Sample records for melanesia

  1. Kastom, property and ideology: Land transformations in Melanesia



    The relationship between customary land tenure and ‘modern’ forms of landed property has been a major political issue in the ‘Spearhead’ states of Melanesia since the late colonial period, and is even more pressing today, as the region is subject to its own version of what is described in the international literature as a new ‘land rush’ or ‘land grab’ in developing countries. This volume aims to test the application of one particular theoretical framework to the Melanesian version of this ph...

  2. Genetic and Linguistic Coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia (United States)

    Hunley, Keith; Dunn, Michael; Lindström, Eva; Reesink, Ger; Terrill, Angela; Healy, Meghan E.; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Friedlaender, Jonathan S.


    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may

  3. Co-interviewing across gender and culture: expanding qualitative research methods in Melanesia. (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Api, Unia K; Darius, Matupit; Tommbe, Rachael; Mafile'o, Tracie A; MacLaren, David J


    The social and cultural positions of both researchers and research participants influence qualitative methods and study findings. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), as in other contexts, gender is a key organising characteristic and needs to be central to the design and conduct of research. The colonial history between researcher and participant is also critical to understanding potential power differences. This is particularly relevant to public health research, much of which has emerged from a positivist paradigm. This paper describes our critical reflection of flexible researcher responses enacted during qualitative research in PNG. Led by a senior male HIV researcher from PNG, a male from a PNG university and a female from an Australian university conducted qualitative interviews about faith-based responses to HIV in PNG. The two researchers planned to conduct one-on-one interviews matching gender of participants and interviewer. However, while conducting the study, four participants explicitly requested to be interviewed by both researchers. This experience led us to critically consider socially and culturally situated ways of understanding semi-structured interviewing for public health research in Melanesia. New understandings about public health research include: (i) a challenge to the convention that the researcher holds more power than the research participant, (ii) the importance of audience in Melanesia, (iii) cultural safety can be provided when two people co-interview and (iv) the effect an esteemed leader heading the research may have on people's willingness to participate. Researchers who occupy insider-outsider roles in PNG may provide participants new possibilities to communicate key ideas. Our recent experience has taught us public health research methods that are gender sensitive and culturally situated are pivotal to successful research in Melanesia. Qualitative research requires adaptability and reflexivity. Public health research methods must continue

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  5. The power of paradigms : examining the evidential basis for Early to Mid-Holocene pigs and pottery in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, S.; Barham, A.; Aplin, K.; Dobney, K.; Fairbairn, A.; Richards, M.


    The origin and timing of the introduction of pigs and pottery into New Guinea are continuous topics. Arguments have centred on whether domestic pigs and pottery technology entered New Guinea following the 'Austronesian expansion' from southeast Asia into Island Melanesia, c 3300 calBP, or in the Early to Mid-Holocene. We review the history of the debate and present new dates on pig bone and pottery contexts from archaeological sites, including Taora and Lachitu, on the north coast of mainland Papua New Guinea (PNG), where earlier data supported claims for early pig and pottery. We argue that theoretical positions about 'Neolithic' origins in PNG influenced the relative willingness to accept early dates prima facie and conclude that current evidence shows neither pig nor pottery arrived before 3000 calBP in mainland PNG. (author). 96 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy. (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A


    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  7. A Novel Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1c Molecular Variant in an Indigenous Individual from New Caledonia, Melanesia. (United States)

    Cassar, Olivier; Charavay, Françoise; Touzain, Frédéric; Jeannin, Patricia; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Laumond, Sylvie; Chungue, Eliane; Martin, Paul M V; Gessain, Antoine


    . The first is composed of strains from Papua New Guinea; the second includes strains from all neighboring archipelagos (Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia), and Australia. Interestingly, this second clade itself is divided into two sub-clades: strains from Australia on one hand, and strains from Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia on the other hand. The HTLV-1 seroprevalence (0.6%) in the studied adult population from New Caledonia appears to be low. This seroprevalence is quite similar to the situation observed in Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. However it is very different to the one encountered in Central Australia. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Australo-Melanesia is endemic for HTLV-1 infection with a high diversity of HTLV-1c strains and a clear geographic clustering according to the island of origin of HTLV-1 infected persons.

  8. The Value of Tropical Biodiversity in Rural Melanesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Foale


    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss differences in the ways transnational conservationists and Melanesian farmers, hunters and fishers value "biodiversity". The money for conservation projects in developing countries originates from people who are embedded in a capitalist system, which allows engagement with nature as an abstract entity. Their western education has given them a scientific/ evolutionary-based worldview, which attributes intrinsic value to all species (and particular arrangements of species, e.g. rainforests and coral reefs, irrespective of economic value or ecosystem function. Because this value system is mostly not shared by the custodians of the biodiversity that conservationists want to save, alternative tactics and arguments are utilised. These inevitably take the form of so-called "win-win" economic rationales for preserving biodiversity, most of which do not work well (e.g. bioprospecting, ecotourism, non-timber forest products, environmental certification schemes, payments for ecosystem services, etc., for reasons which we detail. Agriculture- and aquaculture-based livelihoods appear to enjoy more success than the "win-win" options but do not necessarily obviate or deter further biodiversity loss. Artisanal use of species-poor but productive and resilient pelagic fisheries is increasing. These ecological and economic realities bring into sharp focus the importance of understanding differences in value systems for successful biodiversity conservation in the tropics.

  9. Birds on islands in the sky: Origin of the montane avifauna of Northern Melanesia. (United States)

    Mayr, E; Diamond, J M


    Biogeographers have long been fascinated by the disjunct distributions of species stranded on mountaintops. This paper analyzes, for the montane bird populations of Northern Melanesian islands, how many such populations there are, why they are restricted to mountains, and how they dispersed to mountains. The number of populations increases with island elevation and with montane area, and decreases with lowland area, exemplifying the problem of continental species diversity. Most species with montane populations on some island(s) have sea-level populations on some other island(s). These altitudinal niche shifts can be variously related to interisland differences either in altitudinal distribution of area or else in competitive pressure in the lowlands or mountains. Restriction of Northern Melanesian bird populations to mountains is more often due to lowland competitors than to inability to survive under the physical conditions of the lowlands. Of four possible mechanisms for the origin of a montane population (referred to as jumping, land-bridge crossing, trickling, and push-pull shifts), only the first and last have been significant for Northern Melanesian birds.

  10. Translocalisation over the Net: Digitalisation, Information Technology and Local Cultures in Melanesia (United States)

    Kupiainen, Jari


    In the Western Pacific, the People First Network project has since 2001 been building a growing network of rural email stations across the conflict-ridden Solomon Islands. These stations are based on robust technology and consist of solar panels, short-wave radios and compatible modems, laptop computers and printers to provide email communication…

  11. Working and reference check list for fireflies of Melanesia (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae). (United States)

    Ballantyne, Lesley A; Lloyd, James E


    Twenty-three species of Lampyridae (fifteen of them new) collected during the 1969-70 Alpha Helix scientific expedition to New Guinea are now characterized by both behavioural and taxonomic data. For ease of identification, relocation of specimens, and location of all pertinent literature this check list is presented.

  12. Relative excitation of the seismic shear waves Sn and Lg as a function of source depth and their propagation from Melanesia and Banda arcs to Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - Seismic activity associated with the collision of the continental
    part of the Australian plate with the oceanic Melanesian arcs along Papua New
    Guinea and the Banda arc provides an unusual opportunity to study the relative
    excitation of the seismic shear waves Sn and Lg. These waves are produced by
    earthquakes located along the arcs in the upper 200 km of the earth and are
    recorded by the Australian WWSSN Stations at Charters Towers (CTA and Alice
    Springs (ASP. The paths to these stations are predominantly continental. The data
    clearly show that for events located at crustal depths, Lg is the predominant phase
    on the records and Sn is either absent or very weak. For events deeper than about
    50-70 km, Sn becomes the predominant phase on the records. These observations
    arc in qualitative agreement with the explanations of Sn and Lg as higher
    modes of surface waves, for the particle displacement amplitudes are maximum
    within the crust for Lg and maximum within the lid of the lithospheric mantle
    for Sn. The data suggest that either the crustal wave guide for Lg is more
    efficient than that for Sn, or that Lg is more easily excited than Sn. No clear
    Lg is observed from shallow earthquakes when the length of the segment of the
    path crossing oceanic structure is greater than about 200 km. Also, widespread
    Quaternary volcanism within the « stable » area of central Papua New Guinea
    to the south of the mobile belt does not seem to affect the efficient transmission
    of high-frequency (1 Hz shear energy.
    The paths from events located along the New Hebrides, Solomon, and New
    Britain arcs to Australia traverse oceanic structure, and no Lg is observed from
    these paths. The inefficient propagation of Sn along these paths from both
    shallow and intermediate-depth events can be explained as follows: 1 For
    the New Hebrides case, the inefficiency of Sn propagation for paths exceeding
    about 20° distance is related to the relatively young age (Lower to Middle
    Eocene of the suboceanic lithosphere of the Coral Sea. As proposed by CHINN,
    ISACKS and BARAZANGI (1979, such relatively thin lithosphere is probably not an
    efficient wave guide for shear energy of about 1 Hz 2. The inefficiency of Sn
    propagation from events located along the northern Solomon and the New Britainarcs is probably due to anomalous attenuation in the uppermost mantle beneath
    the Woodlark basin and beneath southeastern Papua New Guinea. 3 The
    inefficiency of Sn propagation from events deeper than about 150 km located
    in the westernmost part of the northerly-dipping Benioff zone of the New
    Britain arc could be due either to structural isolation of the nearly vertical
    descending segment of the plate in which the events occur, or could be due to
    structural complexity of the plates in the region which interrupts the wave
    guide for Sn to the Australian stations. This structural feature could be the
    result of the collision of the Australian plate and the New Britain arc.

