of early diagnostics of skin cancer in Latvia is limited by several factors, such as high cost of dermatology services, long queues on state funded oncologist examinations, as well as inaccessibility of oncologists in the countryside regions - this is an actual clinical problem. The new strategies and guidelines for skin cancer early detection and post-surgical follow-up intend to realize the full body examination (FBE) by primary care physicians (general practitioners, interns) in combination with classical dermoscopy. To implement this approach, a semi- automated method was established. Developed software analyses the combination of 3 optical density images at 540 nm, 650 nm, and 950 nm from pigmented skin malformations and classifies them into three groups- nevi, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or melanoma.

  18. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  19. Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Wu, Di; Davis, Hunter C.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.

  20. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  1. Attachment, invasion, chemotaxis, and proteinase expression of B16-BL6 melanoma cells exhibiting a low metastatic phenotype after exposure to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenkott, C E; Huijzer, J C; Cardeiro, D J; Elstad, C A; Meadows, G G

    1996-03-01

    We previously reported that low levels of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) alter the metastatic phenotype of B16-BL6 (BL6) murine melanoma and select for tumor cell populations with decreased lung colonizing ability. To more specifically characterize the effects of Tyr and Phe restriction on the malignant phenotype of BL6, we investigated in vitro attachment, invasion, proteinase expression, and chemotaxis of high and low metastatic BL6 variants. High metastatic variant cells were isolated from subcutaneous tumors of mice fed a nutritionally complete diet (ND cells) and low metastatic variant cells were isolated from mice fed a diet restricted in Tyr and Phe (LTP cells). Results indicate that attachment to reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) was significantly reduced in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Attachment to collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin were similar between the two variants. Invasion through Matrigel and growth factor-reduced Matrigel were significantly decreased in LTP cells as compared to ND cells. Zymography revealed the presence of M(r) 92,000 and M(r) 72,000 progelatinases, tissue plasminogen activator, and urokinase plasminogen activator in the conditioned medium of both variants; however, there were no differences in activity of these secreted proteinases between the two variants. Growth of the variants on growth factor-reduced Matrigel similarly induced expression of the M(r) 92,000 progelatinase. The variants exhibited similar chemotactic responses toward laminin. However, the chemotactic response toward fibronectin by LTP cells was significantly increased. MFR5, a monoclonal antibody which selectively blocks function of the alpha 5 chain of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, VLA-5, decreased the chemotactic response toward fibronectin of ND cells by 37%; the chemotactic response by LTP cells was reduced by 49%. This effect was specific for fibronectin-mediated chemotaxis since the chemotaxis toward laminin and invasion through

  2. Suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation decreases invasive and metastatic potentials of B16-BL6 melanoma cells by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C; Han, R

    1997-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) appears to be involved in the activation of signaling during cell attachment to and spreading on extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic cascade. To verify the assumption that PTK inhibitors might impair ECM signaling and prevent cancer metastasis, the highly metastatic B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were exposed to the PTK inhibitor genistein for 3 days. The ability of the cells to invade through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) and to establish experimental pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 mice decreased after genistein exposure. The genistein-treated cells were also prevented from attaching to Matrigel and spread extremely poorly on the ECM substratum. Immunoblot analysis showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD protein in response to cell spreading on Matrigel was suppressed in the genistein-treated cells. Adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation represents the earlier and specific event in the activation of ECM signaling, so this result implied ECM signaling was impaired in the treated cells. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylated proteins were located at the pericytoplasms of well-spread cells, but not at the periphery of poorly spread genistein-treated cells. Therefore, this paper suggests that genistein might impair ECM signaling and subsequently prevent cancer cells from spreading well and invading or establishing metastasis through the suppression of adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PTKs and adhesion-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play a role in the control of invasion and metastasis.

  3. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  4. Revealing the sequence and resulting cellular morphology of receptor-ligand interactions during Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta E Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During blood stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, merozoites invade uninfected erythrocytes via a complex, multistep process involving a series of distinct receptor-ligand binding events. Understanding each element in this process increases the potential to block the parasite's life cycle via drugs or vaccines. To investigate specific receptor-ligand interactions, they were systematically blocked using a combination of genetic deletion, enzymatic receptor cleavage and inhibition of binding via antibodies, peptides and small molecules, and the resulting temporal changes in invasion and morphological effects on erythrocytes were filmed using live cell imaging. Analysis of the videos have shown receptor-ligand interactions occur in the following sequence with the following cellular morphologies; 1 an early heparin-blockable interaction which weakly deforms the erythrocyte, 2 EBA and PfRh ligands which strongly deform the erythrocyte, a process dependant on the merozoite's actin-myosin motor, 3 a PfRh5-basigin binding step which results in a pore or opening between parasite and host through which it appears small molecules and possibly invasion components can flow and 4 an AMA1-RON2 interaction that mediates tight junction formation, which acts as an anchor point for internalization. In addition to enhancing general knowledge of apicomplexan biology, this work provides a rational basis to combine sequentially acting merozoite vaccine candidates in a single multi-receptor-blocking vaccine.

  5. Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR is relevant to cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and clinical relapse in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Motoi, Noriko; Nagano, Hiroko; Miyauchi, Eisaku; Ushijima, Masaru; Matsuura, Masaaki; Okumura, Sakae; Nishio, Makoto; Hirose, Tetsuro; Inase, Naohiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a subtype of lung cancer with poor prognosis. To identify accurate predictive biomarkers and effective therapeutic modalities, we focus on a long noncoding RNA, Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and investigated its expression, cellular functions, and clinical relevance in SCLC. In this study, HOTAIR expression was assessed in 35 surgical SCLC samples and 10 SCLC cell lines. The efficacy of knockdown of HOTAIR by siRNA transfection was evaluated in SBC-3 cells in vitro, and the gene expression was analyzed using microarray. HOTAIR was expressed highly in pure, rather than combined, SCLC (P = 0.012), that the subgroup with high expression had significantly more pure SCLC (P = 0.04), more lymphatic invasion (P = 0.03) and more relapse (P = 0.04) than the low-expression subgroup. The knockdown of HOTAIR in SBC-3 cells led to decreased proliferation activity and decreased invasiveness in vitro. Gene expression analysis indicated that depletion of HOTAIR resulted in upregulation of cell adhesion-related genes such as ASTN1, PCDHA1, and mucin production-related genes such as MUC5AC, and downregulation of genes involved in neuronal growth and signal transduction including NTM and PTK2B. Our results suggest that HOTAIR has an oncogenic role in SCLC and could be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target

  6. A novel interaction between calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand and Basigin regulates calcium signaling and matrix metalloproteinase activities in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tingting; Su, Juan; Tang, Wen; Luo, Zhongling; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhou, Honghao; Qi, Min; Zeng, Weiqi; Zhang, Jianglin; Chen, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular free calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger regulating a multitude of normal and pathogenic cellular responses, including the development of melanoma. Upstream signaling pathways regulating the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) may therefore have a significant impact on melanoma growth and metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) is bound to Basigin, a widely expressed integral plasma membrane glycoprotein and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, or CD147) implicated in melanoma proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis. This interaction between CAML and Basigin was first identified using yeast two-hybrid screening and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. In human A375 melanoma cells, CAML and Basigin were co-localized to the ER. Knockdown of Basigin in melanoma cells by siRNA significantly decreased resting [Ca2+]i and the [Ca2+]i increase induced by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin (TG), indicating that the interaction between CAML and Basigin regulates ER-dependent [Ca2+]i signaling. Meanwhile upregulating the [Ca2+]i either by TG or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) could stimulate the production of MMP-9 in A375 cells with the expression of Basigin. Our study has revealed a previously uncharacterized [Ca2+]i signaling pathway that may control melanoma invasion, and metastasis. Disruption of this pathway may be a novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochanin A induces anticancer effects in SK-Mel-28 human malignant melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell invasion and modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Zheng, Bowen; Sun, Jiaming; Yang, Jia

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor activity of Biochanin A in SK-Mel-28 human malignant melanoma cells. An MTT assay was used to study the cytotoxic effects of Biochanin A. In vitro wound healing and invasion assays were used to investigate the effects on cell migration and invasion. Fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange/propidium iodide was used to study effects on cell morphology and apoptosis. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expression levels were determined by western blot analysis. The results indicated that Biochanin A significantly inhibited the growth of SK-Mel-28 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with Biochanin A induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, Biochanin A led to inhibition of cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated the expression of key proteins in the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  8. Macrovipecetin, a C-type lectin from Macrovipera lebetina venom, inhibits proliferation migration and invasion of SK-MEL-28 human melanoma cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Manel B; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Souid, Soumaya; Othman, Houcemeddine; Aloui, Zohra; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Karoui, Habib; Gasmi, Ammar; Magnenat, Edith M; Wells, Timothy N C; Clemetson, Kenneth J; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2018-03-01

    The resistance of melanoma cells to cisplatin restricts its clinical use. Therefore, the search for novel tumor inhibitors and effective combination treatments that sensitize tumor cells to this drug are still needed. We purified macrovipecetin, a novel heterodimeric C-type lectin, from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom and investigated its anti-tumoral effect on its own or combined with cisplatin, in human melanoma cells. Biochemical characterization, in vitro cells assays such as viability, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, invasion, Western blotting and in silico analysis were used in this study. Macrovipecetin decreased melanoma cell viability 100 times more than cisplatin. Interestingly, when combined with the drug, macrovipecetin enhanced the sensitivity of SK-MEL-28 cells by augmenting their apoptosis through increased expression of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and activation of ERK 1/2 , p38, AKT and NF-κB. Moreover, macrovipecetin alone or combined with cisplatin induced the expression of TRADD, p53, Bax, Bim and Bad and down-regulated the Bcl-2 expression and ROS levels in SK-MEL-28 cells. Interestingly, these treatments impaired SK-MEL-28 cell adhesion, migration and invasion through modulating the function and expression of αvβ3 integrin along with regulating E-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, c-Src and RhoA expression. In silico study suggested that only the α chain of macrovipecetin interacts with a region overlapping the RGD motif binding site on this integrin. We validated the antitumor effect of macrovipecetin when combined, or not, with cisplatin on SK-MEL-28 cells. The presented work proposes the potential use of macrovipecetin and cisplatin in combination as an effective anti-melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Melanoma in organ transplant patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, L; Dalac, S; Dompmartin, A; Louvet, S; Euvrard, S; Catteau, B; Hazan, M; Schollhamer, M; Aubin, F; Dreno, B; Daguin, P; Chevrant-Breton, J; Frances, C; Bismuth, M J; Tanter, Y; Lambert, D

    2000-02-01

    15 months. The other 12 patients are still alive with a mean 3 year course since tumor treatment. We tried to determine the relative risk of developing melanoma in the renal transplant population (14 cases). The number of expected cases of melanoma was 5.54, giving a relative risk of 2.5. Only 4 studies have shown an increase in the incidence of melanoma in the renal transplant population: approximately 2 to 5-fold. In our study, the 2.5-fold increase in melanoma was estimated with an average 5 year follow-up and an average 5 year immunosuppressive therapy. This is probably an underestimation of risk because we were unable to make an exhaustive collection of cases of melanomas even though transplant recipients undergo more physical examinations than a reference population. The mean latency period from transplantation to melanoma diagnosis was 63 months, as in other studies. Histological examination showed that a precursor nevus is frequent with weak host cellular response to the tumor. The prognosis of these melanomas remains difficult to predict, but in our study, it would not appear to be as poor as expected. Discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy would not appear to be necessary except in the presence of metastasis. Finally, our study demonstrates the importance of good patient follow-up, even after graft rejection due to the persistent risk of melanoma.

  10. Metastatic melanoma masquerading as a furuncle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Aslam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizes to the skin in about 10-17% of patients. Although there are reports of metastatic melanoma masquerading as panniculitis and erysipelas, it is very uncommon for it to present as an inflammatory skin lesion. When malignant melanoma cells invade the superficial dermal lymphatic vessels it can result in erythema, edema and induration of the overlying skin. This presentation can be problematic for clinicians if they do not suspect melanoma and choose not to biopsy the lesion. We report a case of an elderly man with a history of invasive melanoma who presented with a furuncle-like lesion that was found to be in-transit metastatic melanoma.

  11. A cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, immunologically related to CD44, is involved in type I collagen-mediated melanoma cell motility and invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faassen, A E; Schrager, J A; Klein, D J

    1992-01-01

    The metastatic spread of tumor cells occurs through a complex series of events, one of which involves the adhesion of tumor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Multiple interactions between cell surface receptors of an adherent tumor cell and the surrounding ECM contribute to cell...... collagen could also be inhibited by removing cell surface chondroitin sulfate with chondroitinase. In contrast, type I collagen-mediated melanoma cell adhesion and spreading were not affected by either beta-D-xyloside or chondroitinase treatments. These results suggest that mouse melanoma CSPG...... was shown to be mediated, at least in part, by chondroitin sulfate. Additionally we have determined that mouse melanoma CSPG is composed of a 110-kD core protein that is recognized by anti-CD44 antibodies on Western blots. Collectively, our data suggests that interactions between a cell surface CD44-related...

  12. Curcumin and treatment of melanoma: The potential role of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Diana; Pedone, Claudio; Sahebkar, Amirhosssein

    2017-04-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and is characterized by poor prognosis in its advanced stages because treatments are poorly effective and burdened with severe adverse effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are implicated in several cellular processes; they are categorized as oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs. Several miRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of melanoma, such as the tumor suppressor miR-let7b that targets cyclin D and regulates cell cycle. Curcumin is a natural compound derived from Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) with anti-cancer properties, documented also in melanoma, and is well tolerated in humans. Pharmacological activity of curcumin is mediated by modulation of several pathways, such as JAK-2/STAT3, thus inhibiting melanoma cell migration and invasion and enhancing apoptosis of these cells. The low oral bioavailability of curcumin has led to the development of curcumin analogues, such as EF24, with greater anti-tumor efficacy and metabolic stability. Potential anti-cancer activity of curcumin and its analogues is also mediated by modulation of miRNAs such as miR21, that is implicated in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis through down-regulation of PTEN and PDCD4 proteins. Curcumin has a potential role in the treatment of melanoma, though further studies are necessary to explore its clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of advanced melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathanson, L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma

  14. Comprehensive expression profiling of tumor cell lines identifies molecular signatures of melanoma progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungwoo Ryu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling has revolutionized our ability to molecularly classify primary human tumors and significantly enhanced the development of novel tumor markers and therapies; however, progress in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma over the past 3 decades has been limited, and there is currently no approved therapy that significantly extends lifespan in patients with advanced disease. Profiling studies of melanoma to date have been inconsistent due to the heterogeneous nature of this malignancy and the limited availability of informative tissue specimens from early stages of disease.In order to gain an improved understanding of the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we have compared gene expression profiles from a series of melanoma cell lines representing discrete stages of malignant progression that recapitulate critical characteristics of the primary lesions from which they were derived. Here we describe the unsupervised hierarchical clustering of profiling data from melanoma cell lines and melanocytes. This clustering identifies two distinctive molecular subclasses of melanoma segregating aggressive metastatic tumor cell lines from less-aggressive primary tumor cell lines. Further analysis of expression signatures associated with melanoma progression using functional annotations categorized these transcripts into three classes of genes: 1 Upregulation of activators of cell cycle progression, DNA replication and repair (CDCA2, NCAPH, NCAPG, NCAPG2, PBK, NUSAP1, BIRC5, ESCO2, HELLS, MELK, GINS1, GINS4, RAD54L, TYMS, and DHFR, 2 Loss of genes associated with cellular adhesion and melanocyte differentiation (CDH3, CDH1, c-KIT, PAX3, CITED1/MSG-1, TYR, MELANA, MC1R, and OCA2, 3 Upregulation of genes associated with resistance to apoptosis (BIRC5/survivin. While these broad classes of transcripts have previously been implicated in the progression of melanoma and other malignancies, the specific genes identified within each class

  15. Co-ordinate action of bacterial adhesins and human carcinoembryonic antigen receptors in enhanced cellular invasion by capsulate serum resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen A; Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Virji, Mumtaz

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a human specific opportunistic pathogen that occasionally penetrates mucosal barriers via the action of adhesins and invasins and evades host immune mechanisms during further dissemination via capsule expression. From in vitro studies, the primary adhesion of capsulate bacteria is believed to be mediated by polymeric pili, followed by invasion via outer membrane adhesins such as Opa proteins. As the latter requires the surface capsule to be down-modulated, invading bacteria would be serum sensitive and thus avirulent. However, there is recent evidence that capsulate bacteria may interact via Opa proteins when host cells express high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), their target receptors. Such a situation may arise following increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines that upregulate certain adhesion molecules on host cells. In this study, using a tetracycline controlled expression system, we have developed cell lines with inducible CEACAM expression to mimic post-inflammation state of target tissues and analysed the interplay between the three surface components capsule, pili and Opa proteins in cellular interactions. With two distinct cell lines, not only the level but also the rate of adhesion of capsulate Opa-expressing Nm increased concurrently with CEACAM density. Moreover, when threshold levels of receptor were reached, cellular invasion ensued in an Opa-dependent manner. In studies with cell lines intrinsically expressing pilus receptors, notable synergism in cellular interactions between pili and Opa of several meningococcal strains was observed and was independent of capsule type. A number of internalized bacteria were shown to express capsule and when directly isolated from host cells, these bacteria were as serum resistant as the inoculated phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that agents that block Opa-CEACAM binding substantially reduced cellular invasion, while maintaining

  16. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Maatouk, Mouna; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The lack of an efficient agent that does not have the disadvantage of low activity (kojic acid), high cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity (hydroquinone), poor skin penetration (arbutin), or low stability in formulation (glabridin) led us to continue our research on new antipigmentation/skin-lightening agents. Therefore, research of natural products that can modulate the metabolism of pigmentation is of great interest. Otherwise, malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with high metastatic potential, and currently, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with potent activity and weak side effects against melanoma. The in-vitro anticancer effect of hawthorn was analyzed against B16F10 melanoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effect of isolated compounds from hawthorn on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells was investigated by measuring the amounts of melanin and tyrosinase spectrophotometrically at 475 nm. Balb/c mice models inoculated with B16F10 mouse tumor cells were used to evaluate the in-vivo antitumoral potential of hawthorn by assessing its effect on the growth of transplanted tumors. The antioxidant potential of tested samples was evaluated in B16F10 and primary human keratinocyte cells using a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Hawthorn tested samples inhibited effectively the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, it appears that tested samples from hawthorn reduced melanogenesis by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity of B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In-vivo studies showed that hawthorn total oligomer flavonoids extract treatment at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for 21 days in implanted tumor mice resulted in significant inhibition of the tumor growth volume and weight. In addition, tested samples showed significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species

  17. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. © 2013 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inhibition of IGF-1-Mediated Cellular Migration and Invasion by Migracin A in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaji, Tamami; Lin, Yinzhi; Banno, Kouji; Okada, Shoshiro; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Previously we isolated migracin A from a Streptomyces culture filtrate as an inhibitor of cancer cell migration. In the present research, we found that migracin A inhibited migration and invasion of ovarian clear cell carcinoma ES-2 cells. In the course of our mechanistic study, migracin A was shown to enhance vasohibin-1 expression in an angiogenesis array. We also confirmed that it increased the mRNA expression of this protein. Moreover, overexpression of vasohibin-1 lowered the migration but not the invasion of ES-2 cells. Then, we looked for another target protein employing a motility array, and found that migracin A lowered the IGF-1 expression. Knockdown of IGF-1 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of ES-2 cells. Migracin A also decreased Akt phosphorylation involved in the downstream signaling. Crosstalk analysis indicated that overexpression of vasohibin-1 decreased the IGF-1 expression. On the other hand, it showed no direct anticancer activity in terms of the ES-2 growth in agar. Migracin A inhibited the migration and IGF-1 expression in not only ES-2 but also another ovarian clear cell carcinoma JHOC-5 cells. In addition, it also inhibited capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Since its cytotoxicity is very low, migracin A may be a candidate for an anti-metastasis agent not exhibiting prominent toxicity.

  19. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J

    1998-01-01

    melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed...

  20. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  1. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  2. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Quesada, Flora

    2013-01-01

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security

  3. Poliosis circumscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Husain, E; Rajpara, S

    2015-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of a localized patch of grey hair and an underlying darkly pigmented lesion on his right occipital area. Clinical appearance revealed poliosis overlying an asymmetrical plaque with variable degrees of brown pigmentation and white discolouration. Owing to the suspicious nature of the lesion, excision with a 2 mm margin was performed. Histology revealed an invasive melanoma with extensive regression and prominent involvement of multiple hair follicles. Scalp melanoma with associated poliosis is extremely rare, and has only been reported once in the literature to date. There have been two reports in the opthalmology literature regarding eyelash poliosis associated with orbital melanoma. The pathogenesis of poliosis still remains unclear. This is the second reported case of poliosis circmscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma, and highlights the importance of being vigilant when examining patients with poliosis of the scalp. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, L.; Sandron, A.; Herry, J.Y.; Chevrant-Breton, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify [fr

  5. Pregnancy and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Marcia S; Martires, Kathryn; Bieber, Amy Kalowitz; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas. There is also a lack of evidence that oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy worsens melanoma prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contemporary Management of Early-Stage Melanoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, Andrew J; Vankoevering, Kyle K; McLean, Scott A; Johnson, Timothy M; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing, with 76 380 new cases of invasive melanoma and 68 480 new cases of melanoma in situ expected in 2016. To review the contemporary management of early-stage melanoma. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases from January 1, 2011, to May 1, 2016, yielding 966 articles. We focused our search on early-stage (melanoma in situ, stage I, and stage II) cutaneous melanoma. After excluding articles, 41 articles were manually reviewed. A review of the bibliographies of selected articles generated additional references. While the majority of recent advances have been in the treatment of advanced melanoma, surgical excision with margins based on the presence and depth of invasion continues to be the cornerstone of management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy plays a central role in the staging and treatment of melanoma. Accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical excision are critical in reducing local recurrences and improving outcomes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is useful in staging the regional nodal basin and guiding treatment in appropriately selected patients.

  7. Molecular Classification of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue-based analyses of precursors, melanoma tumors and metastases within existing study populations to further understanding of the heterogeneity of melanoma and determine a predictive pattern of progression for dysplastic nevi.

  8. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  9. Cutaneous melanoma in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ryung Roh, MD

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: The published findings on gender disparities in melanoma have yielded many advances in our understanding of this disease. Biological, environmental, and behavioral factors may explain the observed gender difference in melanoma incidence and outcome. Further research will enable us to learn more about melanoma pathogenesis, with the goal of offering better treatments and preventative advice to our patients.

  10. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however...

  11. Integrative Genome Comparison of Primary and Metastatic Melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Nazarian, Rosalynn M.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Wu, Min; Scott, Kenneth L.; Kwong, Lawrence N.; Xiao, Yonghong; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Granter, Scott R.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Golub, Todd; Duncan, Lyn M.; Wagner, Stephan N.; Brennan, Cameron; Chin, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    A cardinal feature of malignant melanoma is its metastatic propensity. An incomplete view of the genetic events driving metastatic progression has been a major barrier to rational development of effective therapeutics and prognostic diagnostics for melanoma patients. In this study, we conducted global genomic characterization of primary and metastatic melanomas to examine the genomic landscape associated with metastatic progression. In addition to uncovering three genomic subclasses of metastastic melanomas, we delineated 39 focal and recurrent regions of amplification and deletions, many of which encompassed resident genes that have not been implicated in cancer or metastasis. To identify progression-associated metastasis gene candidates, we applied a statistical approach, Integrative Genome Comparison (IGC), to define 32 genomic regions of interest that were significantly altered in metastatic relative to primary melanomas, encompassing 30 resident genes with statistically significant expression deregulation. Functional assays on a subset of these candidates, including MET, ASPM, AKAP9, IMP3, PRKCA, RPA3, and SCAP2, validated their pro-invasion activities in human melanoma cells. Validity of the IGC approach was further reinforced by tissue microarray analysis of Survivin showing significant increased protein expression in thick versus thin primary cutaneous melanomas, and a progression correlation with lymph node metastases. Together, these functional validation results and correlative analysis of human tissues support the thesis that integrated genomic and pathological analyses of staged melanomas provide a productive entry point for discovery of melanoma metastases genes. PMID:20520718

  12. Reflectance confocal microscopy features of thin versus thick melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Agnieszka; Olszewska, Małgorzata; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Walecka, Irena; Pellacani, Giovanni; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2018-01-24

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) plays an increasingly important role in differential diagnosis of melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess typical confocal features of thin (≤1mm according to Breslow index) versus thick (>1mm) melanomas. 30 patients with histopathologically confirmed cutaneous melanoma were included in the study. Reflectance confocal microscopy was performed with Vivascope equipment prior to excision. Fifteen melanomas were thin (Breslow thickness ≤ 1mm) and 15 were thick melanomas (Breslow thickness >1mm). In the RCM examination, the following features were more frequently observed in thin compared to thick melanomas: edged papillae (26.7% vs 0%, p=0.032) and areas with honeycomb or cobblestone pattern (33.3% vs 6.7%, p=0.068). Both features are present in benign melanocytic lesions, so in melanoma are good prognostic factors. The group of thick melanomas compared to the group of thin melanomas in the RCM images presented with greater frequency of roundish cells (100% vs 40%, p=0.001), non-edged papillae (100% vs 60%, p=0.006), numerous pagetoid cells (73.3% vs 33.3%, p=0.028), numerous atypical cells at dermal-epidermal junction (53.3% vs 20%, p=0.058) and epidermal disarray (93.3% vs 66.7%, p=0.068). Non-invasive imaging methods helps in deepening of knowledge about the evolution and biology of melanoma. The most characteristic features for thin melanomas in confocal examination are: fragments of cobblestone or honeycomb pattern and edged papillae (as good prognostic factors). The features of thick melanomas in RCM examination are: roundish cells, non-edged papillae, numerous pagetoid cells at dermal-epidermal junction and epidermal disarray.

  13. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease.

  14. MiRNA-205 modulates cellular invasion and migration via regulating zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Shunichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is often diagnosed at later stages until they are incurable. MicroRNA (miR is a small, non-coding RNA that negatively regulates gene expression mainly via translational repression. Accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of miR is associated with human malignancies including ESCC. The aim of this study was to identify miR that could be specifically expressed and exert distinct biological actions in ESCC. Methods Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines, OE21 and TE10, and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line, Het-1A, and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miR that showed significant differences between the 2 ESCC and Het-1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR method. Then, functional analyses, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and Matrigel invasion and the wound healing assay, for the specific miR were conducted. Using ESCC tumor samples and paired surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the association with histopathological differentiation was examined with quantitative RT-PCR. Results Based on the miR microarray analysis, there were 14 miRs that showed significant differences (more than 2-fold in expression between the 2 ESCC cells and non-malignant Het-1A. Among the significantly altered miRs, miR-205 expression levels were exclusively higher in 5 ESCC cell lines examined than any other types of malignant cell lines and Het-1A. Thus, miR-205 could be a specific miR in ESCC. Modulation of miR-205 expression by transfection with its precursor or anti-miR-205 inhibitor did not affect ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, but miR-205 was found to be involved in cell invasion and migration. Western blot revealed that knockdown of miR-205 expression in ESCC cells substantially enhanced expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2

  15. Malignant melanoma in children: imaging spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, S.C.; Pappo, Alberto S.; Jenkins, J.J. III; Pratt, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of diagnostic imaging in detecting unsuspected metastatic disease in children with malignant melanoma. This has not been well studied previously. Materials and methods. We correlated imaging findings of 33 children diagnosed with melanoma with the level of invasion and clinical stage of disease. Results. Clinically undetectable metastases were identified in eight patients (25 %), four of whom had multiple metastases. All eight patients had deep lesions (Clark's level IV or V) or unknown primary sites of disease. Conclusion. Children with thick melanomas and those with unknown site of primary tumors are at increased risk of having clinically unsuspected metastases and should undergo CT of the chest, abdomen, and local-regional nodal basins at diagnosis to determine disease extent. (orig.). With 8 figs

  16. Potential Role of Meiosis Proteins in Melanoma Chromosomal Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, S. F.; Byrnes, D. M.; Eller, M. S.; Rosa, A. M.; Dabas, N.; Escandon, J.; Grichnik, J. M.; Grichnik, J. M.; Grichnik, J. M.; Grichnik, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas demonstrate chromosomal instability (CIN). In fact, CIN can be used to differentiate melanoma from benign nevi. The exact molecular mechanisms that drive CIN in melanoma have yet to be fully elucidated. Cancer/testis antigens are a unique group of germ cell proteins that are found to be primarily expressed in melanoma as compared to benign nevi. The abnormal expression of these germ cell proteins, normally expected only in the testis and ovaries, in somatic cells may lead to interference with normal cellular pathways. Germ cell proteins that may be particularly critical in CIN are meiosis proteins. Here, we review pathways unique to meiosis with a focus on how the aberrant expression of meiosis proteins in normal mitotic cells "meiomitosis"could impact chromosomal instability in melanoma and other cancers.

  17. Short-lived radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis of ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.; Lambrecht, R.; Atkins, H.L.; Wolf, A.P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been established to evaluate radiopharmaceuticals for the specific purpose of melanoma detection by scintiscanning. By using the Greene melanoma in the hamster several labeled compounds were compared. Specifically the tumor uptake along with detailed analyses of uptake by various parts of the eye and body were determined in a hamster model. Of those short-lived radionuclides investigated 203 Pb-tris was the most promising as a non-invasive localizing agent for ocular melanoma and it should prove effective for ocular scintigraphy. (U.S.)

  18. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma: A Short Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Partenzi, Antonietta; Filosa, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Several controversies are still ongoing about sentinel node biopsy in melanoma. It is basically a staging procedure for melanoma > 0.75 mm in thickness or for thinner melanoma in the presence of ulceration, high mitotic rate, and/or lymphovascular invasion. Complete lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node can also allow a better locoregional disease control but seems not to prevent the development of distant metastases. The use of sentinel node biopsy in atypical Spitz tumors should be discouraged because of their peculiar biological properties. PMID:29719827

  19. Use of Oncept melanoma vaccine in 69 canine oral malignant melanomas in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verganti, S; Berlato, D; Blackwood, L; Amores-Fuster, I; Polton, G A; Elders, R; Doyle, R; Taylor, A; Murphy, S

    2017-01-01

    Oral malignant melanomas carry a poor-to-guarded prognosis because of their local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. The Oncept melanoma vaccine is licensed to treat dogs with stage II or III locally-controlled oral malignant melanoma and this retrospective study aimed to assess survival of affected dogs treated with the vaccine in the UK. Medical records of dogs with histopathologically-confirmed oral malignant melanoma that received the vaccine as part of their treatment were evaluated. Survival analyses for potential prognostic factors were performed. Sixty-nine dogs were included; 56 dogs, staged I to III, and with previous locoregional therapy, had a median survival time of 455 days (95% CI: 324 to 586 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with associated log-rank testing, no significant prognostic factors were identified for this population. Of the 13 patients with macroscopic disease treated with vaccine alone or in combination therapy, eight showed clinical response. Three patients with stage IV oral malignant melanoma survived 171, 178 and 288 days from diagnosis. Patients treated with the melanoma vaccine in our study had survival times similar to their counterparts receiving the vaccine in the USA. There were observed responses in patients with macroscopic disease and so the vaccine could be considered as palliative treatment in dogs with stage IV disease. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Nicotinamide inhibits vasculogenic mimicry, an alternative vascularization pathway observed in highly aggressive melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Itzhaki

    Full Text Available Vasculogenic mimicry (VM describes functional vascular channels composed only of tumor cells and its presence predicts poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Inhibition of this alternative vascularization pathway might be of clinical importance, especially as several anti-angiogenic therapies targeting endothelial cells are largely ineffective in melanoma. We show the presence of VM structures histologically in a series of human melanoma lesions and demonstrate that cell cultures derived from these lesions form tubes in 3D cultures ex vivo. We tested the ability of nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3 (niacin, which acts as an epigenetic gene regulator through unique cellular pathways, to modify VM. Nicotinamide effectively inhibited the formation of VM structures and destroyed already formed ones, in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, VM formation capacity remained suppressed even one month after the complete withdrawal of Nicotimamid. The inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on VM formation could be at least partially explained by a nicotinamide-driven downregulation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-Cadherin, which is known to have a central role in VM. Further major changes in the expression profile of hundreds of genes, most of them clustered in biologically-relevant clusters, were observed. In addition, nicotinamide significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, but had an opposite effect on their invasion capacity. Cell cycle analysis indicated moderate changes in apoptotic indices. Therefore, nicotinamide could be further used to unravel new biological mechanisms that drive VM and tumor progression. Targeting VM, especially in combination with anti-angiogenic strategies, is expected to be synergistic and might yield substantial anti neoplastic effects in a variety of malignancies.

  1. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Siddharth; Verma, Satyajeet; Kala, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  2. Impact of hypothyroidism on primary anal malignant melanoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of the anal canal is rare and highly malignant condition, which is 1% of all invasive tumors in this site. This condition is often mistaken for benign conditions as either hemorrhoids or rectal polyp. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation causes high proliferation of malignant melanoma. The association of hypothyroidism with primary malignant melanoma of anal canal is very rare. We are reporting such a very rare case.