  13. Eocene and Oligocene basins and ridges of the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region: Tectonic link between Melanesia, Fiji, and Zealandia (United States)

    Mortimer, Nick; Gans, Phillip B.; Palin, J. Michael; Herzer, Richard H.; Pelletier, Bernard; Monzier, Michel


    This paper presents 34 geochemical analyses, 24 Ar-Ar ages, and two U-Pb ages of igneous rocks from the back-arc basins and submarine ridges in the Coral Sea-New Caledonia region. The D'Entrecasteaux Ridge is a composite structural feature. Primitive arc tholeiites of Eocene age (34-56 Ma) are present along a 200 km length of the ridge and arguably were part of the initial line of subduction inception between Fiji and the Marianas; substantial Eocene arc edifices are only evident at the eastern end where Bougainville Guyot andesite breccias are dated at 40 ± 2 Ma. The South Rennell Trough is confidently identified as a 28-29 Ma (early Oligocene) fossil spreading ridge, and hence, the flanking Santa Cruz and D'Entrecasteaux basins belong in the group of SW Pacific Eocene-Early Miocene back-arc basins that include the Solomon Sea, North Loyalty, and South Fiji basins. The rate and duration of spreading in the North Loyalty Basin is revised to 43 mm/yr between 28 and 44 Ma, longer and faster than previously recognized. The direction of its opening was to the southeast, that is, parallel to the continent-ocean boundary and perpendicular to the direction of coeval New Caledonia ophiolite emplacement. Medium- and high-K alkaline lavas of 23-25 Ma (late Oligocene) age on the northern Norfolk Ridge are an additional magmatic response to Pacific trench rollback.

  14. A new species of Procamallanus (Nematoda : Camallanidae) from Pacific eels (Anguilla spp.)


    Moravec, F.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Wurtz, J.; Taraschewski, H.; Sasal, P.


    A new species of: parasitic nematode, Procamallanus (Procamallanus) pacificus n. sp., is described from the stomach of the Pacific shortfinned eel, Anguilla obscura (type host), and from the speckled longfin eel, Anguilla reinhardtii, from northern New Caledonia (Melanesia, South Pacific); from Anguilla sp. (cf. obscura) from the Fiji Islands (Melanesia, South Pacific) and from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata from Futuna Island (Wallis and Futuna Islands, Polynesia). Although a total...

  15. Witchcraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.; Wright, J.D.


    Till far into the twentieth century two nodal points in the study of witchcraft stood out: the work by historians on witch trials in early modern Europe, and anthropologists' studies of its role in local tensions in Africa and Melanesia. The differences between the two settings were so glaring that

  16. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol


    In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  17. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  18. (SNP) markers for the Chinese black sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Apr 25, 2011 ... The Chinese black sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis. Lacepede 1801, occurs from the northern Indian Ocean coast, reaching east to the Pacific, Melanesia and. Polynesia, north to Japan and south to Australia (Kottelat et al., 1993; Masuda et al., 1984). It is a small warm- water fish that inhabits holes and caves ...

  19. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie


    with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...

  20. Deep divergence and structure in the Tropical Oceanic Pacific: a multilocus phylogeography of a widespread gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Gehyra oceanica) (United States)

    Tonione, Maria A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Zhu, Catherine; Moritz, Craig


    Aim The islands of the Tropical Oceanic Pacific (TOP) host both local radiations and widespread, colonizing species. The few phylogeographical analyses of widespread species often point to recent human-aided expansions through the Pacific, suggesting that the communities are recently assembled. Here we apply multilocus data to infer biogeographical history of the gekkonid lizard, Gehyra oceanica, which is widespread, but for which prior analyses suggested a pre-human history and in situ diversification. Location Tropical Oceanic Pacific. Methods We generated a data set including mtDNA and diagnostic SNPs for 173 individuals of G. oceanica spanning Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. For a subset of these individuals, we also sequenced nuclear loci. From these data, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to reveal major clades. We also performed Bayesian clustering analyses and coalescence–based species delimitation tests to infer the number of species in this area. Results We found evidence for six independent evolutionary lineages (candidate species) within G. oceanica that diverged between the Pliocene and the early Pleistocene, with high diversity through northern Melanesia, and pairing of northern Melanesian endemic taxa with widespread lineages across Micronesia and Polynesia. Main conclusions The islands of northern Melanesia not only have unrecognized diversity, but also were the source of independent expansions of lineages through the more remote northern and eastern Pacific. These results highlight the very different evolutionary histories of island faunas on remote archipelagos versus those across Melanesia and point to the need for more intensive studies of fauna within Melanesia if we are to understand the evolution of diversity across the tropical Pacific.

  1. Ants of Ambon Islands – diversity survey and checklist

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latumahina, F.; Borovanská, Michaela; Musyafa, neexistuje; Sumardi, neexistuje; Susetya Putra, N.; Janda, Milan


    Roč. 472, JAN 15 (2015), s. 43-57 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/2467 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(CZ) PIOFGA2009-25448 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Moluccas * Indo-Australia * Melanesia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  2. The status of circular migration in the evolution of Melanesian towns: an attempt at explanation. (United States)

    Walsh, A C


    "This article proposes a model of Melanesian urbanization and associated forms of migration, both permanent and temporary/circular. The model describes four stages of urban development, spanning the arrival of capitalism to a futuristic city of the next century. The author links the future of circular migration in Melanesia to the relative strengths of the precapitalist and capitalist modes of production and associated social relations, particularly the wantok [kinship network]." excerpt

  3. Evolutionary history of a widespread Indo-Pacific goby: the role of Pleistocene sea-level changes on demographic contraction/expansion dynamics. (United States)

    Hoareau, Thierry Bernard; Boissin, Emilie; Berrebi, Patrick


    Compared to endemics, widespread species are of particular interest to retrace recent evolutionary history. These species have a large population size which provides a clearer genetic signature of past events. Moreover, their wide geographic range increases the potential occurrence of evolutionary events (expansion, divergence, etc.). Here, we used several coalescent-based methods to disentangle the evolutionary history of a widespread amphidromous goby (Sicyopterus lagocephalus), in the light of sea-level variations during the Pleistocene. Using 75 samples recovered from three biogeographic regions (Western Indian Ocean, Melanesia and Polynesia), we analysed a portion of the cytochromeb gene and confirmed three major haplogroups, each specific to a region. Furthermore, we found that: (1) the Melanesian haplogroup was the oldest while the two peripheral regions hosted daughter haplogroups; (2) two centrifugal colonisation events occurred from Melanesia to the periphery, each synchronised with periods of strong paleo-ENSO episodes; (3) the demographic contraction-expansion events were linked to Pleistocene sea-level changes; (4) Melanesia and Polynesia acted as efficient refuges during the Last Glacial Maximum. These results highlight the importance of studying widespread species to better understand the role of climate changes and paleo-oceanography on the evolution of biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. At the end of the line: independent overwater colonizations of the Solomon Islands by a hyperdiverse trans-Wallacean lizard lineage (Cyrtodactylus: Gekkota: Squamata) (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Travers, Scott L; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Pikacha, Patrick; Fisher, Robert N.


    The islands of East Melanesia have generated key insights into speciation processes and community assembly. However, when and how these islands began to form, emerge and accumulate endemic taxa remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two divergent lineages within the world’s most diverse genus of geckos (Cyrtodactylus) occur in the Solomon Islands. One large-bodied species is nested within a radiation from far eastern New Guinea, with inferred colonization, spread and diversification since the late Miocene. In contrast, a newly sampled and relatively small species with a restricted distribution on Guadalcanal Island is a relict that diverged from extant congeners around the early to mid-Miocene. Similar Miocene divergences from extralimital relatives have been inferred for other endemic bird, bat and lizard lineages in East Melanesia. In contrast, across all lineages (including divergent relictual lineages), there is little evidence for endemic in situ diversification within East Melanesia predating the Pliocene (especially in the Solomon Islands). While some East Melanesian endemic lineages may have origins on progenitor islands during the Miocene or even earlier, current evidence suggests the in situ diversification and assembly of extant biological communities commenced around the end of the Miocene.

  5. "Creating Futures" in Papua New Guinea: just the beginning. (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest


    "Creating Futures 2012: PNG" was the largest mental health conference to date in Melanesia. This paper describes the history, purpose and content of this initiative as a means to facilitate capacity building in Papua New Guinea (PNG), increase binational cooperation and develop a regional mental health network. Fifty Australian professionals were recruited to work with PNG colleagues to develop a suite of 20 workshops on locally identified themes. Over 300 delegates from across PNG and the western Pacific attended the four-day meeting, which was framed by Professor Vikram Patel in a series of presentations on global health. Feedback from PNG delegates and potential ongoing activities are described.

  6. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol


    , and partly out of postcolonial ethno-rhetoric. This chapter explores the word kastom ‘traditional culture’ in Bislama and pasin bilong tumbuna ‘the ways of the ancestors’ in Tok Pisin. Specific attention is paid to the shift from “negative “ to “positive” semantics, following from the re......In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  7. Community assembly of coral reef fishes along the Melanesian biodiversity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A Drew

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific is home to Earth's most biodiverse coral reefs. Diversity on these reefs decreases from the Coral Triangle east through the islands of Melanesia. Despite this pattern having been identified during the early 20th century, our knowledge about the interaction between pattern and process remains incomplete. To evaluate the structure of coral reef fish communities across Melanesia, we obtained distributional records for 396 reef fish species in five taxa across seven countries. We used hierarchical clustering, nestedness, and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the community structure. We also compiled data on life history traits (pelagic larval duration, body size and schooling behavior to help elucidate the ecological mechanisms behind community structure. Species richness for these taxa along the gradient was significantly related to longitude but not habitat area. Communities are significantly nested, indicating that species-poor communities are largely composed of subsets of the species found on species rich reefs. These trends are robust across taxonomic groups except for the Pomacentridae, which exhibit an anti-nested pattern, perhaps due to a large number of endemic species. Correlations between life history traits and the number of reefs on which species occurred indicate that dispersal and survival ability contribute to determining community structure. We conclude that distance from the Coral Triangle dominates community structure in reef fish; however, conservation of the most species-rich areas will not be sufficient alone to conserve the vivid splendor of this region.