  3. Malignant melanoma - a warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volden, G.; Rajka, G.; Thune, P.; Falk, E.S.; Krogh, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of malignant melonoma of the skin has risen rapidly during the last decades. Mortality rates are also rising, although not so much as incidence rates. There is strong evidence that exposure to sunlight is a major factor in the etiology of melanomas. There appears to be no direct cumulative dose-response relationship, except in the case of lentigo maligna melanoma. Episodes of sunburn among children and young individuals seem to be more important as an etiologic factor for melanoma than chronic exposure to the sun. Very high risk of melanoma exists in persons with dysplastic nevus syndrome. Persons with giant congenital nevi are also at increased risk. However, many melanomas arise de novo. The intension of the authors is to reduce mortality by screening families at risk, by early detection and treatment of melanomas, and by education. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Immunizing Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Using Recombinant Adenoviruses Encoding MART-1 or gp100 Melanoma Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Zhai, Yifan; Yang, James C.; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Hwu, Patrick; Marincola, Francesco M.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Seipp, Claudia A.; Einhorn, Jan H.; Roberts, Bruce; White, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the genes encoding melanoma-associated antigens MART-1 or gp100, recognized by T cells, has opened new possibilities for the development of immunization strategies for patients with metastatic melanoma. With the use of recombinant adenoviruses expressing either MART-1 or gp100 to immunize patients with metastatic melanoma, we evaluated the safety, immunologic, and potential therapeutic aspects of these immunizations. Methods: In phase I studies, 54 patients received escalating doses (between 107 and 1011 plaque-forming units) of recombinant adenovirus encoding either MART-1 or gp100 melanoma antigen administered either alone or followed by the administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2). The immunologic impact of these immunizations on the development of cellular and antibody reactivity was assayed. Results: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing MART-1 or gp100 were safely administered. One of 16 patients with metastatic melanoma receiving the recombinant adenovirus MART-1 alone experienced a complete response. Other patients achieved objective responses, but they had received IL-2 along with an adenovirus, and their responses could be attributed to the cytokine. Immunologic assays showed no consistent immunization to the MART-1 or gp100 transgenes expressed by the recombinant adenoviruses. High levels of neutralizing antibody were found in the pretreatment sera of the patients. Conclusions: High doses of recombinant adenoviruses could be safely administered to cancer patients. High levels of neutralizing antibody present in patients' sera prior to treatment may have impaired the ability of these viruses to immunize patients against melanoma antigens. PMID:9862627

  5. Tumor DNA in cerebral spinal fluid reflects clinical course in a patient with melanoma leptomeningeal brain metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingmei; Pan, Wenying; Connolly, Ian D.; Reddy, Sunil; Nagpal, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from brain tumor patients contains tumor cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which provides a less-invasive and routinely accessible method to obtain tumor genomic information. In this report, we used droplet digital PCR to test mutant tumor DNA in CSF of a patient to monitor the treatment response of metastatic melanoma leptomeningeal disease (LMD). The primary melanoma was known to have a BRAFV600E mutation, and the patient was treated with whole brain radiotherapy and BRAF inhibitors. We collected 9 CSF samples over 6 months. The mutant cfDNA fraction gradually decreased from 53 % (time of diagnosis) to 0 (time of symptom alleviation) over the first 6 time points. Three months after clinical improvement, the patient returned with severe symptoms and the mutant cfDNA was again detected in CSF at high levels. The mutant DNA fraction corresponded well with the patient’s clinical response. We used whole exome sequencing to examine the mutation profiles of the LMD tumor DNA in CSF before therapeutic response and after disease relapse, and discovered a canonical cancer mutation PTENR130* at both time points. The cellular and cfDNA revealed similar mutation profiles, suggesting cfDNA is representative of LMD cells. This study demonstrates the potential of using cellular or cfDNA in CSF to monitor treatment response for LMD. PMID:26961773

  6. Prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Poissonnet, G.; Dassonville, O.; Santini, J.; Castillo, L.; Iattes, L.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Castillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mucous melanoma of superior aero-digestive tracts represents 1-2% of malignant melanomas, 5-10% of head and neck melanomas, and concerns particularly, the nasal cavities and naso-sinus cavities. The recurrences are frequent, often local ones, sometimes multifocal ones, the survival rate at five years is ≤ 30%. The Ballantyne classification distinguishes three stages: 1 localised tumors, 2 ganglions attack, 3 metastases. Are pejorative: a stage number 3 ( deep invasion, muscles, bones, cartilages) according to the Prasad classification (1: in situ or micro invasive, 2: invasion of the lamina propria), the achromia sub-type, a pseudo papillary or sarcoma, vascular emboli, necrosis. The recommendations rest on evidence level at 4. The complete excision is the rule and must be counterbalanced with the morbidity in case of orbital, dura-mater, frontal lobe, and infra temporal fossa. The adjuvant irradiation is debated.We evaluated the prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas. Conclusion: The principal cause of death was the local failure. The Ballantyne classification does not take into account the extensions and overestimates the prognosis impact of ganglions invasion that is yet ≤10% ( and does not justify a radiotherapy in lack of adenopathy). It underestimates probably the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy. One should be able to distinguish the unfavourable stage 1 tumors (receiving eventually a radiotherapy) and these ones of very localised stage 1 for which it could be omitted. The fractionation and the optimal dose remain to be defined. The volume ≥100 ml and the irradiation by carbon ions seem promising in term of local control but the metastases stay a problem in the recent series. (N.C.)

  7. An Endogenous Electron Spin Resonance (ESR signal discriminates nevi from melanomas in human specimens: a step forward in its diagnostic application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cesareo

    Full Text Available Given the specific melanin-associated paramagnetic features, the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR, called also Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, EPR analysis has been proposed as a potential tool for non-invasive melanoma diagnosis. However, studies comparing human melanoma tissues to the most appropriate physiological counterpart (nevi have not been performed, and ESR direct correlation with melanoma clinical features has never been investigated. ESR spectrum was obtained from melanoma and non-melanoma cell-cultures as well as mouse melanoma and non-melanoma tissues and an endogenous ESR signal (g = 2.005 was found in human melanoma cells and in primary melanoma tissues explanted from mice, while it was always absent in non-melanoma samples. These characteristics of the measured ESR signal strongly suggested its connection with melanin. Quantitative analyses were then performed on paraffin-embedded human melanoma and nevus sections, and validated on an independent larger validation set, for a total of 112 sections (52 melanomas, 60 nevi. The ESR signal was significantly higher in melanomas (p = 0.0002 and was significantly different between "Low Breslow's and "High Breslow's" depth melanomas (p<0.0001. A direct correlation between ESR signal and Breslow's depth, expressed in millimetres, was found (R = 0.57; p<0.0001. The eu/pheomelanin ratio was found to be significantly different in melanomas "Low Breslow's" vs melanomas "High Breslow's" depth and in nevi vs melanomas "High Breslow's depth". Finally, ROC analysis using ESR data discriminated melanomas sections from nevi sections with up to 90% accuracy and p<0.0002. In the present study we report for the first time that ESR signal in human paraffin-embedded nevi is significantly lower than signal in human melanomas suggesting that spectrum variations may be related to qualitative melanin differences specifically occurring in melanoma cells. We therefore conclude that this ESR signal

  8. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  9. Metastatic melanoma of mesentery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, M. S.; Ali, S.A.; Shirazi, B.; Shamim, M.

    2004-01-01

    A case of malignant melanoma metastatic to small bowel mesentery in an old female is reported. Her primary malignant melanoma of nasal mucosa was already treated. She presented with intestinal obstruction, underwent surgical excision of the tumour and was tumour-free postoperatively. (author)

  10. Melanoma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haan, Jorine; Lok, Christianne A; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-01-01

    The management of melanoma during pregnancy is challenging as maternal benefits and fetal risks need to be balanced. Here, we present an overview of the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics and the treatment modalities used. After analysis of obstetric, fetal and maternal outcome......, recommendations for clinical practice are provided. From the 'International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy' database, pregnant patients with melanoma were identified and analysed. Sixty pregnancies were eligible for analysis. Fifty percent of the patients presented with advanced melanoma during...... pregnancy (14 stage III and 16 stage IV), and 27% were diagnosed with recurrent melanoma. Surgery was the main therapeutic strategy during pregnancy. Only four patients with advanced melanoma were treated during pregnancy with systemic therapy (n=1) or radiotherapy (n=3). Premature delivery was observed...

  11. Familial melanoma associated with dominant ultraviolet radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, R.G.; Chen, P.; Imray, F.P.; Kidson, C.; Lavin, M.F.; Hockey, A.

    1982-01-01

    Sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation was studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 32 members of two families with histories of multiple primary melanomas in several generations. As assayed by colony formation in agar or by trypan blue exclusion following irradiation, cellular sensitivity showed a bimodal distribution. All persons with melanoma or multiple moles were in the sensitive group, while some family members exhibited responses similar to those of controls. Cells from four cases of sporadic melanoma showed normal levels of sensitivity. The data are consistent with a dominantly inherited ultraviolet light sensitivity associated with these examples of familial melanoma. Spontaneous and ultraviolet light-induced sister chromatid exchange frequencies were similar to those in control cell lines. No defect in excision repair was detected in any of the above cell lines, but the sensitive group showed postirradiation inhibition of DNA replication intermediate between controls and an excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cell line

  12. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Laser Microdissected Melanoma Cells from Skin Organ Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brian L.; Grahovac, Jelena; Flint, Melanie S.; Sun, Mai; Charro, Nuno; Becker, Dorothea; Wells, Alan; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Gaining insights into the molecular events that govern the progression from melanoma in situ to advanced melanoma, and understanding how the local microenvironment at the melanoma site influences this progression, are two clinically pivotal aspects that to date are largely unexplored. In an effort to identify key regulators of the crosstalk between melanoma cells and the melanoma-skin microenvironment, primary and metastatic human melanoma cells were seeded into skin organ cultures (SOCs), and grown for two weeks. Melanoma cells were recovered from SOCs by laser microdissection and whole-cell tryptic digests analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The differential protein abundances were calculated by spectral counting, the results of which provides evidence that cell-matrix and cell-adhesion molecules that are upregulated in the presence of these melanoma cells recapitulate proteomic data obtained from comparative analysis of human biopsies of invasive melanoma and a tissue sample of adjacent, non-involved skin. This concordance demonstrates the value of SOCs for conducting proteomic investigations of the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:20459140

  14. High frequency of PTEN mutations in nevi and melanomas from xeroderma pigmentosum patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Taro; Wang, Yun; DiGiovanna, John J; Khan, Sikandar G; Raffeld, Mark; Beltaifa, Senda; Hornyak, Thomas J; Darling, Thomas N; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2014-05-01

    We examined nevi and melanomas in 10 xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients with defective DNA repair. The lesions had a lentiginous appearance with markedly increased numbers of melanocytes. Using laser capture microdissection, we performed DNA sequencing of 18 benign and atypical nevi and 75 melanomas (melanoma in situ and invasive melanomas). The nevi had a similar high frequency of PTEN mutations as melanomas [61% (11/18) versus 53% (39/73)]. Both had a very high proportion of UV-type mutations (occurring at adjacent pyrimidines) [91% (10/11) versus 92% (36/39)]. In contrast to melanomas in the general population, the frequency of BRAF mutations (11%, 7/61), NRAS mutations (21%, 13/62), and KIT mutations (21%, 6/28) in XP melanomas was lower than for PTEN. Phospho-S6 immunostaining indicated activation of the mTOR pathway in the atypical nevi and melanomas. Thus, the clinical and histological appearances and the molecular pathology of these UV-related XP nevi and melanomas were different from nevi and melanomas in the general population. © 2014 Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  16. CD147/basigin promotes progression of malignant melanoma and other cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekura, Takuro; Chen, Xiang

    2010-03-01

    CD147/basigin, a transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin super family, was originally cloned as a carrier of Lewis X carbohydrate antigen. CD147 is strongly related to cancer progression; it is highly expressed by various cancer cells including malignant melanoma (MM) cells and it plays important roles in tumor invasiveness, metastasis, cellular proliferation, and in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, tumor cell glycolysis, and multi-drug resistance (MDR). CD147 on cancer cells induces matrix metalloproteinase expression by neighboring fibroblasts, leading to tumor cell invasion. In a nude mouse model of pulmonary metastasis from MM, the metastatic potential of CD147-expressing MM cells injected into the tail vein is abolished by CD147 silencing. CD147 enhances cellular proliferation and VEGF production by MM cells; it promotes tumor cell glycolysis by facilitating lactate transport in combination with monocarboxylate transporters, resulting in tumor progression. CD147 is responsible for the MDR phenotype via P-glycoprotein expression. These findings strongly suggest CD147 as a possible therapeutic target for overcoming metastasis and MDR, major obstacles to the effective treatment of malignant cancers. 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitumor potential induction and free radicals production in melanoma cells by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, F. [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, 455 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, P.R.P.; Muniz, R.O.R.; Souza, G.S. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research, 2242 Lineu Prestes Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda-Neto, J. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 187 Matao Street, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [FESP, Sao Paulo Engineering School, 5520 Nove de Julho Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Maria, Durvanei A., E-mail: durvaneiaugusto@yahoo.com.br [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Antiproliferative and oxidative damage effects occurring in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in normal fibroblasts and melanoma cell lines were analyzed. Melanoma cells and normal fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations of Boronophenylalanine and irradiated with thermal neutron flux. The cellular viability and the oxidative stress were determined. BNCT induced free radicals production and proliferative potential inhibition in melanoma cells. Therefore, this therapeutic technique could be considered efficient to inhibit growth of melanoma with minimal effects on normal tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) induces melanoma cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT stimulates free radicals production and proliferative inhibition in melanoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It produces tumor membrane degeneration and destruction with apoptotic bodies formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This therapy damages tumor cells selectively, with minimum effects on normal adjacent tissue.

  18. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  19. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  20. Melanoma survivorship: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Susan A; Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Heneghan, Maureen K; McCabe, Mary S; Halpern, Allan C

    2007-03-01

    The rising incidence and mortality rates of melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, are among the greatest increases of all preventable cancers over the past decade. However, because of recent advances in early detection, secondary prevention efforts, and treatment, the number of melanoma survivors is increasing. Little research has been conducted on melanoma survivors and important opportunities exist for research in this understudied population. Here, we outline the important research opportunities related to the study of melanoma survivorship and summarize the paucity of literature currently available. A computerized literature search was performed of the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine from 1966-2005. The scope of the search was limited to those studies published in English. The search was conducted using the following MeSH headings: melanoma, neoplasms, skin neoplasms, survival, and survival rate. The reference lists of relevant book chapters and review articles were further reviewed, and printed materials from recent scientific meetings addressing this topic were obtained. Several factors that affect melanoma survivors warrant further study, including: physiologic long-term effects; psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors; demographic characteristics; surveillance practices; recurrences, secondary primaries, and other cancers; family members of survivors; and economic issues, access to health care/life insurance. Understanding recurrence and second primary cancer risk, psychosocial and cognitive characteristics, behaviors, surveillance patterns, economic sequelae, and family issues of melanoma survivors is important from a public health standpoint to promote the health and well-being of this cohort. Melanoma is an understudied cancer, and the incidence and mortality of this disease are increasing. Describing the long term burden of this cancer and identifying factors that contribute to them will facilitate efforts to develop

  1. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor...... studies are based on DMD data. CONCLUSION: DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment...

  2. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  3. Knockdown of Long Noncoding RNA TUG1 Inhibits the Proliferation and Cellular Invasion of Osteosarcoma Cells By Sponging MiR-153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Yu, Yanzhang; Fan, Shuxin; Luo, Leifeng

    2017-04-12

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) has been confirmed to be involved in the progression of various cancers, however, its mechanism of action in osteosarcoma has not been well addressed. In our study, TUG1 was overexpressed and miR-153 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Loss-of-function assay showed that TUG1 knockdown suppressed the viability, colony formation, and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Moreover, TUG1 was confirmed to be a miR-153 sponge. Ectopic expression of TUG1 reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-153 on the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Further transplantation experiment proved the carcinogenesis of TUG1 in osteosarcoma in vivo. Collectively, our study elucidated that TUG1 contributed to the osteosarcoma development by sponging miR-153. These findings may provide a novel lncRNA-targeted therapy for patients with osteosarcoma.

  4. microRNA-494 is a potential prognostic marker and inhibits cellular proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting SIRT1 in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xuenan; Yu, Chunna; Jin, Zhenzhen; Wei, Lingxia; Cao, Jinghe; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Cuifang

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common types of gynecological malignancy worldwide, and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality among women. Despite improvements in therapeutic treatments, the prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor, mainly due to the rapid growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer tumors. An increasing number of studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of human cancer, suggesting that miRNAs may be used in clinical prognosis and as a therapeutic target in EOC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of miRNA-494 in EOC tissues and cell lines. The clinical significance of miRNA-494 in patients with EOC was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that miRNA-494 was significantly downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines. Low expression levels of miRNA-494 were associated with poor prognostic features, including International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size and lymph node metastasis. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that overexpression of miRNA-494 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion in EOC cells. By contrast, knockdown of miRNA-494 enhanced cell growth, migration and invasion in EOC cells. Notably, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was identified as a direct target of miRNA-494 in EOC. Furthermore, MTT, cell migration and invasion assays verified that EOC cell proliferation, migration and invasion were completely restored with forced miRNA-494 expression and SIRT1 restoration. Together, these findings suggest that miRNA-494 is a potential prognostic marker, and may provide novel therapeutic regimens of targeted therapy for EOC.

  5. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  6. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will

  7. Racial and ethnic variations in incidence and survival of cutaneous melanoma in the United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Eide, Melody J; King, Jessica; Saraiya, Mona; Huang, Youjie; Wiggins, Charles; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Martin, Nicolle; Cokkinides, Vilma; Miller, Jacqueline; Patel, Pragna; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Kim, Julian

    2011-11-01

    Most melanoma studies use data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program or individual cancer registries. Small numbers of melanoma cases have limited in-depth analyses for all racial and ethnic groups. We sought to describe racial and ethnic variations in melanoma incidence and survival. Incidence for invasive melanoma and 5-year melanoma-specific survival were calculated for whites, blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), and Hispanics using data from 38 population-based cancer registries. Incidence rates of melanoma were significantly higher for females than males among whites and Hispanics under 50 years of age and APIs under 40 years of age. White and black patients were older (median age: 59-63 years) compared with Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and API (median age: 52-56 years). The most common histologic type was acral lentiginous melanoma among blacks and superficial spreading melanoma among all other racial and ethnic groups. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate of acral lentiginous melanoma, significantly higher than whites and API. Nonwhites were more likely to have advanced and thicker melanomas at diagnosis and lower melanoma-specific survival compared with whites. Over 50% of melanoma cases did not have specified histology. The numbers of nonwhite patients were still relatively small despite broad population coverage (67% of United States). Racial and ethnic differences in age at melanoma diagnosis, anatomic sites, and histologic types suggest variations in etiologic pathways. The high percentages of advanced and thicker melanomas among nonwhites highlight the need to improve melanoma awareness for all race and ethnicity in the United States. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristic features of cutaneous melanoma in a dermatology referral centre in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Kambiz; Kazemi, Sheyda; Azimi, Pourya; Azizpour, Arghavan; Ghandi, Narges; Pirooz, Elham; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Mirshams-Shahshahani, Mostafa; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    The characteristics of cutaneous melanoma in the Middle-Eastern countries is poorly described. Therefore we conducted this study to determine the characteristics of melanoma in Iran. A retrospective, cross sectional study of melanoma patients seen at a tertiary referral centre, Iran, from May 2004 to October 2014. Clinical data included age and gender of the patients at the time of diagnosis, tumour location and tumour size. Histological characteristics included Breslow thickness, Clark level and subtype of tumour. A total of 450 cases of melanoma with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1 were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 57.5 years. The most frequent histological subtypes were acral lentiginous melanoma (30%) and lentigo maligna melanoma (29%). In 215 cases (49%) the tumour was located on the extremities. The second most common site was the face. Tumour invasion was mainly at Clark level III and IV. The mean Breslow thickness was 2.8 mm; 143 (38%) melanomas had a Breslow thickness less than 1 mm (T1) and 86 (23%) were more than 4 mm (T4). This study indicates that clinical and histological features of melanoma in Iranians (who are mainly of skin phototypes 3-4) are different from those observed in Western countries. Further cohort studies are required to evaluate the role of ethnic and environmental risk factors for melanoma in different populations. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Impact of MAPK Pathway Activation in BRAFV600 Melanoma on T Cell and Dendritic Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Ott

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive upregulation of the MAPK pathway by a BRAFV600 mutation occurs in about half of melanomas. This leads to increased oncogenic properties such as tumor cell invasion, metastatic potential, and resistance to apoptosis. Blockade of the MAPK pathway with highly specific kinase inhibitors induces unprecedented tumor response rates in patients with advanced BRAFV600 mutant melanoma. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programed death-1/PD-L1 has also demonstrated striking anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced melanoma. Tumor responses are likely limited by multiple additional layers of immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. There is emerging preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that MAPK inhibition has a beneficial effect on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, providing a strong rationale for combined immunotherapy and MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma. The T cell response has been the main focus in the studies reported to date. Since dendritic cells (DCs are important in the induction of tumor-specific T cell responses, the impact of MAPK pathway activation in melanoma on DC function is critical for the melanoma directed immune response. BRAFV600E melanoma cells modulate DCs through the MAPK pathway because its blockade in melanoma cells can reverse suppression of DC function. As both MEK/BRAF inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade have recently taken center stage in the treatment of melanoma, a deeper understanding of how MAPK pathway inhibition affects the tumor immune response is needed.

  10. Melanoma in the skin of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldoch, Jennifer A; Burke, Sandy S; Ramer, Jan C; Garner, Michael M

    2010-12-01

    A female nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, estimated at 27 yr of age had a 5.5-yr history of a 6-cm black, raised nodular skin lesion located on the right side of the proximal tail. The lesion was diagnosed on biopsy as a slow-growing melanoma of the skin with no vascular invasion. The nurse shark was euthanized for systemic illness approximately 4.5 mo after diagnosis of the dermal melanoma. No evidence of metastasis was found on histopathologic evaluation of the skin and viscera.

  11. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elias G., E-mail: george.elias@medstar.net; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K. [Maryland Melanoma Center, Weinberg Cancer Institute, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  12. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias G. Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  13. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  14. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  15. Seven Non-melanoma Features to Rule Out Facial Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Tschandl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial melanoma is difficult to diagnose and dermatoscopic features are often subtle. Dermatoscopic non-melanoma patterns may have a comparable diagnostic value. In this pilot study, facial lesions were collected retrospectively, resulting in a case set of 339 melanomas and 308 non-melanomas. Lesions were evaluated for the prevalence (> 50% of lesional surface of 7 dermatoscopic non-melanoma features: scales, white follicles, erythema/reticular vessels, reticular and/or curved lines/fingerprints, structureless brown colour, sharp demarcation, and classic criteria of seborrhoeic keratosis. Melanomas had a lower number of non-melanoma patterns (p < 0.001. Scoring a lesion suspicious when no prevalent non-melanoma pattern is found resulted in a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 66.9% for the diagnosis of melanoma. Specificity was higher for solar lentigo (78.8% and seborrhoeic keratosis (74.3% and lower for actinic keratosis (61.4% and lichenoid keratosis (25.6%. Evaluation of prevalent non-melanoma patterns can provide slightly lower sensitivity and higher specificity in detecting facial melanoma compared with already known malignant features.

  16. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misu, Masayasu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kawai, Norikazu; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage

  17. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misu, Masayasu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kawai, Norikazu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nishimura, Fumihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  18. Immunoscintigraphy in ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Scober, O.; Scheidler, J.; Leinsinger, G.; Scheiffarth, O.; Riedel, K.; Schumacher, U.

    1990-01-01

    Immunoscintigraphy (IS) of malignant tumors has become an encouraging tool in nuclear medicine. Early diagnosis of small lesions is mandatory for successful cancer therapy generally. The scintigraphic detectability of small lesions ( 2 fragments of the anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody 225.28S; this antibody recognizes the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen. No adverse effects were observed. In terms of true positive results, Single Photon Emission CT proved to be superior compared to planar scans (81 versus 46 percent true positive results). (author). 30 refs

  19. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar

    2015-04-02

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  20. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Alarcó n, Tomá s

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  1. Neuro tropic Melanoma: The Management of Localised Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croker, J.; Burmeister, B.; Foote, M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro tropic melanoma is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Compared with conventional melanoma, it is more locally aggressive with an increased tendency for local recurrence but less likely for nodal or distant metastases. These tumours can be a diagnostic dilemma with a variety of morphological, histopathological, and immunophenotypical expressions. The often amelanotic, benign appearance may lead to treatment issues such as late presentation, diagnostic delay, misdiagnosis, insufficient surgical margins, and recurrence with resulting poor outcome. The neuro tropic nature of the disease and prevalence in the head and neck region can result in peri neural and neural invasion along named large nerves into the brain with resulting neuropathies. Wide local excision with adjuvant radiotherapy where indicated remains the current practice for treatment with chemotherapy predominately being reserved as a salvage treatment for patients with disseminated disease.

  2. MAGE-A1 promotes melanoma proliferation and migration through C-JUN activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong [Department of Dermatology, General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); The 309th Hospital of China People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Junyun; Ding, Nan [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yongjun; Yang, Yaran [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Fang, Xiangdong, E-mail: fangxd@big.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hua, E-mail: luckhua301@163.com [Department of Dermatology, General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2016-05-13

    MAGE-A1 belongs to the chromosome X-clustered genes of cancer-testis antigen family and is normally expressed in the human germ line but is also overexpressed in various tumors. Previous studies of MAGE-A1 in melanoma mainly focused on methylation changes or its role in immunotherapy, however, its biological functions in melanoma have remained unknown. In order to determine the role of MAGE-A1 in melanoma growth and metastasis, we manipulated melanoma cell lines with overexpression and knockdown of MAGE-A1. Integration of cell proliferation assays, transwell migration and invasion assays, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed that up-regulation of MAGE-A1 dramatically promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma cell lines in vitro, while down-regulation of MAGE-A1 inhibited those characteristics associated with tumor cells. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing revealed that MAGE-A1 exerts its tumor promoting activity by activating p-C-JUN directly or through ERK-MAPK signaling pathways. Based on our findings, we propose that MAGE-A1 may be a potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients. - Highlights: • MAGE-A1 promotes proliferation and clone formation in melanoma cell lines. • MAGE-A1 enhances tumor cell migration and invasion in melanoma cell lines. • Network including C-JUN, IL8, and ARHGAP29 play critical role in malignant melanoma. • Oncogenic MAGE-A1 increases p-C-JUN levels, possibly via ERK-MAPK signaling pathway.

  3. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  4. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  6. The Functional Characterization of Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 in Human Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar, Joseph; Zhao, Wei; Khalil, Ahmad M.; Lee, Bongyong; Shelley, John; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S.; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Ratnam, Maya; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Collins, Sheila; Finck, Brian N.; Han, Xianlin; Mattick, John S.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Perera, Ranjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SPRY4-IT1 is low in normal human melanocytes but high in melanoma cells. siRNA knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 blocks melanoma cell invasion and proliferation, and increases apoptosis. To investigate its function further, we affinity purified SPRY4-IT1 from melanoma cells and used mass spectrometry to identify the protein lipin 2, an enzyme that converts phosphatidate to diacylglycerol (DAG), as a major binding partner. SPRY4-IT1 knockdown increases the ac...

  7. miR-644a Inhibits Cellular Proliferation and Invasion via Suppression of CtBP1 in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Yan, Xiaoni; Ren, Li; Li, Yang

    2018-01-19

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the most important mechanisms in the metastasis of various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we explored the putative significance of miR-644a and its role in EMT-mediated metastasis of GC. We first detected the expression of miR-644a in a cohort of 107 GC tissues using quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of miR-644a was suppressed in GC tissues and was associated with a later clinical stage and tumor metastasis. Restoring the expression of miR-644a could significantly suppress the migration and invasion of HGC-27 and SGC-7901 cells, which might be correlated to its suppressive effect on the EMT process. We also found that carboxyl-terminal-binding protein 1 (CtBP1) was a putative target gene of miR-644a in GC and might be involved in the suppressive effect. Collectively, through targeting CtBP1-mediated suppression of the EMT process, miR-644a might suppress the tumor metastasis of GC cells.

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  9. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 μm thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  10. Conjunctival amelanotic malignant melanoma arising in primary acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, V; Font, R L

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe an amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) sine pigmento, and highlight the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on a conjunctival tumor in a 54-year-old white woman. Case report. Histopathologic examination revealed an invasive amelanotic melanoma of the conjunctiva, with anterior orbital extension arising from intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes that lacked melanin pigment (PAM sine pigmento). Both the malignant melanoma cells and the intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes in the areas of PAM exhibited S-100 and HMB-45 positivity. The patient underwent an orbital exenteration that disclosed tumor within the anterior orbit inferiorly. Amelanotic invasive malignant melanoma can arise in association with PAM sine pigmento, as seen in our patient who had orbital invasion necessitating exenteration. This aggressive form of conjunctival melanoma is often associated with a poor prognosis and risk of metastatic disease. Absence of conjunctival pigmentation in PAM sine pigmento prevents early clinical detection of this variant of PAM. This lack of pigmentation also makes clinical diagnosis virtually impossible, and diagnosis can only be established histopathologically. Awareness of this nonpigmented variety of PAM is crucial for early recognition and appropriate management of the associated melanoma.

  11. Genomic copy number analysis of a spectrum of blue nevi identifies recurrent aberrations of entire chromosomal arms in melanoma ex blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, May P; Andea, Aleodor A; Harms, Paul W; Durham, Alison B; Patel, Rajiv M; Wang, Min; Robichaud, Patrick; Fisher, Gary J; Johnson, Timothy M; Fullen, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Blue nevi may display significant atypia or undergo malignant transformation. Morphologic diagnosis of this spectrum of lesions is notoriously difficult, and molecular tools are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy. We studied copy number aberrations in a cohort of cellular blue nevi, atypical cellular blue nevi, and melanomas ex blue nevi using Affymetrix's OncoScan platform. Cases with sufficient DNA were analyzed for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS mutations. Copy number aberrations were detected in 0 of 5 (0%) cellular blue nevi, 3 of 12 (25%) atypical cellular blue nevi, and 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas ex blue nevi. None of the atypical cellular blue nevi displayed more than one aberration, whereas complex aberrations involving four or more regions were seen exclusively in melanomas ex blue nevi. Gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms were identified in four of five melanomas ex blue nevi with copy number aberrations. In particular, gains of 1q, 4p, 6p, and 8q, and losses of 1p and 4q were each found in at least two melanomas. Whole chromosome aberrations were also common, and represented the sole finding in one atypical cellular blue nevus. When seen in melanomas, however, whole chromosome aberrations were invariably accompanied by partial aberrations of other chromosomes. Three melanomas ex blue nevi harbored aberrations, which were absent or negligible in their precursor components, suggesting progression in tumor biology. Gene mutations involving GNAQ and GNA11 were each detected in two of eight melanomas ex blue nevi. In conclusion, copy number aberrations are more common and often complex in melanomas ex blue nevi compared with cellular and atypical cellular blue nevi. Identification of recurrent gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms in melanomas ex blue nevi suggests that development of new probes targeting these regions may improve detection and risk stratification of these lesions.

  12. Melanoma Suppressor Functions of the Carcinoma Oncogene FOXQ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archis Bagati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lineage-specific regulation of tumor progression by the same transcription factor is understudied. We find that levels of the FOXQ1 transcription factor, an oncogene in carcinomas, are decreased during melanoma progression. Moreover, in contrast to carcinomas, FOXQ1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis in melanoma cells. We find that these lineage-specific functions of FOXQ1 largely depend on its ability to activate (in carcinomas or repress (in melanoma transcription of the N-cadherin gene (CDH2. We demonstrate that FOXQ1 interacts with nuclear β-catenin and TLE proteins, and the β-catenin/TLE ratio, which is higher in carcinoma than melanoma cells, determines the effect of FOXQ1 on CDH2 transcription. Accordingly, other FOXQ1-dependent phenotypes can be manipulated by altering nuclear β-catenin or TLE proteins levels. Our data identify FOXQ1 as a melanoma suppressor and establish a mechanism underlying its inverse lineage-specific transcriptional regulation of transformed phenotypes.

  13. A novel platform for minimally invasive delivery of cellular therapy as a thin layer across the subretina for treatment of retinal degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Tzameret, Adi; Kalish, Sapir E.; Belkin, Michael; Meir, Amilia; Treves, Avraham J.; Nagler, Arnon; Sher, Ifat

    2015-03-01

    Incurable retinal degenerations affect millions worldwide. Stem cell transplantation rescued visual functions in animal models of retinal degeneration. In those studies cells were transplanted in subretinal "blebs", limited number of cells could be injected and photoreceptor rescue was restricted to areas in proximity to the injection sites. We developed a minimally-invasive surgical platform for drug and cell delivery in a thin layer across the subretina and extravascular spaces of the choroid. The novel system is comprised of a syringe with a blunt-tipped needle and an adjustable separator. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were transplanted in eyes of RCS rats and NZW rabbits through a longitudinal triangular scleral incision. No immunosuppressants were used. Retinal function was determined by electroretinogram analysis and retinal structure was determined by histological analysis and OCT. Transplanted cells were identified as a thin layer across the subretina and extravascular spaces of the choroid. In RCS rats, cell transplantation delayed photoreceptor degeneration across the entire retina and significantly enhanced retinal functions. No retinal detachment or choroidal hemorrhages were observed in rabbits following transplantation. This novel platform opens a new avenue for drug and cell delivery, placing the transplanted cells in close proximity to the damaged RPE and retina as a thin layer, across the subretina and thereby slowing down cell death and photoreceptor degeneration, without retinal detachment or choroidal hemorrhage. This new transplantation system may increase the therapeutic effect of other cell-based therapies and therapeutic agents. This study is expected to directly lead to phase I/II clinical trials for autologous hBM-MSCs transplantation in retinal degeneration patients.

  14. Communication about melanoma and risk reduction after melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Berwick, Marianne; Hay, Jennifer L

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening. Patients were, on average, 56 years old and 6.7 years' post diagnosis; 51% were male, 93% reported "fair/very fair" skin color, 75% completed at least some college, and 22% reported a family history of melanoma. Patients reported varying levels of regular (always/nearly always) sun protection: sunscreen use (79%), shade seeking (60%), hat use (54%), and long-sleeve shirt use (30%). Only 28% performed thorough SSE regularly, whereas 92% reported undergoing physician-led skin examinations within the past year. Participants who were female, younger, and had a higher perceived risk of future melanoma were more likely to report past communication. In adjusted analyses, communication remained uniquely associated with increased sunscreen use and SSE. Encouraging melanoma patients to have a more active role in discussions concerning melanoma risk and screening with relatives and physicians alike may be a useful strategy to promote 2 key risk-reduction practices post melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Future research is needed to identify additional strategies to improve comprehensive risk reduction in long-term melanoma patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Monitoring the systemic human memory B cell compartment of melanoma patients for anti-tumor IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Gilbert

    Full Text Available Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10 to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10 (P<0.0001. Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21 (P<0.0001. Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800 compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600 produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer.

  16. Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy E.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H.; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L. C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Rudman, Sarah M.; Beavil, Rebecca L.; Blower, Philip J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; Gould, Hannah J.; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. PMID:21559411

  17. Uptake in melanoma cells of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA2), an imaging agent for melanoma staging: relation to pigmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansard, Sandrine; Papon, Janine; Moreau, Marie-France; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Labarre, Pierre; Bayle, Martine; Veyre, Annie; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA 2 ) has been singled out as the most efficacious melanoma scintigraphy imaging agent. Our work was designed to assess the mechanisms of the specific affinity of the radioiodinated iodobenzamide for melanoma tissue. We studied the cellular uptake and retention of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 on various cell lines. In vitro, cellular [ 125 I]-BZA 2 uptake was related to the pigmentation status of the cells: higher in pigmented melanoma cell lines (M4 Beu, IPC 227, B 16) than in a nonpigmented one (M3 Dau) and nonmelanoma cell lines (MCF 7 and L 929). Two mechanisms were assessed: binding of the tracer to melanin or to sigma receptors of melanoma cells. First, the uptake of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 after melanogenesis stimulation by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and L-tyrosine increased in the B 16 melanoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo according to melanin concentration. Moreover, the binding of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 to synthetic melanin was dependent on melanin concentration and could be saturated. Second, no competition was evidenced on M4 Beu cells between [ 125 I]-BZA 2 and haloperidol, a sigma ligand, at concentrations ≤10 -6 M. We show that the specificity and sensibility of BZA 2 as a melanoma scintigraphic imaging agent are mostly due to interactions with melanic pigments

  18. The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, Babak; Vujic, Marin; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Sesti, Alma; Oberaigner, Willi; Vujic, Igor; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Posch, Christian; Feichtinger, Hans; Hackl, Monika; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria. We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs. A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rutkowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.

  20. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: rutkowskip@coi.waw.pl; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I. [Soft Tissue/Bone Sarcoma and Melanoma Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland); Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van [Erasmus University Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-11

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.

  1. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Piotr; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I.; Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van

    2010-01-01

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas

  2. Flavonoids apigenin and quercetin inhibit melanoma growth and metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltagirone, S; Rossi, C; Poggi, A; Ranelletti, F O; Natali, P G; Brunetti, M; Aiello, F B; Piantelli, M

    2000-08-15

    Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, which display a variety of biological activities, including chemoprevention and tumor growth inhibition. Our aim was to investigate the effects of several polyphenols on the growth and metastatic potential of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of quercetin, apigenin, (-)-epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, and the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, at the time of i.m. injection of B16-BL6 cells into syngeneic mice, resulted in a significant, dose-dependent delay of tumor growth, without toxicity. The relative descending order of potency was EGCG > apigenin = quercetin = tamoxifen > resveratrol > control. Furthermore, polyphenols significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of a non-toxic dose of cisplatin. When tested for the ability to inhibit lung colonization, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the number of B16-BL6 colonies in the lungs in a dose-dependent manner, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. Interestingly, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the invasion of B16-BL6 cells in vitro, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. This suggests that anti-invasive activity is one of the mechanisms underlying inhibition of lung colonization by quercetin and apigenin. In conclusion, quercetin and apigenin inhibit melanoma growth and invasive and metastatic potential; therefore, they may constitute a valuable tool in the combination therapy of metastatic melanoma. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.

  4. Desmoplastic malignant melanoma presenting as large lung mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Alao, Bassel Suffian

    2010-08-01

    We describe a case of successful minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgical resection of metastatic desmoplastic malignant melanoma replacing the entire right lower lobe of the lung, presenting 4 years after the initial complete resection of the primary scalp lesion. An 89-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of right-sided chest pain. A computed tomographic scan showed a large paravertebral mass with possibility of chest wall invasion. Core biopsy initially raised the suspicion of a schwannoma. We also discussed the atypical delayed presentation and misleading radiologic and histologic findings.

  5. Pediatric Melanoma and Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Importance—Pediatric melanoma occurs, albeit rarely. Should patients be treated by today’s medical standards, or be subjected to medically unnecessary clinical studies? Observations—We identified international, industry-sponsored pediatric melanoma studies triggered by regulatory demands in www.clinicaltrials.gov and further pediatric melanoma studies demanded by European Union pediatric investigation plans. We retrieved related regulatory documents from the internet. We analyzed these studies for rationale and medical beneficence on the basis of physiology, pediatric clinical pharmacology and rationale. Regulatory authorities define children by chronological age, not physiologically. Newborns’ organs are immature but they develop and mature rapidly. Separate proof of efficacy in underage patients is justified formally/regulatorily but lacks medical sense. Children—especially post-puberty—and adults vis-a-vis medications are physiologically very similar. Two adolescent melanoma studies were terminated in 2016 because of waning recruitment, while five studies in pediatric melanoma and other solid tumors, triggered by European Union pediatric investigation plans, continue recruiting worldwide. Conclusions and Relevance—Regulatory-demanded pediatric melanoma studies are medically superfluous. Melanoma patients of all ages should be treated with effective combination treatment. Babies need special attention. Children need dose-finding and pharmacokinetic studies but adolescents metabolize and respond to drugs similarly to adults. Institutional Review Boards/ethics committees should suspend ongoing questionable pediatric melanoma studies and reject newly submitted questionable studies.

  6. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chun-Ting; Lai, Cong-Hao; Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  7. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Ting [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lai, Cong-Hao [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Tang, Pin-Chi, E-mail: pctang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  8. Investigation of the relationship between dermoscopic features and histopathological prognostic indicators in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özbağçıvan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermoscopy has an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma nowadays. Dermoscopic findings of melanoma had been associated with Breslow thickness and invasion status in previous studies but the relationship between dermatoscopic findings and other histopathological prognostic indicators has not been investigated until today. In this study, our aim is to investigate the relationship between dermatoscopic findings and histopathologic prognostic indicators such as Breslow thickness, invasion status, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, ulceration and regression in patients who had been diagnosed with melanoma due to their clinical, dermatoscopic and histopatological findings. Materials and Methods: Dermoscopic and histopathological findings of 47 cases of melanoma who applied to our clinic between the years 2000 and 2014 were evaluated. The relationship between the dermoscopic findings which had been reported to be observed in melanomas in previous research and the histopathologic prognostic indicators such as Breslow thickness, invasion status, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion, ulceration and regression were investigated. Results: Irregular dots/globules, atypical pigment network, multifocal hypopigmentation, radial streaks and moth-eaten borders have been associated with good prognostic indicators whereas comedo like openings, regular blotch, exophytic papillary structures, dotted, glomerular, lineer irregular vessels, pink/red and blue/gray colors were associated with poor prognostic indicators. Additionally some dermatoscopic findings which are more observed in benign lesions such as multiple milia-like cysts, comedo like openings, moth-eaten borders, regular blotch, exophytic papillary structures and finger print areas have been observed in melanomas in our study. Conclusion: Many dermoscopic findings have demonstrated statistically significant association with the histopathological prognostic indicators

  9. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Norwegian Cancer Society, Oslo)

    1986-01-01

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the α/β ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these α/β ratios are no more than estimates of the effective α/β ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  10. Transformation of a Silent Adrencorticotrophic Pituitary Tumor Into Central Nervous System Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Miller MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenomas are nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH but do not cause the clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolemia. Primary central nervous system (CNS melanoma is well documented, but rarely originates in the sellar region or pituitary gland. Here we report transformation of an aggressive silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenoma that transformed into CNS melanoma and review other presentations of pituitary melanoma. A 37-year-old woman initially presented with apoplexy and an invasive nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for which she underwent transphenoidal surgery. The patient underwent 3 subsequent surgeries as the tumor continued to progress. Pathology from the first 3 operations showed pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. Pathology from the final surgery showed melanoma and the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumor had changed to become consistent with CNS melanoma. Dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations did not identify cutaneous or ocular melanoma. The patient’s disease progressed despite aggressive surgical, medical and radiologic treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating transformation of a primary pituitary tumor into melanoma. The mechanism of tumor transformation is unclear, but it is possible that a mutation in the original ACTH-producing tumor lead to increased cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin or ACTH into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulated the expression of microopthalmia transcription factor, leading to melanocytic phenotype transformation.

  11. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  12. Interactive Tailored Website to Promote Sun Protection and Skin Self-Check Behaviors in Patients With Stage 0-III Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage 0 Skin Melanoma; Stage I Skin Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage II Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma

  13. Immune cell-poor melanomas benefit from PD-1 blockade after targeted type I IFN activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, Tobias; Landsberg, Jennifer; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Renn, Marcel; Glodde, Nicole; Jansen, Philipp; Gaffal, Evelyn; Steitz, Julia; Tolba, Rene; Kalinke, Ulrich; Limmer, Andreas; Jönsson, Göran; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Infiltration of human melanomas with cytotoxic immune cells correlates with spontaneous type I IFN activation and a favorable prognosis. Therapeutic blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors in patients with preexisting lymphocytic infiltrates prolongs survival, but new complementary strategies are needed to activate cellular antitumor immunity in immune cell-poor melanomas. Here, we show that primary melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice, which imitate human immune cell-poor melanomas with a poor outcome, escape IFN-induced immune surveillance and editing. Peritumoral injections of immunostimulatory RNA initiated a cytotoxic inflammatory response in the tumor microenvironment and significantly impaired tumor growth. This critically required the coordinated induction of type I IFN responses by dendritic, myeloid, natural killer, and T cells. Importantly, antibody-mediated blockade of the IFN-induced immune-inhibitory interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 receptors further prolonged the survival. These results highlight important interconnections between type I IFNs and immune-inhibitory receptors in melanoma pathogenesis, which serve as targets for combination immunotherapies. Using a genetically engineered mouse melanoma model, we demonstrate that targeted activation of the type I IFN system with immunostimulatory RNA in combination with blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors is a rational strategy to expose immune cell-poor tumors to cellular immune surveillance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. A natural product-like JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor induces apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jia Wu

    Full Text Available The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, and has been suggested as a potential molecular target for anti-melanoma therapeutics. However, few JAK2 inhibitors were being tested for melanoma therapy. In this study, eight amentoflavone analogues were evaluated for their activity against human malignant melanoma cells. The most potent analogue, compound 1, inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in human melanoma cells, but had no discernible effect on total JAK2 and STAT3 levels. A cellular thermal shift assay was performed to identify that JAK2 is engaged by 1 in cell lysates. Moreover, compound 1 showed higher antiproliferative activity against human melanoma A375 cells compared to a panel of cancer and normal cell lines. Compound 1 also activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, which are markers of apoptosis, and suppressed the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Finally, compound 1 induced apoptosis in 80% of treated melanoma cells. To our knowledge, compound 1 is the first amentoflavone-based JAK2 inhibitor to be investigated for use as an anti-melanoma agent.

  15. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  16. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...

  17. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  18. Vaccines against advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Tatiana; Srivastava, Pramod K; Duan, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that cancers are recognized by the immune system but that the immune recognition of tumors does not uniformly result in tumor rejection or regression. Quantitating the success or failure of the immune system in tumor elimination is difficult because we do not really know the total numbers of encounters of the immune system with the tumors. Regardless of that important issue, recognition of the tumor by the immune system implicitly contains the idea of the tumor antigen, which is what is actually recognized. We review the molecular identity of all forms of tumor antigens (antigens with specific mutations, cancer-testis antigens, differentiation antigens, over-expressed antigens) and discuss the use of these multiple forms of antigens in experimental immunotherapy of mouse and human melanoma. These efforts have been uniformly unsuccessful; however, the approaches that have not worked or have somewhat worked have been the source of many new insights into melanoma immunology. From a critical review of the various approaches to vaccine therapy we conclude that individual cancer-specific mutations are truly the only sources of cancer-specific antigens, and therefore, the most attractive targets for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  20. uPA/uPAR system activation drives a glycolytic phenotype in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Chillà, Anastasia; Luciani, Cristina; Peppicelli, Silvia; Biagioni, Alessio; Bianchini, Francesca; Tenedini, Elena; Torre, Eugenio; Mocali, Alessandra; Calorini, Lido; Margheri, Francesca; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2017-09-15

    In this manuscript, we show the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis of melanoma cells. uPAR over-expression in human melanoma cells controls an invasive and glycolytic phenotype in normoxic conditions. uPAR down-regulation by siRNA or its uncoupling from integrins, and hence from integrin-linked tyrosine kinase receptors (IL-TKRs), by an antagonist peptide induced a striking inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway, resulting into impairment of glucose uptake, decrease of several glycolytic enzymes and of PKM2, a checkpoint that controls metabolism of cancer cells. Further, binding of uPA to uPAR regulates expression of molecules that govern cell invasion, including extracellular matrix metallo-proteinases inducer (EMPPRIN) and enolase, a glycolytyc enzyme that also serves as a plasminogen receptor, thus providing a common denominator between tumor metabolism and phenotypic invasive features. Such effects depend on the α5β1-integrin-mediated uPAR connection with EGFR in melanoma cells with engagement of the PI3K-mTOR-HIFα pathway. HIF-1α trans-activates genes whose products mediate tumor invasion and glycolysis, thus providing the common denominator between melanoma metabolism and its invasive features. These findings unveil a unrecognized interaction between the invasion-related uPAR and IL-TKRs in the control of glycolysis and disclose a new pharmacological target (i.e., uPAR/IL-TKRs axis) for the therapy of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Regulation of cell cycle checkpoint kinase WEE1 by miR-195 in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A; Schmitz, U; Wolkenhauer, O; Schönherr, M; Raatz, Y; Kunz, M

    2013-06-27

    WEE1 kinase has been described as a major gate keeper at the G2 cell cycle checkpoint and to be involved in tumour progression in different malignant tumours. Here we analysed the expression levels of WEE1 in a series of melanoma patient samples and melanoma cell lines using immunoblotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. WEE1 expression was significantly downregulated in patient samples of metastatic origin as compared with primary melanomas and in melanoma cell lines of high aggressiveness as compared with cell lines of low aggressiveness. Moreover, there was an inverse correlation between the expression of WEE1 and WEE1-targeting microRNA miR-195. Further analyses showed that transfection of melanoma cell lines with miR-195 indeed reduced WEE1 mRNA and protein expression in these cells. Reporter gene analysis confirmed direct targeting of the WEE1 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) by miR-195. Overexpression of miR-195 in SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells was accompanied by WEE1 reduction and significantly reduced stress-induced G2-M cell cycle arrest, which could be restored by stable overexpression of WEE1. Moreover, miR-195 overexpression and WEE1 knockdown, respectively, increased melanoma cell proliferation. miR-195 overexpression also enhanced migration and invasiveness of melanoma cells. Taken together, the present study shows that WEE1 expression in malignant melanoma is directly regulated by miR-195. miR-195-mediated downregulation of WEE1 in metastatic lesions may help to overcome cell cycle arrest under stress conditions in the local tissue microenvironment to allow unrestricted growth of tumour cells.

  2. Advances in Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are tumors originating from melanocytes and tend to show early metastasis secondary to the loss of cellular adhesion in the primary tumor, resulting in high mortality rates. Cancer-specific active immunotherapy is an experimental form of treatment that stimulates the immune system to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Current experimental approaches in immunotherapy include vaccines, biochemotherapy, and the transfer of adoptive T cells and dendritic cells. Several types of vaccines, including peptide, viral, and dendritic cell vaccines, are currently under investigation for the treatment of melanoma. These treatments have the same goal as drugs that are already used to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in order to destroy tumor cells; however, immunotherapies aim to selectively attack the tumor cells of each patient. In this comprehensive review, we describe recent advancements in the development of immunotherapies for melanoma, with a specific focus on the identification of neoantigens for the prediction of their elicited immune responses. This review is expected to provide important insights into the future of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  3. Does Melanoma Begin in a Melanocyte Stem Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerter, J. D.; Bradley, P.; Casillas, A.; Chambers, D.; Weiswasser, B.; Clements, L.; Gilbert, S.; Jiao, A.

    2012-01-01

    What is the cellular origin of melanoma? What role do melanocyte stem cells (MSC) and other melanocyte precursors play in the development of melanoma? Are MSCs and other latent melanocyte precursors more susceptible to solar radiation? These and many other questions can be very effectively addressed using the zebra fish model. Zebra fish have a robust regenerative capability, permitting the study of how MSCs are regulated and recruited at specific times and places to generate the pigment pattern following fin amputation or melanocyte ablation. They can be used to determine the effects of environmental radiation on the proliferation, survival, repair, and differentiation of MSCs. Our lab is using zebra fish to investigate how UVA- (320-400nm) and UVB- (290-320nm) induced damage to MSCs may contribute to the development of melanoma. A review is given of MSCs in zebrafish as well as experimental techniques and drugs for manipulating MSC populations. These techniques can be used to design experiments to help answer many questions regarding the role of MSCs or melanocyte precursors in the formation of melanoma stem cells and tumors following exposure to UVA/UVB radiation.

  4. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  5. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  6. What Does Melanoma Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins in melanocytes ( cells that make the pigment melanin ). Below are photos of melanoma that formed on ... Services Website Linking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  7. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  8. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  9. Primary Anorectal Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that tends to invade locally and metastasize early in the course of the disease. It is often misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids or as one of the other benign anorectal conditions and is thus linked to an overall poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Optimal treatment is still controversial, and current evidence does not show any preferential survival benefit from abdominoperineal resection over wide local excision. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be used for advanced disease. We report a 71-year-old female presenting with painful bowel movements and blood in stools. She was eventually found to have a mass arising from the anorectal junction with regional lymph node involvement. The patient underwent an abdominoperineal resection and is currently scheduled for chemotherapy.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The downregulation of epithelial markers followed by upregulation of mesenchymal characteristics is an important step in melanoma development. This process goes along with gains in cell proliferation and motility, depolarization and detachment from neighbouring cells, finally enabling melanoma cells to leave the primary site of tumor growth and to circulate through the blood or lymphatic system. The entirety of these events is referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Changes during EMT are accomplished by a set of transcription factors which share the same DNA binding site called E-box. These E-box binding transcription factors are subsumed as epithelial-mesenchymal transitions regulators (EMTRs). In this thesis, I studied the interplay of the zinc-finger transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist during melanoma progression. I demonstrate for the first time the direct and specific transcriptional upregulation of one EMTR, ZEB1, by another, Slug, using gene silencing and overexpression studies together with mobility shift and luciferase assays. The two transcription factors cooperate in repressing the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin which is supposed to be a crucial step during early EMT. Further, they show additive effects in promoting detachment from neighbouring cells and cell migration. Conceptually, Slug and ZEB1 are supported by Twist, a transcription factor that might be less pivotal for E-cadherin repression but rather for inducing the expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin, enabling adhesion to mesenchymal cells, thereby promoting migration and invasion of melanoma cells.Taken together, I provide a model of a hierarchical organization of EMT transcription factors, with Slug as a transcriptional activator of ZEB1, leading to cooperative effects on detachment and migration and, together with Twist, leading to EMT in melanoma. (author) [de

  11. In-depth characterization of microRNA transcriptome in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kozubek

    Full Text Available The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs that could distinguish common (benign nevi from cutaneous (malignant melanomas remains to be established. In an effort to gain further insight into the role of miRNAs in melanoma, we applied Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS platform to carry out an in-depth analysis of miRNA transcriptome in biopsies of nevi, thick primary (>4.0 mm and metastatic melanomas with matched normal skin in parallel to melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (both primary and metastatic (n=28. From this data representing 698 known miRNAs, we defined a set of top-40 list, which properly classified normal from cancer; also confirming 23 (58% previously discovered miRNAs while introducing an additional 17 (42% known and top-15 putative novel candidate miRNAs deregulated during melanoma progression. Surprisingly, the miRNA signature distinguishing specimens of melanoma from nevus was significantly different than that of melanoma cell lines from melanocytes. Among the top list, miR-203, miR-204-5p, miR-205-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p were decreased in melanomas vs. nevi. In a validation cohort (n=101, we verified the NGS results by qRT-PCR and showed that receiver-operating characteristic curves for miR-211-5p expression accurately discriminated invasive melanoma (AUC=0.933, melanoma in situ (AUC=0.933 and dysplastic (atypical nevi (AUC=0.951 from common nevi. Target prediction analysis of co-transcribed miRNAs showed a cooperative regulation of key elements in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs and other non-coding small RNAs revealing a complex melanoma transcriptome. Deep-sequencing small RNAs directly from clinically defined specimens provides a robust strategy to improve melanoma diagnostics.

  12. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel B. Hammouda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF, BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2. It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant. Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma.

  13. Impact of sentinel lymphadenectomy on survival in a murine model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, Robert B; Lazar, Alexander J F; Fidler, Isaiah J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy-also termed sentinel lymphadenectomy (SL)-has become a standard of care for patients with primary invasive cutaneous melanoma. This technique has been shown to provide accurate information about the disease status of the regional lymph node basins at risk for metastasis, provide prognostic information, and provide durable regional lymph node control. The potential survival benefit afforded to patients undergoing SL is controversial. Central to this controversy is whether metastasis to regional lymph nodes occurs independent of or prior to widespread hematogenous dissemination. A related area of uncertainty is whether tumor cells residing within regional lymph nodes have increased metastatic potential. We have used a murine model of primary invasive cutaneous melanoma based on injection of B16-BL6 melanoma cells into the pinna to address two questions: (1) does SL plus wide excision of the primary tumor result in a survival advantage over wide excision alone; and (2) do melanoma cells growing within lymph nodes produce a higher incidence of hematogenous metastases than do cells growing at the primary tumor site? We found that SL significantly improved the survival of mice with small primary tumors. We found no difference in the incidence of lung metastases produced by B16-BL6 melanoma cells growing exclusively within regional lymph nodes and cells growing within the pinna.

  14. Humanistic burden of disease for patients with advanced melanoma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Winson Y; Bayliss, Martha S; White, Michelle K; Stroupe, Angela; Lovley, Andrew; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Lasch, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, often striking in the prime of life. This study provides new information directly from advanced melanoma (stage III and IV) patients on how their disease impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQL). Twenty-nine in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult patients with advanced melanoma in Canada. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and key concepts were identified using a grounded theory analytic approach. Many patients' journeys began with the startling diagnosis of an invasive disease and a vastly shortened life expectancy. By the time they reached an advanced stage of melanoma, these patients' overall functioning and quality of life had been greatly diminished by this quickly progressing cancer. The impact was described in terms of physical pain and disability, emotional distress, diminished interactions with friends and family, and burden on caregivers. Our findings provide evidence of signs, symptoms, and functional impacts of advanced melanoma. Signs and symptoms reported (physical, mental, and social) confirm and expand on those reported in the existing clinical literature. Primary care physicians should be better trained to identify melanomas early. Oncology care teams can improve on their current approaches for helping patients navigate treatment options, with information about ancillary services to mitigate disease impacts on HRQL, such as mental health and social supports, as well as employment or financial support services.

  15. Rare nodular malignant melanoma of the heel in the Caribbean: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Sookdeo, Vandana Devika; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Sarran, Kevin; Pran, Lemuel; Fortuné, Maurice; Greaves, Wesley; Narinesingh, Sharda; Harnanan, Dave; Maharaj, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the heel is a rare melanoma subtype with incidence rates that reflect the complex relationship between sun exposure at certain geographic locations, individual melanin levels and overall melanoma risk. It is oftentimes characterized by poor prognosis because of delays in presentation resulting in longitudinal tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and metastasis. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago with a 5mm pruritic lesion on her left heel. At presentation, the lesion was asymmetric with border irregularities, color heterogeneity, with dynamics in elevation and overall size. She was subsequently diagnosed with malignant melanoma with left inguinal lymphadenopathy. A single stage wide local excision (WLE) of the left heel lesion with a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and a left inguinal lymphadenectomy were performed. Dacarbazine (Bayer) was administered post operatively. Globally, the incidence of malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing, particularly, in countries like Trinidad and Tobago with a significant population of non-fair skinned individuals. There is need for strategic initiatives to increase patient adherence in these populations. The rarity of malignant heel melanomas heightens the need for increased patient awareness and greater clinical surveillance to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased NY-ESO-1 Expression and Reduced Infiltrating CD3+ T Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Giavina-Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79, rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10 and not in benign nevi (0/20. Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P=0.007 and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P<0.02. NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P=0.017. When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P=0.010 or as isolated cells (P=0.002 than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  17. Targeting melanoma stem cells with the Vitamin E derivative δ-tocotrienol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Messi, Elio; Marelli, Marina Montagnani; Fontana, Fabrizio; Anastasia, Alessia; Bani, Maria Rosa; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Limonta, Patrizia

    2018-01-12

    The prognosis of metastatic melanoma is very poor, due to the development of drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a crucial role in this mechanism, contributing to disease relapse. We first characterized CSCs in melanoma cell lines. We observed that A375 (but not BLM) cells are able to form melanospheres and show CSCs traits: expression of the pluripotency markers SOX2 and KLF4, higher invasiveness and tumor formation capability in vivo with respect to parental adherent cells. We also showed that a subpopulation of autofluorescent cells expressing the ABCG2 stem cell marker is present in the A375 spheroid culture. Based on these data, we investigated whether δ-TT might target melanoma CSCs. We demonstrated that melanoma cells escaping the antitumor activity of δ-TT are completely devoid of the ability to form melanospheres. In contrast, cells that escaped vemurafenib treatment show a higher ability to form melanospheres than control cells. δ-TT also induced disaggregation of A375 melanospheres and reduced the spheroidogenic ability of sphere-derived cells, reducing the expression of the ABCG2 marker. These data demonstrate that δ-TT exerts its antitumor activity by targeting the CSC subpopulation of A375 melanoma cells and might represent a novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  18. Study of the radiosensitivity of three melanomas grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.

    1978-05-01

    This work studies the response to gamma irradiation of three human melanoma stems. Two cellular lines come from two ganglion metastases, the third from a primitive tumor. The influence of ''out-of-cycle''(quiescent cells on the radiosenitivity of a tumoral population was investigated in parallel with ''in cycle'' cells. The materials and methods used are described, and a number of cynetic parameters of the populations are given. The results of a series of experiments carried out on the IGR 11 stem are presented; this enables the evaluation of the repair capability of potentially lethal lesions of cells remaining in the plateau phase, after irradiation, without removal of the nutritional medium. The survival curves of the 3 stems, in both the exponential growth and the ''plateau phase'', are presented. A heterotransplant model of a human melanoma to ''nude'' mice is considered. (B.G.)

  19. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Borghi, Martina; Calabrò, Luana; Spada, Massimo; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Daria; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Santinami, Mario; Huber, Veronica; Maio, Michele; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315) or caveolin-1 (619+/-310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  20. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Logozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1. Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90 and healthy donors (n = 58. Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315 or caveolin-1 (619+/-310 were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively. While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43% the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%. Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  1. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of XIAP in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O M; Phelps, Robert G; Mudgil, Adarsh; Shafir, Michail; Burstein, David E

    2008-03-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of eight proteins. High levels of XIAP have been found in melanoma cell lines and are believed to play a role in therapeutic resistance in a number of malignancies. XIAP expression has not been investigated in clinically obtained melanoma tissue samples, nor have studies attempted to correlate XIAP expression with prognostic variables or clinical aggressiveness of melanomas. Sixty-seven patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma for whom clinical follow up was available were identified from the records of the Mount Sinai Hospital, comprising 37 thin melanomas (Breslow thickness 1.0 mm). Archival paraffin sections from primary lesions and corresponding metastases were stained with monoclonal anti-XIAP antibody using routine immunohistochemical methods. Six benign intradermal nevi and four in situ melanomas were XIAP negative. 9 of 37 thin melanomas (24%) were XIAP positive. In contrast, 21 of 30 (73%) thick melanomas were XIAP positive, including 3 of 4 ulcerated melanomas that were strongly positive. Over a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 6 years, 23 melanomas metastasized (22 thick, 1 thin). In total, XIAP was immunohistochemically detected in 17 of 23 metastases (74%). Metastasis occurred in 1 of 9 XIAP-positive thin melanomas; 0 of 28 XIAP-negative thin melanomas; 17 of 22 XIAP-positive thick melanomas, and 5 of 8 XIAP-negative thick melanomas (63%). XIAP is immunohistochemically detectable nearly three times more frequently in thick compared with thin melanomas. These results suggest that XIAP elevation may be correlated with increasing melanoma thickness and tumor progression.

  3. Rac1 activity regulates proliferation of aggressive metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Natalie N.; Chen Yihwen; Samant, Rajeev S.; Shevde, Lalita A.; Fodstad, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the different capacity of two in vivo selected human melanoma cell variants to form experimental metastases were studied. The doubling times of the FEMX-I and FEMX-V cell sublines in vitro were 15 and 25 h, respectively. The invasive capacity of FEMX-I cells was 8-fold higher than FEMX-V cells, and the time to form approximately 10 mm s.c. tumors in nude mice was 21 versus 35 days. FEMX-I displayed a spindle-like formation in vitro, whereas FEMX-V cells had a rounded shape. Hence, we examined known determinants of cell shape and proliferation, the small GTPases. The four studied showed equal expression in both cell types, but Rac1 activity was significantly decreased in FEMX-V cells. Rac1 stimulates NFκB, and we found that endogenous NFκB activity of FEMX-V cells was 2% of that of FEMX-I cells. Inhibition of Rac1 resulted in blocked NFκB activity. Specific inhibition of either Rac1 or NFκB significantly reduced proliferation and invasion of FEMX-I cells, the more pronounced effects observed with Rac1 inhibition. These data indicate that Rac1 activity in FEMX cells regulates cell proliferation and invasion, in part via its effect on NFκB, signifying Rac1 as a key molecule in melanoma progression and metastasis

  4. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Invasive Candidiasis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Global Emergence ... antifungal drugs. Learn more about C. auris Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a ...

  5. Ultraviolet-radiation-induced inflammation promotes angiotropism and metastasis in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald, Tobias; Quast, Thomas; Landsberg, Jennifer; Rogava, Meri; Glodde, Nicole; Lopez-Ramos, Dorys; Kohlmeyer, Judith; Riesenberg, Stefanie; van den Boorn-Konijnenberg, Debby; Hömig-Hölzel, Cornelia; Reuten, Raphael; Schadow, Benjamin; Weighardt, Heike; Wenzel, Daniela; Helfrich, Iris; Schadendorf, Dirk; Bloch, Wilhelm; Bianchi, Marco E.; Lugassy, Claire; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Koch, Manuel; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Förster, Irmgard; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Kolanus, Waldemar; Hölzel, Michael; Gaffal, Evelyn; Tüting, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Intermittent intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure represents an important aetiological factor in the development of malignant melanoma. The ability of UV radiation to cause tumour-initiating DNA mutations in melanocytes is now firmly established, but how the microenvironmental effects of UV radiation influence melanoma pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here we report that repetitive UV exposure of primary cutaneous melanomas in a genetically engineered mouse model promotes metastatic progression, independent of its tumour-initiating effects. UV irradiation enhanced the expansion of tumour cells along abluminal blood vessel surfaces and increased the number of lung metastases. This effect depended on the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, initiated by the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from UV-damaged epidermal keratinocytes and driven by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The UV-induced neutrophilic inflammatory response stimulated angiogenesis and promoted the ability of melanoma cells to migrate towards endothelial cells and use selective motility cues on their surfaces. Our results not only reveal how UV irradiation of epidermal keratinocytes is sensed by the innate immune system, but also show that the resulting inflammatory response catalyses reciprocal melanoma-endothelial cell interactions leading to perivascular invasion, a phenomenon originally described as angiotropism in human melanomas by histopathologists. Angiotropism represents a hitherto underappreciated mechanism of metastasis that also increases the likelihood of intravasation and haematogenous dissemination. Consistent with our findings, ulcerated primary human melanomas with abundant neutrophils and reactive angiogenesis frequently show angiotropism and a high risk for metastases. Our work indicates that targeting the inflammation-induced phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells and their association with endothelial cells represent rational strategies to specifically interfere

  6. High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rass Knuth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81. Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma.