  8. Community assembly of coral reef fishes along the Melanesian biodiversity gradient. (United States)

    Drew, Joshua A; Amatangelo, Kathryn L


    The Indo-Pacific is home to Earth's most biodiverse coral reefs. Diversity on these reefs decreases from the Coral Triangle east through the islands of Melanesia. Despite this pattern having been identified during the early 20th century, our knowledge about the interaction between pattern and process remains incomplete. To evaluate the structure of coral reef fish communities across Melanesia, we obtained distributional records for 396 reef fish species in five taxa across seven countries. We used hierarchical clustering, nestedness, and multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the community structure. We also compiled data on life history traits (pelagic larval duration, body size and schooling behavior) to help elucidate the ecological mechanisms behind community structure. Species richness for these taxa along the gradient was significantly related to longitude but not habitat area. Communities are significantly nested, indicating that species-poor communities are largely composed of subsets of the species found on species rich reefs. These trends are robust across taxonomic groups except for the Pomacentridae, which exhibit an anti-nested pattern, perhaps due to a large number of endemic species. Correlations between life history traits and the number of reefs on which species occurred indicate that dispersal and survival ability contribute to determining community structure. We conclude that distance from the Coral Triangle dominates community structure in reef fish; however, conservation of the most species-rich areas will not be sufficient alone to conserve the vivid splendor of this region.

  9. Early modern human dispersal from Africa: genomic evidence for multiple waves of migration. (United States)

    Tassi, Francesca; Ghirotto, Silvia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; De Santi, Lisa; Barbujani, Guido


    Anthropological and genetic data agree in indicating the African continent as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans. However, it is unclear whether early modern humans left Africa through a single, major process, dispersing simultaneously over Asia and Europe, or in two main waves, first through the Arab Peninsula into southern Asia and Oceania, and later through a northern route crossing the Levant. Here, we show that accurate genomic estimates of the divergence times between European and African populations are more recent than those between Australo-Melanesia and Africa and incompatible with the effects of a single dispersal. This difference cannot possibly be accounted for by the effects of either hybridization with archaic human forms in Australo-Melanesia or back migration from Europe into Africa. Furthermore, in several populations of Asia we found evidence for relatively recent genetic admixture events, which could have obscured the signatures of the earliest processes. We conclude that the hypothesis of a single major human dispersal from Africa appears hardly compatible with the observed historical and geographical patterns of genome diversity and that Australo-Melanesian populations seem still to retain a genomic signature of a more ancient divergence from Africa.

  10. A new species of Procamallanus (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from Pacific eels (Anguilla spp.). (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Würtz, Jürgen; Taraschewski, Horst; Sasal, Pierre


    A new species of parasitic nematode, Procamallanus (Procamallanus) pacificus n. sp., is described from the stomach of the Pacific shortfinned eel, Anguilla obscura (type host), and from the speckled longfin eel, Anguilla reinhardtii, from northern New Caledonia (Melanesia, South Pacific); from Anguilla sp. (cf. obscura) from the Fiji Islands (Melanesia, South Pacific); and from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata from Futuna Island (Wallis and Futuna Islands, Polynesia). Although a total of 450 nematodes were collected, all specimens were females; this suggests either an extremely rare occurrence of males or parthenogenetic reproduction in this species. Procamallanus pacificus differs markedly from all congeners from fish hosts in possessing a greater number (4-9) of caudal mucrons in the female and by other morphological features. This parasite might become a serious pathogen of cultured eels in the region of the South Pacific. Batrachocamallanus Jackson and Tinsley, 1995 is considered a junior synonym of Procamallanus Baylis, 1923, to which 2 species are transferred as Procamallanus occidentalis (Jackson and Tinsley, 1995) n. comb. and Procamallanus siluranae (Jackson and Tinsley, 1995) n. comb. One third-stage larva of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. was also recorded from Anguilla sp. (cf. obscura) from the Fiji Islands.

  11. Genetic Evidence for Modifying Oceanic Boundaries Relative to Fiji. (United States)

    Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J


    We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.

  12. A skeleton from the Lapita site at Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrusewsky, M.; Galipaud, J.-C.; Leach, B.F.


    A relatively complete and reasonably well preserved skeleton, including a partially reconstructed cranium and mandible, of an approximately 35-45 year old female, found at the Lapita site, WKO-013B, near Kone, Foue Peninsula, New Caledonia, is described. Although not without problems, radioacarbon dating of the skeleton and other archaeological considerations place the burial around the middle of the first millenium BC (c.500 BC). Chemical analysis of the bone gives no clear picture about diet, although direct or indirect consumption of C4 plants is hypothesised. Nitrogen isotope values imply average contribution from both land and marine environments. The reconstructed skull is long and resembles crania from eastern island Melanesia. The teeth are small and the incisors exhibit moderate shovelling. A single dental caries, an apical abscess, moderate dental attrition, enamel hypoplasias, and evidence of periodontal disease were observed in the teeth. The stature is estimated to be 161.4 cm, or 5 feet 3.5 inches. There is osteological evidence that this individual experienced childbirth. The cranial vault bones are thickened. There is little or no osteoarthritis in these remains. Limited comparisons of certain crania, dental and skeletal morphological features of this new skeleton suggest affinities with other Lapita-associated skeletons and skeletal series from eastern island Melanesia. (author). 66 refs., 24 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Voicing the Museum Artefact

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    Sarah Byrne


    Full Text Available Everywhere you look or indeed listen these days, museums from the local to the national are calling on various communities to engage with their collections through the spoken word. This paper reflects on the efficacy and capacity of the human voice in translating, transforming and transposing the museum artefact and considers the voice as its own mode of translation of material culture. It focuses on two very different case studies whereby conversations in and around museum objects were generated – the 'Melanesia Project' at the British Museum and the 'Sense of Place' project in Wapping, East London. Drawing off Dell Hymes’ S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model, I consider both the significance of these vocal engagement and intellectual challenges they set in motion for the museum. 

  14. Macroevolution of hyperdiverse flightless beetles reflects the complex geological history of the Sunda Arc. (United States)

    Tänzler, Rene; Van Dam, Matthew H; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Suhardjono, Yayuk R; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander


    The Sunda Arc forms an almost continuous chain of islands and thus a potential dispersal corridor between mainland Southeast Asia and Melanesia. However, the Sunda Islands have rather different geological histories, which might have had an important impact on actual dispersal routes and community assembly. Here, we reveal the biogeographical history of hyperdiverse and flightless Trigonopterus weevils. Different approaches to ancestral area reconstruction suggest a complex east to west range expansion. Out of New Guinea, Trigonopterus repeatedly reached the Moluccas and Sulawesi transgressing Lydekker's Line. Sulawesi repeatedly acted as colonization hub for different segments of the Sunda Arc. West Java, East Java and Bali are recognized as distinct biogeographic areas. The timing and diversification of species largely coincides with the geological chronology of island emergence. Colonization was not inhibited by traditional biogeographical boundaries such as Wallace's Line. Rather, colonization patterns support distance dependent dispersal and island age limiting dispersal.

  15. Mapping the diversity of gender preferences and sex imbalances in Indonesia in 2010. (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z


    Indonesia is usually viewed as a country free of the acute forms of gender discrimination observed elsewhere in East or South Asia, a situation often ascribed to Indonesia's bilateral kinship system. I re-examine this hypothesis by focusing on ethnic and regional variations in sex differentials. New indicators of marriage practices and gender bias derived from 2010 census microdata highlight the presence of patrilocal patterns as well as a distinct presence of son preference in fertility behaviour in many parts of the archipelago. I also present evidence for excessive child sex ratios and excess mortality of females in some areas that appear to be related to son preference and patrilocal residence systems. The findings confirm the association between son preference, sex differentials in mortality, prenatal sex selection, and kinship systems. I conclude with a more regional perspective on demographic vulnerability of females, distinguishing bilateral South East Asia from more patrilineal Melanesia.

  16. Development of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Ficus virens (Moraceae). (United States)

    Fu, Rong-Hua; Li, Yun-Xiang; Liu, Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei


    Ficus virens (Moraceae) is distributed widely in South and Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and northern Australia, and it is also cultivated outside its original northern range limit in southwestern China. Therefore, the species is well suited to explore the mechanism of range limits of Ficus species. However, little is known about its genetic background. Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. Polymorphism was tested in 85 F. virens individuals sampled from three populations. The number of alleles ranged from three to 17. The observed and expected heterozygosity of each population varied from 0.0667 to 0.9286 and 0.0650 to 0.8890, respectively. Cross-species amplification was also carried out in eight other Ficus species. These 15 markers will be valuable for studying the genetic variation and population structure of F. virens and related Ficus species.

  17. Development of 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Ficus virens (Moraceae)1 (United States)

    Fu, Rong-Hua; Li, Yun-Xiang; Liu, Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei


    Premise of the study: Ficus virens (Moraceae) is distributed widely in South and Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and northern Australia, and it is also cultivated outside its original northern range limit in southwestern China. Therefore, the species is well suited to explore the mechanism of range limits of Ficus species. However, little is known about its genetic background. Methods and Results: Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. Polymorphism was tested in 85 F. virens individuals sampled from three populations. The number of alleles ranged from three to 17. The observed and expected heterozygosity of each population varied from 0.0667 to 0.9286 and 0.0650 to 0.8890, respectively. Cross-species amplification was also carried out in eight other Ficus species. Conclusions: These 15 markers will be valuable for studying the genetic variation and population structure of F. virens and related Ficus species. PMID:28090407

  18. Human migration and the spread of malaria parasites to the New World. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Priscila T; Valdivia, Hugo O; de Oliveira, Thais C; Alves, João Marcelo P; Duarte, Ana Maria R C; Cerutti-Junior, Crispim; Buery, Julyana C; Brito, Cristiana F A; de Souza, Júlio César; Hirano, Zelinda M B; Bueno, Marina G; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Malafronte, Rosely S; Ladeia-Andrade, Simone; Mita, Toshihiro; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Calzada, José E; Tantular, Indah S; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Raijmakers, Leonie R J; Mueller, Ivo; Pacheco, M Andreina; Escalante, Ananias A; Felger, Ingrid; Ferreira, Marcelo U


    We examined the mitogenomes of a large global collection of human malaria parasites to explore how and when Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax entered the Americas. We found evidence of a significant contribution of African and South Asian lineages to present-day New World malaria parasites with additional P. vivax lineages appearing to originate from Melanesia that were putatively carried by the Australasian peoples who contributed genes to Native Americans. Importantly, mitochondrial lineages of the P. vivax-like species P. simium are shared by platyrrhine monkeys and humans in the Atlantic Forest ecosystem, but not across the Amazon, which most likely resulted from one or a few recent human-to-monkey transfers. While enslaved Africans were likely the main carriers of P. falciparum mitochondrial lineages into the Americas after the conquest, additional parasites carried by Australasian peoples in pre-Columbian times may have contributed to the extensive diversity of extant local populations of P. vivax.

  19. Evaluating the 'Lapita Smoke Screen' : site SGO015 of Goro, and early Austronesian settlement of the south-east coast of New Caledonia's Grande Terre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, C.; Ouetcho, A.; Bole, J.; Baret, D.


    Preliminary archaeological data from the east coast of the Grande Terrre of New Caledonia have been interpreted for some time as indicating an early prehistoric settlement of the southernmost Melanesian Archipelago by two cultural groups. Absence of Lapita sites on this coast, as well as very early dates published for the appearance of paddle-impressed pottery of the Podtanean tradition, led to the proposal of a pre-Lapita, non-Austronesian, 'Melanesian' settlement of southern Melanesia. This paper presents data on the first early Lapita site from Grande Terre's east coast, and discusses the implications of these new archaeological data for the definition of the characteristics of first human settlement in this region of Remote Oceania. (author). 59 refs., 6 figs

  20. Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific (United States)

    Hawkins, Stuart; Worthy, Trevor H.; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew; Clark, Geoffrey; Irwin, Geoff; Best, Simon; Kirch, Patrick


    We report the unprecedented Lapita exploitation and subsequent extinction of large megafauna tortoises (?Meiolania damelipi) on tropical islands during the late Holocene over a 281,000 km2 region of the southwest Pacific spanning from the Vanuatu archipelago to Viti Levu in Fiji. Zooarchaeological analyses have identified seven early archaeological sites with the remains of this distinctive hornless tortoise, unlike the Gondwanan horned meiolaniid radiation to the southwest. These large tortoise radiations in the Pacific may have contributed to the rapid dispersal of early mobile Neolithic hunters throughout southwest Melanesia and on to western Polynesia. Subsequent rapid extinctions of these terrestrial herbivorous megafauna are likely to have led to significant changes in ecosystems that help explain changes in current archaeological patterns from Post-Lapita contexts in the region.

  1. Pederasty among primitives: institutionalized initiation and cultic prostitution. (United States)

    Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, G


    For several reasons it is difficult to find examples of pederastic practices in historical and ethnological sources. Besides the social taboo, these practices have always been mixed up with other forms of sexual contact. However, existing material shows pederastic practices in primitive societies as initiation rituals for male youth. Several examples of institutionalized pederasty, especially from the area of Papua-New Guinea and Melanesia are described. These practices, with a clear societal function, are part of a distinct outlook on life and only superficially resemble the man-boy relationships we can observe today. In other parts of the world, pederastic practices were forms of prostitution. Taking place in a religious context, it was also a different form of prostitution than the one we commonly know. Both forms of man-boy involvement attempt to attain assimilation through physical contact. In these practices sexuality serves purposes other than sexual satisfaction and procreation.

  2. Are osseous artefacts a window to perishable material culture? Implications of an unusually complex bone tool from the Late Pleistocene of East Timor. (United States)

    O'Connor, S; Robertson, G; Aplin, K P


    We report the discovery of an unusually complex and regionally unique bone artefact in a Late Pleistocene archaeological assemblage (c. 35 ka [thousands of years ago]) from the site of Matja Kuru 2 on the island of Timor, in Wallacea. The artefact is interpreted as the broken butt of a formerly hafted projectile point, and it preserves evidence of a complex hafting mechanism including insertion into a shaped or split shaft, a complex pattern of binding including lateral stabilization of the cordage within a bilateral series of notches, and the application of mastic at several stages in the hafting process. The artefact provides the earliest direct evidence for the use of this combination of hafting technologies in the wider region of Southeast Asia, Wallacea, Melanesia and Australasia, and is morphologically unparallelled in deposits of any age. By contrast, it bears a close morphological resemblance to certain bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age of Africa and South Asia. Examination of ethnographic projectile technology from the region of Melanesia and Australasia shows that all of the technological elements observed in the Matja Kuru 2 artefact were in use historically in the region, including the unusual feature of bilateral notching to stabilize a hafted point. This artefact challenges the notion that complex bone-working and hafting technologies were a relatively late innovation in this part of the world. Moreover, its regional uniqueness encourages us to abandon the perception of bone artefacts as a discrete class of material culture, and to adopt a new interpretative framework in which they are treated as manifestations of a more general class of artefacts that more typically were produced on perishable raw materials including wood. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-scale survey for novel genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance gene pfcrt

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    Takahashi Nobuyuki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT. To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To identify novel mutant pfcrt genotypes and to reveal the genetic relatedness of pfcrt genotypes, a large-scale survey over a wide geographic area was performed. Methods Sequences for exon 2 in pfcrt, including known polymorphic sites at amino acid positions 72, 74, 75 and 76, were obtained from 256 P. falciparum isolates collected from eight endemic countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., the Philippines and Thailand, Melanesia (Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu and Africa (Ghana. A haplotype network was constructed based on six microsatellite markers located -29 kb to 24 kb from pfcrt in order to examine the genetic relatedness among mutant pfcrt genotypes. Results In addition to wild type (CVMNK at positions 72-76, four mutant pfcrt were identified; CVIET, CVIDT, SVMNT and CVMNT (mutated amino acids underlined. Haplotype network revealed that there were only three mutant pfcrt lineages, originating in Indochina, Philippines and Melanesia. Importantly, the Indochina lineage contained two mutant pfcrt genotypes, CVIET (n = 95 and CVIDT (n = 14, indicating that CVIDT shares a common origin with CVIET. Similarly, one major haplotype in the Melanesian lineage contained two pfcrt genotypes; SVMNT (n = 71 and CVMNT (n = 3. In Africa, all mutant pfcrt genotypes were the CVIET of the Indochina lineage, probably resulting from the intercontinental migration of CQ resistance from Southeast Asia. Conclusions The number of CQ-mutant lineages observed in this study was identical to that found in previous studies. This supports the hypothesis that the emergence of novel CQ resistance

  4. Melioidosis in Papua New Guinea and Oceania

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    Jeffrey M. Warner


    Full Text Available Melioidosis has only been sporadically reported throughout Melanesia and the Pacific region since the first report from Guam in 1946; therefore, its contribution to the disease burden in this region is largely unknown. However, the outcome of a small number of active surveillance programs, serological surveys, and presumptive imported cases identified elsewhere provide an insight into its epidemiology and potential significance throughout the region. Both clinical cases and environmental reservoirs have been described from the rural district of Balimo in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea and from the Northern Province of New Caledonia. In both these locations the incidence of disease is similar to that described in tropical Australia and Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates are also phylogenetically linked to Australian isolates. Serological evidence and presumptive imported cases identified elsewhere suggest that melioidosis exists in other countries throughout the Pacific. However, the lack of laboratory facilities and clinical awareness, and the burden of other infections of public health importance such as tuberculosis, contribute to the under-recognition of melioidosis in this region.

  5. An Improved Reconstruction of Total Marine Fisheries Catches for the New Hebrides and the Republic of Vanuatu, 1950–2014

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    Marc Léopold


    Full Text Available For many small island nations, fisheries provide residents with both food security and economic stability. However, in order to create effective and sustainable fisheries policies and management that will ensure a growing population can prosper, policy makers need to know what is being fished and how much is fished. Vanuatu, the smallest country in Melanesia, has a declared and claimed Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of over 820,000 km2 and fisheries resources play a large part in the food security and economic stability of this country. This reconstruction of the total marine fisheries catch of Vanuatu for 1950–2014 faced major data gaps. It showed that the reconstructed total catches of nearly 1.4 million tonnes (metric tons 40% higher than the 977,997 tonnes reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO on behalf of Vanuatu for the same period. However, if large-scale industrial catches are excluded, the reconstructed small-scale fisheries catches (~270,000 tonnes were over 200% higher than the 114,862 tonnes of reported catch that were assumed to represent the small-scale sector in FAO data. Subsistence catches made up almost 93% of small-scale catches, followed by artisanal and recreational catches with ~7 and <1%, respectively. By continuously improving the fisheries data of Vanuatu for both the past and the present, policy makers, stakeholders, and fishers can make better decisions that will maintain the benefits of marine fishery resources.

  6. Clutch size in the tropical scincid lizard Emoia sanfordi, a species endemic to the Vanuatu Archipelago. (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison Madeline; Eckstut, Mallory Elizabeth; Klein, Elaine Renee; Austin, Christopher Cowell


    The majority of species in the scincid genus Emoia (Squamata: Scincidae) have a fixed clutch size of two eggs per clutch and produce between two and four clutches per year. One lineage within Emoia, the Emoia samoensis species group, consists of 13 species occurring in Melanesia and the islands of the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and exhibits variation in clutch size, with previously reported clutch sizes of two to five eggs. Little is known about reproduction in several members of this lineage including Emoia sanfordi, a large-bodied lizard endemic to the archipelago of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed reproduction and clutch size in E. sanfordi females and discovered that there is a substantial amount of intraspecific variation, with clutch size ranging from two to seven eggs, with a modal clutch size of five eggs. Females were reproductively active throughout the study period of June through October and appear to be laying multiple clutches. The variation in clutch size seen in E. sanfordi is congruent with the variation previously reported within other closely related species.

  7. The Contestation of Muslim and Special Autonomy in Papua

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    Cahyo Pamungkas


    Full Text Available Identitas politik orang Papua dianggap sebagai ras Melanesia dengan ciri-ciri yaitu orang yang berkulit hitam, rambut keriting dan beragama Kristen. Identitas politik semacam itu dipergunakan oleh orang-orang elit Papua sebagai alat perpolitikan, namun politik identitas tersebut menjadi agak berbahaya berkaitan dengan identitas Papua yang inklusif dan toleran. Pada kenyataannya, orang Papua asli dapat dibedakan menurut identitas agama mereka yang terdiri dari orang Kristen, Katolik dan Muslim. Hal tersebut menandakan bahwa ruang perdebatan untuk menentukan politik identitas Papua ditandai dengan proses negosiasi Kristen Papua (orang Papua yang beragama Kristen dan Muslim Papua (orang Papua yang beragama Islam. Perbedaan penafsiran dari identitas Papua dibangun oleh para intelektual dan elit Papua yang ingin bersinggungan langsung dengan pengembalian identitas asli (re-papuanization. Artikel ini akan mengarah pada metode orang Islam dan Kristen Papua dalam mempertahankan identitas mereka dan mendapatkan pengakuan sebagai bagian dari orang Papua. Artikel ini mencoba menjawab tiga pertanyaan terkait dengan (1 bagaimana Muslim Papua membangun identitas budaya mereka pada masa otonomi khusus; (2 bagaimana Muslim Papua memperjuangkan identitas budaya mereka bersamaan dengan Muslim imigran; dan (3 bagaimana Muslim Papua memperjuangkan identitas budaya mereka bersama dengan orang Kristen Papua. 