  7. Early detection of melanoma with the combined use of acoustic microscopy, infrared reflectance and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Georgios T.; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Apostolidis, Georgios K.; Grigoriadou, Ifigeneia; Dori, I.; Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Doumas, Argyrios; Wesarg, Stefan; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is a form of skin cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of the disease. The objective of this study is to develop a novel animal model of melanoma and apply a combination of the non-invasive imaging techniques acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, for the detection of developing tumors. Acoustic microscopy provides information about the 3D structure of the tumor, whereas, both spectroscopic modalities give qualitative insight of biochemical changes during melanoma development. In order to efficiently set up the final devices, propagation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves in normal skin and melanoma simulated structures was performed. Synthetic and grape-extracted melanin (simulated tumors), endermally injected, were scanned and compared to normal skin. For both cases acoustic microscopy with central operating frequencies of 110MHz and 175MHz were used, resulting to the tomographic imaging of the simulated tumor, while with the spectroscopic modalities IR and Raman differences among spectra of normal and melanin- injected sites were identified in skin depth. Subsequently, growth of actual tumors in an animal melanoma model, with the use of human malignant melanoma cells was achieved. Acoustic microscopy and IR and Raman spectroscopies were also applied. The development of tumors at different time points was displayed using acoustic microscopy. Moreover, the changes of the IR and Raman spectra were studied between the melanoma tumors and adjacent healthy skin. The most significant changes between healthy skin and the melanoma area were observed in the range of 900-1800cm-1 and 350-2000cm-1, respectively.

  8. Speculations on the role of ultraviolet radiation in the development of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in the etiology of human malignant melanoma has increased considerably in recent years. The basis for this heightened concern can be attributed to two seemingly unrelated issues. The first is that the incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing at an alarming rate. At the present time, both the incidence of melanoma and the mortality rate are doubling every 10 to 17 years. Thus identification of causal factors in the development of melanoma is an urgent necessity if this upward trend is to be curbed. The second issue that has directed attention to the identification of etiologic factors in malignant melanoma is ozone depletion. The layer of ozone surrounding the earth shields it from solar uv radiation. Anticipated decreases in stratospheric ozone, resulting from high-altitude aircraft, nuclear explosions, and the release into the atmosphere of chlorofluoromethanes from refrigerants and aerosol sprays, raised concerns about the effects of an increased exposure of all life forms to uv light. One anticipated effect of increased exposure of humans to uv light is a corresponding increase in some types of skin cancer in humans. If malignant melanoma is included among the types of skin cancer at risk of increasing, then the impact of ozone depletion on humans is serious indeed. In the prognosis for melanoma is less favorable, particularly in cases in which the tumor is already invasive at the time of diagnosis. Thus the threat of an increased level of exposure to light has stimulated a careful reevaluation of the role of radiation in the induction of melanoma

  9. Effect of dabrafenib on melanoma cell lines harbouring the BRAFV600D/R mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentilcore Giusy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional therapeutic agents are largely unsatisfactory into the treatment of malignant melanoma. Recently, an innovative approach based on inhibitors of the mutated BRAF gene (which represents the most prevalent alteration in melanoma patients appears very promising from the clinical point of view. On this regard, a new compound, dabrafenib (GSK2118436, has been demonstrated to be effective in patients carrying the BRAFV600E/K mutations. We here tested dabrafenib for its capability to inhibit cell growth on primary melanoma cell lines, established from patients' tumour tissues and carrying the BRAFV600D/R mutations. Methods Three melanoma cell lines were tested: M257 wild-type BRAF, LCP BRAFV600R and WM266 BRAFV600D. The MTT assays were performed using standardized approaches. To evaluate the inhibition of MAPK pathway and the consequent inhibition of cellular proliferation, the phosphorylation of ERK was examined by Western Blot analysis performed on total protein extracts from cell lines after treatment with dabrafenib. Results Our experiments demonstrated an effective action of Dabrafenib (GSK2118436 and the inhibition of MAPK pathway in melanoma cell lines carrying BRAFV600D/R mutations. Conclusion These results could be helpful to enlarge the number of melanoma patients who may benefit of a more effective targeted treatment.

  10. PRIMARY MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... commonly in larynx, tongue, and tonsil.2 Primary mel- anoma of the larynx and trachea are very rare among the group of non-cutaneous melanomas. In primary melanoma of the larynx, the least common site is the subglottic mucosa.3 Here we present a case of primary malignant melanoma of aryepiglottic ...

  11. A comparative study of proliferative activity and tumor stage of pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and non-PAM in gestational age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Emily A; Martini, Mary C; Amin, Sapna M; Yélamos, Oriol; Lee, Christina Y; Sholl, Lauren M; Rademaker, Alfred W; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pregnancy on the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma is controversial. We sought to compare clinical characteristics, histologic features, and proliferative activity in pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and melanoma in nonpregnant women of reproductive age (non-PAM). In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records and pathology reports from women given a diagnosis of melanoma between 2006 and 2015. We also examined tumor proliferation rates using mitotic count and 2 immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67. In 50 PAM and 122 non-PAM cases, a diagnosis of melanoma in situ was associated with PAM. Among invasive melanomas, there was no difference in proliferative activity between groups. Pregnancy status was also not associated with age at diagnosis, tumor site, Breslow depth, Clark level, ulceration, or overall stage. This was a retrospective study with a small sample size of mostly patients with early-stage melanoma. In our study of primarily early-stage melanoma, pregnancy did not have a significant impact on tumor proliferation. Particularly for patients given a diagnosis of stage I melanoma who are undergoing close surveillance, a history of PAM should not outweigh traditional factors, such as advanced maternal age, in planning future pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Noscapine alters microtubule dynamics in living cells and inhibits the progression of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, Jaren W; Lang, Roland; McMahon, Steve J; Rusan, Nasser M; Yvon, Anne-Marie; Adams, Ashley W; Sorcinelli, Mia D; Campbell, Ross; Bonaccorsi, Paola; Ansel, John C; Archer, David R; Wadsworth, Patricia; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Joshi, Harish C

    2002-07-15

    Cellular microtubules, polymers of tubulin, alternate relentlessly between phases of growth and shortening. We now show that noscapine, a tubulin-binding agent, increases the time that cellular microtubules spend idle in a paused state. As a result, most mammalian cell types observed arrest in mitosis in the presence of noscapine. We demonstrate that noscapine-treated murine melanoma B16LS9 cells do not arrest in mitosis but rather become polyploid followed by cell death, whereas primary melanocytes reversibly arrest in mitosis and resume a normal cell cycle after noscapine removal. Furthermore, in a syngeneic murine model of established s.c. melanoma, noscapine treatment resulted in an 85% inhibition of tumor volume on day 17 when delivered by gavage compared with untreated animals (P melanoma progression by 83% on day 18 when delivered in drinking water (P melanoma cells through alterations in microtubule dynamics, with no detected toxicity to the host. Consequently, noscapine could be a valuable chemotherapeutic agent, alone or in combination, for the treatment of advanced melanoma.

  13. The role of autophagy inhibition in the enhanced cytotoxicity of temozolomide on melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ryabaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite advantages in treatment of metastatic melanoma it remains resistant to current therapy. Recent evidence indicates that tumor cells could overcome death through autophagy, a process that degrades cellular proteins and organelles to maintain cellular biosynthesis during nutrient deprivation or lack of energy. Objective: to investigate the involvement of autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ and LY-294.002 (LY in temozolomide (TMZ cytotoxicity in human melanoma cell lines.Materials and methods. The study was performed on patient-derived melanoma cell lines Mel Z, Mel IL and Mel MTP. The antiproliferative activity of combined TMZ and autophagy inhibitors treatment was determined by MTT assay and colony-forming assay. Cell cycle analysis, apoptosis activation and expression analysis of key autophagy markers under combined treatment was evaluated.Results. CQ and LY enhanced the cytotoxicity of TMZ and reduced colony formation in 3 melanoma cell lines, moreover both inhibitors increased cell population in G0 / G1 phase of cell cycle in Mel Z, Mel IL cell lines, but not in Mel MTP. CQ and LY synergistically activated apoptosis in all cell lines. The matrix RNA expression analysis of key autophagy genes showed autophagy involvement in enhanced cytotoxicity.Conclusions. Thus, autophagy inhibition on different stages of this process could overcome resistance to TMZ and be applicable as potent target in metastatic melanoma treatment.

  14. Toxicity and Immunogenicity in Murine Melanoma following Exposure to Physical Plasma-Derived Oxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bekeschus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive and deadly disease. Therapeutic advance has been achieved by antitumor chemo- and radiotherapy. These modalities involve the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, affecting cellular viability, migration, and immunogenicity. Such species are also created by cold physical plasma, an ionized gas capable of redox modulating cells and tissues without thermal damage. Cold plasma has been suggested for anticancer therapy. Here, melanoma cell toxicity, motility, and immunogenicity of murine metastatic melanoma cells were investigated following plasma exposure in vitro. Cells were oxidized by plasma, leading to decreased metabolic activity and cell death. Moreover, plasma decelerated melanoma cell growth, viability, and cell cycling. This was accompanied by increased cellular stiffness and upregulation of zonula occludens 1 protein in the cell membrane. Importantly, expression levels of immunogenic cell surface molecules such as major histocompatibility complex I, calreticulin, and melanocortin receptor 1 were significantly increased in response to plasma. Finally, plasma treatment significantly decreased the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, a molecule with importance in angiogenesis. Altogether, these results suggest beneficial toxicity of cold plasma in murine melanomas with a concomitant immunogenicity of potential interest in oncology.

  15. Sinonasal mucosal melanoma extended to nose bridge: A one-time reconstruction treatment report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare and highly aggressive tumour. This tumour often carries a poor prognosis because of local invasion and early distant metastasis. It's, in fact, an aggressive, fortunately rare, disease. It's more common among population in their seventies, with a prolonged course due to innocuous symptoms. We report a case of sinonasal mucosal melanoma in a 56-years old male who presented with a brownish sinonasal mass involving right nasal fossa, swelling and spontaneous epistaxis. We report this case for the one-time reconstruction treatment performed by our team.

  16. [Telomerase activity in uveal melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M; Riedinger, C; Wild, M; Partsch, M

    2000-05-01

    The maximum number of cell divisions of a certain cell population is genetically fixed so that aging cells become non-dividing (senescent) at least. This replicative life span, also known as "Hayflick limit", is probably defined by a "critical" length of the telomeres. Telomeres are special DNA-sequences located at the four ends of the chromosomes which are shortened with each cell cycle. Cells of most, but not all malignant tumours have been shown to reactivate the enzyme telomerase so that telomeres can be reconstructed, "Hayflick limit" can be overcome, and unlimited cell division can be established. This study was undertaken to elucidate whether telomerase reactivation is used by uveal melanoma cells. Fresh tumour tissue was removed from 10 untreated uveal melanomas after enucleation. Telomerase activity was determined using a PCR ELISA according to the Telomeric Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). Normal tissue of the skin and the conjunctiva served as control. Telomerase activity was detectable in 90% of the investigated uveal melanomas. All control specimens were telomerase negative. Uveal melanoma growth seems to depend on telomerase reactivation. Thus, telomerase inhibition could offer a new principle for uveal melanoma therapy in the future.

  17. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, Thomas; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Jiang, Zewei; Harris, Matthew; Dorokhova, Olena; Tsukrov, Dina; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium( 188 Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188 Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188 Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  18. CD63 tetraspanin is a negative driver of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Antonella; Peppicelli, Silvia; Witort, Ewa; Bianchini, Francesca; Carloni, Vinicio; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Urso, Carmelo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Capaccioli, Sergio; Calorini, Lido; Lulli, Matteo

    2014-12-01

    The CD63 tetraspanin is highly expressed in the early stages of melanoma and decreases in advanced lesions, suggesting it as a possible suppressor of tumor progression. We employed loss- and gain-of-gene-function approaches to investigate the role of CD63 in melanoma progression and acquisition of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. We used two human melanoma cell lines derived from primary tumors and one primary human melanoma cell line isolated from a cutaneous metastasis, differing by levels of CD63 expression. CD63-silenced melanoma cells showed enhanced motility and invasiveness with downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and Snail. In parallel experiments, transient and stable ectopic expression of CD63 resulted in a robust reduction of cell motility, invasiveness, and protease activities, which was proportional to the increase in CD63 protein level. Transfected cells overexpressing the highest level of CD63 when transplanted into immunodeficient mice showed a reduced incidence and rate of tumor growth. Moreover, these cells showed a reduction of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Zeb1, and a-SMA, and a significant resistance to undergo an EMT program both in basal condition and in the following stimulation with TGFβ. Thus, our results establish a previously unreported mechanistic link between the tetraspanin CD63 and EMT abrogation in melanoma.

  19. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family.

  20. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0–17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at one year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range =14–18 percentage points; all pcommunication about cancer risk. PMID:28248624

  1. A gene expression signature associated with survival in metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandruzzato, Susanna; Callegaro, Andrea; Turcatel, Gianluca; Francescato, Samuela; Montesco, Maria C; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo R; Bicciato, Silvio; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Zanovello, Paola

    2006-01-01

    Background Current clinical and histopathological criteria used to define the prognosis of melanoma patients are inadequate for accurate prediction of clinical outcome. We investigated whether genome screening by means of high-throughput gene microarray might provide clinically useful information on patient survival. Methods Forty-three tumor tissues from 38 patients with stage III and stage IV melanoma were profiled with a 17,500 element cDNA microarray. Expression data were analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) to identify genes associated with patient survival, and supervised principal components (SPC) to determine survival prediction. Results SAM analysis revealed a set of 80 probes, corresponding to 70 genes, associated with survival, i.e. 45 probes characterizing longer and 35 shorter survival times, respectively. These transcripts were included in a survival prediction model designed using SPC and cross-validation which allowed identifying 30 predicting probes out of the 80 associated with survival. Conclusion The longer-survival group of genes included those expressed in immune cells, both innate and acquired, confirming the interplay between immunological mechanisms and the natural history of melanoma. Genes linked to immune cells were totally lacking in the poor-survival group, which was instead associated with a number of genes related to highly proliferative and invasive tumor cells. PMID:17129373

  2. A gene expression signature associated with survival in metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Carlo R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current clinical and histopathological criteria used to define the prognosis of melanoma patients are inadequate for accurate prediction of clinical outcome. We investigated whether genome screening by means of high-throughput gene microarray might provide clinically useful information on patient survival. Methods Forty-three tumor tissues from 38 patients with stage III and stage IV melanoma were profiled with a 17,500 element cDNA microarray. Expression data were analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays (SAM to identify genes associated with patient survival, and supervised principal components (SPC to determine survival prediction. Results SAM analysis revealed a set of 80 probes, corresponding to 70 genes, associated with survival, i.e. 45 probes characterizing longer and 35 shorter survival times, respectively. These transcripts were included in a survival prediction model designed using SPC and cross-validation which allowed identifying 30 predicting probes out of the 80 associated with survival. Conclusion The longer-survival group of genes included those expressed in immune cells, both innate and acquired, confirming the interplay between immunological mechanisms and the natural history of melanoma. Genes linked to immune cells were totally lacking in the poor-survival group, which was instead associated with a number of genes related to highly proliferative and invasive tumor cells.

  3. Wearable Wireless Tyrosinase Bandage and Microneedle Sensors: Toward Melanoma Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciui, Bianca; Martin, Aida; Mishra, Rupesh K; Brunetti, Barbara; Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Dawkins, Thomas J; Lyu, Mengjia; Cristea, Cecilia; Sandulescu, Robert; Wang, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Wearable bendable bandage-based sensor and a minimally invasive microneedle biosensor are described toward rapid screening of skin melanoma. These wearable electrochemical sensors are capable of detecting the presence of the tyrosinase (TYR) enzyme cancer biomarker in the presence of its catechol substrate, immobilized on the transducer surface. In the presence of the surface TYR biomarker, the immobilized catechol is rapidly converted to benzoquinone that is detected amperometrically, with a current signal proportional to the TYR level. The flexible epidermal bandage sensor relies on printing stress-enduring inks which display good resiliency against mechanical deformations, whereas the hollow microneedle device is filled with catechol-coated carbon paste for assessing tissue TYR levels. The bandage sensor can thus be used directly on the skin whereas microneedle device can reach melanoma tissues under the skin. Both wearable sensors are interfaced to an ultralight flexible electronic board, which transmits data wirelessly to a mobile device. The analytical performance of the resulting bandage and microneedle sensing systems are evaluated using TYR-containing agarose phantom gel and porcine skin. The new integrated conformal portable sensing platforms hold considerable promise for decentralized melanoma screening, and can be extended to the screening of other key biomarkers in skin moles. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekova, M.; Kirov, V.; Donchev, M.; Slavova, M.; Tsarovska, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full text:Introduction: The concept of a biopsy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) was developed by Mortan in 1992, using blue dye. In 1993. Alex and Krag identified SLN with radiocolloid and gamma probe in case of malignant melanoma. Today, both methods are applied separately or together with a success rate above 90% and false negative rate of 5 %. Materials and Methods: The study includes 10 patients, 9 of whom have been diagnosed with malignant melanoma and 1 – with Merkel cancer. All patients were of a higher risk of lymphatic metastases without distinct clinical symptoms. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed with double-headed SPECT gamma camera Toshiba CGA 7200 UI. The visualized lymph nodes were projected and marked on the skin by a point radioactive source under monitoring. The marked lymph nodes were verified during the operation by staining and patent Blau then removed and studies histopathologically. Results: In all patients the Lymphoscintigraphy visualized SLN, which were surgically found just below the skin markers and removed. In the SLN of one patient a diffuse metastasis was found. In the SLN of nine patients no evidence for metastatic process was found. Conclusion: The technique of marking the SLN with subsequent biopsy is a minimally invasive method for the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanoma and Merkel carcinoma with a high degree of reliability of the results

  5. Actinic Keratosis and Non-Invasive Diagnostic Techniques: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Actinic keratosis represents the earliest manifestation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Because of their risk of progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, an earlier diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Their diagnosis sometimes could represent a challenge even for expert dermatologists. Dermoscopy, confocal laser microscopy and optical coherence tomography could help clinicians in diagnosis. PMID:29316678

  6. Effects of Vietnamese Sophora root on growth, adhesion, invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and ...

  7. Cellular metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: chromatin structure; the use of circular synthetic polydeoxynucleotides as substrates for the study of DNA repair enzymes; human cellular kinetic response following exposure to DNA-interactive compounds; histone phosphorylation and chromatin structure in cell proliferation; photoaddition products induced in chromatin by uv light; pollutants and genetic information transfer; altered RNA metabolism as a function of cadmium accumulation and intracellular distribution in cultured cells; and thymidylate chromophore destruction by water free radicals

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization and evaluation of prognostic factors in canine oral melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Ramirez, G A; Buendia, A J; Vilafranca, M; Martinez, C M; Altimira, J; Navarro, J A

    2007-09-01

    Melanomas are the most common malignant oral neoplasm in dogs. Osteocartilaginous differentiation in oral melanomas is a rare feature described both in veterinary and human medicine. Here, 10 cases of this type of neoplasm were used to study their immunohistochemical, biological, and clinical characteristics. Reactivity for S100 and melan A antigen was evaluated, and 4 prognosis factors (mitotic index, invasiveness of epithelium, nuclear atypia, and proliferation index) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical course of the neoplasms after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the studied neoplasms, including the osteocartilaginous areas, showed positive immunoreaction for S100 and melan A, except in one dog, which was negative for melan A. Analysis of the results showed that oral melamonas with osteocartilaginous differentiation have a clinical course similar to that of other melanomas in the oral cavity. Analysis of the mitotic index and the expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 could be useful tools for predicting the biological behavior of these neoplasms.

  9. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Promotes Autophagy to Facilitate Cisplatin Resistance in Melanoma Cells through the Activation of PARP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Rui; Liu, Lin; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Weigang; Yang, Yuqi; Wang, Huina; Shi, Qiong; Guo, Sen; Yi, Xiuli; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Luan, Qi; Li, Chunying

    2016-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), a key protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, has been shown to promote the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by facilitating the DNA repair process. However, the role of XPA in the resistance of melanoma to platinum-based drugs like cisplatin is largely unknown. In this study, we initially found that XPA was expressed at higher levels in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells than in cisplatin-sensitive ones. Furthermore, the knockdown of XPA not only increased cellular apoptosis but also inhibited cisplatin-induced autophagy, which rendered the melanoma cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Moreover, we discovered that the increased XPA in resistant melanoma cells promoted poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and that the inhibition of PARP1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced autophagy. Finally, we proved that the inhibition of PARP1 and the autophagy process made resistant melanoma cells more susceptible to cisplatin treatment. Our study shows that XPA can promote cell-protective autophagy in a DNA repair-independent manner by enhancing the activation of PARP1 in melanoma cells resistant to cisplatin and that the XPA-PARP1-mediated autophagy process can be targeted to overcome cisplatin resistance in melanoma chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryotherapy for conjunctival primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma. Experience with 62 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobiec, F A; Rini, F J; Fraunfelder, F T; Brownstein, S

    1988-08-01

    Sixty-two patients were treated by some combination of cryotherapy and surgery with an average follow-up of 3.3 years for one of the following diseases: focal or diffuse flat conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia but without a nodule of melanoma (10 cases); unifocal malignant melanoma with or without focal or diffuse PAM (30 cases); and multinodular/multicentric melanoma with and without PAM (22 cases). Of the ten patients who had PAM with atypia, invasive nodules of malignant melanoma did not develop. A second treatment was required to control the disease in four of the ten patients with extensive or diffuse lesions, and one has mild persistent disease. Of the 30 patients with unifocal nodules of malignant melanoma, 27 remained free of recurrence after one treatment, and 2 are asymptomatic after two treatments. One patient with a thick nodule at presentation required a parotidectomy and radical neck dissection for cervical metastases after recurrence in the conjunctival sac. In the group of 22 patients with multinodular malignant melanoma, only two did not have recurrent disease after one treatment. Of those who received multiple therapies, seven remained free of recurrence for at least 2 years after the last treatment; regional or distant metastases developed in nine; four required exenteration; and eight died. Conjunctival adjunctive cryotherapy avoids exenteration in extensive lesions of pure PAM and in unifocal melanoma, but even after multiple therapies, multinodular malignant melanoma had a 45% rate of metastasis. Metastasis was related to the presence of PAM sine pigmento in four patients (microscopically but not clinically detectable PAM); to the location of the nodules (9 of 10 patients who experienced metastases had forniceal, palpebral, and/or caruncular nodules); to the thickness or depth of invasion of the nodules (greater than 2 mm); and to the development of intralymphatic spread ("in-transit" local metastasis) within the

  11. Cytomorphology of cervicovaginal melanoma: ThinPrep versus conventional Papanicolaou tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Goulart, Robert A; Leiman, Gladywn; Otis, Christopher N; Modem, Rukmini; Pantanowtiz, Liron

    2010-12-31

    Primary cervicovaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy associated with a high risk of recurrence. Prior studies discussing the cytomorphology of cervicovaginal melanoma have been based primarily on review of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The aim of this study was to evaluate cervicovaginal melanomas identified in liquid-based Pap tests, in comparison with features seen on conventional Pap smear preparation. Cases of cervicovaginal melanoma identified on Pap tests with concurrent or subsequent histopathologic confirmation were collected from the Baystate Medical Center cytopathology files and personal archives of the authors over a total period of 34 years. All cytopathology (n = 6) and the available histology slides (n = 5) were reviewed. Cases were analyzed regarding clinical, histopathologic and cytomorphological findings. A total of six cases with invasive cervicovaginal melanoma diagnosed on Pap tests were identified. Most patients were postmenopausal with contact bleeding, correlating with surface ulceration (identified in biopsy/excision material in 5/5 cases). Most cases had deeply invasive tumors (5/5: modified Breslow's thickness > 5 mm and Chung's level of invasion IV/V). Pap tests included four ThinPrep and two conventional smears. Overall, ThinPrep Pap tests exhibited a higher ratio of tumor cells to background squamous cells. While all Pap tests were bloodstained, tumor diathesis was prominent only within conventional smears. Melanoma cells were present both as clusters and scattered single cells in each Pap test type. Both the preparations contained epithelioid tumor cells, whereas spindled tumor cells were seen in only two ThinPrep cases. Prominent nucleoli and binucleation of tumor cells were seen in both the preparations. Melanin pigment was identified in only ThinPrep (3/4) cases and nuclear pseudo-inclusions in one conventional Pap smear. Cell blocks were made in three ThinPrep cases and immunocytochemistry (S-100, HMB45, Melan

  12. AKT1 as the PageRank hub gene is associated with melanoma and its functional annotation is highly related to the estrogen signaling pathway that may regulate the growth of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Zeng, Xue; Song, Ping; Wu, Xiaohong; Shi, Hongbo

    2016-10-01

    In order to detect the disease-associated genes and their gene interaction function and association with melanoma mechanisms, we identified a total of 1,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database GSE3189 with FDR 2 using the R package. After constructing the gene interaction network by STRING with the selected DEGs, we applied a statistical approach to identify the topological hub genes with PageRank score. Forty-four genes were identified in this network and AKT1 was selected as the most important hub gene. The AKT1 gene encodes a serine‑threonine protein kinase (AKT). High expression of AKT is involved in the resistance of cell apoptosis as well as adaptive resistance to treatment in melanoma. Our results indicated that AKT1 with a higher expression in melanoma showed enriched binding sites in the negative regulation of response to external stimulus, which enables cells to adapt to changes in external stimulation for survival. Another finding was that AKT regulated the lipid metabolic process and may be involved in melanoma progression and promotion of tumor growth through gene enrichment function analysis. Two highlighted pathways were detected in our study: i) the estrogen signaling pathway modulates the immune tolerance and resistance to cell apoptosis, which contributes to the growth of melanoma and ii) the RAP1 signaling pathway which regulates focal adhesion (FA) negative feedback to cell migration and invasion in melanoma. Our studies highlighted the top differentially expressed gene AKT1 and its correlation with the estrogen signaling and RAP1 signaling pathways to alter the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Analysis of the enrichment functions of genes associated with melanoma will help us find the exact mechanism of melanoma and advance the full potential of newly targeted cancer therapy.

  13. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...

  14. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in...

  15. FANCD2 functions as a critical factor downstream of MiTF to maintain the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourseguin, Julie; Bonet, Caroline; Renaud, Emilie; Pandiani, Charlotte; Boncompagni, Marina; Giuliano, Sandy; Pawlikowska, Patrycja; Karmous-Benailly, Houda; Ballotti, Robert; Rosselli, Filippo; Bertolotto, Corine

    2016-11-09

    Proteins involved in genetic stability maintenance and safeguarding DNA replication act not only against cancer initiation but could also play a major role in sustaining cancer progression. Here, we report that the FANC pathway is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma harboring the oncogenic microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF). We show that MiTF downregulation in melanoma cells lowers the expression of several FANC genes and proteins. Moreover, we observe that, similarly to the consequence of MiTF downregulation, FANC pathway silencing alters proliferation, migration and senescence of human melanoma cells. We demonstrate that the FANC pathway acts downstream MiTF and establish the existence of an epistatic relationship between MiTF and the FANC pathway. Our findings point to a central role of the FANC pathway in cellular and chromosomal resistance to both DNA damage and targeted therapies in melanoma cells. Thus, the FANC pathway is a promising new therapeutic target in melanoma treatment.

  16. Cutaneous melanoma in situ: translational evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma in situ (CMIS) is a nosologic entity surrounded by health concerns and unsolved debates. We aimed to shed some light on CMIS by means of a large population-based study. Patients with histologic diagnosis of CMIS were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) database. The records of 93,863 cases of CMIS were available for analysis. CMIS incidence has been steadily increasing over the past 3 decades at a rate higher than any other in situ or invasive tumor, including invasive skin melanoma (annual percentage change [APC]: 9.5% versus 3.6%, respectively). Despite its noninvasive nature, CMIS is treated with excision margins wider than 1 cm in more than one third of cases. CMIS is associated with an increased risk of invasive melanoma (standardized incidence ratio [SIR]: 8.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.66-8.57), with an estimated 3:5 invasive/in situ ratio; surprisingly, it is also associated with a reduced risk of gastrointestinal (SIR: 0.78, CI: 0.72-0.84) and lung (SIR: 0.65, CI: 0.59-0.71) cancers. Relative survival analysis shows that persons with CMIS have a life expectancy equal to that of the general population. CMIS is increasingly diagnosed and is often overtreated, although it does not affect the life expectancy of its carriers. Patients with CMIS have an increased risk of developing invasive melanoma (which warrants their enrollment in screening programs) but also a reduced risk of some epithelial cancers, which raises the intriguing hypothesis that genetic/environmental risk factors for some tumors may oppose the pathogenesis of others.

  17. Pediatric melanoma: incidence, treatment, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyed FK

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Faiez K Saiyed,1 Emma C Hamilton,1 Mary T Austin,1,2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGovern Medical School, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The purpose of this review is to outline recent advancements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric melanoma. Despite the recent decline in incidence, it continues to be the deadliest form of skin cancer in children and adolescents. Pediatric melanoma presents differently from adult melanoma; thus, the traditional asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, diameter >6 mm, and evolution (ABCDE criteria have been modified to include features unique to pediatric melanoma (amelanotic, bleeding/bump, color uniformity, de novo/any diameter, evolution of mole. Surgical and medical management of pediatric melanoma continues to derive guidelines from adult melanoma treatment. However, more drug trials are being conducted to determine the specific impact of drug combinations on pediatric patients. Alongside medical and surgical treatment, prevention is a central component of battling the incidence, as ultraviolet (UV-related mutations play a central role in the vast majority of pediatric melanoma cases. Aggressive prevention measures targeting sun safety and tanning bed usage have shown positive sun-safety behavior trends, as well as the potential to decrease melanomas that manifest later in life. As research into the field of pediatric melanoma continues to expand, a prevention paradigm needs to continue on a community-wide level. Keywords: melanoma, pediatric, adolescent, childhood

  18. Intravital imaging reveals transient changes in pigment production and Brn2 expression during metastatic melanoma dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinner, Sophie; Jordan, Peter; Sharrock, Kirsty; Bazley, Laura; Collinson, Lucy; Marais, Richard; Bonvin, Elise; Goding, Colin; Sahai, Erik

    2009-10-15

    How melanoma acquire a metastatic phenotype is a key issue. One possible mechanism is that metastasis is driven by microenvironment-induced switching between noninvasive and invasive states. However, whether switching is a reversible or hierarchical process is not known and is difficult to assess by comparison of primary and metastatic tumors. We address this issue in a model of melanoma metastasis using a novel intravital imaging method for melanosomes combined with a reporter construct in which the Brn-2 promoter drives green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. A subpopulation of cells containing little or no pigment and high levels of Brn2::GFP expression are motile in the primary tumor and enter the vasculature. Significantly, the less differentiated state of motile and intravasated cells is not maintained at secondary sites, implying switching between states as melanoma cells metastasize. We show that melanoma cells can switch in both directions between high- and low-pigment states. However, switching from Brn2::GFP high to low was greatly favored over the reverse direction. Microarray analysis of high- and low-pigment populations revealed that transforming growth factor (TGF)beta2 was up-regulated in the poorly pigmented cells. Furthermore, TGFbeta signaling induced hypopigmentation and increased cell motility. Thus, a subset of less differentiated cells exits the primary tumor but subsequently give rise to metastases that include a range of more differentiated and pigment-producing cells. These data show reversible phenotype switching during melanoma metastasis.

  19. Perspectives on the application of nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and has been traditionally considered difficult to treat. The worldwide incidence of melanoma has been increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Early detection, surgery, and adjuvant therapy enable improved outcomes; nonetheless, the prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Several therapies have been investigated for the treatment of melanoma; however, current treatment options for patients with metastatic disease are limited and non-curative in the majority of cases. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a promising minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that employs three essential elements to induce cell death: a photosensitizer, light of a specific wavelength, and molecular oxygen. However, classical PDT has shown some drawbacks that limit its clinical application. In view of this, the use of nanotechnology has been considered since it provides many tools that can be applied to PDT to circumvent these limitations and bring new perspectives for the application of this therapy for different types of diseases. On that ground, this review focuses on the potential use of developing nanotechnologies able to bring significant benefits for anticancer PDT, aiming to reach higher efficacy and safety for patients with malignant melanoma.