  8. MRT letter: Human bloodstains on antique aboriginal weapons: a guiding low-vacuum SEM study of erythrocytes in experimental samples on ethnographically documented biological raw materials. (United States)

    Hortolà, Policarp


    The aboriginal use of reed and bone as raw materials for knives and daggers, respectively, has been well-documented ethnographically in some geographical areas of Melanesia. Because of the significant role that these weapons played in inter- and intra-ethnic aggression, they can potentially have retained smears from the contact with human blood. To carry out a guiding low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of specific interest to ethnography, the outsides of a fragment of stalk of giant cane (Arundo donax) and tibial diaphysis of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) were smeared with peripheral human blood. No biological specimen preparation was applied to the samples. After just over 1 month, bloodstain boundaries and their neighboring inner areas were examined via secondary electrons by a variable-pressure SEM (VP-SEM) working in low-vacuum mode. On both substrates, bloodstains exhibited micro-scales. No janocyte (erythrocyte negative replica) was observed in the examined areas. However, erythrocytes were seen crowded together as grain-shaped corpuscles in the smear on reed, and several hecatocytes (moon-like shaped erythrocytes) were evidenced in the smear on bone. The results of this study suggest that a VP-SEM working in low-vacuum mode can be used fruitfully to detect blood remains in medium-sized reed and bone antique aboriginal artifacts. This procedure can prospectively help to ethnographic museum curators and aboriginal-art surveyors as an easy guiding test in the valuation of antique traditional weapons prior to acquisition, when the real use of a piece has been claimed by the supplier. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. New Species of the Fern Genus Lindsaea (Lindsaeaceae) from New Guinea with Notes on the Phylogeny of L. sect. Synaphlebium. (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Yong; Zuo, Zheng-Yu; Chao, Yi-Shan; Damas, Kipiro; Sule, Bernard


    To determine the taxonomic identities and the systematic positions of some collections of Lindsaea sect. Synaphlebium (Lindsaeaceae) from Papua New Guinea, we conducted morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses on the whole section. A total of 22 morphological characters were selected and coded for each of all known taxa in L. sect. Synaphlebium, and were analyzed using maximum parsimony. The datasets containing either of or combined two plastid DNA sequences (trnL-trnF spacer and trnH-psbA spacer) of 37 taxa were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Morphological comparisons revealed two new species which are formally published here as L. subobscura and L. novoguineensis. Lindsaea subobscura is similar to sympatric L. obscura and L. modesta but differs in the obviously reduced upper pinnules and other characters. Lindsaea novoguineensis is most similar to L. pacifica from Melanesia but differs in having rhomboid pinnules with truncate apices and concave soral receptacles. Molecular analyses resolved L. sect. Synaphlebium and allied species into five well-supported clades, namely L. rigida clade, L. obtusa clade, L. pulchella clade, L. multisora clade, and L. cultrata clade. The new species L. novoguineensis is included in L. obtusa clade; L. subobscura is in L. pulchella clade; whereas the majority of L. sect. Synaphlebium is clustered in L. cultrata clade. As the section Synaphlebium sensu Kramer is strongly suggested as polyphyletic, we propose the concept of a monophyletic L. sect. Synaphlebium in a broad sense that comprises five lineages. The morphological circumscription of L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato and the divergence in morphology, habit, and distribution between the five lineages are briefly discussed. Further molecular study is needed to test the systematic positions of 16 other species which are supposed to be within L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato but have not been included in this and previous

  10. Book Reviews

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    Th. Heesterman-Visser


    Full Text Available - J. van Baal, P. Lawrence, Gods ghosts and men in Melanesia; Some religions of Australian New Guinea and the New Hebrides. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, London, Wellington, New York 1965. 298 pp., M.J. Meggitt (eds. - R.S. Wassing, V.F.P.M. van Amelsvoort, Culture, stone age and modern medicine. The early introduction of integrated rural health in a non-literate society. A New Guinea case study in medical anthropology. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen 1964. 245 blz., ill., krtn. - P. van Emst, R.G. Crocombe, Land tenure in the Cook Islands. Oxford University Press, Melbourne 1964. 180 blz. - H.J.M. Claessen, N.J.B. Plomley, Friendly mission: The Tasmanian journals and papers of George Augustus Robinson, 1829-1834. Tasmanian Historical Research Association. 1966. 1074 pp., 17 plates, 36 maps. - J.C. Anceaux, John U. Wolff, Beginning Cebuano. Part I. (Yale Linguistic Series, 9. Yale University Press. New Haven & London 1966. 685 pp. - J.C. Anceaux, G.B. Milner, Samoan dictionary, Samoan-English, English-Samoan. Oxford University Press, London, 1966. 465 pp. - L. Sluimers, J.G. Keyes, A bibliography of western-language publications concerning North Vietnam in the Cornell University Library. (Supplement to Data Paper: No. 47, A bibliography of North-Vietnamese publications in the Cornell University Library, September 1962. Data Paper: No. 63, Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Ithaca, Cornell University, 1966. XII, 280 blz., XIV. - Th. Heesterman-Visser, H.A.P.C. Oomen, Eten om te leven. N.V. De Arbeiderspers voor N.O.V.I.B., Amsterdam 1965. 130 foto’s met tekst., B. Lawson (eds.

  11. Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands. (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Mirazón Lahr, Marta


    The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and "East Papuan", generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:35-50, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  13. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present. (United States)

    Higham, Charles


    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press

  14. Seasonality of volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Mason, B. G.; Pyle, D. M.; Dade, W. B.; Jupp, T.


    An analysis of volcanic activity during the last three hundred years reveals that volcanic eruptions exhibit seasonality to a statistically significant degree. This remarkable pattern is observed primarily along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" and locally at some individual volcanoes. Globally, seasonal fluctuations amount to 18% of the historical average monthly eruption rate. In some regions, seasonal fluctuations amount to as much as 50% of the average eruption rate. Seasonality principally reflects the temporal distribution of the smaller, dated eruptions (volcanic explosivity index of 0-2) that dominate the eruption catalog. We suggest that the pattern of seasonality correlates with the annual Earth surface deformation that accompanies the movement of surface water mass during the annual hydrological cycle and illustrate this with respect to global models of surface deformation and regional measurements of annual sea level change. For example, seasonal peaks in the eruption rate of volcanoes in Central America, the Alaskan Peninsula, and Kamchatka coincide with periods of falling regional sea level. In Melanesia, in contrast, peak numbers of volcanic eruptions occur during months of maximal regional sea level and falling regional atmospheric pressure. We suggest that the well-documented slow deformation of Earth's surface that accompanies the annual movements of water mass from oceans to continents acts to impose a fluctuating boundary condition on volcanoes, such that volcanic eruptions tend to be concentrated during periods of local or regional surface change rather than simply being distributed randomly throughout the year. Our findings have important ramifications for volcanic risk assessment and volcanoclimate feedback mechanisms.

  15. VNTR internal structure mapping at the {alpha}-globin 3{prime}HVR locus reveals a hierachy of related lineages in oceania

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    Martinson, J.J.; Clegg, J.B.; Boyce, A.J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Analysis of the {alpha}-globin gene complex in Oceania has revealed many different rearrangements which remove one of the adult globin genes. Frequencies of these deletion chromosomes are elevated by malarial resistance conferred by the resulting {alpha}-thalassaemia. One particular deletion chromosome, designated -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III, is found at high levels in Melanesia and Polynesia: RFLP haplotype analysis shows that this deletion is always found on chromosomes bearing the IIIa haplotype and is likely to be the product of one single rearrangement event. A subset of the -{alpha}{sup 3.7}III chromosomes carries a more recent mutation which generates the haemoglobin variant HbJ{sup Tongariki}. We have characterized the allelic variation at the 3{prime}HVR VNTR locus located 6 kb from the globin genes in each of these groups of chromosomes. We have determined the internal structure of these alleles by RFLP mapping of PCR-amplified DNA: within each group, the allelic diversity results from the insertion and/or deletion of small {open_quotes}motifs{close_quotes} of up to 6 adjacent repeats. Mapping of 3{prime}HVR alleles associated with other haplotypes reveals that these are composed of repeat arrays that are substantially different to those derived from IIIa chromosomes, indicating that interchromosomal recombination between heterologous haplotypes does not account for any of the diversity seen to date. We have recently shown that allelic size variation at the two VNTR loci flanking the {alpha}-globin complex is very closely linked to the haplotypes known to be present at this locus. Here we show that, within a haplotype, VNTR alleles are very closely related to each other on the basis of internal structure and demonstrate that intrachromosomal mutation processes involving small numbers of tandem repeats are the main cause of variation at this locus.