  20. [The related factors of head and neck mocosal melanoma with lymph node metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G F; Guo, W; Chen, X H; Huang, Z G

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the related factors of mucosal melanoma of head and neck with lymph node metastasis for early diagnosis and further treatments. Method: A retrospective analysis of 117 cases of head and neck mucosal malignant melanoma patients which received surgical treatment was performed. Eleven cases of patients with pathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis and 33 cases without lymph node metastasis (1∶3) were randomly selected to analyze. The related factors of lymph node metastasis of head and neck mucosal melanoma patients including age, gender, whether the existence of recurrence, bone invasion, lesion location were analyzed. The single factor and logistic regression analysis were performed, P difference was statistically significant. Result: The lymph node metastasis rate of head and neck mucosal melanoma was 9.40%(11/117), the single factor analysis showed that there were 3 factors to be associated with lymph node metastasis, which was recurrence ( P =0.0000), bone invasion ( P =0.001), primary position ( P =0.007). Recurrence ( P =0.021) was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis according to the Logistic regression analysis, and the impact of bone invasion ( P =0.487) and primary location ( P =0.367) remained to be further explored. Conclusion: The patients of head and neck mucosal melanoma with the presence of recurrent usually accompanied by a further progression of the disease, such as lymph node metastasis, so for recurrent patients should pay special attention to the situation of lymph node and choose the reasonable treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  1. Conservative surgical management of subungual (matrix derived) melanoma: report of seven cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, N; Phan, A; Poulalhon, N; Balme, B; Dalle, S; Thomas, L

    2011-10-01

    Subungual melanoma (SUM) is a rare entity, comprising approximately 0·7-3·5% of all melanoma subtypes. SUM histopathologically belongs to the acral lentiginous pathological subtype of malignant melanoma. Its diagnosis is helped by dermoscopy but pathological examination of doubtful cases is required. Classical management of SUM is based on radical surgery, namely distal phalanx amputation. Conservative treatment with nonamputative wide excision of the nail unit followed by a skin graft has been insufficiently reported in the medical literature even though it is performed in many centres. To report a series of patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM treated by conservative surgery, to investigate the postoperative evolution and to evaluate the outcome with a review of the literature. We performed a retrospective extraction study from our melanoma register of all patients with in situ and minimally invasive SUM treated with conservative surgery in the University Hospital Department of Dermatology, Lyon, France from 2004 to 2009. The patient demographics, disease presentation, delay to diagnosis, histopathology and postoperative evolution were reviewed. Seven cases of SUM treated as such were identified in our melanoma database. All cases had a clinical presentation of melanonychia striata. The mean delay to diagnosis was 2years. Surgical excision of the entire nail unit with a 5-10mm safety margin without bone resection followed by full-thickness skin graft taken from the arm was performed in all cases. No recurrence was observed with a mean follow-up of 45months. Functional results were found satisfactory by all patients and their referring physicians. Sixty-two other cases have been found in the literature and are also discussed. Conservative surgical management in patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM is a procedure with good cosmetic and functional outcome and, in our cases as well as in the literature, the prognosis is not changed. © 2011

  2. Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes effect on clinical outcome of muco-cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Rahbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent data have changed our views of prognostic factors in cutaneous melanoma, while some newer methods have yielded better prognostic information. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are believed to represent the immune reaction/response to melanoma cells which is often found in melanocytic cancer. Aim and Objective: We carried out an analysis, aiming to establish pooled estimates for clinical outcomes based on the presence of CD8+ T cell in melanocytic cancer. Materials and Methods: We have included 42 patients with primary cutaneous melanocytic cancer without preoperative treatments in our study. We next analyzed the proliferative activity of CD8+ T cells that infiltrated in tumor cell nests. The intratumoral and adjacent to invasive margin of tumor CD+ T-cell infiltration were analyzed which could also reflect antitumor immunity. Results: The total number of CD8+ cells especially adjacent to invasive margin of tumor was positively correlated with anatomical tumor thickness (P < .001 and not correlated with patient′s age and sex. The stage of tumor which is related to vascular-neural invasion, regional lymph nodes involvement and tumor thickness shows positive correlation with CD8+ infiltration in tumor (P < .004, P < .005, P < .001, respectively. Acral melanoma shows more CD8 lymphocytes infiltration and also recurrence rate of tumor (P < .005. Conclusion: We believe that CD8+ T-cell infiltration in primary cutaneous melanocytic cancer represents the immune reaction/response to melanoma which could be an important new therapy for melanoma although more research is needed on this treatment modality.

  3. Genetics of uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma: two of a kind?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van den Bosch (Thomas); E. Kiliç (Emine); A.D.A. Paridaens (Dion); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research

  4. Quercetin as an Emerging Anti-Melanoma Agent: A four-focus area therapeutic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoey Harris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase -- a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes a feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea. Quercetin has demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in various cancer cell types. Quercetin is readily metabolized by tyrosinase into various compounds that promote anti-cancer activity; additionally, given that tyrosinase expression increases during tumorigenesis, and its activity is associated with pigmentation changes in both early- and late-stage melanocytic lesions, it suggests that quercetin can be used to target melanoma. In this review we explore the potential of Quercetin as an anti-melanoma agent utilizing and extrapolating on evidence from previous in vitro studies in various human malignant cell lines and propose a four-focus area strategy to develop quercetin as a targeted anti-melanoma compound for use as either a preventative or therapeutic agent. The four areas of focus include utilizing quercetin to i modulate cellular bioreduction potential and associated signaling cascades, ii affect transcription of relevant genes, iii regulate epigenetic processes, and iv develop effective combination therapies and delivery modalities/protocols. In general, quercetin could be used to exploit tyrosinase activity to prevent, and/or treat, melanoma with minimal additional side effects.

  5. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Haydn, Johannes M; Samans, Birgit; Krause, Michael; Eilers, Martin; Schartl, Manfred; Meierjohann, Svenja

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase) triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1), early growth response 1 (Egr1), osteopontin (Opn), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3), dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4), and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6). Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute new possible molecular players in melanoma development

  6. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Methods Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Results Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1, early growth response 1 (Egr1, osteopontin (Opn, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4, and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6. Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Conclusion Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute

  7. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; Bădilă, Patricia; Miu, Jeni Cătălina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor.

  8. Melanoma-specific marker expression in skin biopsy tissues as a tool to facilitate melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Jatkoe, Timothy A; Hartmann, Dan P; Vener, Tatiana; Wang, Haiying; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Wang, Yixin; Palma, John F

    2010-07-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires accurate differentiation of true malignant tumors from highly atypical lesions, which lack the capacity to develop uncontrolled proliferation and to metastasize. We used melanoma markers from previous work to differentiate benign and atypical lesions from melanoma using paraffin-embedded tissue. This critical step in diagnosis generates the most uncertainty and discrepancy between dermatopathologists. A total of 193 biopsy tissues were selected: 47 melanomas, 48 benign nevi, and 98 atypical/suspicious, including 48 atypical nevi and 50 melanomas as later assigned by expert dermatopathologists. Performance for SILV, GDF15, and L1CAM normalized to TYR in unequivocal melanoma versus benign nevi resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively. SILV also differentiated atypical cases classified as melanoma from atypical nevi with an AUC=0.74. Furthermore, SILV showed a significant difference between suspicious melanoma and each suspicious atypia group: melanoma versus severe atypia and melanoma versus moderate atypia had P-values of 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively. SILV showed clear discrimination between melanoma and benign unequivocal cases as well as between different atypia subgroups in the group of suspicious samples. The role and potential utility of this molecular assay as an adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of melanoma are discussed.

  9. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologists’ awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.

  10. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  11. Sunnier European countries have lower melanoma mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, A R; Clark, A B; Levell, N J

    2011-07-01

    Doubt has been cast on sunlight as the major causative factor for malignant melanoma. We performed statistical analysis of the average annual sunlight hours in 36 European capital cities compared with the country's melanoma mortality rate. A significant inverse proportionality was identified in both men and women, indicating that sun exposure is unlikely to be the strongest factor affecting mortality from malignant melanoma. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. [Multiple conjunctival malignant melanomas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R

    1979-04-01

    5 1/2 years after excision of pigmented malignant melanoma which apparently arose in a nevus of the paralimbal bulbar conjunctiva, this 42-year-old male presented himself with a nonpigmented mass of the lid margin which also proved to be a malignant melanoma. "Acquired melanosis sine pigmento" was considered as a site of origin, but histopathologically there is more evidence that this melanoma arose in a non-pigmented compound nevus.

  13. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.I.; Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma.

  14. Melanoma of the Skin in the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Gaist, David

    2018-05-01

    The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance, and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n = 200) and the Melanoma Database (n = 200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as "gold standard" reference. We further validated tumor characteristics in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database. Additionally, we estimated the PPV of in situ melanoma diagnoses in the Melanoma Database, and the sensitivity of melanoma diagnoses in 2004-2014. The PPVs of melanoma in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database were 97% (95% CI = 94, 99) and 100%. The sensitivity was 90% in the Cancer Registry and 77% in the Melanoma Database. The PPV of in situ melanomas in the Melanoma Database was 97% and the sensitivity was 56%. In the Melanoma Database, we observed PPVs of ulceration of 75% and Breslow thickness of 96%. The PPV of histologic subtypes varied between 87% and 100% in the Cancer Registry and 93% and 100% in the Melanoma Database. The PPVs for anatomical localization were 83%-95% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The data quality in both the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database is high, supporting their use in epidemiologic studies.

  15. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. [Acute dyspnea in malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, A M; Günzel, T

    2011-09-01

    Metastases to the larynx are rare. The current article presents the case of a 75-year-old patient with a history of shortness of breath due to a supraglottic exophytic lesion that was identified as a metastasis of a cutaneous melanoma treated 2.5 years previously. As a result of our medline analysis we found approximately 30 cases of metastatic melanoma to the larynx published to date. Primary tumors are always cutaneous in origin and spread over the whole integument of trunk and extremities. The time interval between diagnosis of the primary and the laryngeal metastasis is often several years. In most reports a supraglottic exophytic, red coloured lesion is described. Diagnosis can only be proven by histological examination. Laryngeal metastasis is usually an indication of tumor dissemination and always has a fatal prognosis.

  18. BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; Dahl, Christina; Dahmcke, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    with atypia. BRAF mutations were identified in 39 of 111 (35%) cases. The rate ratio of BRAF-mutated versus BRAF-wild-type melanoma did not change over time. BRAF mutations were associated with T1 stage (p = 0.007), young age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.02), sun-exposed location (p = 0.01), mixed....../non-pigmented tumour colour (p = 0.02) and nevus origin (p = 0.005), but did not associate with prognosis. BRAF status in conjunctival melanoma and paired premalignant lesions corresponded in 19 of 20 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected BRAF V600E mutations with a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 1...

  19. The role of stress and beta-adrenergic system in melanoma: current knowledge and possible therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Roberta; Moretti, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present review was to discuss recent findings on the role of beta-adrenergic system in melanoma, in order to provide information on the biological responses elicited by its activation and its potential application for melanoma treatment. A literature search was performed, and evidences regarding the involvement of stress and beta-adrenergic system in cancer and melanoma were found and discussed. Our search pointed out that beta-adrenergic system is a key regulator of important biological processes involved in the onset and progression of some solid tumors. In the last decade, functional beta-adrenoceptors have been also identified on melanoma cells, as well as on their microenvironment cells. Similarly to other common cancers too, the activation of such adrenoceptors by catecholamines, usually released under stress conditions, has been found to trigger pro-tumorigenic pathways contributing to cell proliferation and motility, immune system regulation, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and neoangiogenesis. The biological evidences we found clarify and sustain the clinical evidences reporting the involvement of chronic stress in melanoma onset and progression. In such scenario, it is conceivable that a therapeutic approach targeting beta-adrenergic system could constitute a novel and promising strategy for melanoma treatment.

  20. Dysplastic vs. Common Naevus-associated vs. De novo Melanomas: An Observational Retrospective Study of 1,021 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martin-Gorgojo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-case study was to determine the differences between dysplastic and common naevus-associated melanomas (NAM and de novo melanomas. A total of 1,021 prospectively collected patients with invasive cutaneous melanoma from an oncology referral centre were included in the study. Of these, 75.51% had de novo melanomas, 12.93% dysplastic NAM, and 11.56% common NAM. Dysplastic NAM, compared with de novo melanomas, were associated with intermittently photo-exposed sites, atypical melanocytic naevi, decreased tumour thickness, and presence of MC1R non-synonymous variants. Common NAM were more frequent on the trunk and of superficial spreading type. Comparison of dysplastic with common NAM showed significant difference only with regard to mitoses. Both subtypes of NAM shared less aggressive traits than de novo melanomas, albeit with no significant differences in survival after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, NAM present with less aggressive traits, mostly due to a greater awareness among patients of changing moles than due to their intrinsic biological characteristics.

  1. Biopsia del ganglio centinela en el melanoma: camino a la desaparición Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: bound to disappear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La biopsia del ganglio centinela continúa siendo utilizada para la terapéutica del melanoma, sin fundamento científico comprobado. Los estudios prospectivos-randomizados han fracasado en demostrar beneficio alguno en el punto clave de los mismos, conocer si aumenta la sobrevida global del paciente con melanoma invasor. Se revisan algunos trabajos que demuestran que el punto de vista contrario a su uso rutinario, es el correcto con el fin de ofrecer al dermatólogo, amplitud de criterio en el momento de discutir con el paciente dicho estudio.Sentinel node biopsy and selective lymph node dissection are still a frequent tool for therapeutic management of melanoma without scientific support. Prospective-randomized trials have failed to show overall survival - the main goal in such trials in invasive melanoma. Some articles proving that the opposite point of view to its standard use is correct have been reviewed, in order to offer to the dermatologist the different alternatives so as to discuss such procedures with amplitude of criteria at the time of discussing such procedure with the potential patient.

  2. Gene expression profile associated with radioresistance and malignancy in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibañez, I.L.; Molinari, B.; Notcovich, C.; García, F.M.; Bracalente, C.; Zuccato, C.F.; Durán, H.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has substantially increased over the last decades. Melanomas respond poorly to treatments and no effective therapy exists to inhibit its metastatic spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between radioresistance of melanoma cells and malignancy. A melanoma model developed in our laboratory from A375 human amelanotic melanoma cells was used. It consists in two catalase-overexpressing cell lines with the same genetic background, but with different phenotypes: A375-A7, melanotic and non-invasive and A375-G10, amelanotic and metastatic; and A375-PCDNA3 (transfected with empty plasmid) as control. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay after irradiating these cells with a “1”3”7 Cs gamma source. Survival curves were fitted to the linear-quadratic model and surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated. Results showed that A375-G10 cells were significantly more radioresistant than both A375-A7 and control cells, demonstrated by SF2 and α parameter of survival curves: SF2=0.32±0.03, 0.43±0.16 and 0.89±0.05 and α=0.45±0.05, 0.20±0.05 and 0 for A375-PCDNA3, A375-A7 and A375-G10 respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of whole genome expression microarrays data (Affymetrix) from these cells was performed. A priori defined gene sets associated with cell cycle, apoptosis and MAPK signaling pathway were collected from KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to evaluate significant differences in gene set expression between cells by GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). A375-G10 showed significant decrease in the expression of genes related to DNA damage response (ATM, TP53BP1 and MRE11A) compared to A375-A7 and controls. Moreover, A375-G10 exhibited down-regulated gene sets that are involved in DNA repair, checkpoint and negative regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion, A375-G10 gene expression profile could be involved in radioresistance mechanisms of these cells. Thus, this expression

  3. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  5. Prediction of melanoma metastasis by the Shields index based on lymphatic vessel density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma usually presents as an initial skin lesion without evidence of metastasis. A significant proportion of patients develop subsequent local, regional or distant metastasis, sometimes many years after the initial lesion was removed. The current most effective staging method to identify early regional metastasis is sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB, which is invasive, not without morbidity and, while improving staging, may not improve overall survival. Lymphatic density, Breslow's thickness and the presence or absence of lymphatic invasion combined has been proposed to be a prognostic index of metastasis, by Shields et al in a patient group. Methods Here we undertook a retrospective analysis of 102 malignant melanomas from patients with more than five years follow-up to evaluate the Shields' index and compare with existing indicators. Results The Shields' index accurately predicted outcome in 90% of patients with metastases and 84% without metastases. For these, the Shields index was more predictive than thickness or lymphatic density. Alternate lymphatic measurement (hot spot analysis was also effective when combined into the Shields index in a cohort of 24 patients. Conclusions These results show the Shields index, a non-invasive analysis based on immunohistochemistry of lymphatics surrounding primary lesions that can accurately predict outcome, is a simple, useful prognostic tool in malignant melanoma.

  6. Prognosis of patients with transected melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Nandi, Tina; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2013-04-01

    The management of melanoma is directly related to Breslow's depth. Biopsying melanomas in a fashion that transects the deep margin precludes an accurate measurement of the true depth. To examine the prognosis of melanomas transected along the deep margins, as well as cases where no residual melanoma was seen on re-excision after transection. Records from a cohort of patients at one institution were examined from 1996 through 2007. Patients were considered to have "transected" melanomas if tumor cells were present on the deep margin of the biopsy. Overall survival was determined. Seven hundred fourteen patients were examined. 171 (24%) of all melanomas were transected. 101(59%) of those lacked tumor cells on re-excision. Patients with transected melanomas were older (OR = 1.03, p < .001), and had higher Breslow's depths (OR = 1.21, p < .001) than those without transected tumors. Those with no residual melanoma after transection were younger (OR = 0.98, p = .010) and more likely to have no lymph node involvement (OR = 2.23, p = .037). Neither transection (p = .760), nor lack of residual melanoma on re-excision after transection (p = .793) influenced survival. A high number of melanomas are transected at diagnosis, many of which lack visible tumor. The original Breslow's depth of transected melanomas without residual tumor on re-excision accurately predicts survival and prognosis. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sunburn, suntan and the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma--The Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J. M.; Gallagher, R. P.; Davison, J.; Hill, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of interview data on 595 patients with newly incident cutaneous melanoma, excluding lentigo maligna melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma, with data from comparison subjects drawn from the general population, showed that melanoma risk increased in association with the frequency and severity of past episodes of sunburn, and also that melanoma risk was higher in subjects who usually had a relatively mild degree of suntan compared to those with moderate or deep suntan in both winter and summer. The associations with sunburn and with suntan were independent. Melanoma risk is also increased in association with a tendency to burn easily and tan poorly and with pigmentation characteristics of light hair and skin colour, and history freckles; the associations with sunburn and suntan are no longer significant when these other factors are taken into account. This shows that pigmentation characteristics, and the usual skin reaction to sun, are more closely associated with melanoma risk than are sunburn and suntan histories. PMID:3978032

  8. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  9. Melanoma transition is frequently accompanied by a loss of cytoglobin expression in melanocytes: a novel expression site of cytoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Fujita

    Full Text Available The tissue distribution and function of hemoglobin or myoglobin are well known; however, a newly found cytoglobin (CYGB, which also belongs to the globin family, remains to be characterized. To assess its expression in human malignancies, we sought to screen a number of cell lines originated from many tissues using northern blotting and real time PCR techniques. Unexpectedly, we found that several, but not all, melanoma cell lines expressed CYGB mRNA and protein at much higher levels than cells of other origins. Melanocytes, the primary origin of melanoma, also expressed CYGB at a high level. To verify these observations, immunostaining and immunoblotting using anti-CYGB antibody were also performed. Bisulfite-modified genomic sequencing revealed that several melanoma cell lines that abrogated CYGB expression were found to be epigenetically regulated by hypermethylation in the promoter region of CYGB gene. The RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the CYGB transcript in CYGB expression-positive melanoma cell lines resulted in increased proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis using 2'-, 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA, an indicator of reactive oxygen species (ROS, revealed that the cellular ROS level may be involved in the proliferative effect of CYGB. Thus, CYGB appears to play a tumor suppressive role as a ROS regulator, and its epigenetic silencing, as observed in CYGB expression-negative melanoma cell lines, might function as an alternative pathway in the melanocyte-to-melanoma transition.

  10. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression.

  11. Metastatic breast disease from cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Lucarelli, Nicola Maria; Martino, Gianluigi; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer in the world. Breast metastases from melanoma are uncommon but could reflect a widespread disease. We report a case of malignant widespread melanoma presenting with bilateral breast nodules in a 39 year-old pre-menopausal Caucasian woman with an history of cutaneous melanoma of the trunk. Breast clinical examination revealed the presence of a hard and mobile lump located on the left breast. Ultrasound detected two bilateral nodules corresponding to oval opacities with well-defined edges and without calcifications or architectural distortion on mammography. Fine needle aspiration cytology performed on both breast nodules confirmed that the breast lesions were metastases from primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. A total-body CT examination detected brain, lung and abdominal lymph nodes metastases. The breast represents an uncommon site of metastatic disease from extra-mammary tumors. Imaging features of breast metastases from melanoma usually do not allow a differential diagnosis with breast primary tumors. Breast metastases may be asymptomatic or palpable as dense and well-circumscribed nodules. Breast metastases indicate a widespread disease and should lead to avoid aggressive surgical procedures because of the poor prognosis of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. The detection of bilateral breast metastases from melanoma is highly suggestive of metastatic multi-organ disease and could be useful to address the therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards new therapeutic approaches for malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ivan; Buzea, Cristina; Tron, Victor

    2011-11-01

    Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of melanoma has created new opportunities for developing novel therapeutic modalities to manage this potentially lethal disease. Although at first glance, melanoma carcinogenesis appears to be a chaotic system, it is indeed, arguably, a deterministic multistep process involving sequential alterations of proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressors and miRNA genes. The scope of this article is to discuss the most recent and significant advances in melanoma molecular therapeutics. It is apparent that using single agents targeting solely individual melanoma pathways might be insufficient for long-term survival. However, the outstanding results on melanoma survival observed with novel selective inhibitors of B-RAF, such as PLX4032 give hope that melanoma can be cured. The fact that melanoma develops acquired resistance to PLX4032 emphasises the importance of simultaneously targeting several pathways. Because the most striking feature of melanoma is its unsurpassed ability to metastasise, it is important to implement newer systems for drug delivery adapted from research on stem cells and nanotechnology.

  13. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  14. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  15. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  16. Xeroderma pigmentosum genes and melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowska-Szczur, K; Scott, R J; Serrano-Fernandez, P; Mirecka, A; Gapska, P; Górski, B; Cybulski, C; Maleszka, R; Sulikowski, M; Nagay, L; Lubinski, J; Dębniak, T

    2013-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is associated with a severe deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. The presence of a distinct the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mutation signature in melanoma suggests that perturbations in this critical repair process are likely to be involved with disease risk. We hypothesized that persons with polymorphic NER gene(s) are likely to have reduced NER activity and are consequently at an increased risk of melanoma development. We assessed the association between 94 SNPs within seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) and the melanoma risk in the Polish population. We genotyped 714 unselected melanoma patients and 1,841 healthy adults to determine if there were any polymorphisms differentially represented in the disease group. We found that a significantly decreased risk of melanoma was associated with the Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation (XPC) rs2228000_CT genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15; p Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) showed a modest association between two haplotypes and a decrease in melanoma risk. There were no major differences between the prevalence of the XP polymorphisms among young or older patients with melanoma. Linkage disequilibrium of XPC: rs2228001, G1475A, G2061A, rs2228000 and rs3731062 was found. The data from our study support the notion that only XPC and XPD genes are associated with melanoma susceptibility. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  17. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Pan

    Full Text Available The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM, the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA, led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in

  18. Clinical relevance of positron emission tomography for initial staging and follow-up of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Rinne, D.; Kaufmann, R.

    2000-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing (at a rate of 5 percent per year) throughout the world. In Europe, the incidence is approximately 10-12 new cases of invasive melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants. The most important prognostic factor is the stage of disease (Clark Level and vertical tumor depth (TD) according to BRESLOW) at the time of presentation. Ten year survival is 90 percent with a TD of 1.5 mm; 5-year survival is 15-50 percent when there is regional lymph node involvement, and 5 percent when there is disseminated disease. Conventional diagnostic tests for staging include a chest X-ray, lymph node sonography and laboratory tests. Sentinel node biopsy is becoming an increasingly common procedure since melanoma usually metastasizes to regional lymph nodes before dissemination. CT scan of the thorax or abdomen, MRI of the brain and other tests are used only when signs or symptoms warrant. The results of a prospective study which we performed in 100 patients for staging of high risk melanoma (n=48) or for re-staging patients with suspected recurrence demonstrated that FDG whole-body PET is superior to conventional imaging techniques (X-ray, sonography, CT scan) except for the detection of brain metastases. The diagnostic accuracy of PET for the detection of metastases was 92.1% versus 55.7% for conventional imaging (p 1.5 mm); and 2) detection of occult metastases in patients with recurrent disease who are being considered for surgery. PET often changes the diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of patients with melanoma. PET has also shown to be cost effective in diagnosis and evaluation of patients with melanoma in the USA. (orig.) [de

  19. Relationship Between LAPTM4B Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility of Malignant Melanoma in Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B is known as an oncogene associated with many human malignant tumors. There are two alleles of the gene, LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. Previous studies have shown that LAPTM4B polymorphism contributes to the risk of many cancers. This case-control study was to investigate the relationship between LAPTM4B gene polymorphism and susceptibility of malignant melanoma. The genotypes of LAPTM4B were determined in 617 control subjects and 220 patients with malignant melanoma by utilizing polymerase chain reaction based on specific primers. The genotypic distribution of LAPTM4B and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were analyzed by χ2 test. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval was calculated by unconditional logistic regression. The distributions of LAPTM4B genotypes were significantly different between melanoma patients (45.9% for *1/1, 46.4% for *1/2 and 7.7 for *2/2 and controls (54.5% for *1/1, 39.9% for *1/2 and 5.7 for *2/2. LAPTM4B *1/2 and LAPTM4B *2/2 had a 1.396-fold and 1.619-fold higher risk for melanoma occurrence than *1/1, and subjects with LAPTM4B*2 have a 1.308-fold higher risk than LAPTM4B*1 carriers. No association between LAPTM4B genotypes and gender, age, subtype, Clark level of invasion, Breslow thickness, ulceration, clinical stage, and C-KIT, BRAF gene mutation status was observed. LAPTM4B*2 is associated with the high risk of malignant melanoma and carrying LAPTM4B *2 may be a susceptible factor to Chinese melanoma patients.

  20. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211 At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  1. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma...

  2. Oral Amelanotic Melanoma | Adisa | Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases ...

  3. primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a vitiligo patch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-05

    May 5, 2014 ... Malignant melanoma is a rare tumour in people of. African descent including those affected by albinism. (1). The incidence of malignant melanoma in Africans is estimated to ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 per 100,000 people (2). Acrolentiginous melanoma is the most common type of melanoma in this population.

  4. Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos.A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

  5. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologists’ awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  6. Familial Melanoma Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome: Total-body Digital Photography, Dermoscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Ririe, Marnie; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep

    2017-06-09

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the p53 gene. Melanoma is considered to be a rare, controversial component of LFS. The aim of this study is to describe the utility of systematic screening for melanoma in patients with LFS and atypical mole syndrome. Two 28-year-old identical twin sisters with LFS and atypical moles were monitored by physical examination, total-body digital photography and dermoscopy be-tween 2006 and 2014. A total of 117, predominantly dark-brown, reticular naevi were identified on case 1 and 105 on case 2. Excisions were performed during the evaluation period of 1 in-situ melanoma and 3 basal cell carcinomas in case 1, and 1 in-situ melanoma and 1 early invasive melanoma in case 2. The remaining melanocytic lesions in both patients were stable during follow-up. The 3 melanomas were new atypical lesions detected with total-body photography and dermoscopy. In conclusion, monitoring LFS patients with total-body photography and dermoscopy may be useful to detect early melanoma.

  7. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 acts as a competing endogenous RNA to promote malignant melanoma growth and metastasis by sponging miR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Wenkang; Li, Lubo; Shi, Yan; Bu, Xuefeng; Xia, Yun; Wang, Jinlong; Djangmah, Henry Siaw; Liu, Xiaohui; You, Yongping; Xu, Bin

    2016-09-27

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), an lncRNAs, is associated with the growth and metastasis of many human tumors, but its biological roles in malignant melanoma remain unclear. In this study, the aberrant up-regulation of MALAT1 was detected in melanoma. We determined that MALAT1 promotes melanoma cells proliferation, invasion and migration by sponging miR-22. MiR-22 was decreased and acted as a tumor suppressor in melanoma, and MMP14 and Snail were the functional targets of miR-22. Furthermore, MALAT1 could modulate MMP14 and Snail by operating as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-22. The effects of MALAT1 in malignant melanoma is verified using a xenograft model. This finding elucidates a new mechanism for MALAT1 in melanoma development and provides a potential target for melanoma therapeutic intervention.

  8. BRAF inhibitors and radiotherapy for melanoma brain metastases: potential advantages and disadvantages of combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhary M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudit Chowdhary,1,2 Kirtesh R Patel,1 Hasan H Danish,1 David H Lawson,3 Mohammad K Khan1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 3Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy that frequently spreads to the brain, resulting in rapid deterioration in both quality and quantity of life. Historically, treatment options for melanoma brain metastases (MBM have predominantly consisted of surgery and radiotherapy. While these options can help provide local control, the majority of patients still develop intracranial progression. Indeed, novel therapeutic options, including molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy, have improved outcomes and are now changing the role of radiotherapy. Up to 50% of melanomas contain an activating BRAF mutation, resulting in hyperactive cellular proliferation and survival. Drugs that target BRAF have been introduced for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and offer hope in improving disease outcomes; however, many of these trials either excluded or had a limited amount of patients with MBM. Recent studies have revealed that melanoma cell lines become more radiosensitive following BRAF inhibition, thus providing a potential synergistic mechanism when combining BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi and radiotherapy. However, neurotoxicity concerns also exist with this combination. This article reviews the efficacy and limitations of BRAFi therapy for MBM, describes current evidence for combining BRAFis with radiation, discusses the rationale and evidence for combination modalities, and highlights emerging clinical trials specifically investigating this combination in MBM. Keywords: brain metastases, melanoma, radiation, BRAF inhibitors, vemurafenib, dabrafenib

  9. Future perspectives in melanoma research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo A. Ascierto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sixth “Melanoma Bridge Meeting” took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st–4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1 molecular and immune advances; (2 combination therapies; (3 news in immunotherapy; and 4 tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, renal cell carcinoma (RCC, bladder cancer, and Hodgkin’s disease. Specifically, many clinical successes have been using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1. Despite demonstrated successes, responses to immunotherapy interventions occur only in a minority of patients. Attempts are being made to improve responses to immunotherapy by developing biomarkers. Optimizing biomarkers for immunotherapy could help properly select patients for treatment and help to monitor response, progression and resistance that are critical challenges for the immuno-oncology (IO field. Importantly, biomarkers could help to design rational combination therapies. In addition, biomarkers may help to define mechanism of action of different agents, dose selection and to sequence drug combinations. However, biomarkers and assays development to guide cancer immunotherapy is highly challenging for several reasons: (i multiplicity of immunotherapy agents with different mechanisms of action including immunotherapies that target activating and inhibitory T cell receptors (e.g., CTLA-4, PD-1, etc.; adoptive T cell therapies that include tissue infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, chimeric

  10. EMMPRIN/CD147 is an independent prognostic biomarker in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Anne; Battistella, Maxime; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Pages, Cécile; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Mazouz Dorval, Sarra; Funck Brentano, Elisa; Sadoux, Aurélie; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Menashi, Suzanne; Janin, Anne; Lebbé, Céleste; Mourah, Samia

    2016-08-01

    CD147 has been implicated in melanoma invasion and metastasis mainly through increasing metalloproteinase synthesis and regulating VEGF/VEGFR signalling. In this study, the prognostic value of CD147 expression was investigated in a cohort of 196 cutaneous melanomas including 136 consecutive primary malignant melanomas, 30 lymph nodes, 16 in-transit and 14 visceral metastases. A series of 10 normal skin, 10 blue nevi and 10 dermal nevi was used as control. CD147 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the association of its expression with the clinicopathological characteristics of patients and survival was evaluated using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Univariate analysis showed that high CD147 expression was significantly associated with metastatic potential and with a reduced overall survival (P CD147 expression level was correlated with histological factors which were associated with prognosis: Clark level, ulceration status and more particularly with Breslow index (r = 0.7, P CD147 expression level and ulceration status as predicting factors for metastasis and overall survival (P CD147 emerges as an important factor in the aggressive behaviour of melanoma and deserves further evaluation as an independent prognostic biomarker. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ethanol inhibits B16-BL6 melanoma metastasis and cell phenotypes associated with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiro, Kyoko; Núñez, Nomelí P

    2012-01-01

    Every year, approximately 68,000 new cases of malignant melanoma are diagnosed in the US. Ethanol consumption inhibits metastasis of melanoma in mice, but the mechanism is not well understood. C57BL/6J ob/+ mice, given either water or 20% ethanol, were injected intravenously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells to determine pulmonary metastasis. The effects of ethanol on cell phenotypes and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were determined in cell culture. In mice, ethanol consumption inhibited experimental pulmonary metastasis. This inhibition was associated with decreased body weight, and levels of systemic leptin, and insulin. In cell culture, ethanol inhibited B16-BL6 cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, ethanol reduced Snai1 expression and increased E-cadherin expression. Lastly, ethanol increased the expression of Kiss1 metastasis-suppressor and the metastasis suppressor Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase. In both animal and in cell culture conditions, ethanol inhibited the metastatic ability of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  12. Early detection and longitudinal monitoring of experimental primary and disseminated melanoma using [18F]ICF01006, a highly promising melanoma PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurelien; Besse, Sophie; Audin, Laurent; Degoul, Francoise; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Moins, Nicole; Auzeloux, Philippe; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Cachin, Florent; Bonnet, Mathilde; Askienazy, Serge; Dolle, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report a new and rapid radiosynthesis of 18 F-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-6-fluoro-pyridine-3-carboxamide ([ 18 F]ICF01006), a molecule with a high specificity for melanotic tissue, and its evaluation in a murine model for early specific detection of pigmented primary and disseminated melanoma. [ 18 F]ICF01006 was synthesized using a new one-step bromine-for-fluorine nucleophilic heteroaromatic substitution. Melanoma models were induced by subcutaneous (primary tumour) or intravenous (lung colonies) injection of B16BL6 melanoma cells in C57BL/6J mice. The relevance and sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]ICF01006 were evaluated at different stages of tumoural growth and compared to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG). The fully automated radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]ICF01006 led to a radiochemical yield of 61 % and a radiochemical purity >99 % (specific activity 70-80 GBq/μmol; total synthesis time 42 min). Tumours were visualized before they were palpable as early as 1 h post-injection with [ 18 F]ICF01006 tumoural uptake of 1.64 ± 0.57, 3.40 ± 1.47 and 11.44 ± 2.67 percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at days 3, 5 and 14, respectively. [ 18 F]ICF01006 PET imaging also allowed detection of melanoma pulmonary colonies from day 9 after tumour cell inoculation, with a lung radiotracer accumulation correlated with melanoma invasion. At day 21, radioactivity uptake in lungs reached a value of 5.23 ± 2.08 %ID/g (versus 0.41 ± 0.90 %ID/g in control mice). In the two models, comparison with [ 18 F]FDG showed that both radiotracers were able to detect melanoma lesions, but [ 18 F]ICF01006 was superior in terms of contrast and specificity. Our promising results provide further preclinical data, reinforcing the excellent potential of [ 18 F]ICF01006 PET imaging for early specific diagnosis and follow-up of melanin-positive disseminated melanoma. (orig.)