  16. A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Walter


    Full Text Available International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our conservation work in coastal Melanesia, we have developed a cultural landscape approach that involves the construction of a conceptual model of environment that reflects the indigenous perceptions of landscape. This model incorporates cultural, ideational, and spiritual values alongside other ecosystem services and underpins the conservation activities, priorities, and organizational structure of our programs. This cultural landscape model was a reaction to a survey of environmental values conducted by our team in which Solomon Islanders reported far greater interest in conserving cultural heritage sites than any other ecosystem resources. This caused a radical rethinking of community-based conservation programs. The methodologies we adopted are derived from the fields of archaeology and historical anthropology, in which there is an established practice of working through research problems within the framework of indigenous concepts of, and relationship to, landscape. In our work in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, coastal communities have enthusiastically adopted conservation programs that are based on cultural landscape models that recognize indigenous values. A particularly useful tool is

  17. β-Thalassemia Distribution in the Old World: an Ancient Disease Seen from a Historical Standpoint (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Kattamis, Christos; Canatan, Duran; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elsedfy, Heba; Karimi, Mehran; Daar, Shahina; Wali, Yasser; Yassin, Mohamed; Soliman, Nada; Sobti, Praveen; Al Jaouni, Soad; El Kholy, Mohamed; Fiscina, Bernadette; Angastiniotis, Michael


    Background Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. β-thalassaemia is characterised by the reduced synthesis (β+) or absence (βo) of the β-globin chains in the HbA molecule, resulting in accumulation of excess unbound α-globin chains that precipitate in erythroid precursors in the bone marrow and in the mature erythrocytes, leading to ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral haemolysis. Approximately 1.5% of the global population are heterozygotes (carriers) of the β-thalassemias; there is a high incidence in populations from the Mediterranean basin, throughout the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Melanesia to the Pacific Islands. Aim The principal aim of this paper is to review, from a historical standpoint, our knowledge about an ancient disease, the β-thalassemias, and in particular, when, how and in what way β-thalassemia spread worldwide to reach such high incidences in certain populations. Results Mutations involving the β-globin gene are the most common cause of genetic disorders in humans. To date, more than 350 β-thalassaemia mutations have been reported. Considering the current distribution of β- thalassemia, the wide diversity of mutations and the small number of specific mutations in individual populations, it seems unlikely that β-thalassemia originated in a single place and time. Conclusions Various processes are known to determine the frequency of genetic disease in human populations. However, it is almost impossible to decide to what extent each process is responsible for the presence of a particular genetic disease. The wide spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations could well be explained by looking at their geographical distribution, the history of malaria, wars, invasions, mass migrations, consanguinity, and settlements. An analysis of the distribution of the molecular spectrum of

  18. Perception, expression, and social function of pain: a human ethological view. (United States)

    Schiefenhövel, W


    Pain has important biomedical, socioanthropological, semiotic, and other facets. In this contribution pain and the expression of pain are looked at from the perspective of evolutionary biology, utilizing, among others, cross-cultural data from field work in Melanesia. No other being cares for sick and suffering conspecifics in the way humans do. Notwithstanding aggression and neglect, common in all cultures, human societies can be characterized as empathic, comforting, and promoting the health and sell-being of their members. One important stimulus triggering this caring response in others is the expression of pain. The nonverbal channel of communication, particularly certain universal--i.e., culture-independent facial expressions, gestures, and body postures, convey much of the message from the pain-stricken person to the group. These behaviors signal the person's physical and psychical pain, sadness, grief, and despair in ways very similar to the signs given by infants and small children: the body loses tonus and sinks or drops to the ground, the gestures are those of helplessness. Pain and grief may be so strong that control is lost not only over the body's posture but also over the mind's awareness. In such cases the afflicted person may carry out actions endangering himself or others. In general, these behavior patterns resemble those of infants in situations of distress and danger, and it is not surprising that the response of the members of the group is basically parental: taking care, assisting and consoling. Perceptive and behavioral patterns which developed in the course of avian and mammalian phylogeny to serve the well-being of the young have proven, as was shown by Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1989), to be powerful building blocks for actions in other spheres of human interaction. Love is one such field, the reactions to a conspecific suffering pain is another.

  19. Population Turnover in Remote Oceania Shortly after Initial Settlement. (United States)

    Lipson, Mark; Skoglund, Pontus; Spriggs, Matthew; Valentin, Frederique; Bedford, Stuart; Shing, Richard; Buckley, Hallie; Phillip, Iarawai; Ward, Graeme K; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Cheronet, Olivia; Ferry, Matthew; Harper, Thomas K; Michel, Megan; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Auckland, Kathryn; Hill, Adrian V S; Maitland, Kathryn; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Parks, Tom; Robson, Kathryn; Williams, Thomas N; Kennett, Douglas J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David


    Ancient DNA from Vanuatu and Tonga dating to about 2,900-2,600 years ago (before present, BP) has revealed that the "First Remote Oceanians" associated with the Lapita archaeological culture were directly descended from the population that, beginning around 5000 BP, spread Austronesian languages from Taiwan to the Philippines, western Melanesia, and eventually Remote Oceania. Thus, ancestors of the First Remote Oceanians must have passed by the Papuan-ancestry populations they encountered in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands with minimal admixture [1]. However, all present-day populations in Near and Remote Oceania harbor >25% Papuan ancestry, implying that additional eastward migration must have occurred. We generated genome-wide data for 14 ancient individuals from Efate and Epi Islands in Vanuatu from 2900-150 BP, as well as 185 present-day individuals from 18 islands. We find that people of almost entirely Papuan ancestry arrived in Vanuatu by around 2300 BP, most likely reflecting migrations a few hundred years earlier at the end of the Lapita period, when there is also evidence of changes in skeletal morphology and cessation of long-distance trade between Near and Remote Oceania [2, 3]. Papuan ancestry was subsequently diluted through admixture but remains at least 80%-90% in most islands. Through a fine-grained analysis of ancestry profiles, we show that the Papuan ancestry in Vanuatu derives from the Bismarck Archipelago rather than the geographically closer Solomon Islands. However, the Papuan ancestry in Polynesia-the most remote Pacific islands-derives from different sources, documenting a third stream of migration from Near to Remote Oceania. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Book Reviews

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    Full Text Available Michael Williams; Deforesting the earth; From prehistory to global crisis (Greg Bankoff Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann (eds; The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar (René van den Berg Wim Ravesteijn, Jan Kop (eds; Bouwen in de archipel; Burgerlijke Openbare Werken in Nederlands-Indië en Indonesië 1800-2000 (Freek Colombijn Susan Rodgers; Print, poetics, and politics; A Sumatran epic in the colonial Indies and New Order Indonesia (Bernhard Dahm Robert A. Scebold; Central Tagbanwa; a Philippine language on the brink of extinction; Sociolinguistics, grammar, and lexicon (Aone van Engelenhoven Adrian Vickers; Journeys of desire; A study of the Balinese text Malat (Amrit Gomperts B.J. Terwiel; Thailand’s political history; From the fall of Ayutthaya to recent times (Hans Hägerdal Robert van Niel; Java’s Northeast Coast 1740-1840; A study in colonial encroachment and dominance (Mason C. Hoadley Terence H. Hull (ed.; People, population, and policy in Indonesia (Santo Koesoebjono W.L. Korthals Altes; Tussen cultures en kredieten; Een institutionele geschiedenis van de Nederlandsch-Indische Handelsbank en Nationale Handelsbank, 1863-1964 (Koh Keng Weh William van der Heide; Malaysian cinema, Asian film; Border crossings and national cultures (Benjamin McKay Angela Romano; Politics and the press in Indonesia; Understanding an evolving political culture (Soe Tjen Marching Simon Harrison; Fracturing resemblances; Identity and mimetic conflict in Melanesia and the West (Toon van Meijl Daniel Fitzpatrick; Land claims in East Timor (Johanna van Reenen Susi Moeimam, Hein Steinhauer; Nederlands-Indonesisch Woordenboek (Stuart Robson Terance W. Bigalke; Tana Toraja: a social history of an Indonesian people (Dik Roth K. Alexander Adelaar (with the assistance of Pak Vitus Kaslem; Salako or Badameà; Sketch grammar, texts and lexicon of a Kanayatn dialect in West Borneo (Hein Steinhauer

  1. Diversidad dental en los homínidos de la cueva superior de Zhoukoudian (norte de China y sus implicancias para la historia poblacional del este de Asia y el poblamiento temprano de las Américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Burbano, Miguel Eduardo


    americanos relativamente recientes con afinidad sinodonte, no tienen ninguna relación con la(s población(es ancestral(es sundadonte(s Australo-Melanesia(s que pobló el sudeste de Asia y América en el Pleistoceno Tardío.

  2. Epidemiological Aspects and World Distribution of HTLV-1 Infection

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    Antoine eGessain


    Full Text Available The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1, identified as the first human oncogenic retrovirus 30 years ago, is not an ubiquitous virus. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world, with clusters of high endemicity located often nearby areas where the virus is nearly absent. The main HTLV-1 highly endemic regions are the Southwestern part of Japan, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, the Caribbean area and foci in Middle East and Australo-Melanesia. The origin of this puzzling geographical or rather ethnic repartition is probably linked to a founder effect in some groups with the persistence of a high viral transmission rate. Despite different socio-economic and cultural environments, the HTLV-1 prevalence increases gradually with age, especially among women in all highly endemic areas. The three modes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother to child, sexual transmission and transmission with contaminated blood products. Twenty years ago, de Thé and Bomford estimated the total number of HTLV-1 carriers to be 10-20 millions people. At that time, large regions had not been investigated, few population-based studies were available and the assays used for HTLV-1 serology were not enough specific. Despite the fact that there is still a lot of data lacking in large areas of the world and that most of the HTLV-1 studies concern only blood donors, pregnant women or different selected patients or high-risk groups, we shall try based on the most recent data, to revisit the world distribution and the estimates of the number of HTLV-1 infected persons.Our best estimates range from 5-10 millions HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, these results were based on approximately 1.5 billion of individuals originating from known endemic areas with reliable available epidemiological data. Correct estimates in other highly populated regions such as China, India, the Maghreb and East Africa is currently not possible, thus, the current number of HTLV-1 carriers is very

  3. Snow cover as an indicator of cumulative land pollution

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    V. R. Alekseev


    Full Text Available A reliable technique has been devised for a simultaneous total and serial retrospective assessment of the ever increasing pollution of lands from aerospace images and from benchmark ground-based observations which permit calculations of the negative human impact on the environment for the particular regions, river drainage basins, states, and for the planet Earth as a whole. Use is made of the glacio-indication approach to the study of polluted territories around cities and transport routes that has come to be known as the «ProcUsmethod». An assessment of the land pollution across the globe was made for 221 administrative entities. Calculations were done for 193 states and 41 trust territories. The total area of polluted lands on the continents was estimated at 13 606 thousand km2 (10% of the Earth’s land surface. The heaviest pollution corresponds to West Europe (44.5% of its area, Micronesia (33.3%, and to the countries within the Caribbean basin (31.1%; the worst levels of land pollution correspond to Australia with New Zealand (2.1%, Melanesia (3.1%, and to Central Africa (3.8%. The most heavily polluted states are China (with the polluted area of 2400 thou km2, India (1460 thou km2, the USA (1156 thou km2, Russia (683 thou km2 and Brazil (657 thou km2.The findings, obtained by the Russian scientists V.G. Prokacheva and V.F. Usachev over the course of the last 30 years, are recognized as a fundamental contribution to glaciology and geoecology. The ProcUs method, suggested by Russian scientists, offers strong possibilities of obtaining quantitative indicators and studying spatiotemporal variability of pollutants. It is recommended that the method should be expanded and sophisticated on the basis of special-purpose ground-truth pilot observations to be used in implementing the Earth’s global ecological monitoring program.