  13. Differentiating regressed melanoma from regressed lichenoid keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aegean H; Shulman, Kenneth J; Lee, Bonnie A

    2017-04-01

    Distinguishing regressed lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) from regressed melanoma can be difficult on histopathologic examination, potentially resulting in mismanagement of patients. We aimed to identify histopathologic features by which regressed melanoma can be differentiated from regressed LPLK. Twenty actively inflamed LPLK, 12 LPLK with regression and 15 melanomas with regression were compared and evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF) and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) immunostaining. (1) A total of 40% of regressed melanomas showed complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis with Melan-A and MiTF immunostaining, while 8% of regressed LPLK exhibited this finding. (2) Necrotic keratinocytes were seen in the epidermis in 33% regressed melanomas as opposed to all of the regressed LPLK. (3) A dense infiltrate of melanophages in the papillary dermis was seen in 40% of regressed melanomas, a feature not seen in regressed LPLK. In summary, our findings suggest that a complete or near complete loss of melanocytes within the epidermis strongly favors a regressed melanoma over a regressed LPLK. In addition, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes and the presence of a dense band-like distribution of dermal melanophages can be helpful in differentiating these lesions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identification of an Immunogenic Subset of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Luke D; Sabesan, Arvind C; Stephens, Daniel J; Chandran, Smita S; Paria, Biman C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Somerville, Robert; Wunderlich, John R; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Trinh H; Raffeld, Mark; Jailwala, Parthav; Kasoji, Manjula; Kammula, Udai S

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is a rare melanoma variant with no effective therapies once metastases develop. Although durable cancer regression can be achieved in metastatic cutaneous melanoma with immunotherapies that augment naturally existing antitumor T-cell responses, the role of these treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma remains unclear. We sought to define the relative immunogenicity of these two melanoma variants and determine whether endogenous antitumor immune responses exist against uveal melanoma. We surgically procured liver metastases from uveal melanoma (n = 16) and cutaneous melanoma (n = 35) patients and compared the attributes of their respective tumor cell populations and their infiltrating T cells (TIL) using clinical radiology, histopathology, immune assays, and whole-exomic sequencing. Despite having common melanocytic lineage, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma metastases differed in their melanin content, tumor differentiation antigen expression, and somatic mutational profile. Immunologic analysis of TIL cultures expanded from these divergent forms of melanoma revealed cutaneous melanoma TIL were predominantly composed of CD8(+) T cells, whereas uveal melanoma TIL were CD4(+) dominant. Reactivity against autologous tumor was significantly greater in cutaneous melanoma TIL compared with uveal melanoma TIL. However, we identified TIL from a subset of uveal melanoma patients which had robust antitumor reactivity comparable in magnitude with cutaneous melanoma TIL. Interestingly, the absence of melanin pigmentation in the parental tumor strongly correlated with the generation of highly reactive uveal melanoma TIL. The discovery of this immunogenic group of uveal melanoma metastases should prompt clinical efforts to determine whether patients who harbor these unique tumors can benefit from immunotherapies that exploit endogenous antitumor T-cell populations. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2237-49. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  16. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  17. Gingival osteogenic melanoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Angela E; Harmon, Barry G; Miller, Debra L; Northrup, Nicole C; Latimer, Kenneth S; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2010-01-01

    Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of metaplastic malignant melanoma in human medicine and appears to be a similarly rare variant in dogs. Two dogs with oral malignant melanoma with neoplastic bone formation are reported in this study. Both tumors were characterized by malignant melanocytes that transitioned into neoplastic bone at the deep margins of the neoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed S100- and Melan-A-positive neoplastic cells adjacent to, and occasionally embedded within, an osteoid and chondroblastic matrix. Scattered clusters of neoplastic cells were also positive for osteocalcin. The findings indicate that in dogs, as in humans, neoplastic melanocytes have metaplastic potential and can be osteogenic.

  18. Dermatoscopic Findings of Seborrheic Keratosis in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Maria Luiza; Oliveira Lima, Cíntia Maria; Moura, Heloísa Helena; Ishida, Cleide; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous melanoma may in some instances be confused with seborrheic keratosis, which is a very common neoplasia, more often mistaken for actinic keratosis and verruca vulgaris. Melanoma may clinically resemble seborrheic keratosis and should be considered as its possible clinical simulator. We report a case of melanoma with dermatoscopic characteristics of seborrheic keratosis and emphasize the importance of the dermatoscopy algorithm in differentiating between a melanocytic and a non-melanocytic lesion, of the excisional biopsy for the establishment of the diagnosis of cutaneous tumors, and of the histopathologic examination in all surgically removed samples.

  19. Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

  20. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  1. A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, Karin; Bogner, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Kren, Gerhard; Poetter, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a stereotactic irradiation technique for uveal melanomas performed at a linac, based on a non-invasive eye fixation and eye monitoring system. Methods: For eye immobilization a light source system is integrated in a standard stereotactic mask system in front of the healthy eye: During treatment preparation (computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) as well as for treatment delivery, patients are instructed to gaze at the fixation light source. A mini-video camera monitors the pupil center position of the diseased eye. For treatment planning and beam delivery standard stereotactic radiotherapy equipment is used. If the pupil center deviation from a predefined 'zero-position' exceeds 1 mm (for more than 2 s), treatment delivery is interrupted. Between 1996 and 1999 60 patients with uveal melanomas, where (i) tumor height exceeded 7 mm, or (ii) tumor height was more than 3 mm, and the central tumor distance to the optic disc and/or the macula was less than 3 mm, have been treated. A total dose of 60 or 70 Gy has been given in 5 fractions within 10 days. Results: The repositioning accuracy in the mask system is 0.47±0.36 mm in rostral-occipital direction, 0.75±0.52 mm laterally, and 1.12±0.96 mm in vertical direction. An eye movement analysis performed for 23 patients shows a pupil center deviation from the 'zero' position<1 mm in 91% of all cases investigated. In a theoretical analysis, pupil center deviations are correlated with GTV 'movements'. For a pupil center deviation of 1 mm (rotation of the globe of 5 degree sign ) the GTV is still encompassed by the 80% isodose in 94%. Conclusion: For treatments of uveal melanomas, linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy combined with a non-invasive eye immobilization and monitoring system represents a feasible, accurate and reproducible method. Besides considerable technical requirements, the complexity of the treatment technique demands an interdisciplinary team continuously dedicated to this

  2. em cultura de células de melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Berti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, extraction, isolation and characterization of plant derived active molecules that modulate cell viability are of great clinical and pharmacological interest. Phytochemical tests have been used to demonstrate the presence of several compounds both from the primary and secondary metabolism of Aloe vera L. Aloin, an anthraquinone isolated from the chlorophyll parenchyma of A. vera L, is known for its biological activity. The antitumoral activity of aloin and the chlorophyll parenchyma extract was evaluated in vitro with the use of murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Cells incubated with 5% CO 2 at 37ºC were treated with different aloin and parenchyma extract concentrations. Both affected cellular stability, acting as modulators of tumoral cell viability. Experimental data were fitted to a developed mathematical model. From the fitting parameters we concluded that the chlorophyll parenchyma extract is 2.3 times more toxic to the cell than aloin.

  3. Macrophage markers in serum and tumor have prognostic impact in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I/II melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine O.; Schmidt, Henrik; Møller, Holger John

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic role of soluble CD163 (sCD163) in serum and macrophage infiltration in primary melanomas from patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I/II melanoma. The scavenger receptor CD163 is associated with anti-inflammatory macrophages...... melanomas from 190 patients were available for immunohistochemical analyzes of CD163(+) and CD68(+) macrophage infiltration. They were estimated semiquantitatively in three different tumor compartments: tumor nests, tumor stroma, and at the invasive front of the tumor. RESULTS: Serum sCD163 treated......, HR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8; P = .003). Melanomas with dense CD163(+) macrophage infiltration in tumor stroma and CD68(+) macrophage infiltration at the invasive front were associated with poor overall survival (CD163, HR = 2.7; 95% CI, 0.8 to 9.3; P = .11; and CD68, HR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.8; P...

  4. Colonisation of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis by malignant melanoma in situ in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although malignant melanoma (MM and both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and actinic keratosis (AK are sun-induced lesions, the coexistence of these entities at the same anatomical site (collision tumour is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with a known history of xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV who presented with 2 separate skin lesions over the middle and upper right forearm, respectively. The clinical impression was that of BCCs or squamous cell lesions. On histological examination, both specimens showed features of melanoma in situ (MIS. In the first lesion, MIS merged with and colonised a superficial and focally invasive BCC. In the second lesion, MIS merged with an AK. No separate invasive nests of malignant melanoma were seen in either specimen. The atypical melanocytes were highlighted by Melan-A and HMB-45 immunostaining, whereas the epithelial cells in both the BCC and AK stained with the pancytokeratin MNF-116. The patient had a previous history of multiple MMs and non-melanomatous skin cancers and finally developed widespread metastatic malignant melanoma, which proved fatal. The rare and interesting phenomenon of collision tumours may pose diagnostic difficulties. To our knowledge, this is the first reported simultaneous presentation of cytologically malignant collision tumours in a patient with XPV.

  5. Clinical radiobiology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.M.; Overgaard, J.; Overgaard, M.; Thames, H.D.; Vejby Hansen, P.; Von der Maase, H.; Meder, J.

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-control probability (TCP) was analyzed in a series of 121 patients having 239 histologically proven recurrent or metastatic malignant melanomas. These were treated with fractionated radiotherapy with various doses per fraction, total doses, and overall times. Cutaneous lesions (127,53%) were treated with electron beams, and more deeply seated tumors (112,47%) with 60 Co or 4-8 MV X-rays. The fraction size was highly variable, and this permitted determination of the α/β ration in the multifraction linearquadratic model, which was estimated at 0.57 Gy with 95% confidence limits [-1.07,2.5]Gy Threatment time had no demonstrable influenc on TCP. Thus this tumor exhibits the fractionation sensitivity characteristic of a late-responding normal tissue, suggesting that an adequate fractionation schedule for malignant melanomas would be characterized by larger-than-conventional doses per fraction, possibly about 6 Gy per fraction. This is consistent with the conclusions of other authors. Tumor size, evaluated as mean tumor diameter, S, had a major impact on TCP: the number of target cells increased as a power function of S with exponent 0.72 (95% confidence limits) [1.49, 0.94]. In fact, a considerable amount of the heterogeneity in the dose-responce data could be removed by accounting for size. Thus, the weak, or absent dose response became highly significant. When a patient had multiple lesions, the responses of these to radiotherapy tended to be similar, thus implying that results were significantly influenced by a 'hidden parameter' (such as inherent radiosensitivity or immunological status). A test of the predictive value of the TCP-model was performed in a different series of 183 cutaneous and lymph node malignant melanomas. The observed dose-response relationship in this data set was in good agreement with the model prediction. A chi-square test for goodness-of-fit showed that the variation between predicted and observed results could be explained by the

  6. Anti-SEMA4D Monoclonal Antibody VX15/2503 With Nivolumab or Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Metastatic Melanoma; Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7

  7. Isolated Pancreatic Metastasis from Malignant Melanoma: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Renal-cell cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma and ... types of cancer, such as colorectal and renal cancers,[5] is the gold standard ... Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute Paoli Calmettes .... [20] Whether or not these innovative.

  8. Metastatic malignant subungal melanoma: Importance of FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Punshi Nandwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subungual melanoma is a rare type of skin cancer. It is an uncommon form of acral lentiginous melanoma. Approximately 85% of cases are misdiagnosed initially, and it is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic subungal melanoma to the axillary lymph node in a 45-year-old male. Diagnosis of metastasis was made based on cytology, where the clinicians were guided to search for primary. This case report highlights the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of this entity to draw the attention of the reader to the possible underreporting of melanoma because of a variant that evades diagnosis and our reluctance to think about its existence.

  9. Nivolumab-Based Treatments for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international, double-blind, randomized phase III trial testing the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo®) and ipilimumab (Yervoy®) against nivolumab alone and ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma.

  10. CT findings of diffuse malignant leptomeningeal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuro; Sahashi, Ko; Takahashi, Akira; Nakagawa, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical Univ., Aichi (Japan); Sumi, Yasuhiko

    1982-04-01

    This was a case of malignant melanoma which spreaded diffusely in the meninges. The diagnosis was established by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. The CT images, cerebral angiographic findings and pathological findings by autopsy were presented.

  11. Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... left the Congress and starting working as a healthcare consultant, when I finally decided to have a ...

  12. Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 12 cases emphasizing its distinction from dermal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantschke, Markus; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Palmedo, Gabriele; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J.; Kutzner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of tendons and aponeuroses / malignant melanoma of soft parts is a rare tumor and in the majority of cases presents a characteristic reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) that results in fusion of the EWS and ATF1 genes. Although the melanocytic differentiation of CCS is indisputable, its precise lineage remains unclear. Typically, the slowly growing tumor affects the extremities of adolescents or young adults, especially around the ankle and foot. CCS is classically regarded as a deep soft tissue tumor associated with tendons or aponeuroses. This traditional view is put into perspective by the description of primary CCS of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have a variant fusion gene EWSR1-CREB1. We describe 12 cases of cutaneous CCS and discuss the differential diagnoses. These 12 cases share an identical immunohistochemical profile with malignant melanoma (MM) and thus can easily be confused with a dermal variant of spindle cell MM or metastasis of MM. The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median: 25 y), and there was a female predominance (10 females, 2 males). Most tumors (n = 9) were located on the extremities, 2 tumors arose on the back, and 1 on the abdomen. The mean tumor size was 0,97 cm (range, 0,4 to 1,7 cm). Six cases showed invasion of the subcutis, the other 6 cases were entirely dermal. Tumor necrosis was evident in 2 cases, melanin pigment in 2 cases, and ulceration in 1 tumor. All cases showed uniform nests and fascicles of pale spindled or slightly epitheloid cells with finely granular eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. There was fair pleomorphism with plump spindled nuclei and significantly prominent nucleoli. Multinucleated wreath-like tumor giant cells were observed in two-thirds of cases, but were usually present only focally. The dense cellular aggregates were encased by delicate fibrous septa. The stroma showed a sclerotic reticulated pattern. Partly, the nests of spindle cells bordered the epidermis

  13. Inhibition of CSF-1R supports T-cell mediated melanoma therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Sluijter

    Full Text Available Tumor associated macrophages (TAM can promote angiogenesis, invasiveness and immunosuppression. The cytokine CSF-1 (or M-CSF is an important factor of TAM recruitment and differentiation and several pharmacological agents targeting the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R have been developed to regulate TAM in solid cancers. We show that the kinase inhibitor PLX3397 strongly dampened the systemic and local accumulation of macrophages driven by B16F10 melanomas, without affecting Gr-1(+ myeloid derived suppressor cells. Removal of intratumoral macrophages was remarkably efficient and a modest, but statistically significant, delay in melanoma outgrowth was observed. Importantly, CSF-1R inhibition strongly enhanced tumor control by immunotherapy using tumor-specific CD8 T cells. Elevated IFNγ production by T cells was observed in mice treated with the combination of PLX3397 and immunotherapy. These results support the combined use of CSF-1R inhibition with CD8 T cell immunotherapy, especially for macrophage-stimulating tumors.

  14. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  15. Monosomy 3 by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseripour, Masood; Mehrazma, Mitra; Pourmatin, Rama; Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Sedaghat, Ahad; Gheytanchi, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of monosomy 3 by CISH technique in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma (UM) and its correlation with clinical and histopathological features. Archival formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 50 patients who had undergone enucleation for large uveal melanomas was obtained. Monosomy of chromosome 3 alteration by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was investigated. Clinical and histopathological features of tumors were collected. The patients had a mean age of 56.6±7.6 years. Mean basal diameter and thickness of tumors were 14.1 mm and 10.2 mm, respectively. Four patients (8%) were identified to harbor monosomy of chromosome 3. In the mean follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 3.2-9.5 y), only one case with monosomy 3 died of UM metastasis. The most common type of cellularity was mixed cell (86%). There was not any statistically significant correlation between monosomy of chromosome 3 and type of cellularity, ciliary body involvement, and largest basal diameter. The low rate of monosomy chromosome 3 and the consequent low rate of mortality may be indicative of good prognosis in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma.

  16. Born to be Alive: A Role for the BCL-2 Family in Melanoma Tumor Cell Survival, Apoptosis, and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvekar, Rina A.; Asciolla, James J.; Missert, Derek J.; Chipuk, Jerry E., E-mail: jerry.chipuk@mssm.edu [Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); The Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-13

    The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1) and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM), and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.

  17. UVA Irradiation Enhances Brusatol-Mediated Inhibition of Melanoma Growth by Downregulation of the Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Shi, Guangwei; Bian, Chunxiang; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh; Guo, Yingying; Wu, Yan; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiao; Jiang, Xuemei; Bartsch, Jörg W.

    2018-01-01

    Brusatol (BR) is a potent inhibitor of Nrf2, a transcription factor that is highly expressed in cancer tissues and confers chemoresistance. UVA-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage both normal and cancer cells and may be of potential use in phototherapy. In order to provide an alternative method to treat the aggressive melanoma, we sought to investigate whether low-dose UVA with BR is more effective in eliminating melanoma cells than the respective single treatments. We found that BR combined with UVA led to inhibition of A375 melanoma cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and triggers cell apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of Nrf2 expression attenuated colony formation and tumor development from A375 cells in heterotopic mouse models. In addition, cotreatment of UVA and BR partially suppressed Nrf2 and its downstream target genes such as HO-1 along with the PI3K/AKT pathway. We propose that cotreatment increased ROS-induced cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis and inhibits melanoma growth by regulating the AKT-Nrf2 pathway in A375 cells which offers a possible therapeutic intervention strategy for the treatment of human melanoma. PMID:29670684

  18. Melanoma or Pseudo melanoma Change in a pigmented lesion after application of topical 5-Fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/26/2017 Poster 10/26/2017-10/29/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Melanoma or Pseudo...melanoma? Change in a pigmented lesion after application of topical 5-Fluorouracil. 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  19. Fear of new or recurrent melanoma after treatment for localised melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katy J L; Mehta, Yachna; Turner, Robin M; Morton, Rachael L; Dieng, Mbathio; Saw, Robyn; Guitera, Pascale; McCaffery, Kirsten; Low, Donald; Low, Cynthia; Jenkins, Marisa; Irwig, Les; Webster, Angela C

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the amount of fear of new or recurrent melanoma among people treated for localised melanoma in an Australian specialist centre. We randomly selected 400 potential participants from all those treated for localised melanoma at the Melanoma Institute Australia during 2014 (n = 902). They were asked to complete an adapted version of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory (FCRI). We calculated summary statistics for demographics, clinical variables and total FCRI and subscale scores. Two hundred fifteen people (54%) completed the FCRI questionnaire. The overall mean severity subscale score was 15.0 (95% CI 14.0-16.1). A high proportion of participants had scores above a proposed threshold to screen for clinical fear of cancer recurrence (77% and 63% of participants with and without new or recurrent melanoma had severity subscale scores ≥13). Most participants also had scores above a threshold found to have high specificity for clinical fear of cancer recurrence (65% and 48% of participants with and without new or recurrent melanoma had severity subscale scores ≥16). The severity subscale appeared to discriminate well between groups with differing levels of risk of new or recurrent melanoma. There is a substantial amount of fear of new or recurrent melanoma among this population, despite most having a very good prognosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Melanoma of the skin in the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri

    2018-01-01

    estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n=200) and the Melanoma Database (n=200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as 'gold-standard' reference. We further validated tumor characteristics...

  1. Naturally occurring melanomas in dogs as models for non-UV pathways of human melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Marc; Cadieu, Edouard; De Brito, Clotilde; Abadie, Jérôme; Vergier, Béatrice; Devauchelle, Patrick; Degorce, Frédérique; Dréano, Stephane; Primot, Aline; Dorso, Laetitia; Lagadic, Marie; Galibert, Francis; Hédan, Benoit; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring melanomas are frequent in dogs. They appear at the same localizations as in humans, i.e. skin, mucosal sites, nail matrix and eyes. They display variable behaviors: tumors at oral localizations are more frequent and aggressive than at other anatomical sites. Interestingly, dog melanomas are associated with strong breed predispositions and overrepresentation of black-coated dogs. Epidemiological analysis of 2350 affected dogs showed that poodles are at high risk of developing oral melanoma, while schnauzers or Beauce shepherds mostly developped cutaneous melanoma. Clinical and histopathological analyses were performed on a cohort of 153 cases with a 4-yr follow-up. Histopathological characterization showed that most canine tumors are intradermal and homologous to human rare morphological melanomas types - 'nevocytoid type' and 'animal type'-. Tumor cDNA sequencing data, obtained from 95 dogs for six genes, relevant to human melanoma classification, detected somatic mutations in oral melanoma, in NRAS and PTEN genes, at human hotspot sites, but not in BRAF. Altogether, these findings support the relevance of the dog model for comparative oncology of melanomas, especially for the elucidation of non-UV induced pathways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.

  3. Lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in Australian recreational and competitive surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climstein, Mike; Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joe

    2016-07-01

    Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P well as significantly (P surf are advised to regularly utilize sun protection strategies (avoid peak ultraviolet radiation (10 am-3 pm), rashvest, hat and sunscreen) and primary care physicians are recommended to regularly screen their patients who surf. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Solitary Secondary Malignant Melanoma of Clavicle Two Years after Enuclation for Ocular Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Tozum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary metastasis of uveal melanoma to bone is extremely rare and usually associated with other organ involvement. We present a rare case of an ocular melanoma patient presenting with solitary metastasis to the clavicle two years after enucleation, without any other organ involvement. In this report, we tried to present our treatment strategy for the solitary metastasis of bone.

  5. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and white-painted areas. Be extra careful ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  6. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrometry and Imaging in Melanomas: Comparison between Pigmented and Nonpigmented Human Malignant Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Godechal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for a long time that the melanin pigments present in normal skin, hair, and most of malignant melanomas can be detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. In this study, we used EPR imaging as a tool to map the concentration of melanin inside ex vivo human pigmented and nonpigmented melanomas and correlated this cartography with anatomopathology. We obtained accurate mappings of the melanin inside pigmented human melanoma samples. The signal intensity observed on the EPR images correlated with the concentration of melanin within the tumors, visible on the histologic sections. In contrast, no EPR signal coming from melanin was observed from nonpigmented melanomas, therefore demonstrating the absence of EPR-detectable pigments inside these particular cases of skin cancer and the importance of pigmentation for further EPR imaging studies on melanoma.

  7. TREATMENT OF DOGS WITH ORAL MELANOMA RECURRENCE BY DIODE LASER EXCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Igna

    2016-11-01

    of oral malignant melanoma in dogs can be an alternative palliative procedure to invasive surgical resection procedures. The average of free recurrence and metastasis time after laser surgery has exceeded 360 days in these three cases.

  8. Effect of radiation on the induction of cell death in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notcovich, C; Delgado Gonzalez, D; Salguero, N; Bracalente, C; Molinari, B; Duran H

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of the desired effects of radiation during tumor treatment with radiotherapy. However, cutaneous melanoma cells are highly resistant to this kind of treatment. In order to understand the impact of radiation on melanoma cells apoptosis, the aim of this study was to characterize the radiobiological response of human melanoma cells, and to study whether a correlation between intrinsic radiosensitivity and apoptosis exists. The human melanoma cell lines A375, MELJ and SB2 were gamma-irradiated ( 137 Cs) and their radiosensitivity was evaluated through the α parameter and surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) of a clonogenic assay, adjusted to the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) survival model. MELJ resulted the most radioresistant (α= 0,150±0,034 SF2= 0,71), while A375 and SB2 were the most sensitive (α=0,45±0,028 SF2=0,29 and α=0,41±0,004 SF2=0,21 respectively). Apoptotic process was evaluated at 0, 2, 6, 24 and 48 hs post irradiation at 2 and 4 Gy. Nuclear morphology was analyzed by Hoechst staining, and PARP-1 cleavage by western blot. The three cell lines nucleus with apoptotic morphology were found, being A375 and SB2 percentage of apoptotic nucleus higher than MELJ (p<0.01%). Besides, PARP-1 western blot showed for MEL-J a low presence of the cleaved forms (apoptosis indicator) compared to A375 and SB2 cell lines. Our results indicate that MELJ, the most radioresistant cell line in this study, is the less radiation induced apoptotic, demonstrating a correlation between cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity and apoptosis. Understanding melanoma radioresistance mechanism becomes extremely important in the search of new therapeutic targets that allow cell sensitization to radiotherapy (author)

  9. Genetic Engineering of T Cells to Target HERV-K, an Ancient Retrovirus on Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Janani; Rabinovich, Brian A; Mi, Tiejuan; Switzer, Kirsten C; Olivares, Simon; Maiti, Sourindra N; Plummer, Joshua B; Singh, Harjeet; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Huls, Helen M; Wang-Johanning, Feng; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-07-15

    The human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) expressed on melanoma but not normal cells. This study was designed to engineer a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T-cell surface, such that they target tumors in advanced stages of melanoma. Expression of HERV-K protein was analyzed in 220 melanoma samples (with various stages of disease) and 139 normal organ donor tissues using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. HERV-K env-specific CAR derived from mouse monoclonal antibody was introduced into T cells using the transposon-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) system. HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells were expanded ex vivo on activating and propagating cells (AaPC) and characterized for CAR expression and specificity. This includes evaluating the HERV-K-specific CAR(+) T cells for their ability to kill A375-SM metastasized tumors in a mouse xenograft model. We detected HERV-K env protein on melanoma but not in normal tissues. After electroporation of T cells and selection on HERV-K(+) AaPC, more than 95% of genetically modified T cells expressed the CAR with an effector memory phenotype and lysed HERV-K env(+) tumor targets in an antigen-specific manner. Even though there is apparent shedding of this TAA from tumor cells that can be recognized by HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells, we observed a significant antitumor effect. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy with HERV-K env-specific CAR(+) T cells represents a clinically appealing treatment strategy for advanced-stage melanoma and provides an approach for targeting this TAA on other solid tumors. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Strong antitumor activities of IgG3 antibodies to a human melanoma-associated ganglioside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstroem, I.; Brankovan, V.; Hellstroem, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal IgG3 antibodies, 2B2, IF4, and MG-21, recognize a G/sub D3/ ganglioside antigen that is expressed at the cell surface of most human melanomas. All three antibodies mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro when tested with human lymphocytes or effector cells in a 2-hr or 4-hr 51 Cr-release test, and one antibody, MG-21, also gives strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity with human serum. Antibody 2B2, which gives ADDC also in the presence of mouse lymphocytes, inhibited the outgrowth of a human melanoma in nude mice, but antibody IF4, which showed no ADCC with mouse lymphocyte effectors, did not

  11. E3 ubiquitin ligases as drug targets and prognostic biomarkers in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bielskienė

    2015-01-01

    E3 ligases are of interest as drug targets for their ability to regulate proteins stability and functions. Compared to the general proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which blocks the entire protein degradation, drugs that target a particular E3 ligase are expected to have better selectivity with less associated toxicity. Components of different E3 ligases complexes (FBW7, MDM2, RBX1/ROC1, RBX2/ROC2, cullins and many others are known as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in melanomagenesis. These proteins participate in regulation of different cellular pathways and such important proteins in cancer development as p53 and Notch. In this review we summarized published data on the role of known E3 ligases in the development of melanoma and discuss the inhibitors of E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of malignant melanomas.

  12. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  13. Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carreño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente.

  14. Melanoma cells show a heterogeneous range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and are radiosensitized by inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambade, Maria J.; Peters, Eldon C.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Kaufmann, William K.; Kimple, Randall J.; Shields, Janiel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative radiosensitivities of a large collection of melanoma cell lines and to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of mutant B-RAF with PLX-4032 can radiosensitize B-Raf+ melanoma cells. Materials and methods: A large collection of melanoma cell lines (n = 37) were treated with 0-8 Gy IR and clonogenic survival assays used to generate survival curves to rank relative radiosensitivities among the cell lines. The ability of a B-RAF inhibitor, PLX-4032, to radiosensitize highly radioresistant B-Raf+ cells was also assessed by clonogenic cell survival and spheroid invasion assays and the effects of treatment on the cell cycle assessed by FACS. Results: Melanoma cell lines displayed a very large, heterogeneous range of SF2 values (1.002-0.053) with a mean of 0.51. Cell lines with surviving fractions of 0.29 or less at SF2 and SF4 were observed at a high frequency of 18.9% and 70.2%, respectively. Treatment of B-Raf+ cells with the B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4032 in combination with radiation provided enhanced inhibition of both colony formation and invasion, and radiosensitized cells through an increase in G 1 arrest. Conclusions: Our data suggest that melanomas are not uniformly radioresistant with a significant subset displaying inherent radiosensitivity. Pharmacologic inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032 effectively radiosensitized B-Raf+ melanoma cells suggesting that this combination approach could provide improved radiotherapeutic response in B-Raf+ melanoma patients.

  15. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer? Many risk factors for melanoma have been found, ... it’s not always clear exactly how they might cause cancer. For example, while most moles never turn into ...

  16. Effect of long-wave UV radiation on mouse melanoma: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastila, R.

    2006-04-15

    The skin cancer incidence has increased substantially over the past decades and the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the etiology of skin cancer is well established. Ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm) is commonly considered as the more harmful part of the UV-spectrum due to its DNA-damaging potential and well-known carcinogenic effects. Ultraviolet A radiation (320-400 nm) is still regarded as a relatively low health hazard. However, UVA radiation is the predominant component in sunlight, constituting more than 90% of the environmentally relevant solar ultraviolet radiation. In the light of the recent scientific evidence, UVA has been shown to have genotoxic and immunologic effects, and it has been proposed that UVA plays a significant role in the development of skin cancer. Due to the popularity of skin tanning lamps, which emit high intensity UVA radiation and because of the prolonged sun tanning periods with the help of effective UVB blockers, the potential deleterious effects of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. The possibility that UV radiation may affect melanoma metastasis has not been addressed before. UVA radiation can modulate various cellular processes, some of which might affect the metastatic potential of melanoma cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of UVA irradiation on the metastatic capacity of mouse melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro part of the study dealt with the enhancement of the intercellular interactions occurring either between tumor cells or between tumor cells and endothelial cells after UVA irradiation. The use of the mouse melanoma/endothelium in vitro model showed that a single-dose of UVA to melanoma cells causes an increase in melanoma cell adhesiveness to non-irradiated endothelium after 24-h irradiation. Multiple-dose irradiation of melanoma cells already increased adhesion at a 1-h time-point, which suggests the possible cumulative effect of multiple

  17. Effect of long-wave UV radiation on mouse melanoma: An in vitro and in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastila, R.

    2006-04-01

    The skin cancer incidence has increased substantially over the past decades and the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the etiology of skin cancer is well established. Ultraviolet B radiation (280-320 nm) is commonly considered as the more harmful part of the UV-spectrum due to its DNA-damaging potential and well-known carcinogenic effects. Ultraviolet A radiation (320-400 nm) is still regarded as a relatively low health hazard. However, UVA radiation is the predominant component in sunlight, constituting more than 90% of the environmentally relevant solar ultraviolet radiation. In the light of the recent scientific evidence, UVA has been shown to have genotoxic and immunologic effects, and it has been proposed that UVA plays a significant role in the development of skin cancer. Due to the popularity of skin tanning lamps, which emit high intensity UVA radiation and because of the prolonged sun tanning periods with the help of effective UVB blockers, the potential deleterious effects of UVA has emerged as a source of concern for public health. The possibility that UV radiation may affect melanoma metastasis has not been addressed before. UVA radiation can modulate various cellular processes, some of which might affect the metastatic potential of melanoma cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of UVA irradiation on the metastatic capacity of mouse melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro part of the study dealt with the enhancement of the intercellular interactions occurring either between tumor cells or between tumor cells and endothelial cells after UVA irradiation. The use of the mouse melanoma/endothelium in vitro model showed that a single-dose of UVA to melanoma cells causes an increase in melanoma cell adhesiveness to non-irradiated endothelium after 24-h irradiation. Multiple-dose irradiation of melanoma cells already increased adhesion at a 1-h time-point, which suggests the possible cumulative effect of multiple

  18. Nucleoli cytomorphology in cutaneous melanoma cells - a new prognostic approach to an old concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donizy, Piotr; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Halon, Agnieszka; Maciejczyk, Adam; Matkowski, Rafal

    2017-12-29

    The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish body stained with eosin due to its high protein content. Changes in the nucleoli cytomorphology were one of the first histopathological characteristics of malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the cytomorphological characteristics of nucleoli and detailed clinicopathological parameters of melanoma patients. Moreover, we analyzed the correlation between cytomorphological parameters of nucleoli and immunoreactivity of selected proteins responsible for, among others, regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (SPARC, N-cadherin), cell adhesion and motility (ALCAM, ADAM-10), mitotic divisions (PLK1), cellular survival (FOXP1) and the functioning of Golgi apparatus (GOLPH3, GP73). Three characteristics of nucleoli - presence, size and number - of cancer cells were assessed in H&E-stained slides of 96 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary cutaneous melanoma tissue specimens. The results were correlated with classical clinicopathological features and patient survival. Immunohistochemical analysis of the above mentioned proteins was described in details in previous studies. Higher prevalence and size of nucleoli were associated with thicker and mitogenic tumors. All three nucleolar characteristics were related to the presence of ulceration. Moreover, microsatellitosis was strongly correlated with the presence of macronucleoli and polynucleolization (presence of two or more nucleoli). Lack of immunologic response manifested as no TILs in primary tumor was associated with high prevalence of melanoma cells with distinct nucleoli. Interestingly, in nodular melanoma a higher percentage of melanoma cells with prominent nucleoli was observed. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, increased prevalence and amount, but not size of nucleoli, were connected with shorter cancer-specific and disease-free survival. (1) High

  19. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, B; Patel, M; Ethunandan, M; Ilankovan, V

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for 5% of all skin cancers. The risk of metastasis is related to the thickness of the tumour, and can affect local, regional and distant sites. Adrenal metastasis from melanoma of the head and neck is uncommon and often asymptomatic. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic melanoma is extremely rare and we are unaware of previous reports in the world literature. We report a case of a patient with metastatic melanoma presenting with signs and symptoms of Addison's disease.