  4. Ninety-eight new species of Trigonopterus weevils from Sundaland and the Lesser Sunda Islands

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    Alexander Riedel


    Full Text Available The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace’s Line (Eastern Sumatra. Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores is here revised. We redescribe T. amphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: T. acuminatus sp. n., T. aeneomicans sp. n., T. alaspurwensis sp. n., T. allopatricus sp. n., T. allotopus sp. n., T. angulicollis sp. n., T. argopurensis sp. n., T. arjunensis sp. n., T. asper sp. n., T. attenboroughi sp. n., T. baliensis sp. n., T. batukarensis sp. n., T. bawangensis sp. n., T. binodulus sp. n., T. bornensis sp. n., T. cahyoi sp. n., T. costipennis sp. n., T. cuprescens sp. n., T. cupreus sp. n., T. dacrycarpi sp. n., T. delapan sp. n., T. dentipes sp. n., T. diengensis sp. n., T. dimorphus sp. n., T. disruptus sp. n., T. dua sp. n., T. duabelas sp. n., T. echinatus sp. n., T. empat sp. n., T. enam sp. n., T. fissitarsis sp. n., T. florensis sp. n., T. foveatus sp. n., T. fulgidus sp. n., T. gedensis sp. n., T. halimunensis sp. n., T. honjensis sp. n., T. ijensis sp. n., T. javensis sp. n., T. kalimantanensis sp. n., T. kintamanensis sp. n., T. klatakanensis sp. n., T. lampungensis sp. n., T. latipes sp. n., T. lima sp. n., T. lombokensis sp. n., T. merubetirensis sp. n., T. mesehensis sp. n., T. micans sp. n., T. misellus sp. n., T. palawanensis sp. n., T. pangandaranensis sp. n., T. paraflorensis sp. n., T. pararugosus sp. n., T. parasumbawensis sp. n., T. pauxillus sp. n., T. payungensis sp. n., T. porcatus sp. n., T. pseudoflorensis sp. n., T. pseudosumbawensis sp. n., T. punctatoseriatus sp. n., T. ranakensis sp. n., T. relictus sp. n., T. rinjaniensis sp. n., T. roensis sp. n., T. rugosostriatus sp. n., T. rugosus sp. n., T. rutengensis sp. n., T. saltator sp. n., T. santubongensis sp. n., T. sasak sp. n

  5. Ninety-eight new species of Trigonopterus weevils from Sundaland and the Lesser Sunda Islands (United States)

    Riedel, Alexander; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Suhardjono, Yayuk R.


    Abstract The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace’s Line (Eastern Sumatra). Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan) and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores) is here revised. We redescribe Trigonopterus amphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: Trigonopterus acuminatus sp. n., Trigonopterus aeneomicans sp. n., Trigonopterus alaspurwensis sp. n., Trigonopterus allopatricus sp. n., Trigonopterus allotopus sp. n., Trigonopterus angulicollis sp. n., Trigonopterus argopurensis sp. n., Trigonopterus arjunensis sp. n., Trigonopterus asper sp. n., Trigonopterus attenboroughi sp. n., Trigonopterus baliensis sp. n., Trigonopterus batukarensis sp. n., Trigonopterus bawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterus binodulus sp. n., Trigonopterus bornensis sp. n., Trigonopterus cahyoi sp. n., Trigonopterus costipennis sp. n., Trigonopterus cuprescens sp. n., Trigonopterus cupreus sp. n., Trigonopterus dacrycarpi sp. n., Trigonopterus delapan sp. n., Trigonopterus dentipes sp. n., Trigonopterus diengensis sp. n., Trigonopterus dimorphus sp. n., Trigonopterus disruptus sp. n., Trigonopterus dua sp. n., Trigonopterus duabelas sp. n., Trigonopterus echinatus sp. n., Trigonopterus empat sp. n., Trigonopterus enam sp. n., Trigonopterus fissitarsis sp. n., Trigonopterus florensis sp. n., Trigonopterus foveatus sp. n., Trigonopterus fulgidus sp. n., Trigonopterus gedensis sp. n., Trigonopterus halimunensis sp. n., Trigonopterus honjensis sp. n., Trigonopterus ijensis sp. n., Trigonopterus javensis sp. n., Trigonopterus kalimantanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus kintamanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus klatakanensis sp. n., Trigonopterus lampungensis sp. n., Trigonopterus latipes sp. n., Trigonopterus lima sp. n., Trigonopterus lombokensis sp. n., Trigonopterus merubetirensis sp. n., Trigonopterus mesehensis sp

  6. Book Reviews

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    University Press, xiv + 299 pp. [Yale Southeast Asia studies monograph 48.] 1999 -Bernice de Jong Boers, Peter Just, Dou Donggo justice; Conflict and morality in an Indonesian society. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, xi + 263 pp. -Nico J.G. Kaptein, Howard M. Federspiel, Islam and ideology in the emerging Indonesian state; The Persatuan Islam (PERSIS, 1923 to 1957. Leiden: Brill, 2001, xii + 365 pp. -Gerrit Knaap, Els M. Jacobs, Koopman in Azië; De handel van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie tijdens de 18de eeuw. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2000, 304 pp. -Toon van Meijl, Bruce M. Knauft, From primitive to postcolonial in Melanesia and anthropology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999, x + 320 pp. -Jennifer Nourse, Juliette Koning ,Women and households in Indonesia; Cultural notions and social practices. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, xiii + 354 pp., Marleen Nolten, Janet Rodenburg (eds -Sandra Pannell, Clayton Fredericksen ,Altered states; Material culture transformations in the Arafura region. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press, 2001, xiv + 160 pp., Ian Walters (eds -Anne Sofie Roald, Alijah Gordon, The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian sociological research institute, 2001, xxv + 472 pp. -M.J.C. Schouten, Mary Taylor Huber ,Gendered missions; Women and men in missionary discourse and practice. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999, x + 252 pp., Nancy C. Lutkehaus (eds -Karel Steenbrink, Nakamura Mitsuo ,Islam and civil society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 2001, 211 pp., Sharon Siddique, Omar Farouk Bajunid (eds -Heather Sutherland, Robert Cribb, Historical atlas of Indonesia, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, x + 256 pp. -Sikko Visscher, Lee Kam Hing ,The Chinese in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 2000, xxix + 418 pp., Tan Chee-Beng (eds -Edwin Wieringa, Jane Drakard, A kingdom of words; Language and power in Sumatra. Kuala

  7. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of passive and eruptive volcanic SO2 emissions (United States)

    Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Prata, Fred; Telling, Jennifer


    strongest volcanic SO2 sources between 2004 and 2015. OMI measurements are most sensitive to SO2 emission rates on the order of ~1000 tons/day or more, and thus the satellite data provide new constraints on the location and persistence of major volcanic SO2 sources. We find that OMI has detected non-eruptive SO2 emissions from at least ~60 volcanoes since 2004. Results of our analysis reveal the emergence of several major tropospheric SO2 sources that are not prominent in existing inventories (Ambrym, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Ubinas), the persistence of some well-known sources (Etna, Kilauea) and a possible decline in emissions at others (e.g., Lascar). The OMI measurements provide particularly valuable information in regions lacking regular ground-based monitoring such as Indonesia, Melanesia and Kamchatka. We describe how the OMI measurements of SO2 total column, and their probability density function, can be used to infer SO2 emission rates for compatibility with existing emissions data and assimilation into chemical transport models. The satellite-derived SO2 emission rates are in good agreement with ground-based measurements from frequently monitored volcanoes (e.g., from the NOVAC network), but differ for other volcanoes. We conclude that some ground-based SO2 measurements may be biased high if collected during periods of elevated unrest, and hence may not be representative of long-term average emissions.

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    Melaka and Enyan anak Usen, Iban art; Sexual selection and severed heads: weaving, sculpture, tattooing and other arts of the Iban of Borneo (Viktor T. King John Roosa; Pretext for mass murder; The September 30th Movement and Suharto’s coup d’état in Indonesia (Gerry van Klinken Vladimir Braginsky; The heritage of traditional Malay literature; A historical survey of genres, writings and literary views (Dick van der Meij Joel Robbins, Holly Wardlow (eds; The making of global and local modernities in Melanesia; Humiliation, transformation and the nature of cultural change (Toon van Meijl Kwee Hui Kian; The political economy of Java’s northeast coast c. 1740-1800; Elite synergy (Luc Nagtegaal Charles A. Coppel (ed.; Violent conflicts in Indonesia; Analysis, representation, resolution (Gerben Nooteboom Tom Therik; Wehali: the female land; Traditions of a Timorese ritual centre (Dianne van Oosterhout Patricio N. Abinales, Donna J. Amoroso; State and society in the Philippines (Portia L. Reyes Han ten Brummelhuis; King of the waters; Homan van der Heide and the origin of modern irrigation in Siam (Jeroen Rikkerink Hotze Lont; Juggling money; Financial self-help organizations and social security in Yogyakarta (Dirk Steinwand Henk Maier; We are playing relatives; A survey of Malay writing (Maya Sutedja-Liem Hjorleifur Jonsson; Mien relations; Mountain people and state control in Thailand (Nicholas Tapp Lee Hock Guan (ed.; Civil society in Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner Jan Mrázek; Phenomenology of a puppet theatre; Contemplations on the art of Javanese wayang kulit (Sarah Weiss Janet Steele; Wars within; The story of Tempo, an independent magazine in Soeharto’s Indonesia (Robert Wessing REVIEW ESSAY Sean Turnell; Burma today Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Robert Taylor, Tin Maung Maung Than (eds; Myanmar; Beyond politics to societal imperatives Monique Skidmore (ed.; Burma at the turn of the 21st century Mya Than; Myanmar in ASEAN

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    Full Text Available Des Alwi, Friends and exiles; A memoir of the nutmeg isles and the Indonesian nationalist movement. (Chris F. van Fraassen James A. Anderson, The rebel den of Nùng Trí Cao; Loyalty and identity along the Sino-Vietnamese frontier. (Emmanuel Poisson Reggie Baay, De njai; Het concubinaat in Nederlands-Indië. (Maya Sutedja-Liem John Barker (ed., The anthropology of morality in Melanesia and beyond. (Jaap Timmer Kees Buijs, Powers of blessing from the wilderness and from heaven; Structure and transformations in the religion of the Toraja in the Mamasa area of South Sulawesi. (Robert Wessing Jamie S. Davidson, From rebellion to riots; Collective violence on Indonesian Borneo. (Victor T. King Kees van Dijk, The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918. (Jaap Anten Linda España-Maram, Creating masculinity in Los Angeles’ Little Manila; Working-class Filipinos and popular culture, 1920s-1950s. (John D. Blanco Renate Carstens, Durch Asien im Horizont des Goethekreises; Neue Facetten im Wirken Goethes. (Edwin Wieringa James T. Collins, Bahasa Sanskerta dan Bahasa Melayu. (Arlo Griffiths Victoria M. Clara van Groenendael, Jaranan; The horse dance and trance in East Java. (Dick van der Meij Paul M. Handley, The king never smiles; A biography of Thailand’s Bhumibol Adulyadej. (Jeroen Rikkerink Holger Jebens, Kago und kastom; Zum Verhältnis von kultureller Fremd- und Selbstwahrnehmung in West New Britain (Papua-Neuguinea. (Menno Hekker Lee Hock Guan and Leo Suryadinata (eds, Language, nation and development in Southeast Asia. (Renata M. Lesner-Szwarc Ross H. McLeod and Andrew MacIntyre (eds, Indonesia; Democracy and the promise of good governance. AND Patrick Ziegenhain, The Indonesian parliament and democratization. (Henk Schulte Nordholt Laurent Sagart, Roger M. Blench, and Alicia Sanchez-Mazas (eds, The peopling of East Asia; Putting together archaeology, linguistics and genetics. (Alexander

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    Full Text Available Chris Ballard, Paula Brown, R. Michael Bourke, Tracy Harwood (eds; The sweet potato in Oceania; A reappraisal (Peter Boomgaard Caroline Hughes; The political economy of Cambodia’s transition, 1991-2001 (Han Ten Brummelhuis Richard Robison, Vedi Hadiz; Reorganising power in Indonesia; The politics of oligarchy in an age of markets (Marleen Dieleman Michael W. Charney; Southeast Asian warfare, 1300-1900 (Hans Hägerdal Daniel Perret, Amara Srisuchat, Sombun Thanasuk (eds; Études sur l´histoire du sultanat de Patani (Mary Somers Heidhues Joel Robbins; Becoming sinners; Christianity and moral torment in a Papua New Guinea society (Menno Hekker Mujiburrahman; Feeling threatened; Muslim-Christian relations in Indonesia’s New Order (Gerry van Klinken Marie-Odette Scalliet; De Collectie-Galestin in de Leidse Universiteitsbibliotheek (Dick van der Meij James Neil Sneddon; Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Don van Minde James Leach; Creative land; Place and procreation on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea (Dianne van Oosterhout Stanley J. Ulijaszek (ed.; Population, reproduction and fertility in Melanesia (Dianne van Oosterhout Angela Hobart; Healing performances of Bali; Between darkness and light (Nathan Porath Leo Suryadinata (ed.; Admiral Zheng He and Southeast Asia (Roderich Ptak Ruth Barnes; Ostindonesien im 20. Jahrhundert; Auf den Spuren der Sammlung Ernst Vatter (Reimar Schefold Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een missionarisleven in brieven; Willem van Bekkum, Indië 1936-1998 (Karel Steenbrink Marie-Antoinette Willemsen; Een pionier op Flores; Jilis Verheijen (1908-1997, missionaris en onderzoeker (Karel Steenbrink Akitoshi Shimizu, Jan van Bremen (eds; Wartime Japanese anthropology in Asia and the Pacific (Fridus Steijlen Lilie Roosman; Phonetic experiments on the word and sentence prosody of Betawi Malay and Toba Batak (Uri Tadmor Jamie D. Saul; The Naga of Burma; Their festivals, customs

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    , 375 pp., Ceri Peach, Steven Vertovec (eds. - P. van Emst, Ron Brunton, The abandoned narcotic; Kava and cultural instability in Melanesia. Cambridge studies in social anthropology 69. Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge, University Press, 1989. - Th. van den End, Karel A. Steenbrink, De islam bekeken door koloniale Nederlanders. Utrecht/Leiden: Interuniversitair Instituut voor Missiologie en Oecumenica, 1991, 174 pp. - Th. van den End, Sutarman S. Partonadi, Sadrach’s community and its contextual roots; A nineteenth century Javanese expression of Christianity. Amsterdam-Atlanta: Rodopi, 1990, 317 pp. - Antonio J. Guerreiro, Bernard Sellato, Nomades et sedentarisation a Borneo; Histoire économique et sociale. Paris, Editions de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Etudes insulindiennes/Archipel 9, 1989, 293 p.; ill. - Jos G.M. Hilhorst, P.J.M. Nas, De sad in de Derde Wereld; Een inleiding tot de urbane antropologie en sociologie. Muiderberg: Coutinho, 1990; pp. 244. - S.R. Jaarsma, Stefan Dietrich, Kolonialismus und Mission auf Flores (ca. 1900-1942, Hohenschaftlarn: Klaus Renner Verlag (Münchner Beiträge zur Süd- und Südostasienkunde Band 1, 1989, vii + 347 pp. - M.C. Jongeling, Th. van den End, Ragi carita; Sejarah gereja di Indonesia I 1500-1860, 3rd impr. Jakarta 1987, - Roy.E. Jordaan, Michaela Appel, Dewi Sri und die Kinder des Putut Jantaka; Beziehungen zwischen Mensch und Reis in Mythologie und Brauchtum auf Java und Bali. München: Anacon Verlag, 1991. - S.C. Kersenboom, Joel C. Kuipers, Power in performance; The creation of textual authority in Weyewa ritual speech, 1990. Philadelphia, Pa: University of Pennysylvania press, conduct and communication series. - J. Kleinen, Marie Alexandre Martin, Le mal cambodgien; Histoire d’une societe traditionelle face a ses leaders politiques 1946-1987, Paris: Hachette, 1989. - G.J. Knaap, A. Booth, Indonesian economic history in the Dutch colonial era, Monograph series 35 Yale University Southeast Asia

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    Heather Sutherland


    Vogel (eds. - David Henley, Robert W. Hefner, Market cultures; Society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998, viii + 328 pp. - David Henley, James F. Warren, The Sulu zone; The world capitalist economy and the historical imagination. Amsterdam: VU University Press for the Centre for Asian Studies, Amsterdam (CASA, 1998, 71 pp. [Comparative Asian Studies 20.] - Huub de Jonge, Laurence Husson, La migration maduraise vers l’Est de Java; ‘Manger le vent ou gratter la terre’? Paris: L’Harmattan/Association Archipel, 1995, 414 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 26.] - Nico Kaptein, Mark R. Woodward, Toward a new paradigm; Recent developments in Indonesian Islamic thought. Tempe: Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1996, x + 380 pp. - Catharina van Klinken, Gunter Senft, Referring to space; Studies in Austronesian and Papuan languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xi + 324 pp. - W. Mahdi, J.G. de Casparis, Sanskrit loan-words in Indonesian; An annotated check-list of words from Sanskrit in Indonesian and Traditional Malay. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1997, viii + 59 pp. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 41.] - Henk Maier, David Smyth, The canon in Southeast Asian literatures; Literatures of Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Richmond: Curzon, 2000, x + 273 pp. - Toon van Meijl, Robert J. Foster, Social reproduction and history in Melanesia; Mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the Tanga islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxii + 288 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Douglas Kammen, A tour of duty; Changing patterns of military politics in Indonesia in the 1990’s. Ithaca, New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 98 pp., Siddharth Chandra (eds. - Joke van Reenen, Audrey Kahin, Rebellion to integration; West Sumatra and the Indonesian

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    Full Text Available -Stephen J. Appold, Heidi Dahles ,Tourism and small entrepreneurs; Development, national policy, and entrepreneurial culture: Indonesian cases. Elmsford, New York: Cognizant Communication Corporation, 1999, vi + 165 pp., Karin Bras (eds -Jean-Pascal Bassino, Peter Boothroyd ,Socioeconomic renovation in Vietnam; The origin, evolution and impact of Doi Moi. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001, xv + 175 pp., Pham Xuan Nam (eds -Peter Boomgaard, Patrick Vinton Kirch, The wet and the dry; Irrigation and agricultural intensification in Polynesia. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994, xxii + 385 pp. -A.Th. Boone, Chr.G.F. de Jong, De Gereformeerde Zending in Midden-Java 1931-1975; Een bronnenpublicatie. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum, 1997, xxiv + 890 pp. [Uitgaven van de Werkgroep voor de Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken, Grote Reeks 6.] -Okke Braadbaart, Colin Barlow, Institutions and economic change in Southeast Asia; The context of development from the 1960s to the 1990s. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, xi + 204 pp. -Freek Colombijn, Abidin Kusno, Behind the postcolonial; Architecture, urban space, and political cultures in Indonesia. London: Routledge, 2000, xiv + 250 pp. -Raymond Corbey, Michael O'Hanlon ,Hunting the gatherers; Ethnographic collectors, agents and agency in Melanesia, 1870s -1930s. Oxford: Bergahn Books, 2000, xviii + 286 pp. [Methodology and History in Anthropology 6.], Robert L. Welsch (eds -Olga Deshpande, Hans Penth, A brief histroy of Lan Na; Civilizations of North Thailand. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2000, v + 74 pp. -Aone van Engelenhoven, I Ketut Artawa, Ergativity and Balinese syntax. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggaran Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1998, v + 169 pp (in 3 volumes. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 42, 43, 44.] -Rens Heringa, Jill Forshee, Between the folds; Stories of cloth, lives, and travels from Sumba