  20. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  1. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

  2. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  3. Oral Malignant Melanoma in a Ferret ( Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Rossi, Giacomo; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    Oral malignant melanomas are one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms in dogs but are rare in other domesticated species. This case report describes the clinical manifestations and histological appearance of oral melanoma in a ferret ( Mustela putorius furo). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published description of a clinical case and histopathological findings of oral melanoma in this species.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of a Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 treatment in a murine melanoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Edvaldo S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Chemotherapeutic approaches to treat melanoma have had only marginal success. Previous studies in mice demonstrated that a high diluted complex derived from Calcarea carbonica (M8 stimulated the tumoricidal response of activated lymphocytes against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Methods Here we describe the in vitro inhibition of invasion and the in vivo anti-metastatic potential after M8 treatment by inhalation in the B16F10 lung metastasis model. Results We found that M8 has at least two functions, acting as both an inhibitor of cancer cell adhesion and invasion and as a perlecan expression antagonist, which are strongly correlated with several metastatic, angiogenic and invasive factors in melanoma tumors. Conclusion The findings suggest that this medication is a promising non-toxic therapy candidate by improving the immune response against tumor cells or even induce direct dormancy in malignancies.

  5. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  6. [Molecular and immunohistochemical diagnostics in melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, B; Griewank, K G

    2016-07-01

    To provide appropriate therapy and follow-up to patients with malignant melanoma, proper diagnostics are of critical importance. Targeted therapy of advanced melanoma is based on the molecular genetic analyses of tumor tissue. In addition, sequencing of genes and other genetic approaches can provide insight into the origin of melanocytic tumors and can aid in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. In this regard, spizoid neoplasms remain a challenging entity. Aside from genetic analyses of tumor tissue, immunohistochemistry remains an essential tool in melanoma diagnostics and TNM classification. With new immunotherapies being approved for advanced melanoma, immunohistochemistry to determine PD-L1 expression has gained clinical interest. While PD-L1 expression is associated with response to PD-1 blockade, a substantial number of patients without PD-L1 expression can still experience tumor remission upon treatment. In this review, current and future developments in melanoma diagnostics with regard to molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry are summarized. The utilization of such analyses in clinical decision making is also discussed.

  7. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  8. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Pamela B.; Fain, Heidi D.; Cassidy, James P.; Tran, Sally M.; Moos, Philip J.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gerads, Russell; Florell, Scott R.; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence. PMID:23470450

  9. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nakanishi, Takafumi

    1985-01-01

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10 B chlorpromazine compounds and 10 B 1 -para-boronophenylalanine ( 10 B 1 -BPA) as tumor-seeking 10 B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10 B 1 -BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10 B 1 -BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10 B 1 -BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  11. IGF-1 contributes to the expansion of melanoma-initiating cells through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Vincent; Zhu, Chaobin; Devocelle, Aurore; Vazquez, Aimé; Boucheix, Claude; Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Eid, Pierre; Lecourt, Séverine; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2016-12-13

    Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers.We evaluated the effect of IGF-1 on the phenotype and chemoresistance of B16-F10 cells. IGF-1 inhibition in these cells prevented malignant cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and lung colony formation in immunodeficient mice. IGF-1 downregulation also markedly inhibited EMT, with low levels of ZEB1 and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, CD44, CD29, CD105) associated with high levels of E-cadherin and MITF, the major regulator of melanocyte differentiation. IGF-1 inhibition greatly reduced stemness features, including the expression of key stem markers (SOX2, Oct-3/4, CD24 and CD133), and the functional characteristics of MICs (melanosphere formation, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, side population). These features were associated with a high degree of sensitivity to mitoxantrone treatment.In this study, we deciphered new connections between IGF-1 and stemness features and identified IGF-1 as instrumental for maintaining the MIC phenotype. The IGF1/IGF1-R nexus could be targeted for the development of more efficient anti-melanoma treatments. Blocking the IGF-1 pathway would improve the immune response, decrease the metastatic potential of tumor cells and sensitize melanoma cells to conventional treatments.

  12. Cancer invasion and the microenvironment: plasticity and reciprocity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.H.A.; Alexander, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer invasion is a cell- and tissue-driven process for which the physical, cellular, and molecular determinants adapt and react throughout the progression of the disease. Cancer invasion is initiated and maintained by signaling pathways that control cytoskeletal dynamics in tumor cells and the

  13. Stably Integrated luxCDABE for Assessment of Salmonella Invasion Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. Flentie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans and also localizes to neoplastic tumors in animals. Invasion of specific eukaryotic cells is a key mechanism of Salmonella interactions with host tissues. Early stages of gastrointestinal cell invasion are mediated by a Salmonella type III secretion system, powered by the adenosine triphosphatase invC. The aim of this work was to characterize the invC dependence of invasion kinetics into disparate eukaryotic cells traditionally used as models of gut epithelium or neoplasms. Thus, a nondestructive real-time assay was developed to report eukaryotic cell invasion kinetics using lux+ Salmonella that contain chromosomally integrated luxCDABE genes. Bioluminescence-based invasion assays using lux+ Salmonella exhibited inoculum dose-response correlation, distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent Salmonella, and discriminated relative Salmonella invasiveness in accordance with environmental conditions that induce invasion gene expression. In standard gentamicin protection assays, bioluminescence from lux+ Salmonella correlated with recovery of colony-forming units of internalized bacteria and could be visualized by bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, this assay distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent bacteria independent of gentamicin treatment in real time. Bioluminescence reported Salmonella invasion of disparate eukaryotic cell lines, including neoplastic melanoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and glioma cell lines used in animal models of malignancy. In each case, Salmonella invasion of eukaryotic cells was invC dependent.

  14. CREB mediates ICAM-3: inducing radio-resistance, cell growth and migration/invasion of the human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kuk; So, Kwang Sup; Bae, In Hwa; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The ICAM family proteins comprises cell surface molecules that are homologous to NCAM and are members of the single passed type 1 immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) that are anchored at the cellular membrane. The ICAM family consists of five subfamilies (ICAM-1 to ICAM-5) of heavily glycosylated cell surface receptors with common functional or structural homology. The extracellular domains of ICAM protein have roles in immune response and inflammation through various cell-cell interactions. The cytoplasmic tail residues of ICAM-3 participate in intracellular signaling such as calcium mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, the ICAM proteins appear to have a dual role in cancer. ICAM molecules may target and block tumor progression by stimulation of an immune response such as leukocyte activation. Conversely, other investigations have shown that ICAM molecules are involved in cancer malignancy because their increased expressions are associated with a poor diagnosis, lower survival rates and invasion in several cancers including melanoma, breast cancer and leukemia. We have also reported that an increase of ICAM-3 expression in several cancer cells and specimens of cervical cancer patient induce enhanced radio-resistance by the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and promote cancer cell proliferation by the activation of Akt and p44/42 MAPK. Therefore, these previous reports imply that ICAM-3 has various undefined roles in cancer. In this study, we investigated whether ICAM-3 increase cell migration and invasion through CREB activation and CREB has a role of increase of radioresistance and cell growth.

  15. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Stephen J., E-mail: sbeebe@odu.edu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  16. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  17. Sequential Acral Lentiginous Melanomas of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Uehara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old Japanese woman had a lightly brown-blackish pigmented macule (1.2 cm in diameter on the left sole of her foot. She received surgical excision following a diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM, which was confirmed histopathologically. One month after the operation, a second melanoma lesion was noticed adjacent to the grafted site. Histopathologically, the two lesions had no continuity, but HMB-45 and cyclin D1 double-positive cells were detected not only on aggregates of atypical melanocytes but also on single cells near the cutting edge of the first lesion. The unique occurrence of a sequential lesion of a primary melanoma might be caused by stimulated subclinical field cells during the wound healing process following the initial operation. This case warrants further investigation to establish the appropriate surgical margin of ALM lesions.

  18. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma

  19. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Goro

    1980-01-01

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 10 12 , γ-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 γ/ml of 10 B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  1. Circulating tumor cells in melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A Clawson

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are of recognized importance for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. With melanoma, most studies do not show any clear relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease. Here, CTCs were enriched (∼400X from blood of melanoma patients using a simple centrifugation device (OncoQuick, and 4 melanocyte target RNAs (TYR, MLANA, MITF, and MIF were quantified using QPCR. Approximately one-third of melanoma patients had elevated MIF and MLANA transcripts (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively compared with healthy controls. In contrast, healthy controls had uniformly higher levels of TYR and MITF than melanoma patients (p<0.0001. There was a marked shift of leukocytes into the CTC-enriched fractions (a 430% increase in RNA recovery, p<0.001, and no relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease was found. CTCs were captured on microfabricated filters and cultured. Captured melanoma CTCs were large cells, and consisted of 2 subpopulations, based on immunoreactivity. One subpopulation (∼50% stained for both pan-cytokeratin (KRT markers and the common leukocyte marker CD-45, whereas the second subpopulation stained for only KRT. Since similar cells are described in many cancers, we also examined blood from colorectal and pancreatic cancer patients. We observed analogous results, with most captured CTCs staining for both CD-45/KRT markers (and for the monocyte differentiation marker CD-14. Our results suggest that immature melanocyte-related cells (expressing TYR and MITF RNA may circulate in healthy controls, although they are not readily detectable without considerable enrichment. Further, as early-stage melanomas develop, immature melanocyte migration into the blood is somehow curtailed, whereas a significant proportion of patients develop elevated CTC levels (based on MIF and MLANA RNAs. The nature of the captured CTCs is consistent with literature describing leukocyte/macrophage-tumor cell fusion hybrids

  2. WITHDRAWN: Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Tom; Fish, Reg; Coles, Bernadette; Mason, Malcolm

    2018-02-07

    Systemic therapies for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers, remain disappointing. Few lasting remissions are achieved and the therapeutic aim remains one of palliation.Many agents are used alone or in combination with varying degrees of toxicity and cost. It is unclear whether evidence exists to support these complex regimens over best supportive care / placebo. To review the benefits from the use of systemic therapies in metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to best supportive care/placebo, and to establish whether a 'standard' therapy exists which is superior to other treatments. Randomised controlled trials were identified from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR/CENTRAL databases. References, conference proceedings, and Science Citation Index/Scisearch were also used to locate trials. Cancer registries and trialists were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials of adults with histologically proven metastatic cutaneous melanoma in which systemic anti-cancer therapy was compared with placebo or supportive care. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction forms were used for studies which appeared to meet the selection criteria and, where appropriate, full text articles were retrieved and reviewed independently. No randomised controlled trials were found comparing a systemic therapy with placebo or best supportive care in metastatic cutaneous melanoma. There is no evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials to show superiority of systemic therapy over best supportive care / placebo in the treatment of malignant cutaneous melanoma.Given that patients with metastatic melanoma frequently receive systemic therapy, it is our pragmatic view that a future systematic review could compare any systemic treatment, or combination of treatments, to single agent dacarbazine.

  3. Primary Dermal Melanoma in a Patient with a History of Multiple Malignancies: A Case Report with Molecular Characterization

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    Germana Sini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary dermal melanoma (PDM is a recently described clinical entity accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Histologically, it is located in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, and it shows no connections with the overlying epidermis. The differential diagnosis is principally made along with that of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Case Report: A 72-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple cancers (metachronous bilateral breast cancer, meningioma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, uterine fibromatosis and intestinal adenomatous polyposis, came to our attention with a nodular lesion on her back. After removal of the lesion, the histology report indicated malignant PDM or metastatic malignant melanoma. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the patient did not reveal any other primary tumour, suggesting the primitive nature of the lesion. The absence of an epithelial component argued for a histological diagnosis of PDM. Subsequently, the patient underwent a wide surgical excision with sentinel node biopsy, which was positive for metastatic melanoma. Finally, the mutational status was studied in the main genes that regulate proliferation, apoptosis and cellular senescence. No pathogenetic mutations in CDKN2A, BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, cKIT, TP53 and PTEN genes were observed. This suggests that alternative pathways and low-frequency alterations may be involved. Conclusions: The differential diagnosis between PDM and isolated metastatic melanoma depends on the negativity of imaging studies and clinical findings for other primary lesions. This distinction is important because 5-year survival rates in such cases are higher than in metastatic cases (80-100 vs. 5-20%, respectively.

  4. Sensitization of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant malignant melanomas by quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine A; Manouchehri, Jasmine M; Kalafatis, Michael

    2018-03-28

    Malignant melanoma is the most commonly diagnosed skin cancer associated with a high rate of metastasis. Low-stage melanoma is easily treated, but metastatic malignant melanoma is an extremely treatment-resistant malignancy with low survival rates. The application of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma holds considerable promise because of its selective proapoptotic activity towards cancer cells and not nontransformed cells. Unfortunately, the clinical utilization of rhTRAIL has been terminated due to the resistance of many cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to rhTRAIL. However, rhTRAIL-resistance can be abrogated through the cotreatment with compounds derived from 'Mother Nature' such as quercetin that can modulate cellular components responsible for rhTRAIL-resistance. Here, we show that rhTRAIL-resistant malignant melanomas are sensitized by quercetin. Quercetin action is manifested by the upregulation of rhTRAIL-binding receptors DR4 and DR5 on the surface of cancer cells and by increased rate of the proteasome-mediated degradation of the antiapoptotic protein FLIP. Our data provide for a new efficient and nontoxic treatment of malignant melanoma.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  5. S100A9 is a novel ligand of EMMPRIN that promotes melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Miyamoto, Shoko; Yamamoto, Mami; Motoyama, Akira; Hosoi, Junichi; Shimokata, Tadashi; Ito, Tomonobu; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Huh, Nam-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 can dimerize to form calprotectin, the release of which during tissue damage has been implicated in inflammation and metastasis. However, receptor(s) mediating the physiologic and pathophysiologic effects of this damage-associated "danger signal" are uncertain. In this study, searching for candidate calprotectin receptors by affinity isolation-mass spectrometry, we identified the cell surface glycoprotein EMMPRIN/BASIGIN (CD147/BSG). EMMPRIN specifically bound to S100A9 but not S100A8. Induction of cytokines and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) by S100A9 was markedly downregulated in melanoma cells by attenuation of EMMPRIN. We found that EMMPRIN signaling used the TNF receptor-associated factor TRAF2 distinct from the known S100-binding signaling pathway mediated by RAGE (AGER). S100A9 strongly promoted migration when EMMPRIN was highly expressed, independent of RAGE, whereas EMMPRIN blockade suppressed migration by S100A9. Immunohistologic analysis of melanomas revealed that EMMPRIN was expressed at both the invasive edge of lesions and the adjacent epidermis, where S100A9 was also strongly expressed. In epidermal-specific transgenic mice, tail vein-injected melanoma accumulated in skin expressing S100A9 but not S100A8. Together, our results establish EMMPRIN as a receptor for S100A9 and suggest the therapeutic use in targeting S100A9-EMMPRIN interactions.

  6. Intercellular crosstalk in human malignant melanoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Szabo, Pavol; Kodet, O.; Strnad, Hynek; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, L.; Krejčí, E.; Nanka, O.; Sedo, A.; Smetana, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1143-1150 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05534S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Melanocyte * Melanoma cells * Melanoma ecosystem * cancer -associated fibroblast * Keratinocyte * Cytokine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  7. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, Bryce D., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1060 Wiegand Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States); Cohen, Philip R., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  8. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  9. Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, Henrik; Sadeghi, Arian; Carlsson, Björn; Rivera, Patricio; Loskog, Angelica; Segall, Thomas; Korsgren, Olle; Tötterman, Thomas H

    2008-05-01

    Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma. However, the canine oropharyngeal, uveal, and mucocutaneous neoplasms are aggressive and have metastatic potential. Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages. The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies. Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma. Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery. After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation. This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy. Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression. This case was treated with 6 AdCD40L injections over 60 days. One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis. Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.

  10. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  11. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

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    Joshi Sandeep S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  12. Transplantable Melanomas in Hamsters and Gerbils as Models for Human Melanoma. Sensitization in Melanoma Radiotherapy—From Animal Models to Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Śniegocka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present review is to investigate the role of melanin in the radioprotection of melanoma and attempts to sensitize tumors to radiation by inhibiting melanogenesis. Early studies showed radical scavenging, oxygen consumption and adsorption as mechanisms of melanin radioprotection. Experimental models of melanoma in hamsters and in gerbils are described as well as their use in biochemical and radiobiological studies, including a spontaneously metastasizing ocular model. Some results from in vitro studies on the inhibition of melanogenesis are presented as well as radio-chelation therapy in experimental and clinical settings. In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, uveal melanoma is very successfully treated with radiation, both using photon and proton beams. We point out that the presence or lack of melanin pigmentation should be considered, when choosing therapeutic options, and that both the experimental and clinical data suggest that melanin could be a target for radiosensitizing melanoma cells to increase efficacy of radiotherapy against melanoma.

  13. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B

    2002-01-01

    of tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 protein, CD34, and vimentin was studied in 70 tumors, including 15 melanomas (5 desmoplastic, 4 amelanotic, 6...... at 121 degrees C. RESULTS: All melanomas demonstrated positive immunostaining for tyrosinase, HMB-45, and S100 protein. Immunoreactivity for HMB-45 was generally stronger than that for tyrosinase in amelanotic lesions and significantly stronger in 1 of the desmoplastic lesions. The 4 pigmented...... neurofibromas were focally positive for tyrosinase, but did not stain for HMB-45. The pigmented schwannoma was focally positive for both tyrosinase and HMB-45. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and dermatofibromas were nonreactive for tyrosinase and HMB-45...

  14. Uptake of BSH in M2R melanoma cells monitored by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudinova, N.; Elhanati, G.; Salomon, Y.; Bendel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation ratio of BSH, relative to that of boric acid, in M2R mouse melanoma cells, was measured using 11 B NMR of the cell extracts. The cells were incubated in growth medium for up to 24 h, in the presence of 0.8 mM boric acid and 0.25-1.5 mM BSH. The aqueous phase of the cellular extracts was re-suspended for NMR spectroscopy. The relative accumulation ratio of BSH/boric acid determined from 9 separate experiments was 0.45±0.09. (author)

  15. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

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    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach

  16. EMMPRIN promotes melanoma cells malignant properties through a HIF-2alpha mediated up-regulation of VEGF-receptor-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Bougatef

    Full Text Available EMMPRIN's expression in melanoma tissue was reported to be predictive of poor prognosis. Here we demonstrate that EMMPRIN up-regulated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 in two different primary melanoma cell lines and consequently increased migration and proliferation of these cells while inhibiting their apoptosis. SiRNA inhibition of VEGFR-2 expression abrogated these EMMPRIN effects. EMMPRIN regulation of VEGFR-2 was mediated through the over-expression of HIF-2alpha and its translocation to the nucleus where it forms heterodimers with HIF-1beta. These results were supported by an in vivo correlation between the expression of EMMPRIN with that of VEGFR-2 in human melanoma tissues as well as with the extent of HIF-2alpha localization in the nucleus. They demonstrate a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor progression through HIF-2alpha/VEGFR-2 mediated mechanism, with an autocrine role in melanoma cell malignancy. The inhibition of EMMPRIN in cancer may thus simultaneously target both the VEGFR-2/VEGF system and the matrix degrading proteases to block tumor cell growth and invasion.

  17. Value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and adjuvant interferon treatment in thick (>4 mm) cutaneous melanoma: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Sendra, Natalia; Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Traves, Víctor; Requena, Celia; Bolumar, Isidro; Pla, Angel; Vázquez, Carlos; Soriano, Virtudes; Nagore, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy and the benefit of immunotherapy with interferon in thick (>4 mm) melanomas remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the value of both sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and immunotherapy in the prognosis of thick melanomas. A retrospective study based on a computerized patient database in which patients have been prospectively collected since 2005 was performed. Age, sex, location, Breslow thickness, tumor ulceration, regression, Clark level, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor mitotic rate, microscopic satellite and vascular invasion were included in the analysis. Disease-free (DFS), disease-specific (DSS) and overall (OS) survivals were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. A series of 141 patients with melanomas thicker than 4 mm were included. Multivariate regression showed a worse prognosis in SLN-positive patients with respect to SLN biopsy-negative patients (DFS, hazard ratio [HR] 2, p = 0.04; DSS, HR 2.2, p = 0.002; OS, HR 2.4, p = 0.02). The observational group was shown to have a worse prognosis than the SLN-positive group but was very similar to the clinically positive group. Immunotherapy with high-dose interferon showed a protective effect (DFS, HR 0.5, p = 0.02; DSS, HR 0.3, p = 0.001; OS, HR 0.3, p = 0.001). Our data indicate that SLN biopsy and adjuvant interferon should be considered for patients with thick melanomas.

  18. Notch4 Signaling Induces a Mesenchymal–Epithelial–like Transition in Melanoma Cells to Suppress Malignant Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Ehsan Bonyadi; Hammerlindl, Heinz; Wels, Christian; Popper, Ulrich; Menon, Dinoop Ravindran; Breiteneder, Heimo; Kitzwoegerer, Melitta; Hafner, Christine; Herlyn, Meenhard; Bergler, Helmut; Schaider, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Notch signaling are context-dependent and both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions have been described. Notch signaling in melanoma is considered oncogenic, but clinical trials testing Notch inhibition in this malignancy have not proved successful. Here, we report that expression of the constitutively active intracellular domain of Notch4 (N4ICD) in melanoma cells triggered a switch from a mesenchymal-like parental phenotype to an epithelial-like phenotype. The epithelial-like morphology was accompanied by strongly reduced invasive, migratory, and proliferative properties concomitant with the downregulation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers Snail2 (SNAI2), Twist1, vimentin (VIM), and MMP2 and the reexpression of E-cadherin (CDH1). The N4ICD-induced phenotypic switch also resulted in significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of primary human melanomas and cutaneous metastases revealed a significant correlation between Notch4 and E-cadherin expression. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that N4ICD induced the expression of the transcription factors Hey1 and Hey2, which bound directly to the promoter regions of Snail2 and Twist1 and repressed gene transcription, as determined by EMSA and luciferase assays. Taken together, our findings indicate a role for Notch4 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma, uncovering a potential explanation for the poor clinical efficacy of Notch inhibitors observed in this setting. PMID:26801977

  19. Dermoscopy, Digital Dermoscopy and Other Diagnostic Tools in the Early Detection of Melanoma and Follow-up of High-risk Skin Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Puig, Susana

    2017-07-05

    Early detection is a key strategy for reducing the mortality and economic burden associated with melanoma. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive and cost-effective tool for melanoma diagnosis, which has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive method for detecting early-stage skin cancer and reducing the number of unnecessary excisions. Patients at high risk of developing melanoma require long-term surveillance. Use of digital dermoscopy follow-up of these patients has led to improved outcomes. Combined follow-up programmes using total-body photography and digital dermoscopy have led to further improvements in early diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Dermoscopy is now widely used by dermatologists, but the public health impact of this tool is yet to be evaluated. Despite the clear advantages of dermoscopy and digital follow-up meth-ods, dermoscopy training and access to digital dermoscopy among dermatologists and general practitioners needs to be improved.

  20. EPHA2 is a mediator of vemurafenib resistance and a novel therapeutic target in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Tan, Li; Taylor, Michael; Zhang, Jianming; Choi, Hwan Geun; Frederick, Dennie T; Kumar, Raj; Wargo, Jennifer A; Flaherty, Keith T; Gray, Nathanael S; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-03-01

    BRAF(V600E) is the most common oncogenic lesion in melanoma and results in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and uncontrolled cell growth. Selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib have been shown to neutralize oncogenic signaling, restrain cellular growth, and improve patient outcome. Although several mechanisms of vemurafenib resistance have been described, directed solutions to overcome these resistance lesions are still lacking. Herein, we found that vemurafenib resistance can be (i) mediated by EPHA2, a member of the largest receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) subfamily erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (EPH) receptors, and (ii) associated with a greater phenotypic dependence on EPHA2. Furthermore, we developed a series of first-in-class EPHA2 inhibitors and show that these new compounds potently induce apoptosis, suppress viability, and abrogate tumorigenic growth of melanoma cells, including those that are resistant to vemurafenib. These results provide proof of concept that RTK-guided growth, and therapeutic resistance, can be prospectively defined and selectively targeted. In this study, we show that resistance to selective BRAF inhibitors can be mediated by the RTK EPHA2. Furthermore, direct targeting of EPHA2 can successfully suppress melanoma growth and mitigate therapeutic resistance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Studies on the uptake of para-boronophenylalanine in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.; Elstad, C.A.; Meadows, G.G.; Gavin, P.R.; Sande, R.D.; Bauer, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Cell-associated boron levels adequate for neutron capture therapy (NCT) have been demonstrated in-vitro using cultured melanoma cells and in-vivo using xenografts in mice. Preliminary in-vivo studies performed by researchers at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University (WSU), using a spontaneous canine melanoma model, showed subtherapeutic tumor concentrations of para-boronophenylananine (p-BPA) in a large proportion of dogs. Possible explanations include poor solubility of p-BPA at physiological pH, physiological differences between transplanted and spontaneous tumors, and lack of metabolic incorporation at the cellular level. Reports of in-vitro p-BPA uptake studies are few and contradictory, and the kinetics of boron uptake at the average p-BOA blood concentration achieved in dogs (100 mg/L) is unknown. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments were designed to study boron loading in melanoma cells and to test the hypothesis that short-term tyrosine and phenylalanine deprivation can increase the uptake of p-BPA

  2. Atypical fibroxanthoma-like amelanotic malignant melanoma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kai Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX-like malignant melanoma is very rare. Here, we report a case of amelanotic AFX-like melanoma in a 72-year-old Taiwanese woman presenting with two separate, asymptomatic, enlarging erythematous nodules within a large hypopigmented patch on her left cheek. Histologically, both lesions showed cellular nodules in the reticular dermis separated from the overlying flattened epidermis by a zone of solar elastosis or fibrosis. The tumor consisted of sheets of atypical epithelioid cells arranged in a vague nesting pattern, as well as many atypical large or gigantic cells with one or more, large hyperchromatic, vesicular, or pleomorphic nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and moderate-to-abundant eosinophilic or foamy cytoplasm. Focal intraepidermal proliferation of atypical melanocytes with a pagetoid pattern was found only in the periphery of the main tumor. The tumor cells were moderately to strongly positive for S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45. The pleomorphic giant cells were focally CD68-positive but CD163-negative. The patient underwent tumor excision followed by radiotherapy due to the narrow surgical margins. A sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed no metastasis of the melanoma. This case illustrates the importance of scrutinizing any subtle proliferation of atypical melanocytes in the epidermis in an AFX-like tumor in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

  3. Telomere-Centromere-Driven Genomic Instability Contributes to Karyotype Evolution in a Mouse Model of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gonçalves dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN are hallmarks of most solid tumors. These alterations may result from inaccurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis, which can occur through several mechanisms including defective telomere metabolism, centrosome amplification, dysfunctional centromeres, and/or defective spindle checkpoint control. In this work, we used an in vitro murine melanoma model that uses a cellular adhesion blockade as a transforming factor to characterize telomeric and centromeric alterations that accompany melanocyte transformation. To study the timing of the occurrence of telomere shortening in this transformation model, we analyzed the profile of telomere length by quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization and found that telomere length significantly decreased as additional rounds of cell adhesion blockages were performed. Together with it, an increase in telomere-free ends and complex karyotypic aberrations were also found, which include Robertsonian fusions in 100% of metaphases of the metastatic melanoma cells. These findings are in agreement with the idea that telomere length abnormalities seem to be one of the earliest genetic alterations acquired in the multistep process of malignant transformation and that telomere abnormalities result in telomere aggregation, breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, and CIN. Another remarkable feature of this model is the abundance of centromeric instability manifested as centromere fragments and centromeric fusions. Taken together, our results illustrate for this melanoma model CIN with a structural signature of centromere breakage and telomeric loss.

  4. In vivo pump-probe microscopy of melanoma and pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Mitropoulos, Tanya; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.; Warren, Warren S.

    2012-03-01

    A growing number of dermatologists and pathologists are concerned that the rapidly rising incidence of melanoma reflects not a true 'epidemic' but an increasing tendency to overdiagnose pigmented lesions. Addressing this problem requires both a better understanding of early-stage melanoma and new diagnostic criteria based on more than just cellular morphology and architecture. Here we present a method for in-vivo optical microscopy that utilizes pump-probe spectroscopy to image the distribution of the two forms of melanin in skin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Images are acquired in a scanning microscope with a sensitive modulation transfer technique by analyzing back-scattered probe light with a lock-in amplifier. Early-stage melanoma is studied in a human skin xenografted mouse model. Individual melanocytes have been observed, in addition to pigmented keratinocytes. Combining the pump-probe images simultaneously with other noninvasive laser microscopy methods (confocal reflectance, multiphoton autofluorescence, and second harmonic generation) allows visualization of the skin architecture, framing the functional pump-probe image in the context of the surrounding tissue morphology. It is found that pump-probe images of melanin can be acquired with low peak intensities, enabling wide field-of-view pigmentation surveys. Finally, we investigate the diagnostic potential of the additional chemical information available from pump-probe microscopy.

  5. Combining chemotherapy and/or hyperthermia with radiation in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation survival curves for some but not all human melanoma cells show broad shoulders and recovery of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD), both in vitro and in situ as xenografts in mice. Studies have also demonstrated a significant hypoxic melanoma cell population. Chemotherapy and/or hyperthermia with radiation offers the potential for additive cell killing plus modification of the terminal slope and/or shoulder as a result of supra-additive killing via radiosensitization of hypoxic cells and/or post-irradiation inhibition of cellular recovery from PLD. Such interactions should provide a therapeutic gain factor, expecially if the long-term normal tissue damage is not based on PLD repair. Higher radiation doses per fraction warrant use of PLD recovery inhibitors and would accommodate a practical consideration for the use of fewer drug/heat doses. Peak heat or drug concentrations should probably be present just before and immediately following irradiation. This paper reviews the radiobiological experiments to support the rationale for the addition of chemotherapy and/or hyperthermia to melanoma. The author stresses the problems which remain including the paucity of appropriate preclinical experiments as well as clinical problems of tumor heterogeneity, pharmacokinetics and anatomy

  6. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J. L.; Baguer, C.; Li, Y.; Orlow, I.; Berwick, M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening) in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs) after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic) and risk level (positive versus negative findings) were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.

  7. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of melanoma: melanomas that lack classical clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Victoria J; Chamberlain, Alex J; Kelly, John W; Murray, William K; Thompson, John F

    2017-10-16

    A Cancer Council Australia multidisciplinary working group is currently revising and updating the 2008 evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of cutaneous melanoma. While there have been many recent improvements in treatment options for metastatic melanoma, early diagnosis remains critical to reducing mortality from the disease. Improved awareness of the atypical presentations of this common malignancy is required to achieve this. A chapter of the new guidelines was therefore developed to aid recognition of atypical melanomas. Main recommendations: Because thick, life-threatening melanomas may lack the more classical ABCD (asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation, diameter > 6 mm) features of melanoma, a thorough history of the lesion with regard to change in morphology and growth over time is essential. Any lesion that is changing in morphology or growing over a period of more than one month should be excised or referred for prompt expert opinion. Changes in management as a result of the guidelines: These guidelines provide greater emphasis on improved recognition of the atypical presentations of melanoma, in particular nodular, desmoplastic and acral lentiginous subtypes, with particular awareness of hypomelanotic and amelanotic lesions.

  8. CD147 and matrix-metalloproteinase-2 expression in metastatic and non-metastatic uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Julia; Vukoja, Vlatka; Brandenbusch, Tim; Nassar, Khaled; Rohrbach, Jens Martin; Grisanti, Salvatore; Lüke, Matthias; Tura, Aysegül

    2016-06-03

    Extracellular matrix remodelling regulated by matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (CD147) is a crucial process during tumor cell invasion and regulation of blood supply. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of CD147 and MMP-2 expression with major prognostic factors for uveal melanoma and the development of metastasis. The expression of CD147 and MMP-2 was analyzed in 49 samples of uveal melanomas. Triple immunofluorescence stainings using markers against glial cells (GFAP), endothelial cells (CD34) and macrophages (CD68) were performed to further analyse the exact localisation of CD147 and MMP-2 positivity. In 28 cases clinical metastatic disease were found. The remaining 21 cases showed no signs of metastatic disease for an average follow-up of 10 years. Correlation analysis (Pearson correlation) was performed to analyse the association of CD147 and MMP-2 expression with known prognostic factors, vasculogenic mimicry (VM), the mature vasculature (von Willebrand Factor) and tumor induced angiogenesis (by means of Endoglin expression). CD147 and MMP-2 were expressed in 47 (96.0 %) of the uveal melanomas. CD147 up-regulation was significantly correlated with a higher MMP-2 expression. The overall expression analysis revealed no significant difference in the metastatic (p = 0.777) and non-metastatic subgroup (p = 0.585). No correlation of CD147 expression and any system of blood supply was evident. In the non-metastatic sub-group a significant correlation of clustered CD147 positive cells with largest basal diameter (p = 0.039), height (p = 0.047) and TNM-stage (p = 0.013) was evident. These data may indicate that CD147 regulates MMP-2 expression in uveal melanoma cells.

  9. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

  10. Imaging Prostate Cancer Invasion with Multi-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods: The Metabolic Boyden Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilatus

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological milieu within solid tumors can influence invasion and metastasis. To determine the impact of the physiological environment and cellular metabolism on cancer cell invasion, it is necessary to measure invasion during well-controlled modulation of the physiological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to monitor cancer cell invasion into a Matrigel layer [Artemov D, Pilatus U, Chou S, Mori N, Nelson JB, and Bhujwalla ZM. (1999. Dynamics of prostate cancer cell invasion studied in vitro by NMR microscopy. Mag Res Med 42, 277–282.]. Here we have developed an invasion assay (“Metabolic Boyden Chamber” that combines this capability with the properties of our isolated cell perfusion system. Long-term experiments can be performed to determine invasion as well as cellular metabolism under controlled environmental conditions. To characterize the assay, we performed experiments with prostate cancer cell lines preselected for different invasive characteristics. The results showed invasion into, and degradation of the Matrigel layer, by the highly invasive/metastatic line (MatLyLu, whereas no significant changes were observed for the less invasive/metastatic cell line (DU-145. With this assay, invasion and metabolism was measured dynamically, together with oxygen tensions within the cellular environment and within the Matrigel layer. Such a system can be used to identify physiological and metabolic characteristics that promote invasion, and evaluate therapeutic interventions to inhibit invasion.

  11. Intratumor and Intertumor Heterogeneity in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywa, Tomasz M; Paskal, Wiktor; Włodarski, Paweł K

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The increasing number of research on the topic reflects the need for understanding limitation or failure of contemporary therapies. Majority of analyses concentrate on mutations in cancer-related genes. Novel high-throughput techniques reveal even higher degree of variations within a lesion. Consolidation of theories and researches indicates new routes for treatment options such as targets for immunotherapy. The demand for personalized approach in melanoma treatment requires extensive knowledge on intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity on the level of genome, transcriptome/proteome, and epigenome. Thus, achievements in exploration of melanoma variety are described in details. Particularly, the issue of tumor heterogeneity or homogeneity given BRAF mutations is discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intratumor and Intertumor Heterogeneity in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz M. Grzywa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The increasing number of research on the topic reflects the need for understanding limitation or failure of contemporary therapies. Majority of analyses concentrate on mutations in cancer-related genes. Novel high-throughput techniques reveal even higher degree of variations within a lesion. Consolidation of theories and researches indicates new routes for treatment options such as targets for immunotherapy. The demand for personalized approach in melanoma treatment requires extensive knowledge on intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity on the level of genome, transcriptome/proteome, and epigenome. Thus, achievements in exploration of melanoma variety are described in details. Particularly, the issue of tumor heterogeneity or homogeneity given BRAF mutations is discussed.

  13. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In B16F10 and A375 cells, treatment with PEC caused the inhibition ... Conclusion: PEC inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, apparently by blocking the cell cycle at G0/G1 .... all statistical analyses. .... Financial support from the Department of.

  14. Melanoma continues to rise throughout the world

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depletion of the earth's ozone layer, thought to be induced by artificial chlorofluorocarbons, and the subsequent increase in the amount of ultraviolet light reaching the earth, may exacerbate the increase in melanoma in ... development of raised areas on a previously flat lesion, or scaling, ulceration, crusting or bleeding.

  15. SVM classifier on chip for melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Shereen; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Sinha, Roopak

    2017-07-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a common classifier used for efficient classification with high accuracy. SVM shows high accuracy for classifying melanoma (skin cancer) clinical images within computer-aided diagnosis systems used by skin cancer specialists to detect melanoma early and save lives. We aim to develop a medical low-cost handheld device that runs a real-time embedded SVM-based diagnosis system for use in primary care for early detection of melanoma. In this paper, an optimized SVM classifier is implemented onto a recent FPGA platform using the latest design methodology to be embedded into the proposed device for realizing online efficient melanoma detection on a single system on chip/device. The hardware implementation results demonstrate a high classification accuracy of 97.9% and a significant acceleration factor of 26 from equivalent software implementation on an embedded processor, with 34% of resources utilization and 2 watts for power consumption. Consequently, the implemented system meets crucial embedded systems constraints of high performance and low cost, resources utilization and power consumption, while achieving high classification accuracy.

  16. Dermoscopic appearance of an amelanotic mucosal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Andreas; Beck-Zoul, Ulrike; Held, Laura; Haase, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypomelanotic or amelanotic melanomas are challenging to identify, especially at mucosal sites. The dermoscopic clues to the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas have been reported to be structureless zones with the presence of blue, gray, or white colors. Case A female in her seventies noted a new lesion on the inside of her right labia that first appeared two months prior. Her past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis requiring ongoing treatment with methotrexate for 20 years and adalimumab for 10 years. After no response to two weeks of local treatment for suspected herpes simplex infection, her gynecologist performed a skin biopsy. Based on the histopathological diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma (Breslow thickness of 1.3 mm) the patient was referred to dermatology for further assessment. Polarized dermoscopy revealed a distinct asymmetric, sharply demarcated homogenous white papule (4 × 5 mm) as well as polymorphous vessels. Conclusion Dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanomas. Our case revealed a structureless white area and polymorphous vessels. Additional clues to the diagnosis were the advanced age of the patient and the clinical presentation of a new lesion. PMID:27867742

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  18. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEC) on melanoma cell lines. Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue exclusion assays and the cell cycle by flow cytometry using ModFit LT software. Specifically, cells were stained with propidium iodide (0.5 mg/mL) supplemented ...

  19. Human malignant melanomas in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, S.W.; Braffman, B.H.; Lo Brutto, R.; Elder, D.E.; Herlyn, D.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate signal intensities and relaxation times on MR images in malignant melanomas with histopathologic features and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Cell lines from human malignant melanomas in tissue culture were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. MR imaging was performed in vivo at 1.9 T to assess 12 separate lesions in ten mice using spin-echo and inversion-recovery techniques. T1,T2, and N(H) were calculated in all cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on specimens resected immediately after imaging, using hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian blue, and Fontan stains to assess for tumor necrosis, iron, and melanin content. EPR spectra were also obtained on four resected specimens. The authors' results indicate that the relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanomas cannot be explained solely by the presence of necrosis, water content, or iron content. The degree of melanin within these tumors did correlate with T1 relaxation enhancement. T2 relaxation times did not correlate with the sole presence of either iron, melanin, or necrosis. Although the unique relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanoma seems to have many causes, their data suggest that, contrary to previous investigations, it is influenced by the presence of melanin rather than iron

  20. Wireless Cellular Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Zalud, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article is briefly reviewed the history of wireless cellular mobile communications, examined the progress in current second generation (2G) cellular standards and discussed their migration to the third generation (3G). The European 2G cellular standard GSM and its evolution phases GPRS and EDGE are described somewhat in detail. The third generation standard UMTS taking up on GSM/GPRS core network and equipped with a new advanced access network on the basis of code division multiple ac...

  1. Repressing CD147 is a novel therapeutic strategy for malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xing; Su, Juan; Zhou, Youyou; Xie, Xiaoyun; Peng, Cong; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Xiang

    2017-04-11

    CD147/basigin, a transmembrane protein, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Accumulating evidence has revealed the role of CD147 in the development and progression of various cancers, including malignant melanoma (MM). MM is a malignancy of pigment-producing cells that causes the greatest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. CD147 is overexpressed in MM and plays an important role in cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, probably by mediating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, glycolysis, and multi-drug resistance (MDR). As a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer, CD147 could also promote surrounding fibroblasts to secrete abundant MMPs to further stimulate tumor cell invasion. Targeting CD147 has been shown to suppress MM in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the therapeutic potential of CD147 silencing in MM treatment. In this review article, we discuss CD147 and its biological roles, regulatory mechanisms, and potential application as a molecular target for MM.

  2. Biomechanics of cellular solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2005-03-01

    Materials with a cellular structure are widespread in nature and include wood, cork, plant parenchyma and trabecular bone. Natural cellular materials are often mechanically efficient: the honeycomb-like microstructure of wood, for instance, gives it an exceptionally high performance index for resisting bending and buckling. Here we review the mechanics of a wide range of natural cellular materials and examine their role in lightweight natural sandwich structures (e.g. iris leaves) and natural tubular structures (e.g. plant stems or animal quills). We also describe two examples of engineered biomaterials with a cellular structure, designed to replace or regenerate tissue in the body.

  3. Inhibitory effect of live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-based vaccines expressing MIA gene on malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yue; Zhang, Na; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Siyuan; Chu, Shujuan; Hamze, Firas; Wu, Yan; Luo, Qin; Feng, Aiping

    2012-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, can be used as an effective exogenous antigen expression vector in tumor-target therapy. But for successful clinical application, it is necessary to construct attenuated LM stain that is safe yet retains the potency of LM based on the full virulent pathogen. In this study, attenuated LM and recombinants of LM expressing melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) were constructed successfully. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) and invasion efficiency of attenuated LM strains were detected. The recombinants were utilized for immunotherapy of animal model of B16F10 melanoma. The level of MIA mRNA expression in tumor tissue was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific sequence, meanwhile the anti-tumor immune response was assayed by flow cytometric analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. The results showed the toxicity and invasiveness of attenuated LM were decreased as compared with LM, and attenuated LM expressing MIA, especially the double-genes attenuated LM recombinant, could significantly induce anti-tumor immune response and inhibit tumor growth. This study implicates attenuated LM may be a safer and more effective vector for immunotherapy of melanoma.

  4. Melanoma affinity in mice and immunosuppressed sheep of [125I]N-(4-dipropylaminobutyl)-4-iodobenzamide, a new targeting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labarre, Pierre; Papon, Janine; Rose, Alison H.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Morandeau, Laurence; Wu, Ting-di; Moreau, Marie-France; Bayle, Martine; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Croisy, Alain; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Turner, Harvey; Moins, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy have prompted the development of new vectors, more specific to the pigmented tumor, for early detection and treatment. Targeted agents have to exhibit a rapid, high tumor uptake, long tumor retention and rapid clearance from nontarget organs. This joint work presents results obtained with a new melanoma targeting agent, [ 125 I]-N-(4-dipropylaminobutyl)-4-iodobenzamide or [ 125 I]BZ18. After labeling with a high specific activity, the biodistribution of the compound was investigated in two animal models, the mouse and the sheep. Melanotic tumor retention was observed lasting several days. We visualized the internalization of the agent inside the melanosomes by secondary ion mass spectroscopy imaging, we measured the affinity constants of [ 125 I]BZ18 on a synthetic melanin model and we demonstrated a radiotoxic effect of this labeled agent on B16F0 melanoma cell culture due to its cellular internalization. From this work, [ 125 I]BZ18 appeared a promising melanoma targeting agent in the nuclear medicine field

  5. BAP1 has a survival role in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent.

  6. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  7. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  8. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Chen

    Full Text Available Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167 or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2 and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  9. Neem leaf glycoprotein optimizes effector and regulatory functions within tumor microenvironment to intervene therapeutically the growth of B16 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Barik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy with neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP inhibits murine B16-melanoma in vivo and improves survivability. Studies on tumor-microenvironment (TME from NLGP treated mice (NLGP-TME suggests that anti-tumor effect is directly associated with enhanced CD8+T cell activity, dominance of type 1 cytokines/chemokine network with downregulation of suppressive cellular functions. NLGP-TME educated CD8+T cells showed higher perforin and granzymeB expression with greater in vitro cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma. These CD8+T cells showed proportionally lower FasR expression, denotes prevention from activation induced cell death by NLGP. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest NLGP influenced normalized TME allows CD8+T cells to perform optimally to inhibit melanoma growth.

  10. In vivo assessment of optical properties of melanocytic skin lesions and differentiation of melanoma from non-malignant lesions by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Dhaenens, F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High-definition op......One of the most challenging problems in clinical dermatology is the early detection of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an added tool to dermoscopy improving considerably diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnosis strongly depends on the experience of physicians. High......-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) appears to offer additional structural and cellular information on melanocytic lesions complementary to that of RCM. However, the diagnostic potential of HD-OCT seems to be not high enough for ruling out the diagnosis of melanoma if based on morphology analysis...

  11. EMMPRIN regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion through Kindlin-3 in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyon, Julie; Khayati, Farah; Djaafri, Ibtissem; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Sadoux, Aurélie; Setterblad, Niclas; Boutalbi, Zineb; Maouche, Kamel; Maskos, Uwe; Menashi, Suzanne; Lebbé, Céleste; Mourah, Samia

    2015-06-01

    EMMPRIN is known to promote tumor invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Here we report that EMMPRIN can regulate melanoma cell adhesion to the ECM through an interaction with β1 integrin involving kindlin-3. In this study, EMMPRIN knockdown in the human melanoma cell line M10 using siRNA decreased cell invasion and significantly increased cell adhesion and spreading. A morphological change from a round to a spread shape was observed associated with enhanced phalloidin-labelled actin staining. In situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EMMPRIN silencing increased the interaction of β1 integrin with kindlin-3, a focal adhesion protein. This was associated with an increase in β1 integrin activation and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the downstream integrin kinase FAK. Moreover, the expression at both the transcript and protein level of kindlin-3 and of β1 integrin was inversely regulated by EMMPRIN. EMMPRIN did not regulate either talin expression or its interaction with β1 integrin. These results are consistent with our in vivo demonstration that EMMPRIN inhibition increased β1 integrin activation and its interaction with kindlin-3. To conclude, these findings reveal a new role of EMMPRIN in tumor cell migration through ß1 integrin/kindlin-3-mediated adhesion pathway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Molecular Prognostic Markers in Uveal Melanoma: Expression Profiling and Genomic Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Gils (Walter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUveal Melanomas (UMs) arise from melanocytes. This cell type originates from neural crest cells and thereby uveal melanomas share their origin with pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas, paragangliomas and cutaneous melanomas, other tumors that develop from neural crest originating cells.

  13. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  14. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planska, Daniela; Burocziova, Monika; Strnadel, Jan; Horak, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  15. Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway for the Treatment of Melanoma--Application of LY2090314, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Atkinson

    Full Text Available It has previously been observed that a loss of β-catenin expression occurs with melanoma progression and that nuclear β-catenin levels are inversely proportional to cellular proliferation, suggesting that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway may provide benefit for melanoma patients. In order to further probe this concept we tested LY2090314, a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor with activity against GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. In a panel of melanoma cell lines, nM concentrations of LY2090314 stimulated TCF/LEF TOPFlash reporter activity, stabilized β-catenin and elevated the expression of Axin2, a Wnt responsive gene and marker of pathway activation. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that melanoma cell lines are very sensitive to LY2090314 in vitro (IC50 ~10 nM after 72hr of treatment in contrast to other solid tumor cell lines (IC50 >10 uM as evidenced by caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Cell lines harboring mutant B-RAF or N-RAS were equally sensitive to LY2090314 as were those with acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib. shRNA studies demonstrated that β-catenin stabilization is required for apoptosis following treatment with the GSK3 inhibitor since the sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to LY290314 could be overcome by β-catenin knockdown. We further demonstrate that in vivo, LY2090314 elevates Axin2 gene expression after a single dose and produces tumor growth delay in A375 melanoma xenografts with repeat dosing. The activity of LY2090314 in preclinical models suggests that the role of Wnt activators for the treatment of melanoma should be further explored.

  16. The gamma knife in ophthalmology. Part One--Uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygledowska-Promieńska, Dorota; Jurys, Małgorzata; Wilczyński, Tomasz; Drzyzga, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The Gamma Knife was designed by Lars Leksell in the early 1950's. It gave rise to a new discipline of medicine--stereotactic radiosurgery. Primarily dedicated to neurosurgery, the Gamma Knife has become an alternative, widely used surgery technique. According to Elekta's statistics, approximately 60,000 people are treated with Leksell Gamma Knife every year and it is the most extensively studied stereotactic radiosurgery system in the world. The Leksell Gamma Knife can also be used in ophthalmology. The gamma ray beam concentration enables effective treatment of uveal melanoma, choroidal hemangioma, orbital tumors or even choroidal neovascularization. The virtue of Leksell Gamma Knife is its extreme precision, non-invasiveness and the possibility of outpatient treatment, which significantly reduces costs and diminishes post-operative complications. Innovative solutions shorten a single session to a minimum, which is very comfortable and safe for both staff and patients. Advantages and possible side effects of gamma knife radiosurgery are well-documented in the professional literature. The objective of this review is to present the recognized applications of Leksell Gamma Knife in ophthalmology.

  17. Elastase production by B16-F10 melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrager, J.B.; Yusa, T.; Netland, P.A.; Zetter, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elastolytic activity was found in sonicates of mouse B16-F10 melanoma cells and in medium conditioned by these cells. Degradation of elastin was determined by measuring the release of soluble 3 H-peptides from labelled insoluble elastin. The activity secreted from B16-F10 cells was soluble and was not associated with membrane vesicles. The secreted activity was partially inhibited by incubation with phenymethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF) and was abolished by incubation with the alpha-1-protease inhibitor, with pepstatin A or with L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK). In contrast, the activity was unaffected by incubation with elastatinal, with the plasmin inhibitor Σ-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the metalloproteinase inhibitor ethylenediamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), the soybean trypsin inhibitor or the trypsin inhibitor N proportional to-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). These results suggest that the majority of the tumor cell-derived elastolytic activity is attributable to a serine protease that differs in specificity from the well characterized elastases previously isolated from neutrophils, macrophages or from mammalian pancreas. The authors postulate that the release of elastase from lung-colonizing B16-F10 cells may facilitate their invasion of elastin-rich lung tissue

  18. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  19. [Combined use of irradiation and DNA tumor vaccine to treat canine oral malignant melanoma: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A; Buchholz, J; Ruess-Melzer, K; Lang, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2013-02-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral tumor in dogs, characterized by rapid growth, local invasion, and high metastatic rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the combination of radiation therapy and DNA tumor vaccine. We hypothesized, that the concurrent use would not increase toxicity. Nine dogs with oral melanoma were treated with 4 fractions of 8 Gray at 7-day intervals. The vaccine was given 4 times every 14 days, beginning at the first radiation fraction. Local acute radiation toxicities were assessed according to the VRTOG toxicity scoring scheme over a time period of 7 weeks. In none of the evaluated dogs, mucositis, dermatitis and conjunctivitis exceeded grade 2. In 3 dogs mild fever, lethargy, and local swelling at the injection site were seen after vaccine application. In conclusion, the concurrent administration of radiation therapy and vaccine was well tolerated in all dogs.

  20. A concise review of the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Peter W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melanoma and renal cell carcinoma have a well-documented tendency to develop metastases to the brain. Treating these lesions has traditionally been problematic, because chemotherapy has difficulty crossing the blood brain barrier and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is a relatively ineffective treatment against these radioresistant tumor histologies. In recent years, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS has emerged as an effective and minimally-invasive treatment modality for irradiating either single or multiple intracranial structures in one clinical treatment setting. For this reason, we conducted a review of modern literature analyzing the efficacy of SRS in the management of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma brain metastases. In our analysis we found SRS to be a safe, effective and attractive treatment modality for managing radioresistant brain metastases and highlighted the need for randomized trials comparing WBRT alone vs. SRS alone vs. WBRT plus SRS in treating patients with radioresistant brain metastases.

  1. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...... of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...... survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma....

  2. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-07-01

    Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

  3. Approach to Malign Melanoma in Anorectal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Pulat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anorectal malign melanoma comprise 0.2-1 % of all malign melanoma. They are extremely aggressive. Most patients are lost beacuse of incurable systemic illness. In our study, we aim to evaluate the results of surgical and oncological follow-up of our patients that we operated because of anorectal malign melanoma. Material and Method: Our 4 patients operated because of anorectal malign melanoma between October 2008 and April 2013 were analysed. The patients were analysed in terms of demographic datas, complaint and its time, physical examination and imaging findings, treatment procedure, local recurrence or presence of metastasis and follow-up results.Results: Our study group comprised 4 people (2 men and 2 women with the mean age of 64,2 years. The main complaint was rectal bleeding. The avarage complaint duration was 7.5 months. In all patients, anorectal mass was detected after physical examination and imaging studies. Biopsies of the mass were reported to be consistent with malign melanoma. With the further studies, one patient was detected to have metastasis in liver. Abdominoperineal resection was applied to one patient after wide local excision and to three patients during the first aplication. The avarage follow-up time was 19,25 months. The avarage diameter of tumor was 3,9 cm. One patient was applied lymph node dissection because of recurrence in iliac region. The avarage stay time at hospital of the patients who had no postoperative problems was 9,7 days. During follow-up time, three of the patients died because of common metastasis. A patient followed regularly is still continuing his life without illness in his postoperative 22nd month. Discussion: Anorectal malign melanoma is a rare, with a bad prognosis and a late diagnosed entity as it has a similarity with benign illnesses which are mostly seen in anorectal area in terms of clinical symptoma. To correct the prognosis of the illness, the suitable surgery and adjuvant treatment

  4. The patterns of melanoma presentation in Rijeka region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović-Ružić, Ira; Jonjić, Nives; Zamolo, Gordana; Zuvić-Butorac, Marta; Katunarić, Miljenko; Pečanić, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    There is a global rising incidence of melanoma. For different reasons, the patterns of the incidence, appearance, gender, anatomical distribution and outcome vary among different geographic areas. Screening programs have led to better early detection of melanoma in Australia and some world areas. National Cancer Registry and practice data show the incidence in Croatia to be constantly rising. Despite public education programs about early detection, at clinical departments there are still many new advanced stage melanoma patients. We analyzed data on 157 patients treated and followed up for 10 years for T1b-T4aN0 skin melanoma. There was a difference in anatomical distribution of melanoma lesions in correlation with patient age (ANOVA test, F=3.51, p=0.009). A higher prevalence of shoulder melanoma was found in young people and of head/neck melanoma in the elderly (post-hoc Sheffe test, p=0.038). T4 lesions were more commonly found in men and T1 mainly in women (Pearson χ(2)-test, χ(2)=12.08, p=0.016). There was no difference in Clark level, but a significantly higher Breslow stage was found in men (t=-2.52, p=0.013). Men were much more prone to have head and neck, body and shoulder melanoma, whereas women had more melanoma on their legs and arms. Clark and Breslow levels were strongly correlated in leg melanoma; head localization showed no correlation at all. In conclusion, more attention should be devoted to improve the results in melanoma detection in men, especially considering the prevalence of body (back) and head/neck localizations, sometimes not readily accessible for visual detection. The pattern of distribution also pointed to the need for more attention to pay to shoulder melanoma in younger people.

  5. Melanoma genetics and the development of rational therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Khavari, Paul A; Adams, Amy E

    2005-04-01

    Melanoma is a cancer of the neural crest-derived cells that provide pigmentation to skin and other tissues. Over the past 4 decades, the incidence of melanoma has increased more rapidly than that of any other malignancy in the United States. No current treatments substantially enhance patient survival once metastasis has occurred. This review focuses on recent insights into melanoma genetics and new therapeutic approaches being developed based on these advances.

  6. Unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus mimicking acral lentiginous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Kelly; Smithberger, Erica; Lien, Mary H; Fenske, Neil Alan

    2010-07-01

    The authors report a case of a Latin American woman who developed progressive pigmentation primarily involving two digits of her right hand. She was scheduled for amputation based on a presumptive histologic diagnosis of melanoma with regression. Dermatology consultation with repeat biopsies disclosed a lichenoid tissue reaction with marked pigment incontinence and no evidence of melanoma. This report should prompt physicians to include lichen planus pigmentosus in the differential diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  7. Management of uveal tract melanoma: A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.; Kumar, H.S.; Beniwal, V.; Beniwal, S.; Mathur, H.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal tract melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, accounting for about 5–10% of all the melanomas. Since there are no lymphatic vessels in the eye, uveal melanoma can only spread hematogenously leading to liver metastasis. A wide variety of treatment modalities are available for its management, leading to dilemma in selecting the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available and thus, can help to individualize the treatment plan for each patient

  8. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte; Junker, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma-as...... from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined....

  9. Antimetastatic effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, against the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, K; Ohhara, M; Oguchi, Y; Iijima, H; Kobayashi, H

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, upon in vivo metastasis and in vitro invasion of the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells. (1) PSK suppressed in vivo artificial and spontaneous lung metastases of B16-BL6 in C57BL/6 mice. (2) PSK in a dose-dependent fashion suppressed in vitro invasion and chemotaxis of the tumor cells using filters coated with a reconstituted basement membrane. (3) PSK had little effect on DNA synthesis in tumor cells in vitro, but suppressed tumor cell adhesion to, degradation of, and haptotaxis to components of the basement membrane. (4) PSK suppressed the binding of tumor cells to components of the basement membrane. These findings suggest that PSK may suppress metastasis through inhibition of tumor cell invasion and that this effect is the result of interactions between PSK and components of the basement membrane.

  10. The Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist Losartan Affects NHE1-Dependent Melanoma Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Navin Olschewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The peptide hormone angiotensin II (ATII plays a prominent role in regulating vasoconstriction and blood pressure. Its primary target is the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1, the stimulation of which induces an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] and calmodulin activation. Ca2+-bound (activated calmodulin stimulates the activity of the Na+/ H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1; and increased NHE1 activity is known to promote melanoma cell motility. The competitive AT1 receptor inhibitor losartan is often used to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Since AT1 mediates ATII-stimulated NHE1 activity, we set out to investigate whether ATII and losartan have an impact on NHE1-dependent behavior of human melanoma (MV3 cells. Methods: ATII receptor expression was verified by PCR, F-actin was visualized using fluorescently labeled phalloidin, and cytosolic [Ca2+] and pH were determined ratiometrically using Fura-2 and BCECF, respectively. MV3 cell behavior was analyzed using migration, adhesion, invasion and proliferation assays. Results: MV3 cells express both AT1 and the angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2. Stimulation of MV3 cells with ATII increased NHE1 activity which could be counteracted by both losartan and the Ca2+/ calmodulin inhibitor ophiobolin-A. ATII stimulation induced a decrease in MV3 cell migration and a more spherical cell morphology accompanied by an increase in the density of F-actin. Independently of the presence of ATII, both NHE1 and migratory activity were reduced when AT1 was blocked by losartan. On the other hand, losartan clearly increased cell adhesion to, and the invasion of, a collagen type I substrate. The AT2 inhibitor PD123319 did not affect NHE1 activity, proliferation and migration, but increased adhesion and invasion. Conclusion: Losartan inhibits NHE1 activity and the migration of human melanoma cells. At the same time, losartan promotes MV3 cell adhesion and invasion. The therapeutic use of AT1

  11. The presence of dysplastic nevus remnants in malignant melanomas. A population-based study of 551 malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Osterlind, A; Drzewiecki, K T; Hou-Jensen, K

    1991-08-01

    We examined 512 malignant melanomas, representing all newly diagnosed cutaneous malignant melanomas, excluding lentigo maligna melanomas, from the period October 1, 1982 to March 31, 1985 occurring in the region of eastern Denmark in patients aged 20-79 years for the presence of dysplastic nevus remnants. Criteria for the diagnosis of a dysplastic nevus remnant include all the following changes (a) lentiginous or epithelioid melanocyte hyperplasia, (b) cytologic melanocyte atypia, (c) eosinophilic fibroplasia, (d) lamellar fibroplasia, and (e) lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis. Dysplastic nevus remnants were found in association with 34 (7%) of the evaluable 512 malignant melanomas. Fourteen (41%) of the remnants were of compound nevus type. In nine (27%) of the remnants, atypia was pronounced. Most (62%) dysplastic nevus remnants were contiguous to thin superficial spreading melanomas. We conclude from this population-based study that about 7% of malignant melanomas arise in prior dysplastic nevi.

  12. Assessment of PALB2 as a candidate melanoma susceptibility gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2 interacts with BRCA2 to enable double strand break repair through homologous recombination. Similar to BRCA2, germline mutations in PALB2 have been shown to predispose to Fanconi anaemia as well as pancreatic and breast cancer. The PALB2/BRCA2 protein interaction, as well as the increased melanoma risk observed in families harbouring BRCA2 mutations, makes PALB2 a candidate for melanoma susceptibility. In order to assess PALB2 as a melanoma predisposition gene, we sequenced the entire protein-coding sequence of PALB2 in probands from 182 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, and BAP1. In addition, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from another 19 kindreds with a strong family history of melanoma for deleterious mutations in PALB2. Here we report a rare known deleterious PALB2 mutation (rs118203998 causing a premature truncation of the protein (p.Y1183X in an individual who had developed four different cancer types, including melanoma. Three other family members affected with melanoma did not carry the variant. Overall our data do not support a case for PALB2 being associated with melanoma predisposition.

  13. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Sanli, Yasemin; Marcus, Charles; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in genomic profiling and sequencing of melanoma have provided new insights into the development of the basis for molecular biology to more accurately subgroup patients with melanoma. The development of novel mutation-targeted and immunomodulation therapy as a major component of precision oncology has revolutionized the management and outcome of patients with metastatic melanoma. PET imaging plays an important role in noninvasively assessing the tumor biological behavior, to guide individualized treatment and assess response to therapy. This review summarizes the recent genomic discoveries in melanoma in the era of targeted therapy and their implications for functional PET imaging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  15. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  16. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  17. Localized CD47 blockade enhances immunotherapy for murine melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jessica R; Blomberg, Olga S; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Ali, Lestat; Schmidt, Florian I; Pishesha, Novalia; Espinosa, Camilo; Dougan, Stephanie K; Garcia, K Christopher; Ploegh, Hidde L; Dougan, Michael

    2017-09-19

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand broadly expressed on normal and malignant tissues that delivers an inhibitory signal through the receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Inhibitors of the CD47-SIRPα interaction improve antitumor antibody responses by enhancing antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) in xenograft models. Endogenous expression of CD47 on a variety of cell types, including erythrocytes, creates a formidable antigen sink that may limit the efficacy of CD47-targeting therapies. We generated a nanobody, A4, that blocks the CD47-SIRPα interaction. A4 synergizes with anti-PD-L1, but not anti-CTLA4, therapy in the syngeneic B16F10 melanoma model. Neither increased dosing nor half-life extension by fusion of A4 to IgG2a Fc (A4Fc) overcame the issue of an antigen sink or, in the case of A4Fc, systemic toxicity. Generation of a B16F10 cell line that secretes the A4 nanobody showed that an enhanced response to several immune therapies requires near-complete blockade of CD47 in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, strategies to localize CD47 blockade to tumors may be particularly valuable for immune therapy.

  18. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  19. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...... to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated...... the psychosocial perspective. Results: After the literature review, the psychosocial aspects have been divided into five main areas: 1. Diagnosis, hospitalisation, and treatment 2. The body with cancer 3. Psychological 4. Social 5. Existential/spiritual Primary results show that patients with MM in general respond...

  20. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  1. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  2. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  3. Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Margaret L; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin M

    2017-09-14

    The treatment and prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed substantially since the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), agents that enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Despite the success of these agents, clinically actionable biomarkers to aid patient and regimen selection are lacking. Herein, we summarize and review the evidence for candidate biomarkers of response to ICIs in melanoma. Many of these candidates can be examined as parts of a known molecular pathway of immune response, while others are clinical in nature. Due to the ability of ICIs to illicit dramatic and durable responses, well-validated biomarkers that can be effectively implemented in the clinic will require strong negative predictive values that do not limit patients with who may benefit from ICI therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of variants of melanoma-associated antigen genes and mRNA transcripts in melanomas of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Anneliese J; Dobson, Jane M; Scase, Timothy J; Catchpole, Brian

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To characterize variability in melanoma-associated antigen (MAA) genes and gene expression in melanomas of dogs. ANIMALS-18 dogs with malignant melanomas and 8 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES-cDNA was prepared from malignant melanoma biopsy specimens and from pigmented oral mucocutaneous tissues of healthy control dogs. Genomic DNA was extracted from poorly pigmented melanomas. A PCR assay was performed by use of Melan-A, SILV, or tyrosinase-specific primers. RESULTS-Splice variants of Melan-A and SILV were identified in malignant melanomas and also in healthy pigmented tissues, whereas a tyrosinase splice variant was detected in melanoma tissues only. A short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion mutation was identified in the SILV gene in 1 of 10 poorly pigmented melanomas. Six novel exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 3 synonymous and 3 nonsynonymous) were detected in the tyrosinase gene, and 1 nonsynonymous exonic SNP was detected in the SILV gene. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Variants of MAA mRNA were detected in malignant melanoma tissues of dogs. The importance of MAA alternative transcripts expressed in melanomas and normal pigmented tissues was unclear, but they may have represented a means of regulating melanin synthesis. The tyrosinase splice variant was detected only in melanomas and could potentially be a tumor-specific target for immunotherapy. A SILV SINE insertion mutation was identified in a melanoma from a Great Dane, a breed known to carry this mutation (associated with merle coat color). The nonsynonymous SNPs detected in tyrosinase and SILV transcripts did not appear to affect tumor pigmentation.

  5. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast,