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Sample records for meiktila eye study

  1. Gonioscopy findings and prevalence of occludable angles in a Burmese population: the Meiktila Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, R J; Newland, H S; Muecke, J; McGovern, S; Abraham, L M; Shein, W K; Selva, D; Aung, T

    2007-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease in central Myanmar. A population-based survey of inhabitants >or=40 years in the Meiktila District was carried out; 2481 subjects were identified, 2076 participated and 2060 underwent gonioscopy of at least one eye. Eyes with angles traditionally described as "occludable" were recorded as primary angle-closure suspects (PACS); eyes with PACS and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), or an increased intraocular pressure but without primary angle-closure glaucoma, were recorded as primary angle closure (PAC). The prevalence of PACS in at least one eye was 5.7% (95% CI 4.72 to 6.62); prevalence increased with age and was more common in women (p<0.001). The prevalence of PAC in at least one eye was 1.50% (95% CI 1.47 to 1.53). All participants with PAS had at least 90 degrees of closure (range 90-360 degrees). The prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease (PACS and PAC) in this population was 5.7% and 1.5%, respectively. PACS was more common in women, and its prevalence increased with age.

  2. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  3. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  4. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  5. Tromsø eye study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods:  The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population......-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposure from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews...

  6. The Tromsø Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:  The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality...... of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence...

  7. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-14

    Jun 14, 2017 ... of individuals,[2,5-8] the relationship between CR and refractive status ... the relationship between refractive error and ocular .... AG, 07740 Jena Germany). ..... adult population in rural Myanmar: The Meiktila eye study. Clin.

  8. SIDRE: Symptomatic Improvement of Dry Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz CJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa J De Paz, Agustin L Gonzalez, Chi Ngo Eye & Vision, Richardson, TX, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution in reducing the symptoms of eye dryness using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire. Methods: A single-center study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Fourteen subjects (12 female and 2 male with symptoms of dry eye and a positive history of recent use of artificial tears were included in the study. OSDI questionnaire scores on the severity of symptoms, visual functionality, and quality of life related to the condition were recorded pre- and post-therapy. Subsequently, score data were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: The mean age of the 14 subjects was 44.86 (standard deviation [SD] ±3.08 years, with a range of 23–62 years. Mean duration of the evaluation was 28.79 days with a range of 25–34 days. Baseline OSDI mean score was 49.40 (SD ±1.28, and post-therapy mean score was 42.26 (SD ±0.99. Data analysis revealed that the scores were statistically significantly improved post-lifitegrast therapy in comparison to baseline (p=0.00041. Conclusion: Lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution may be a beneficial therapeutic option in the management of symptoms associated with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye disease, ocular surface disease, dry eye treatment, lifitegrast

  9. The National Basketball Association eye injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.

  10. Post-destructive eye surgery, associated depression at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Zimbabwe: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kawome

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructive eye surgery is associated with more complications than just loss of visual functions of the eye and aesthetics. Currently there is very little published literature on post-destructive eye surgery associated depression. Zimbabwe has been experiencing a surge in the rate of destructive eye surgery done at the National Tertiary Eye Unit. This situation could be churning out lots of unrecognized depressed clients into the community who require assistance in one form or another. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of post-destructive eye surgery associated depression among patients attending Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit and assess if the current management protocol of patients undergoing destructive eye surgery at the Eye Unit addresses the problem adequately. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 28 randomly selected patients who had destructive eye surgeries at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital was conducted over five months from 1st March 2012 to end of July 2012. A structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on the following items: gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure done, expectations before and after surgery, adequacy of counseling given and involvement of family was used to collect data. Nine questions to assess depression were adapted from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Setting:  The study was conducted at SekuruKaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare. Results:  Twenty-eight patients who underwent destructive eye surgery during the study period were selected using systematic random sampling. The gender ratio was 1:1 and the mean age was 38.7 years with a range from 24 to 65 years. Fifty percent of the patients in the study had orbital exenteration while the rest had enucleation (14% and evisceration (36%. Twenty-eight percent of the study population had depression. Conclusion: Destructive eye surgery is frequently associated with depression and our current management protocol of

  11. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the Indian Population. Single gene disorders. Complex eye diseases. Genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular diagnostics.

  12. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  13. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Ophthalmic eye examinations were conducted before and after the use of two eye wash stations with opposite water flow directionality. Fluorescein was instilled in both eyes before using an eye wash to measure the effectiveness of the water flow. Subjects were surveyed upon their experiences using the eye washes. Ophthalmic examination found no significant difference in the efficacy of the eye washes with nasal-to-temporal water flow when compared to temporal-to-nasal water flow direction.

  14. Eye Care Professionals' Perspectives on Eye Donation and an Eye Donation Registry for Research: A Single-Institution, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew M; Allingham, R Rand; Stamer, W Daniel; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-06-01

    A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.

  15. An optomechanical model eye for ophthalmological refractive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Ford, Joseph E; Schanzlin, David J; Lo, Yuhwa

    2013-02-01

    To create an accurate, low-cost optomechanical model eye for investigation of refractive errors in clinical and basic research studies. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with dimensions consistent with the human eye was designed and fabricated. Optical simulations were performed on the optomechanical eye model, and the quantified resolution and refractive errors were compared with the widely used Navarro eye model using the ray-tracing software ZEMAX (Radiant Zemax, Redmond, WA). The resolution of the physical optomechanical eye model was then quantified with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imager using the image resolution software SFR Plus (Imatest, Boulder, CO). Refractive, manufacturing, and assembling errors were also assessed. A refractive intraocular lens (IOL) and a diffractive IOL were added to the optomechanical eye model for tests and analyses of a 1951 U.S. Air Force target chart. Resolution and aberrations of the optomechanical eye model and the Navarro eye model were qualitatively similar in ZEMAX simulations. Experimental testing found that the optomechanical eye model reproduced properties pertinent to human eyes, including resolution better than 20/20 visual acuity and a decrease in resolution as the field of view increased in size. The IOLs were also integrated into the optomechanical eye model to image objects at distances of 15, 10, and 3 feet, and they indicated a resolution of 22.8 cycles per degree at 15 feet. A life-sized optomechanical eye model with the flexibility to be patient-specific was designed and constructed. The model had the resolution of a healthy human eye and recreated normal refractive errors. This model may be useful in the evaluation of IOLs for cataract surgery. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Corneal permeability changes in dry eye disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Kenji; Gadaria, Neha; Lee, Kyu-In; Barry, Brendan; Asbell, Penny

    2016-05-13

    Diagnostic tests for dry eye disease (DED), including ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, and lissamine staining, have great deal of variability. We investigated whether fluorophotometry correlated with previously established DED diagnostic tests and whether it could serve as a novel objective metric to evaluate DED. Dry eye patients who have had established signs or symptoms for at least 6 months were included in this observational study. Normal subjects with no symptoms of dry eyes served as controls. Each eye had a baseline fluorescein scan prior to any fluorescein dye. Fluorescein dye was then placed into both eyes, rinsed with saline solution, and scanned at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min. Patients were administered the following diagnostic tests to correlate with fluorophotometry: OSDI, TBUT, fluorescein, and lissamine. Standard protocols were used. P eyes from 25 patients (DED = 22 eyes, 11 patients; Normal = 28 eyes, 14 patients) were included. Baseline scans of the dry eye and control groups did not show any statistical difference (p = 0.84). Fluorescein concentration of DED and normal patients showed statistical significance at all time intervals (p eyes up to 30 min after fluorescein dye instillation. There may be an aspect of DED that is missed in the current regimen of DED tests and only captured with fluorophotometry. Adding fluorophotometry may be useful in screening, diagnosing, and monitoring patients with DED.

  17. In vitro eye corrosion study of agrochemicals on isolated chicken eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, I; Budai, P; Szabó, R; Lehel, J

    2013-01-01

    Agrochemicals must undergo numberless toxicological tests before marketing. The eye irritation test is part of this test packet. Nowadays, OECD 405 can be used to classify the irritation potential of substances, the base of the OECD 405 guideline is the Draize test, which is one of the most criticized in vivo methods because of the injuries of the test animals and subjective nature of the test in recording the results. Therefore, several in vitro tests have been developed to replace totally or partly the in vivo eye irritation testing. The isolated chicken eye test method (OECD 438), which was used, is one of these alternative methods. Five different agrochemicals were examined in the following way: All test compounds were applied in a single dose onto the cornea of isolated chicken eyes in order to potentially classify the test compounds as ocular corrosive and/or severe irritant. The damages caused by the test substances were assessed by the determination of corneal swelling, opacity, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. These parameters were evaluated pre-treatment and starting at approximately 30, 75, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after the post-treatment rinse. The endpoints evaluated were corneal opacity, swelling, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. All of the endpoints, with the exception of fluorescein retention (which was determined only at pre-treatment and 30 minutes after test substance exposure) were determined at each of the above time points. Positive and negative controls were used and they showed the expected results in each study. In these in vitro eye corrosives and severe irritants studies, using the Isolated Chicken Eye model with five different products, no ocular corrosion or severe irritation potential were observed. These results correspond to the available information about the tested agrochemicals, so these studies with isolated chicken eye are considered to be successful.

  18. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mahadev Sahasrabudhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes causes blindness in 20-74 year old persons. Blindness in diabetic patients may due to cataract or retinopathy. Dry eye is one of the ocular surface problem increasingly observed in diabetic patients. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients and their contributing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done between April 2016 to September 2016. 70 patients of type 2 diabetes diagnosed at Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Hospital, Nanded, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Dry eye syndrome was assessed with Tear Breakup Time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining apart from routine ophthalmic examination. RESULTS Out of 60 patients, 32 (53% suffer from dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eyes appear to have a common association. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish an aetiologic relationship. As routine dilated fundus examination is an integral part of evaluation of diabetic patients in ophthalmic clinics, examination for dry eye should also be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  19. Eye wash water flow direction study: an evaluation of the effectiveness of eye wash devices with opposite directional water flow

    OpenAIRE

    Fogt JS; Jones-Jordan LA; Barr JT

    2018-01-01

    Jennifer S Fogt, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Joseph T Barr The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USA Introduction: New designs of eye wash stations have been developed in which the direction of water flow from the fountain has been reversed, with two water streams originating nasally in both eyes and flowing toward the temporal side of each eye. No study has been done to determine the ideal direction of water flow coming from the eye wash in relation to the eye. Materials ...

  20. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with 125 I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained

  1. Eye Movement Indices in the Study of Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Xia, Mengqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Xu; He, Yongguang; Wang, Jijun

    2016-12-25

    Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms. Sixty patients with depressive disorder and sixty healthy controls (who were matched by gender, age and years of education) were recruited, and completed eye movement tests including three tasks: fixation task, saccade task and free-view task. The EyeLink desktop eye tracking system was employed to collect eye movement information, and analyze the eye movement indices of the three tasks between the two groups. (1) In the fixation task, compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed more fixations, shorter fixation durations, more saccades and longer saccadic lengths; (2) In the saccade task, patients with depressive disorder showed longer anti-saccade latencies and smaller anti-saccade peak velocities; (3) In the free-view task, patients with depressive disorder showed fewer saccades and longer mean fixation durations; (4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the pro-saccade amplitude and anxiety symptoms, and a positive correlation between the anti-saccade latency and anxiety symptoms. The depression symptoms were negatively correlated with fixation times, saccades, and saccadic paths respectively in the free-view task; while the mean fixation duration and depression symptoms showed a positive correlation. Compared to healthy controls, patients with depressive disorder showed significantly abnormal eye movement indices. In addition

  2. Eye-tracking study of inanimate objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ković Vanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the animate objects, where participants were consistent in their looking patterns, for inanimates it was difficult to identify both consistent areas of fixations and a consistent order of fixations. Furthermore, in comparison to animate objects, in animates received significantly shorter total looking time, shorter longest looks and a smaller number of overall fixations. However, as with animates, looking patterns did not systematically differ between the naming and non-naming conditions. These results suggested that animacy, but not labelling, impacts on looking behavior in this paradigm. In the light of feature-based accounts of semantic memory organization, one could interpret these findings as suggesting that processing of the animate objects is based on the saliency/diagnosticity of their visual features (which is then reflected through participants eye-movements towards those features, whereas processing of the inanimate objects is based more on functional features (which cannot be easily captured by looking behavior in such a paradigm.

  3. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical ...

  5. Wave study of compound eyes for efficient infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Takiyettin Oytun; Hayran, Zeki; Kocer, Hasan; Kurt, Hamza

    2017-08-01

    Improving sensitivity in the infrared spectrum is a challenging task. Detecting infrared light over a wide bandwidth and at low power consumption is very important. Novel solutions can be acquired by mimicking biological eyes such as compound eye with many individual lenses inspired from the nature. The nature provides many ingenious approaches of sensing and detecting the surrounding environment. Even though compound eye consists of small optical units, it can detect wide-angle electromagnetic waves and it has high transmission and low reflection loss. Insects have eyes that are superior compared to human eyes (single-aperture eyes) in terms of compactness, robustness, wider field of view, higher sensitivity of light intensity and being cheap vision systems. All these desired properties are accompanied by an important drawback: lower spatial resolution. The first step to investigate the feasibility of bio-inspired optics in photodetectors is to perform light interaction with the optical system that gather light and detect it. The most common method used in natural vision systems is the ray analysis. Light wave characteristics are not taken into consideration in such analyses, such as the amount of energy at the focal point or photoreceptor site, the losses caused by reflection at the interfaces and absorption cannot be investigated. In this study, we present a bio-inspired optical detection system investigated by wave analysis. We numerically model the wave analysis based on Maxwell equations from the viewpoint of efficient light detection and revealing the light propagation after intercepting the first interface of the eye towards the photoreceptor site.

  6. Study of isodose curves of an eye brachytherapy plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Marcos R.O.; Mourao, Arnaldo P., E-mail: marcos.robertto@hotmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Grynberg, Suely E., E-mail: aprata@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Engenharia Hospitalar

    2015-07-01

    The use eye plaque brachytherapy for intraocular tumors treatment is a process designed to protect healthy eye structures, as well as visual functions. It replaces enucleation when possible. The knowledge of the dose spatial distribution inside the eyeball and adjacent structures is very important to obtain the therapeutic dose, minimize the side effects and ensure efficiency in the process. Small variations in positioning the plaque on the ocular surface may generate a less effective treatment. Thus, in this work an eyeball phantom and a seed accommodation system similar to a commercially eye plaque model ROPES with diameter of 15 mm, were developed both in solid water Gammex 457 to conduct the study of the possible variation in the dose deposition inside the eye phantom. Radiochromic films were used to record isodose curves of two orthogonal plans within the simulator. The results showed that there is a difference in the dose deposition for the two orthogonal plans studied. This difference is 8.33% higher for the maximum dose value. Thus, a difference in dose that occurs due to the asymmetrical distribution of seeds on the eye plaque may interfere with the treatment, making it less effective. (author)

  7. Study of isodose curves of an eye brachytherapy plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Marcos R.O.; Mourao, Arnaldo P.; Grynberg, Suely E.

    2015-01-01

    The use eye plaque brachytherapy for intraocular tumors treatment is a process designed to protect healthy eye structures, as well as visual functions. It replaces enucleation when possible. The knowledge of the dose spatial distribution inside the eyeball and adjacent structures is very important to obtain the therapeutic dose, minimize the side effects and ensure efficiency in the process. Small variations in positioning the plaque on the ocular surface may generate a less effective treatment. Thus, in this work an eyeball phantom and a seed accommodation system similar to a commercially eye plaque model ROPES with diameter of 15 mm, were developed both in solid water Gammex 457 to conduct the study of the possible variation in the dose deposition inside the eye phantom. Radiochromic films were used to record isodose curves of two orthogonal plans within the simulator. The results showed that there is a difference in the dose deposition for the two orthogonal plans studied. This difference is 8.33% higher for the maximum dose value. Thus, a difference in dose that occurs due to the asymmetrical distribution of seeds on the eye plaque may interfere with the treatment, making it less effective. (author)

  8. Different schematic eyes and their accuracy to the in vivo eye: a quantitative comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marina Storani de; Carvalho, Luis Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Current ophthalmic technology allows the manipulation of eye components, such as anterior cornea and lens, of the human eye with a considerable precision and customization. This technology opens up the possibility of exploiting some characteristics of the eye in order to improve the methods of correcting optical aberrations. Moreover, product development and research for the eye-care professional has reached very high standards, since there is nowadays software available to design and simulat...

  9. Singapore Indian Eye Study-2: methodology and impact of migration on systemic and eye outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Yip, Wanfen; Gupta, Preeti; Mohd Abdul, Riswana Bb; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Kumari, Neelam; Cheung, Gemmy Cm; Cheung, Carol Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-11-01

    Asian Indians are the fastest growing migration groups in the world. Studies evaluating the impact of migration on disease outcomes in this population are rare. We describe the methodology of the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (SINDI-2) aimed to evaluate the impact of migration status on diabetic retinopathy and other major age-related eye diseases in Asian Indians living in an urban environment. Population-based cohort study. A total of 2200 adults had participated in baseline SINDI (2007-2009, mean age [range] = 57.8 [42.7-84.1] years) and SINDI-2 (2013-2015, 56.5 [48.4-90.2] years). Participants were classified as 'first generation' if they were Indian residents born outside of Singapore and as 'second-generation' immigrants (59.7% in SINDI vs. 63.6% in SINDI-2) if they were born in Singapore. Response rate, participant characteristics and prevalence of systemic diseases were stratified by migration status. Of the 2914 eligible SINDI participants invited to participate, 2200 participated in SINDI-2 (response rate of 75.2%). In both SINDI and SINDI-2, compared with first-generation immigrants, second-generation immigrants were younger, less likely to have income <1000 SGD, had lower levels of pulse pressure, higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, had lower prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease and had higher prevalence of current smoking and obesity (all P < 0.05). In both SINDI and SINDI-2, second-generation immigrants had lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors except smoking and obesity compared with first-generation immigrants. The final report will confirm if these differences between generations are evident with regard to eye diseases. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. Gonioscopy in adult Chinese: the Liwan Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingguang; Foster, Paul J; Ge, Jian; Huang, Wenyong; Wang, Dandan; Friedman, David S; Khaw, Peng T

    2006-11-01

    To assess gonioscopic characteristics of the drainage angle in adult Chinese in an urban area of southern China. Clustered random sampling was used to select adults aged 50 years and older in Liwan District, Guangzhou. Gonioscopy was performed on all the subjects. The geometric angle width was graded in the superior and inferior quadrants, according to the Spaeth system. In addition, apparent and true iris insertion was classified in four quadrants with static and dynamic gonioscopy. The peripheral iris profile was described as steep, regular, concave, and plateau. Data are presented for all phakic right eyes. Secondary or iatrogenic cases were excluded in the analysis of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Among 1405 participants in the study, data from 1330 (95%) right eyes were available for analysis. Iridotrabecular angles (ITA) < or =20 degrees were present in 36.9% (95% CI: 34.3%-40.0%) of eyes superiorly and in 27.9% (95% CI: 25.5%-30.4%) inferiorly. Narrower ITAs were more common in the older people (sex-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.1 per year of life; P < 0.001) and the women (age-adjusted OR = 2.5, P < 0.001). Apparent iris insertion of grade A or B (with pigmented trabecular meshwork not visible) by quadrant was observed in 27.2% superiorly, 12.0% nasally, 7.7% inferiorly, and 14.2% temporally. Narrow angles (in which pigmented trabecular meshwork was not visible in three or more quadrants) were identified in 11.0% (95% CI: 9.3%-12.7%) of right eyes. Overall, 33.3% of eyes had a steep iris profile, 54.2% were normal, 2.7% were concave, and 10.1% were graded plateau. PAS were seen in 30 of 146 (20.5%) eyes with narrow angles and in 7 (0.6%) of 1184 eyes with angles that did not meet criteria for narrow angles. PAS were more likely with narrower angles, with 0%, 0.3%, and 1.9% of eyes with a mean ITA of 40 degrees, 30 degrees, and 20 degrees, respectively, having PAS as opposed to 12.6% and 27.5% for those with ITA 10 degrees and 0 degrees , respectively

  11. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  12. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  13. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  14. [Pathogenetic relationship between pterygium and dry eye syndrome (clinical and cytological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraevskiĭ, A V; Trishkin, K S

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in patients with initial primary pterygium for determination of a possible pathogenetic role of dry eye syndrome in the development of pterygium. 30 patients with initial primary pterygium; besides conventional ophthalmic assessment, cytological examination of bulbar conjunctiva was performed in all cases. Signs of dry eye syndrome, of similar severity in both eyes, were found in 100% of patients. Dry eye can be one of the precipitating factors of primary pterygium.

  15. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  16. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  17. Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy.In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value.The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

  18. Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus range viewing research.

  19. Biocompatibility and biodegradation studies of subconjunctival implants in rabbit eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    Full Text Available Sustained ocular drug delivery is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Biodegradable subconjunctival implants with controlled drug release may circumvent these two problems. In our study, two microfilms (poly [d,l-lactide-co-glycolide] PLGA and poly[d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone] PLC were developed and evaluated for their degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the biocompatibility of both microfilms. Eighteen eyes (9 rabbits were surgically implanted with one type of microfilm in each eye. Serial anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT scans together with serial slit-lamp microscopy allowed us to measure thickness and cross-sectional area of the microfilms. In vitro studies revealed bulk degradation kinetics for both microfilms, while in vivo studies demonstrated surface erosion kinetics. Serial slit-lamp microscopy revealed no significant inflammation or vascularization in both types of implants (mean increase in vascularity grade PLGA50/50 12±0.5% vs. PLC70/30 15±0.6%; P = 0.91 over a period of 6 months. Histology, immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence also revealed no significant inflammatory reaction from either of the microfilms, which confirmed that both microfilms are biocompatible. The duration of the drug delivery can be tailored by selecting the materials, which have different degradation kinetics, to suit the desired clinical therapeutic application.

  20. Attentional bias to betel quid cues: An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Chiu, Meng-Chun; Li, Shuo-Heng; Huang, Guo-Joe; Liu, Ling-Jun; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with heavy use. This study, conducted in central Taiwan, investigated whether betel quid chewers can exhibit overt orienting to selectively respond to the betel quid cues. Twenty-four male chewers' and 23 male nonchewers' eye movements to betel-quid-related pictures and matched pictures were assessed during a visual probe task. The eye movement index showed that betel quid chewers were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, t(23) = 3.70, p betel quid chewers' attentional bias. The results demonstrated that the betel quid chewers (but not the nonchewers) were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, and spent more time and were more fixated on them. These findings suggested that when attention is directly measured through the eye tracking technique, this methodology may be more sensitive to detecting attentional biases in betel quid chewers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  2. Public Awareness regarding Common Eye Diseases among Saudi Adults in Riyadh City: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Al Rashed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.

  3. When Art Moves the Eyes: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Davide; Savazzi, Federica; Di Dio, Cinzia; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using eye-tracking technique, the influence of bottom-up and top-down processes on visual behavior while subjects, naïve to art criticism, were presented with representational paintings. Forty-two subjects viewed color and black and white paintings (Color) categorized as dynamic or static (Dynamism) (bottom-up processes). Half of the images represented natural environments and half human subjects (Content); all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment conditions (Task) (top-down processes). Results on gazing behavior showed that content-related top-down processes prevailed over low-level visually-driven bottom-up processes when a human subject is represented in the painting. On the contrary, bottom-up processes, mediated by low-level visual features, particularly affected gazing behavior when looking at nature-content images. We discuss our results proposing a reconsideration of the definition of content-related top-down processes in accordance with the concept of embodied simulation in art perception. PMID:22624007

  4. Dyslipidemia and eye diseases in the adult Chinese population: the Beijing eye study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    Full Text Available To determine associations between dyslipidemia and ocular diseases, the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006 examined 3251 subjects (age≥45 years who underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination and biochemical blood analysis. Dyslipidemia was defined as any of the following: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol concentration≥5.72 mmol/L (220 mg/dL or hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride concentration≥1.70 mmol/L (150 mg/dL or low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentration≤0.91 mmol/L (35 mg/dL. Biochemical blood examinations were available for 2945 (90.6% subjects. After adjustment for age, gender, habitation region, body mass index, self reported income, blood glucose concentration, diastolic blood pressure and smoking, dyslipidemia was significantly associated with higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001 and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy (P = 0.03. Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with the prevalence of glaucoma (P = 0.99, retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.92, diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.49,presence of retinal vascular abnormalities such as focal or general arteriolar narrowing, age-related macular degeneration(P = 0.27, nuclear cataract (P = 0.14, cortical cataract (P = 0.93, and subcapsular cataract (P = 0.67. The results make one conclude that, controlled for systemic and socioeconomic parameters, dyslipidemia was not associated with common ophthalmic disorders including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  5. Object based implicit contextual learning: a study of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.

  6. The role of eye fixation in memory enhancement under stress - An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-04-01

    In a stressful situation, attention is shifted to potentially relevant stimuli. Recent studies from our laboratory revealed that participants stressed perform superior in a recognition task involving objects of the stressful episode. In order to characterize the role of a stress induced alteration in visual exploration, the present study investigated whether participants experiencing a laboratory social stress situation differ in their fixation from participants of a control group. Further, we aimed at shedding light on the relation of fixation behaviour with obtained memory measures. We randomly assigned 32 male and 31 female participants to a control or a stress condition consisting of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a public speaking paradigm causing social evaluative threat. In an established 'friendly' control condition (f-TSST) participants talk to a friendly committee. During both conditions, the committee members used ten office items (central objects) while another ten objects were present without being used (peripheral objects). Participants wore eye tracking glasses recording their fixations. On the next day, participants performed free recall and recognition tasks involving the objects present the day before. Stressed participants showed enhanced memory for central objects, accompanied by longer fixation times and larger fixation amounts on these objects. Contrasting this, fixation towards the committee faces showed the reversed pattern; here, control participants exhibited longer fixations. Fixation indices and memory measures were, however, not correlated with each other. Psychosocial stress is associated with altered fixation behaviour. Longer fixation on objects related to the stressful situation may reflect enhanced encoding, whereas diminished face fixation suggests gaze avoidance of aversive, socially threatening stimuli. Modified visual exploration should be considered in future stress research, in particular when focussing on memory for a

  7. A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF DRY EYES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant V. Solanke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES, also known as Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS, is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly. Tobacco smoke exposure or infection may also lead to the condition. Diagnosis is mostly based on the symptoms, though a number of other tests may be used. Prevalence of dry eyes are commoner in females than males. There is a positive relationship between glaucoma and ocular dryness as well as diabetic retinopathy and ocular dryness. Dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. Ocular symptoms such as pain, irritation and poor vision can result from dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence, symptomatology and distribution of dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2016 to March 2017. Study place was Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology at Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam. Sample size was calculated by 4PQ/d², which was 132. Systemic random sampling was used for the study. RESULTS Prevalence of dry eyes - 17.8%. Dry eyes in males - 16.8% and in females - 24.6%. Dry eyes in age 40 yrs. - 21.8%. Prevalence of dry eyes in contact lens wearers - 36.5%. Prevalence of dry eyes in glaucoma cases - 38.2%. Prevalence of dry eyes in farmers - 27.3%, in smokers - 36.7%. Dry eyes in emmetropes - 12.8% in myopes - 17.2% in hypermetropes - 28.6%. CONCLUSION Dry eyes prevalence obtained was 17.8%. Dry eyes were seen more in females. As age increases, prevalence of dry eyes increases. Ocular surface dryness was observed more in contact

  8. Are better eye movements an advantage in ball games? A study of prosaccadic and antisaccadic eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenoir, M.; Crevits, L.; Goethals, M.; Wildenbeest, J.; Musch, E.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare prosaccadic and antisaccadic eye movements of experts in ball sports and controls. In the prosaccadic and antisaccadic task, subjects made saccades respectively towards and away from a suddenly appearing stimulus. By means of infrared-oculography, we compared

  9. Study on the distribution of the dominant eye in people with myopia and astigmatism and the relationship between dominant eye and the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Duan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the distribution of the dominant eye in people with myopia and astigmatism and the relationship between dominant eye and the two. METHODS:Three hundred and eighty patients who went our hospital for optometry consecutively were enrolled, using hole-in-card method to detect the dominant eye. The records of age, gender, vision acuity and other related information were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 software. RESULTS: 1Most of the dominant eyes were right eyes which accounted for 66.84%, and the ametropia degree on right eyes was relatively higher; 2Dominant eyes had no significant association with gender, age and uncorrected vision acuity(P>0.05; 3There was no significant correlation between the dominant eyes and ametropia degree(P>0.05. But in the group which the difference of cylinder degree between two eyes were ≥1D, only 20% of the dominant eyes had higher ametropia degree, which was different from the other two groups. CONCLUSION:High cylinder of anisometropia may affect the choice of the dominant eye. High sphere of anisometropia may be the result of the choice of dominant eye.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  11. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinska, Anna K; Teper, Sławomir J; Janiszewska, Dominika A; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  12. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  13. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stonecipher KG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods: Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results: The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. Keywords: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, dry eye syndromes

  14. Treatment outcomes in the DRy Eye Amniotic Membrane (DREAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald MB

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marguerite B McDonald,1 Hosam Sheha,2–5 Sean Tighe,2,3 Susan B Janik,6 Frank W Bowden,7 Amit R Chokshi,8 Michael A Singer,9 Seema Nanda,10 Mujtaba A Qazi,11 Damon Dierker,12 Adam T Shupe,13 Brittany J McMurren14 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 2Ocular Surface Center and TissueTech, Inc., Miami, FL, USA; 3Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Hofstra University School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 5Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt; 6Solinsky Eye Care, Kensington, CT, USA; 7Bowden Eye & Associates, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 8Florida Eye Specialists, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 9Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA; 10TX Eye Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 11Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO, USA; 12Eye Surgeons of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 13Royo Eye Care, Marysville, CA, USA; 14Gordon and Weiss Vision Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserved amniotic membrane (CAM in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in a large patient population. Methods: A retrospective chart review at 10 clinical sites was done of patients with refractory DED who received CAM and completed at least 3 months of follow-up. Data collected were demographics; medical history including previous and current ocular treatment, diagnosis, clinical presentations, comorbidity, duration and frequency of treatment with CAM; and concomitant medications. The primary outcome was the change in dry eye workshop (DEWS score after treatment. Results: A total of 97 eyes of 84 patients exhibited severe dry eye despite maximal medical treatments including topical artificial tears, cyclosporine-A, serum, antibiotics, and steroids. Patients manifested with superficial punctate keratitis (86%, filamentary keratitis (13%, exposure keratitis (19%, neurotrophic keratitis (2%, and corneal epithelial defect (7%. After CAM

  15. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2013-01-01

    Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based o...

  16. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-08-01

    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r accommodation (r convergence near point (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) were not significant. Our results confirmed that using different subjective symptom surveys can provide different results within the same subject group, therefore we recommend to use surveys as a part of case history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  17. Continuous Auditory Feedback of Eye Movements: An Exploratory Study toward Improving Oculomotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O. Boyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.

  18. The study of myocardial ischemic quality with weighted-subtraction-bull's-eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wuduan; Tian Jiahe; Hou Qingtian

    1993-01-01

    Weighted-Subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis was studied in 33 normal subjects and 58 patients with coronary artery disease after dipyridamole 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging. Two kinds of Bull's-eye were produced: (1) subtract rest from 1.2 times dipyridamole from 1.2 times rest Bull's-eye; (2) subtract dipyridamole Bull's-eye. The results showed that the weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye could clearly displayed the location and puality of ischemic myocardium. And also 74% segments showed so called combined ischemic i.e the blood perfusion reduced, increased and sustained simultaneously after dipyridamole. Therefore weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis had provided a new method for determination of the quality of ischemia

  19. Retinal vessel caliber and myopic retinopathy: the blue mountains eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Burlutsky, George; Wong, Tien Y; Wang, Jie Jin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with myopic retinopathy. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Emmetropic and myopic participants from the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline survey were included in this study. Myopia was defined as a refractive error of less than -1.00 diopter. Myopic retinopathy was defined if either staphyloma, lacquer crack, Fuchs' spot or chorioretinal atrophy were present in myopic eyes. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using standardized methods. The association of retinal vascular caliber with myopic retinopathy was assessed using generalized estimating equation models. A total of 2598 eyes of 1409 subjects were selected from 3654 baseline participants, with 2076 emmetropic eyes (normal controls), 486 myopic eyes without myopic retinopathy (myopic controls) and 36 myopic eyes with myopic retinopathy (cases). After adjusting for age, gender, height, body mass index and blood pressure, eyes with myopic retinopathy had significantly narrower mean arteriolar (166.6μm) and venular caliber (213.3μm), compared to normal (188.1μm and 226.9μm, respectively) or myopic control eyes (190.4μm and 227.0μm, respectively) (all P retinopathy and the two control groups remained significant after additional adjustment for refraction (all P retinopathy is associated with attenuation of retinal vessels.

  20. Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…

  1. Clinical Study on the Eye Changes in the Goiter Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, In Soo; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Kyung Ja; Choi, Kuen Chul; Ahn, Soo Byuk; Lee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-03-15

    742 cases of thyroid diseases treated at Radio-isotope Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital since October 1965 through July 1968 were analyzed. The patients were classified according to eye findings, as to Infiltrative, Non-infiltrative and No ophthalmopathy. Correlations between ophthalmo-logical findings and symptoms, BMR values and {sup 131}I uptake rate as well as response to medical treatment were carefully reviewed. Results obtained were as follows: 1) Among goitrous patients 44.5% with infiltrative ophthalmopathy, 24.1% with non-infiltrative ophthalmopathy totaling 68.6% of patients with one or more eye findings were found. Exophthalmos (44%) and visual disturbances (44%) comprised the highest incidence among eye signs. Most frequent eye symptoms were lid swelling (17.1%). 2) Female patients were predominant (91%). 3) Of cases with hyperthyroidism, after treatment with antithyroid drugs and radio-iodine therapy, general symptoms were improved in over 74%, whereas ophthalmopathy was not changed and in some cases the eye signs were aggravated. This tendency was more apparent in infiltrative ophthalmopathy. 4) Significant correlations between exophthalmos, BMR values and {sup 131}I uptake rate were found. Among the patients of same degree of exophthalmos, BMR values and {sup 131}I uptake rate showed the highest in non-infiltrative ophthalmos, BMR values and {sup 131}I uptake rate showed the highest in non-infiltrative ophthalmopathy, moderate in infiltrative ophthalmopathy and the lowest in no ophthalmopathy.

  2. Clinical Study on the Eye Changes in the Goiter Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, In Soo; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Kyung Ja; Choi, Kuen Chul; Ahn, Soo Byuk; Lee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho

    1969-01-01

    742 cases of thyroid diseases treated at Radio-isotope Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital since October 1965 through July 1968 were analyzed. The patients were classified according to eye findings, as to Infiltrative, Non-infiltrative and No ophthalmopathy. Correlations between ophthalmo-logical findings and symptoms, BMR values and 131 I uptake rate as well as response to medical treatment were carefully reviewed. Results obtained were as follows: 1) Among goitrous patients 44.5% with infiltrative ophthalmopathy, 24.1% with non-infiltrative ophthalmopathy totaling 68.6% of patients with one or more eye findings were found. Exophthalmos (44%) and visual disturbances (44%) comprised the highest incidence among eye signs. Most frequent eye symptoms were lid swelling (17.1%). 2) Female patients were predominant (91%). 3) Of cases with hyperthyroidism, after treatment with antithyroid drugs and radio-iodine therapy, general symptoms were improved in over 74%, whereas ophthalmopathy was not changed and in some cases the eye signs were aggravated. This tendency was more apparent in infiltrative ophthalmopathy. 4) Significant correlations between exophthalmos, BMR values and 131 I uptake rate were found. Among the patients of same degree of exophthalmos, BMR values and 131 I uptake rate showed the highest in non-infiltrative ophthalmos, BMR values and 131 I uptake rate showed the highest in non-infiltrative ophthalmopathy, moderate in infiltrative ophthalmopathy and the lowest in no ophthalmopathy.

  3. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2013-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40–69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:24179335

  4. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Chia, Jenny; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008-2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months' supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies.

  5. Clinical characterisation and cytological study of dry eye in patients with autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guannan, Huang; Long, Su; Xia, Hua; Dong, Wang; Shaozhen, Zhao

    2018-03-01

    To assess the clinical characteristics and changes in ocular surface cytology of dry eye in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. The case-control study was conducted in the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China, from February 2016 to January 2017, and comprised systemic autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. Schirmer's I test, tear breakup time test, and fluorescein staining were performed on all subjects. Both groups were evaluated for dry eye with the current diagnostic criteria. Conjunctival impression cytology and the morphology of epithelial cells were observed in both groups of subjects. Flow cytometry was used to identify the amount of apoptosis. SPSS 15 was used to analyse the data. Each of the two groups had 60(50%) subjects each. The morbidity of dry eye in the control group was 17(28.3%), while it was 31(51.7%) in the patients (pdry eye, the severity level of cells obtained by conjunctival impression sampling was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pdry eye than in patients without dry eye in each group, and among patients with dry eye, the percentage of conjunctival epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis was higher in the patients than in controls (pdry eye in systemic autoimmune disease than in subjects with dry eye in healthy controls.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Iyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net, to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions.

  7. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  8. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  9. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharuddin, Mohammad; Bera, Sumanta Kr; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermal fluctuation patterns occurring at the ocular surface of the left and right eyes for aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients and control subjects by thermal imaging. We conducted our experiment on 42 patients (84 eyes) with aqueous deficient dry eyes and compared with 36 healthy volunteers (72 eyes) without any history of ocular surface disorder. Schirmer's test, Tear Break-up Time, tear Meniscus height and fluorescein staining tests were conducted. Ocular surface temperature measurement was done, using an FL-IR thermal camera and thermal fluctuation in left and right eyes was calculated and analyzed using MATLAB. The time series containing the sum of squares of the temperature fluctuation on the ocular surface were compared for aqueous deficient dry eye and control subjects. Significant statistical difference between the fluctuation patterns for control and ADDE was observed (p eyes are significantly correlated in controls but not in ADDE subjects. The possible origin of such correlation in control and lack of correlation in the ADDE subjects is discussed in the text. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A generalised porous medium approach to study thermo-fluid dynamics in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Alessandro; Massarotti, Nicola; Salahudeen, Mohamed; Romano, Mario R; Romano, Vito; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2018-03-22

    The present work describes the application of the generalised porous medium model to study heat and fluid flow in healthy and glaucomatous eyes of different subject specimens, considering the presence of ocular cavities and porous tissues. The 2D computational model, implemented into the open-source software OpenFOAM, has been verified against benchmark data for mixed convection in domains partially filled with a porous medium. The verified model has been employed to simulate the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in the anterior section of four patient-specific human eyes, considering the presence of anterior chamber (AC), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and collector channels (CC). The computational domains of the eye are extracted from tomographic images. The dependence of TM porosity and permeability on intraocular pressure (IOP) has been analysed in detail, and the differences between healthy and glaucomatous eye conditions have been highlighted, proving that the different physiological conditions of patients have a significant influence on the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena. The influence of different eye positions (supine and standing) on thermo-fluid dynamic variables has been also investigated: results are presented in terms of velocity, pressure, temperature, friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results clearly indicate that porosity and permeability of TM are two important parameters that affect eye pressure distribution. Graphical abstract Velocity contours and vectors for healthy eyes (top) and glaucomatous eyes (bottom) for standing position.

  11. Study of the structure of buffalo's eye lens and scleroretinal rim in Tabriz by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Assadnassab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasonographic condition of lens and posterior wall of buffalo's eye in Tabriz area were investigated due to their important role in vision and also measurements were made in anterior-posterior axial B-mode display methods. The ultrasonographic images were similar to the images obtained from other particularly the cow. Total thickness of the lens was 1.133 ± 0.052 cm with the thickness being 1.135 ± 0.052 cm in the right eye and 1.132 ± 0.053 cm in the left eye. Thickness of the posterior wall of the right and left eyes were 1.677 ± 0.042 mm and 1.672 ± 0.041 mm respectively with the total thickness of the posterior wall measuring 1.674 ± 0.040 mm. There was no significant difference between the left and right eyes regarding these parameters.

  12. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  13. Symptomatic Dry Eye and Its Associated Factors: A Study of University Undergraduate Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Kofi; Kyei, Samuel; Boampong, Frank; Ocansey, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease (DED) among undergraduate students in a Ghanaian university. This cross-sectional study included 700 undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, aged 18 to 34 years. Participants completed questionnaires delivered directly to randomly and systematically selected subjects to detect symptomatic dry eye and its predictive factors. Symptomatic dry eye was defined as any reported symptom on the Standard Patient Evaluation Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire reported as often or constant or if any symptom on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was reported as most of the time or all of the time. Furthermore, OSDI ≥13 and SPEED ≥6 were used to defined symptomatic dry eye and prevalence were also estimated with these criteria as secondary measures. Current symptoms of dry eye and possible risk factors such as age, gender, current alcohol drinking, use of oral contraceptives, use of computer more than an hour daily, environmental conditions, allergies, and self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops were the main outcome measures. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the associations between dry eye and its predictive factors. Of the 700 participants, 650 completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye was 44.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.6%-48.2%). There was a significant association between symptomatic dry eye and discomfort with eyes in windy conditions (χ=110.1; df=4; Peye drops (OR 4.20; 95% CI, 2.61-6.74; Pdry eye. Sex was predictive in univariate analysis but was not significantly associated in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of symptomatic dry eye among undergraduate students in Ghana is high and it is associated with self-medication with over-the-counter eye drops, allergies, use of oral contraceptive, windy conditions, very low humid areas, air-conditioned rooms, and sex. Relevant input directed against modifiable risks

  14. A Study on Hospital Admissions For Eye Trauma in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zahedi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Eye trauma is among the most common reasons for referral to hospital emergency departments and ophthalmologists' offices. It also is a common cause of vision loss worldwide. However, few studies are available on the changes in the epidemiology of eye trauma in Iran in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of hospital admissions for eye trauma in Kashan from August 2011 to February 2014. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the hospital records of all patients with eye trauma who were admitted to Kashan's Matini hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Having an eye trauma and being hospitalized for at least one day was selected as the criteria for inclusion in the study. The data were then recorded on a checklist devised by the researcher. After entering the data into the SPSS software, descriptive statistics (i.e., percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. In total, 200 patients with eye trauma had been hospitalized in Matini Hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Of these patients, 86% were males, 40% were in the age range of 20-39 years, 68% lived in urban areas, and 21% of those in employment were manual and industrial workers. Approximately 38.5% of eye traumas had occurred in the work place; 72.5% of patients had penetrating injuries and 98% of cases were injured in one eye. More injuries occurred in the cornea (25.5%) than elsewhere in the eye, and 75.5% of patients were treated surgically. Among all variables, only the type of trauma (P = 0.009) and cause of trauma (P = 0.004) were significantly related to the patients' gender. Eye trauma was prevalent among males, young people, urban residents, and manual and industrial workers. As the eyes play a vital role in daily life, communication, and work activities, and eye health is so important for individuals to attain high

  15. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  16. A Clinical Study of Subtype-based Prevalence of Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Aditya; Kulkarni, Varsha; Puthran, Neelam; Khandgave, Tejaswini

    2013-10-01

    Dry Eye is a multifactorial disease of the tearfilm and the ocular surface which may be due to reduced tear production or excessive tear evaporation resulting in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with a potential damage to the ocular surface. Various population-based studies have been done to find out the prevalence and the magnitude of the problem. Women Health Study reported prevalence of 7.8% after screening 36995 subjects above 49 years by interview. The prevalence reported by Blue Mountain Study was 15.3% .The Beaver Dam Study and Shiphai Eye studies are other studies reporting prevalence of 14.5% and 33.7% respectively. McMonnies questionnaire is a widely used screening instrument for Dry-Eye syndromes with sensitivity reportedly varying between 87% and 98% and specificity between 87% and 97%. Prevalence studies use McMonnie's questionnaire for screening individuals for Dry Eye, whereafter tests like Schirmer's test, Tear Film Break Up Time test, Rose Bengal test, Lissamine Green test and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction test are useful for further evaluation. While these tests help to differentiate the subtypes of Dry Eye such as Lipid Anomaly Dry Eye, Aqueous Tear Deficiency and Mucin Layer Deficiency, however, their sensitivity and specificity has not been widely studied. Additionally, very few studies have reported the prevalence of the various subtypes of Dry Eye. To determine the subtype-based prevalence of Dry Eye, to study the specificity and sensitivity of clinical tests for Dry Eye and to correlate McMonnies questionnaire with Dry Eye tests results. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, duly approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee, was conducted from October 2010 to April 2012. A total of 4750 subjects above 18 yrs of age were screened by the McMonnies questionnaire. Respondents having a score greater than 14.5 were subjected to clinical Dry Eye tests. The data obtained was analyzed using chi-square test. p

  17. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dry eye disease in community-based type 2 diabetic patients: the Beixinjing eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xinrong; Lu, Lina; Xu, Yi; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Jiangnan; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Haidong

    2018-05-10

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) in community-based type 2 diabetic patients and to identify the associated factors related with DED. A total of 1360 type 2 diabetic patients in the Beixinjing community were randomly selected. All participants were given a questionnaire that assessed basic information and subjective symptoms.DED was diagnosed using the revised Japanese DED diagnostic criteria. All subjects underwent a routine ophthalmic examination, corneal sensitivity test, tear film break-up time(BUT) test, Schirmer I test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining(FL) and fundus photography. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded according to the International severity scale of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Of the 1360 subjects, 238 (17.5%) were diagnosed with DED. There was a significant association between the presence of DED and higher blood glucose (P dry eye examination should be added to the routine screening of diabetes.

  18. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Prospective Health Assessment of Cataract Patients’ Ocular Surface (PHACO study: the effect of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trattler WB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available William B Trattler,1 Parag A Majmudar,2 Eric D Donnenfeld,3 Marguerite B McDonald,4 Karl G Stonecipher,5 Damien F Goldberg6 On behalf of the PHACO Study Group 1Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USA; 2Chicago Cornea Consultants, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Garden City, NY, USA; 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 5University North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Wolstan & Goldberg Eye Associates, Torrance, CA, USA Purpose: To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT, ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye.Results: Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9% had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer’s score with anesthesia ≤5 mm.Conclusion: The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated. Keywords: cataract surgery screening, dry eye, International Task Force scale, observational study

  20. Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hye Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Dry eye disease (DED is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI. Methods The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015. This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI. Results Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011 and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010. In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051, while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027. In these analyses, we found no significant associations. Conclusions The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with dry eye symptoms: a population based study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A J; Lee, J; Saw, S-M; Gazzard, G; Koh, D; Widjaja, D; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and identify associated risk factors for dry eye syndrome in a population in Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods: A one stage cluster sampling procedure was conducted to randomly select 100 households in each of the five rural villages and one provincial town of the Riau province, Indonesia, from April to June 2001. Interviewers collected demographic, lifestyle, and medical data from 1058 participants aged 21 years or over. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed using a six item validated questionnaire. Presence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time was analysed. Presence of pterygium was documented. Results: Prevalence of one or more of the six dry eye symptoms often or all the time adjusted for age was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8 to 30.2). After adjusting for all significant variables, independent risk factors for dry eye were pterygium (p<0.001, multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) and a history of current cigarette smoking (p=0.05, multivariate OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.2). Conclusions: This population based study provides prevalence rates of dry eye symptoms in a tropical developing nation. From our findings, pterygium is a possible independent risk factor for dry eye symptoms. PMID:12446361

  2. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R R; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and anti- allergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  5. An eye movement study for identification of suitable font characters for presentation on a computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Majumdar, Dhurjati; Majumdar, Deepti; Pal, Madhu Sudan

    2010-06-01

    We are experiencing a shifting of media: from the printed paper to the computer screen. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand a text. It is very difficult to conclude on suitability of font characters based upon subjective evaluation method only. Present study evaluates the effect of font type on human cognitive workload during perception of individual alphabets on a computer screen. Twenty six young subjects volunteered for this study. Here, subjects have been shown individual characters of different font types and their eye movements have been recorded. A binocular eye movement recorder was used for eye movement recording. The results showed that different eye movement parameters such as pupil diameter, number of fixations, fixation duration were less for font type Verdana. The present study recommends the use of font type Verdana for presentation of individual alphabets on various electronic displays in order to reduce cognitive workload.

  6. Occupational eye lens doses in interventional cardiology. A multicentric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, R M; Vano, E; Fernández, J M; Pifarré, X; Ordiales, J M; Rovira, J J; Carrera, F; Goicolea, J; Fernández-Ortiz, A

    2016-01-01

    New European regulation regarding radiological protection of workers and more specifically the new occupational dose limit for the eye lens recently reduced to 20 mSv yr −1 may affect interventional cardiologists. This paper presents a set of measurements of occupational doses performed in five interventional cardiology centres and then compared with the new dose limit. The measurement of occupational doses was performed over the apron at chest level using electronic dosemeters recording H p (10). In one of the centres, scatter dose at goggles was also measured with optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07). An average H p (10) over the apron of 46 μSv/procedure was measured for cardiologists. Lower doses were noted in other professionals like second cardiologists, nurses or anaesthetists. Procedures for valvular and other structural heart diseases involved the highest occupational doses, averaging over 100 μSv/procedure. Important differences in occupational doses among centres may be indicative of different radiation protection habits. The new occupational dose limit for the eye lens is likely to be exceeded by those among the interventionalists who do not use protection tools (ceiling suspended screen and/or goggles) even with standard workloads. (paper)

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Strabismus: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease and Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Susan; Varma, Rohit; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse; Wen, Ge; Wei, Jolyn; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stan; Torres, Mina; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Ibironke, Joanne Katz Josephine; Giordano, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors associated with esotropia or exotropia in infants and young children. Design Population-based cross-sectional prevalence study. Participants Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from California and Maryland. Methods Participants were preschool African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children participating in the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Eye Disease Study. Data were obtained by parental interview and ocular examination. Odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the association of demographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors with esotropia and exotropia. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with esotropia or exotropia diagnosis based on cover testing. Results In multivariate logistic regression analysis, esotropia was independently associated with prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, older preschool age (48–72 months), anisometropia, and hyperopia. There was a severity-dependent association of hyperopia with the prevalence of esotropia, with ORs increasing from 6.4 for 2.00 Diopters (D) to strabismus, female sex, astigmatism (OR 2.5 for 1.50 to <2.50 D, and 5.9 for ≥ 2.5 D of astigmatism), and aniso-astigmatism in the J0 component (OR ≥ 2 for J0 aniso-astigmatism ≥ 0.25 D). Conclusions Prematurity and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of having esotropia and exotropia. Refractive error is associated in a severity-dependent manner to the prevalence of esotropia and exotropia. Because refractive error is correctable, these risk associations should be considered when developing guidelines for the screening and management of refractive error in infants and young children children. PMID:21856012

  8. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome at patients with diabetus melitus tip 2, one year retrospective study May 2011-June 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Burda

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have a high correlation with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II (about 52.9%. Prevalence of Dry Eye was significantly higher at patients with longer duration of diabetes. Dry Eye seems to be an important contributing factor related to corneal abnormalities. Age and sex not seem to play any important role in this condition. Good glycemic control is important for prevention and control of Dry Eye Syndrome.

  9. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision....

  10. A Novel Combination Therapy for Patients With Dry Eye Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Will; McMahon, David; Nymark, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Context • Approximately 25% of the US population suffers from dry eyes or some abnormality of the exposed ocular surface. Investigation of effective modalities for their management is needed. Objective • The study intended to examine the efficacy of a proprietary, daily, Dry Eye Protocol consisting of daily use of a moist, heated, ocular compress and intake of an omega-3 dietary supplement in treatment of ocular surface disease. Design • The research team designed a 4-wk, clinically based, open-label, multicenter cohort study. Setting • The study took place at 6 private eye care practices throughout the United States: Beverly Hills, CA, USA; San Diego, CA, USA; Sunnyvale, CA, USA; Park City, UT, USA; Tarpon Spring, FL, USA; and Kennewick, WA, USA. Participants • Participants were adults between 18 and 75 y of age who had established ocular surface disease based on clinical findings and the results of testing using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI). Intervention • For period of 30 d, participants used a combined daily protocol that included (1) application of a moist, heated, eye compress and (2) a nutritional therapy via an omega-3 supplement in an oral triglyceride form. Outcome Measures • Measures included the OSDI and a test of tear break-up time (TBUT). Results • Of the original 35 participants, 33 completed the 4-wk protocol. The participants using the proprietary Dry Eye Protocol showed significant improvements from baseline, demonstrated by a 49% decrease in OSDI scores (P = .0015); and 46% of participants reported becoming asymptomatic of dry eye symptoms. A significant improvement was also observed in TBUT, increasing from 3.0 to 5.4 s. Conclusions • Daily use of the proprietary Dry Eye Protocol that included a high dosage of triglyceride omega-3 and use of a moist, heated, compress daily showed significant improvement for participants in OSDI and TBUT and should be considered to be a first-line therapy for patients with dry eye

  11. A case-crossover study on transient risk factors of work-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-Y; Fong, P-C; Lin, S-F; Chang, C-H; Chan, C-C

    2009-08-01

    To investigate modifiable risk and preventive factors of work-related eye injuries. A case-crossover study conducted to explore the associations between transient risk factors and work-related eye injuries. Patients seen at seven medical centres in Taiwan with work-related eye injuries over a 4-year period were enrolled in the study. Clinical information was collected from medical charts and detailed information on exposure to eight potentially modifiable factors during the 60 minutes prior to the occurrence of each injury, as well as during the same time interval on the last work day prior to the injury, were obtained using questionnaire surveys. Matched-pair interval analysis was adopted to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for work-related eye injuries given exposure to the eight modifiable factors. A total of 283 subjects were interviewed. Most of these injured workers were young, male, and self-employed or small enterprise workers. The most common injury type was photokeratitis (33.2%), mainly caused by welding (30.4%). The OR for a work-related eye injury was increased with the performance of an unfamiliar task (57.0), operation of a faulty tool or piece of equipment (48.5), distractions (24.0), being rushed (13.0), or fatigued (10.0), and a poor work environment (4.3). Wearing eye protection devices was found to have a significant protective effect on workers who might otherwise have been exposed to eye injuries (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). Potential modifiable risk and preventive factors for work-related eye injuries were identified using a case-crossover study. This information should be helpful in the development of preventive strategies.

  12. Prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye of patients with retinal detachment: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Teresio; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Reibaldi, Michele; Torrisi, Benedetto; Reibaldi, Alfredo

    2004-03-01

    Controversy exists over the prophylactic treatment of predisposing lesions to prevent retinal detachment. Seven hundred sixty consecutive phakic fellow eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the first eye were examined by the same vitreoretinal surgeon before detachment surgery and for a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 72 months, with a mean of 36 months. During this period, in 305 fellow eyes (40.1%) predisposing retinal lesions were present and prophylactic treatments (photocoagulation, cryotherapy or scleral buckle) were performed independently of vitreous status. The results were then compared with the incidence of bilateral RD without prophylaxis reported in Folk and Burton's study of 1982; the two study's data were well matched and showed no significant difference in regards to age, sex, incidence myopia > or =-2.5 and incidence of lattice degeneration. The objective was to investigate whether or not prophylactic treatment is able to avert retinal detachment in the fellow eye. The age of the patients with peripheral retinal lesions was correlated inversely with the presence of myopia. Nine eyes out of 305 eyes treated (2.9%) developed a retinal detachment, reducing the rate of bilateral retinal detachment to 1.2% (9 eyes out of 760). This incidence of bilaterality (1.2%) was lower than the incidence of retinal detachment in fellow eyes not prophylactically treated as reported in the literature, and there exists a highly statistically significant difference between this study's data of 1.2% after prophylaxis and a 13.4% rate of bilaterality as reported by Folk without prophylaxis (P=0.0000).

  13. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. [Toshiba America Medical Systems (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  14. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  15. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European) and Japanese (East Asian) participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  16. The Experimental Study of Safety and Efficacy in Using Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongsik Seo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This experimental study was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. To identify the use of it as eye drop, the eye irritation test of rabbits and the antibacterial test of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans were performed. Methods : 1. The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration(2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 2. After administering Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution on bacterial species(Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans which cause Keratitis, MIC(Minimum Inhibition Concentration and the size of inhibition zone were measured. Anti-bacterial potency was also measured using the size of inhibition zone. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was administered in the left eye of the rabbits, it was found that none of nine rabbits have abnormal signs and weight changes. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation of the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. 3. There was no response to MIC on bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Candida albicans after Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated. Conclusions : The present study suggests that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution is a nontoxic and non-irritant medicine, which does not cause eye irritation in

  17. A Multi-Center Diabetes Eye Screening Study in Community Settings: Study Design and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Ann P; Friedman, David S; Gower, Emily W; Haller, Julia A; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia; Saaddine, Jinan; Insight Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20-74 years within the United States. The Innovative Network for Sight Research group (INSIGHT) designed the Diabetic Eye Screening Study (DESS) to examine the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of non-mydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening for adults with diabetes in community-based settings. Study enrollment began in December 2011 at four sites: an internal medicine clinic at a county hospital in Birmingham, Alabama; a Federally-qualified community healthcare center in Miami-Dade County, Florida; a university-affiliated outpatient pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and a medical home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. People 18 years or older with previously diagnosed diabetes were offered free DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography that was preceded by a brief questionnaire addressing demographic information and previous eye care use. Visual acuity was also measured for each eye. Images were evaluated at a telemedicine reading center by trained evaluators using the National Health System DR grading classification. Participants and their physicians were sent screening report results and telephoned for a follow-up survey 3 months post-screening to determine whether participants had sought follow-up comprehensive eye care and their experiences with the screening process. Target enrollment at each site was a minimum of 500 persons. Three of the four sites met this enrollment goal. The INSIGHT/DESS is intended to establish the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography in persons with diabetes who seek services in community-based clinic and pharmacy settings.

  18. Eye-size variability in deep-sea lanternfishes (Myctophidae): an ecological and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Fitzpatrick, John L; Paxton, John R; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common visual adaptations seen in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), where the amount of light diminishes exponentially with depth and where bioluminescent organisms predominate, is the enlargement of the eye and pupil area. However, it remains unclear how eye size is influenced by depth, other environmental conditions and phylogeny. In this study, we determine the factors influencing variability in eye size and assess whether this variability is explained by ecological differences in habitat and lifestyle within a family of mesopelagic fishes characterized by broad intra- and interspecific variance in depth range and luminous patterns. We focus our study on the lanternfish family (Myctophidae) and hypothesise that lanternfishes with a deeper distribution and/or a reduction of bioluminescent emissions have smaller eyes and that ecological factors rather than phylogenetic relationships will drive the evolution of the visual system. Eye diameter and standard length were measured in 237 individuals from 61 species of lanternfishes representing all the recognised tribes within the family in addition to compiling an ecological dataset including depth distribution during night and day and the location and sexual dimorphism of luminous organs. Hypotheses were tested by investigating the relationship between the relative size of the eye (corrected for body size) and variations in depth and/or patterns of luminous-organs using phylogenetic comparative analyses. Results show a great variability in relative eye size within the Myctophidae at all taxonomic levels (from subfamily to genus), suggesting that this character may have evolved several times. However, variability in eye size within the family could not be explained by any of our ecological variables (bioluminescence and depth patterns), and appears to be driven solely by phylogenetic relationships.

  19. An eye tracking study of bloodstain pattern analysts during pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R M; Hoogenboom, J; Green, R D; Taylor, M C; de Bruin, K G

    2018-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert. An eye tracking method was used to follow the gaze of 24 bloodstain pattern analysts during an assigned task of classifying a laboratory-generated test bloodstain pattern. With the aid of an automated image-processing methodology, the properties of selected features of the pattern were quantified leading to the delineation of areas of interest (AOIs). Eye tracking data were collected for each AOI and combined with verbal statements made by analysts after the classification task to determine the critical range of values for relevant diagnostic features. Eye-tracking data indicated that there were four main regions of the pattern that analysts were most interested in. Within each region, individual elements or groups of elements that exhibited features associated with directionality, size, colour and shape appeared to capture the most interest of analysts during the classification task. The study showed that the eye movements of trained bloodstain pattern experts and their verbal descriptions of a pattern were well correlated.

  20. Radiation protection to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography: a phantom study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, C P

    2008-08-01

    We measured radiation doses to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography to assess the effectiveness of bismuth and lead shields at dose reduction. Phantom head angiographic studies were performed with bismuth (study 1) and lead shields (study 2). In study 1 (12 phantoms), thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed over the eyes and thyroid in three groups: (i) no shields (four phantoms); (ii) anterior bismuth shields (four phantoms) and (iii) anterior and posterior bismuth shields (four phantoms). In a second study (eight phantoms), lead shields were placed over the thyroid only and TLD dose measurements obtained in two groups: (i) no shielding (four phantoms) and (ii) thyroid lead shielding (four phantoms). A standard 4-vessel cerebral angiogram was performed on each phantom. Study 1 (bismuth shields) showed higher doses to the eyes compared with thyroid (mean 13.03 vs 5.98 mSv, P < 0.001) and a higher eye dose on the X-ray tube side. Overall, the use of bismuth shielding did not significantly reduce dose to either eyes or thyroid in the measured TLD positions. In study 2, a significant thyroid dose reduction was found with the use of lead shields (47%, mean 2.46 vs 4.62 mSv, P < 0.001). Considerable doses to the eyes and thyroid highlight the need for increased awareness of patient protection. Eye shielding is impractical and interferes with diagnostic capability. Thyroid lead shielding yields significant protection to the thyroid, is not in the field of view and should be used routinely.

  1. Radiation protection to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography : a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortt, C. P.; Malone, L.; Thornton, J.; Brennan, P.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We measured radiation doses to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography to assess the effectiveness of bismuth and lead shields at dose reduction. Phantom head angiographic studies were performed with bismuth (study 1) and lead shields (study 2). In study 1 (12 phantoms), thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed over the eyes and thyroid in three groups: (i) no shields (four phantoms); (ii) anterior bismuth shields (four phantoms) and (iii) anterior and posterior bismuth shields (four phantoms). In a second study (eight phantoms), lead shields were placed over the thyroid only and TLD dose measurements obtained in two groups: (i) no shielding (four phantoms) and (ii) thyroid lead shielding (four phantoms). A standard 4-vessel cerebral angiogram was performed on each phantom. Study 1 (bismuth shields) showed higher doses to the eyes compared with thyroid (mean 13.03 vs 5.98 mSv, P < 0.001) and a higher eye dose on the X-ray tube side. Overall, the use of bismuth shielding did not significantly reduce dose to either eyes or thyroid in the measured TLD positions. In study 2, a significant thyroid dose reduction was found with the use of lead shields (47%, mean 2.46 vs 4.62 mSv, P < 0.001). Considerable doses to the eyes and thyroid highlight the need for increased awareness of patient protection. Eye shielding is impractical and interferes with diagnostic capability. Thyroid lead shielding yields significant protection to the thyroid, is not in the field of view and should be used routinely.

  2. Prevalence and Associations of Incomplete Posterior Vitreous Detachment in Adult Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Xu, Liang; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Chen, Chang Xi; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Jin Qiong; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine prevalence and associations of incomplete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Incomplete PVD was differentiated into type 1 (shallow PVD with circular perifoveal vitreous attachment), type 2 (PVD reaching fovea but not foveola), type 3 (shallow PVD with pinpoint vitreous attachment at the foveola), and type 4 (PVD completely detached from the macula, attached to the optic disc). Results An incomplete PVD was detected in 3948 eyes (prevalence: 60.5±0.6%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 59.3%,61.7%) of 2198 subjects (67.1±0.8%;95%CI: 65.6%,68.7%). Type 1 PVD was seen in 3090 (78.3%) eyes, type 2 PVD in 504 (12.8%) eyes, type 3 PVD in 70 (1.8%) eyes, and type 4 PVD in 284 (7.2%) eyes. Prevalence of incomplete PVD was associated with younger age (PPVD was associated with higher age (PPVD (detected in 67.1% subjects) was associated with younger age, male gender, rural region of habitation, larger corneal diameter, better best corrected visual acuity and hyperopic refractive error. PMID:23544043

  3. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  5. Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Visomitin Eye Drops in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.

  6. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  7. Clinical study of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets for dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qun Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets on the treatment of dry eye. METHODS:Totally 200 patients with dry eye were randomly divided into the control group(n=100and observation group(n=100. Patients in two groups were given 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops and physiotherapy. On the basis of this, the observation group were treated with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets. The inflammatory factors(IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1βlevels and ocular symptom scores(OSDI, BUT, SⅠt, FLin the two groups were compared between before and after treatment. And the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, OSDI and FL scores in two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment, and BUT and SⅠt were significantly higher than those before treatment. Moreover, the improvement degree of the above indexes in the observation group were better than those in the control group, showing statistically significant difference(Pχ2=5.531, P=0.019, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(χ2=0.307, P=0.579. CONCLUSION:As for the patients with dry eye, the combination of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets can significantly decrease the level of inflammatory factors, improve the eye symptoms and the clinical total efficiency, without increasing treatment-related adverse effects.

  8. Timing of Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Management of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injury: Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda Hamdy Ghoraba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the difference in either anatomical or functional outcome of vitreoretinal intervention in cases of gunshot perforating eye injury if done 2–4 weeks or after the 4th week after the original trauma. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil. Surgeries were performed in the period from February 2011 until the end of December 2014. 253 eyes of 237 patients were reviewed. 46 eyes were excluded. 207 eyes of 197 patients were analyzed. The included eyes were classified based on the timing of vitrectomy in relation to the initial trauma into two groups: 149 eyes (the first group operated on between the 3rd and the 4th week and 58 eyes (the second group operated on after the 4th week after the trauma. Following one surgical intervention, in the first group, attached retina was achieved in 93.28% of patients. In the second group, attached retina was achieved in 96.55% of patients. All RD cases could be attached by a second surgery. Visual acuity improved in 81.21% of patients, did not change in 15.43% of patients, and declined in 3.35% of patients. In the second group, visual acuity improved in 81.03% of patients, did not change in 12.06% of patients, and worsened in 6.89% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either anatomical or functional results. We recommend interfering before the 5th week after the trauma as retinal detachment is encountered more in cases operated on after the 4th week. The visual outcome depends on the site of entry and exit (the route of gunshot.

  9. Study on the transverse chromatic aberration of the individual eye model after LASIK refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this research is to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) after the LASIK refractive surgery based on the individual eye model involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis. According to the measurements of the corneal surfaces, the optical axis lengths and the wavefront aberrations, the individual eye models before and after LASIK refractive surgery are constructed for 15 eyes by using ZEMAX optic design software, while the angle between the visual axis and optical axis is calculated from the data of the anterior corneal surface. The constructed eye models are then used to investigate the variation of the TCA after the surgery. The statistical distributions of the magnitude of the foveal TCA for 15 eyes over the visible spectrum are provided. Finally, we investigate the influence of the TCA on the visual quality and compare the results with previous research. The TCA is an indispensable criterion to evaluate the performance of the refractive surgery. This research is very meaningful for the studies of not only foveal vision but also the peripheral vision.

  10. Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-02-11

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease.

  11. Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, S; Theusinger, O M; Kniestedt, C

    2017-04-01

    Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year's Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year's Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence group 46 %, 23 % and 31 % respectively. Severe trauma cases occurred significantly more often around the New Year, with 36 % versus August 1st with 18 % (p = 0.0028). They are more often

  12. Clinical features and prognosis of eyeball rupture: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kang; Wang, Chang-guan; Hu, Yun-tao; Yao, Yi; Jiang, Yan-rong; Shen, Li-jun; Pang, Xiu-qin; Nie, Hong-ping; Ma, Zhi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to delineate clinical characteristics, surgical interventions, anatomic and visual outcomes of ruptured eye balls after trauma, and establish the prognostic indicators, which can assist clinicians in making correct surgical decisions during globe exploration for ruptured eyes. The study design used was a multicentre prospective cohort study, including six university-affiliated tertiary hospitals. We selected 242 cases of ruptured globe from the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study database, until 31 December 2012. All selected cases underwent vitreoretinal surgery, enucleation or evisceration, and were followed up for at least 6 months. Age, visual acuity (VA) after injury, ocular trauma zone, time to surgery, corneal laceration, scleral wound, extrusion of iris or lens, ciliary body damage, intraocular haemorrhage, retinal detachment or defect, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and choroidal damage were the predisposing factors evaluated by logistic regression models. We compared the pre-surgical indicators between cases of anatomically restored eyes with VA of 4/200 or better, or eyes with initial no light perception restored light perception or better, and cases of VA worse than 4/200, silicone oil-sustained eyes, phthisis or enucleation. Nearly 40% of cases with ruptured globe were anatomically restored through vitreoretinal surgery. The closed-funnel retinal detachment or extensive retinal loss (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, P = 0.026), PVR-C (OR = 3.45, P = 0.008), and choroidal damage (OR = 4.20, P = 0.004) were correlated with poor outcomes. The closed-funnel retinal detachment or extensive retinal loss, PVR-C, and choroidal damage are the risk factors for unfavourable outcomes in globe ruptures. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

  14. Dosimetry studies with 32P source and correlation of skin and eye lens doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish; Gaonkar, U.P.; Koul, D.K.; Datta, D.; Saxena, S.K.; Kumar, Yogendra; Dash, A.

    2018-01-01

    Beta particles are one of the major contributors toward skin and eye lens doses at facilities handling beta sources. These sources find applications in industry, pharmaceuticals as well as in brachytherapy applications. The beta particles having maximum (E max ) energy > 0.07 MeV are capable of delivering skin dose whereas beta particles having maximum (E max ) energy > 0.7 MeV may also contribute towards dose to eye lens. Studies are performed using 32 P beta source as its maximum beta energy (E max ) is such that for sources having (E max ) of 1.71 MeV or beyond, there can be substantial contribution towards dose to eye lens even the dose limit recommended for skin is followed

  15. Comparative study of eye dose and chest dose received during radiopharmaceutical production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chindarkar, A.S.; Chavan, S.V.; Sawant, D.K.; Sahoo, L.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Sneha, C.; Sachdev, S.S.; Dey, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical laboratory, BRIT, Vashi produces different radiopharmaceuticals of 131 I, 153 Sm, 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 177 Lu. Principle gamma energies of these isotopes vary from 103 to 740 KeV and their maximum beta energies vary from 384 to 1214 KeV. In the light of the revised eye lens dose limit recommended in IAEA Basic Safety Standard Interim Edition No. GSR Part 3 (IAEA-2011), the study of radiation dose for eye lens was carried out using CaSO 4 : Dy based Thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). This TLD was worn at center of the forehead to measure eye lens dose. This TLD dose was then compared with chest TLD dose to deduce any correlation between these TLD doses. These TLD doses were assessed on quarterly basis. Eight quarter data of these TLD doses were compared

  16. The technology study on irradiation sterilization of the eye health care paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Zhu Jun; Zhao Huidong; Song Weidong; Zhang Hongna; Li Kunhao

    2009-01-01

    The effect of radiation on appearance,color and active ingredients of products has been studied in irradiation sterilization of eye healthy care paste by use of 60 Co γ-rays. The results show that irradiation is very effective on killing the microorganisms in eye healthy care paste, and the D 10 of the aerobic bacterial count is determined to be 3.16kGy. The process adopts the irradiation static stacking mode, and the suitable absorbed dose has been selected to be 7-8kGy. It has been found that irradiation with 7-8kGy does not affect appearance, color and active ingredients of the eye healthy care paste. (authors)

  17. A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF DRY EYES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant V. Solanke; Preeti Pawde; A. Vinolin Maria Sebastina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dry eye syndrome is a common eye disease. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES), also known as Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dry eye occurs when either the eye does not produce enough...

  18. The role of interword spacing in reading Japanese: an eye movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, Miia; Hyönä, Jukka; Bingushi, Kazuo; Bertram, Raymond

    2007-09-01

    The present study investigated the role of interword spacing in a naturally unspaced language, Japanese. Eye movements were registered of native Japanese readers reading pure Hiragana (syllabic) and mixed Kanji-Hiragana (ideographic and syllabic) text in spaced and unspaced conditions. Interword spacing facilitated both word identification and eye guidance when reading syllabic script, but not when the script contained ideographic characters. We conclude that in reading Hiragana interword spacing serves as an effective segmentation cue. In contrast, spacing information in mixed Kanji-Hiragana text is redundant, since the visually salient Kanji characters serve as effective segmentation cues by themselves.

  19. Feasibility study on retinal vascular bypass surgery in isolated arterially perfused caprine eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Wu, W; Zhang, X; Fan, W; Shen, L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of bypassing occluded segments of retinal venous main vessels in isolated, arterially perfused caprine eyes via the closed-sky vitrectomy approach using keratoprosthesis. Methods Isolated caprine eyes were used in this study. For each eye, the retinal vessel was perfused by Krebs solution via ophthalmic artery, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed using temporary keratoprosthesis. All retinal micro-vascular maneuvers were performed in a closed-sky eyeball. The main retinal vein was blocked by endodiathermy at the site of the vessel's first branching. Two openings, several millimeters apart, were created by vascular punctures in both the main vein and its branch vein wall straddling the induced occluded segment. Catheterization was achieved using a flexible polyimide tube, with each end inserted into the vessel wall opening. A sealed connection between the vessel and the tube was obtained by endodiathermy. Bypass of the occluded retinal vein segment was thus achieved, and the patency of this vascular bypass was confirmed by intravascular staining. Results Puncturing, catheterization, and endodiathermy were viable by closed-sky approach using keratoprosthesis. Bypassing of the occluded retinal main vein segment was accomplished with the combination of these maneuvers. Good results were obtained in 23 of 38 (60%) caprine eyes. Conclusions This study demonstrated that bypassing the occluded segment of retinal main vein can be successfully performed in a closed-sky eyeball model of isolated, arterially perfused caprine eye. This early work indicated that the more advanced retinal vascular bypass surgery in in vivo eye may be feasible in the future. PMID:21921946

  20. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Wang, Jie Jin; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Burlutsky, George; Rose, Kathryn A; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) in preschool children. Cross-sectional, population-based study. A total of 2461 children (73.8% participation rate), aged 6 to 72 months, were examined in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study during 2007-2009; of whom 1188, aged 30 to 72 months, with complete visual acuity (VA) data in both eyes, were included in this report. Measurement of VA was attempted on all children using the Electronic Visual Acuity (EVA) system or a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA children aged ≥48 months and Visual impairment prevalence and its associations with child demographic factors and birth parameters. Visual impairment was found in 6.4% of the worse eye and 2.7% of the better eye in our sample. Refractive errors (69.7%) and amblyopia (26.3%) were the principal causes of VI in the worse eye. Astigmatism (51.3%) and hyperopia (28.9%) were the main refractive errors causing VI. In regression analysis controlling for other factors, VI was independently associated with low birthweight of 0.05). Visual impairment in at least 1 eye was found in 6.4% of Australian preschool children, with bilateral VI found in 2.7%. Uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia were the principal ocular conditions associated with VI. Low birthweight was a significant risk factor independent of age, gender, and ethnicity. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahzad I.; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Results: Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology. PMID:27507907

  3. The dry eye assessment and management (DREAM©) study: Study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Maguire, Maureen G; Peskin, Ellen; Bunya, Vatinee Y; Kuklinski, Eric J

    2018-06-05

    Describe trial design and baseline characteristics of participants in the DRy Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM©) Study. Prospective, multi-center, randomized, double-masked "real-world" clinical trial assessing efficacy and safety of oral omega-3 (ω3) supplementation for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 58.0 ± 13.2 years. Mean OSDI score at baseline was 44.4 ± 14.2. Mean conjunctival staining score (scale 0-6) was 3.0 ± 1.4, corneal staining score (scale 0-15) was 3.9 ± 2.7, tear break-up time was 3.1 ± 1.5 s, and Schirmer test was 9.6 ± 6.5 mm/5 min. DREAM© participants mirror real world patients who seek intervention for their DED-related symptoms despite their current treatments. Results regarding the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation will be helpful to clinicians and patients with moderate to severe DED who are considering omega-3 as a treatment. This trial design may be a model for future RCT's on nutritional supplements and DED treatments seeking to provide useful information for clinical practice. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02128763. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  5. Studies of cytotoxic antibodies against eye muscle antigens in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-G.; Hiromatsu, Y.; Salvi, M.; Triller, H.; Bernard, N.; Wall, J.R. (Thyroid Research Unit, The Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Medeiros-Neto, G.; Iacona, A.; Lima, N. (Thyroid Clinic, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the prevalence and significance of cytotoxic antibodies against human eye muscle cells, as detected in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (CMAC) in {sup 51}Cr release assays, in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A high prevalence of positive ADCC tests was found in all groups of patients with ophthalmopathy tested. Tests were positive in 64% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy from an area of severe iodine deficiency (Sao Paulo) and in 64% of such patients from an iodine replete area (Montreal). In patients with so-called ''euthyroid ophthalmopathy'', i.e. eye disease associated with thyroiditis, ADCC tests were positive in 75 and 38% of patients from the two areas, respectively, while tests were positive in 40 and 22%, respectively, of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism without evident eye disease. In normal subjects, levels of {sup 51}Cr release was always at background levels. In a group of patients from the high-iodine area, levels of antibodies in ADCC correlated positively with the intraocular pressure (mmHg) in primary position as a parameter of eye muscle dysfunction. In patients with ophthalmopathy, positive ADCC tests were assciated with antibodies to eye muscle membrane antigens of 55,65 and 95 kD as detected by immunoblotting, although the correlation was not close for any antigen. in contrast, CMAC tests were negative in all patients with ophthalmopathy. We also tested 9 mouse and 10 human monoclonal antibodies, reactive with orbital antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for cytotoxic activity, in ADCC and CMAC, against eye muscle and thyroid cells. All monoclonal antibodies were of the IgM class and negative in ADCC assays. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Does attention to health labels predict a healthy food choice? An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Nicolaas, Iris; Galetzka, Mirjam

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention to health labels can indicate a subsequent healthy food choice. This study looked into the relative effects of Choices logos and traffic light labels on consumers’ visual attention and food choice. A field experiment using mobile eye-tracking was conducted in a Dutch university

  7. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    Purpose: To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesisfree metabolomics approach. Design: Cross-sectional association study. Participants: A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean

  8. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  9. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  10. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  11. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  12. Does sound structure affect word learning? An eye-tracking study of Danish learning toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.

    2018-01-01

    closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...

  13. A prospective, comparative, observational study on optical coherence tomography of the anterior eye segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared two commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices according to their capacity of imaging the anterior segment of the eye with the same detail and quality. METHODS: A prospective, observational, single-visit study with individuals aged 18

  14. Factors Influencing the Use of Captions by Foreign Language Learners: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan; Sydorenko, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates caption-reading behavior by foreign language (L2) learners and, through eye-tracking methodology, explores the extent to which the relationship between the native and target language affects that behavior. Second-year (4th semester) English-speaking learners of Arabic, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish watched 2 videos…

  15. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  16. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkaran, Karuppannan; Zunaina, Embong; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, KNS; Naik, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment ...

  18. Nutrition and Age-Related Eye Diseases: The ALIENOR (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies Oculaires) Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Delcourt , Cécile; Korobelnik , Jean-François; Barberger-Gateau , Pascale; Delyfer , Marie-Noëlle; Marie-Bénédicte , Rougier; Le Goff , Mélanie; Malet , Florence; Joseph , Colin; Dartigues , Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Background: Worldwide, degenerative eye diseases (age-related maculopathy (ARM), cataract, glaucoma) are the main causes of visual impairment and blindness, which contribute to disability in the elderly. Mainly three types of nutritional factors are investigated for their potential protection against eye ageing: antioxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids which accumulate specifically in the eye); omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few epidemiological studies ha...

  19. Studies of cytotoxic antibodies against eye muscle antigens in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-G.; Hiromatsu, Y.; Salvi, M.; Triller, H.; Bernard, N.; Wall, J.R.; Medeiros-Neto, G.; Iacona, A.; Lima, N.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the prevalence and significance of cytotoxic antibodies against human eye muscle cells, as detected in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (CMAC) in 51 Cr release assays, in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A high prevalence of positive ADCC tests was found in all groups of patients with ophthalmopathy tested. Tests were positive in 64% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy from an area of severe iodine deficiency (Sao Paulo) and in 64% of such patients from an iodine replete area (Montreal). In patients with so-called ''euthyroid ophthalmopathy'', i.e. eye disease associated with thyroiditis, ADCC tests were positive in 75 and 38% of patients from the two areas, respectively, while tests were positive in 40 and 22%, respectively, of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism without evident eye disease. In normal subjects, levels of 51 Cr release was always at background levels. In a group of patients from the high-iodine area, levels of antibodies in ADCC correlated positively with the intraocular pressure (mmHg) in primary position as a parameter of eye muscle dysfunction. In patients with ophthalmopathy, positive ADCC tests were assciated with antibodies to eye muscle membrane antigens of 55,65 and 95 kD as detected by immunoblotting, although the correlation was not close for any antigen. in contrast, CMAC tests were negative in all patients with ophthalmopathy. We also tested 9 mouse and 10 human monoclonal antibodies, reactive with orbital antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for cytotoxic activity, in ADCC and CMAC, against eye muscle and thyroid cells. All monoclonal antibodies were of the IgM class and negative in ADCC assays. When tested in CMAC against eye muscle cells, one of 9 mouse and 5 of 8 human monoclonal antibodies showed significant activity while tests were positive in one of 9 and one of 10 monoclonal antibodies

  20. Six-year clinical study of firework-related eye injuries in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yichun; Tang, Xin; Kong, Baohuan; Jiang, Hao; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the demographic data, clinical characteristics, management and prognosis of patients with firework-related eye injuries. A retrospective review was performed of patients with eye injuries related to fireworks referred to TianJin Eye Hospital in North China from 2008 to 2013. Demographic information, clinical features, management and visual outcome were analysed and prognosis factors were evaluated. Ninety-nine patients (86 men) with 118 eye injuries were enrolled in the study. The average age of the patients was 32.0±20.5 years; 70/99 (70.7%) were aged >20 years. Eighty-one of the patients had been lighting the fireworks while the rest were bystanders. The main ophthalmic manifestations were hyphaema, vitreous haemorrhage, corneal/sclera/corneoscleral open globe injury, eyelid laceration, traumatic cataract, retinal/choroid detachment, endophthalmitis and intraocular foreign body (IOFB). Ninety patients required surgical intervention including repair of open globe injury, vitrectomy, cataract extraction and enucleation. 56/118 eyes (47.5%) received multiple operations. After treatment, final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) significantly improved (p=0.015). Some factors were significantly correlated with better final BCVA, including initial BCVA (p=0.036), closed globe injury (p=0.031), absence of endophthalmitis (p=0.014), absence of IOFB (p=0.024) and absence of retinal detachment (p=0.046). Firework-related eye injuries mainly occur in adult men and result in severe visual damage. The most common clinical manifestations are hyphaema and vitreous haemorrhage. Better initial BCVA and closed globe injury have a better visual result while endophthalmitis, IOFB and retinal detachment have a negative visual outcome. Improved eye protection, along with enhanced public education and legal ban on fireworks, could reduce the incidence of eye injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  1. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haliza Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P0.05. There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P>0.05. Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  2. Nomogram to Predict Graft Thickness in Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty: An Eye Bank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Menninga, Isaac; Hoshino, Richard; Humphreys, Christine; Chan, Clara C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nomogram to predict postcut thickness of corneal grafts prepared at an eye bank for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Retrospective chart review was performed of DSAEK graft preparations by 3 experienced technicians from April 2012 to May 2017 at the Eye Bank of Canada-Ontario Division. Variables collected included the following: donor demographics, death-to-preservation time, death-to-processing time, precut tissue thickness, postcut tissue thickness, microkeratome head size, endothelial cell count, cut technician, and rate of perforation. Linear regression models were generated for each microkeratome head size (300 and 350 μm). A total of 780 grafts were processed during the study period. Twelve preparation attempts resulted in perforation (1.5%) and were excluded. Mean precut tissue thickness was 510 ± 49 μm (range: 363-670 μm). Mean postcut tissue thickness was 114 ± 22 μm (range: 57-193 μm). Seventy-nine percent (608/768) of grafts were ≤130 μm. The linear regression models included precut thickness and donor age, which were able to predict the thickness to within 25 μm 80% of the time. We report a nomogram to predict thickness of DSAEK corneal grafts prepared in an eye bank setting, which was accurate to within 25 μm 80% of the time. Other eye banks could consider performing similar analyses.

  3. Topical administration of regorafenib eye drops: phase I dose-escalation study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Torsten; Höchel, Joachim; Becka, Michael; Boettger, Michael K; Rohde, Beate; Schug, Barbara; Kunert, Kathleen S; Donath, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Regorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor under investigation for use in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. In this phase I study, regorafenib eye drops were administered to healthy volunteers to provide information on safety, tolerability and systemic exposure. This was a single-centre, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled study. Subjects received regorafenib eye drops (30 mg ml -1 , 25 μl) as a 0.75 mg single dose (Cohort 1), 0.75 mg twice daily (bid) or thrice daily (tid) over 14 days (Cohorts 2 and 3, respectively), 1.5 mg tid unilaterally for 3 days, then bilaterally for up to 14 days (Cohort 4), or placebo. Plasma samples were taken to estimate systemic exposure. Safety and functional assessments were performed throughout the study. Thirty-six subjects received regorafenib and 12 received placebo. Regorafenib was safe and well tolerated over the dose range. No pathological changes occurred in the anterior, vitreous or posterior eye compartments. Mild eyelid redness, oedema and conjunctival hyperaemia were observed across all regorafenib cohorts; these were comparable with the effects seen with placebo. Predominant symptoms were blurred vision in the active and placebo groups. Systemic safety evaluations showed no clinically relevant findings. Absolute systemic exposure after multiple administrations of regorafenib eye drops at a dose of 0.75 mg was 600-700-fold lower than after multiple oral administration of 160 mg day -1 , the dose approved in cancer indications. These results indicate a favourable safety and tolerability profile of regorafenib eye drops up to 30 mg ml -1 tid for use in clinical studies. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  4. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  5. Gender differences in visuospatial planning: an eye movements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Valentina; Basso, Demis; Cutini, Simone; Bisiacchi, Patrizia

    2010-01-20

    Gender studies report a male advantage in several visuospatial abilities. Only few studies however, have evaluated differences in visuospatial planning behaviour with regard to gender. This study was aimed at exploring whether gender may affect the choice of cognitive strategies in a visuospatial planning task and, if oculomotor measures could assist in disentangling the cognitive processes involved. A computerised task based on the travelling salesperson problem paradigm, the Maps test, was used to investigate these issues. Participants were required to optimise time and space of a path travelling among a set of sub-goals in a spatially constrained environment. Behavioural results suggest that there are no gender differences in the initial visual processing of the stimuli, but rather during the execution of the plan, with males showing a shorter execution time and a higher path length optimisation than females. Males often showed changes of heuristics during the execution while females seemed to prefer a constant strategy. Moreover, a better performance in behavioural and oculomotor measures seemed to suggest that males are more able than females in either the optimisation of spatial features or the realisation of the planned scheme. Despite inconclusive findings, the results support previous research and provide insight into the level of cognitive processing involved in navigation and planning tasks, with regard to the influence of gender.

  6. Sex differences in a virtual water maze: an eye tracking and pupillometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Jackson, Carl P T; Skelton, Ron W

    2008-11-21

    Sex differences in human spatial navigation are well known. However, the exact strategies that males and females employ in order to navigate successfully around the environment are unclear. While some researchers propose that males prefer environment-centred (allocentric) and females prefer self-centred (egocentric) navigation, these findings have proved difficult to replicate. In the present study we examined eye movements and physiological measures of memory (pupillometry) in order to compare visual scanning of spatial orientation using a human virtual analogue of the Morris Water Maze task. Twelve women and twelve men (average age=24 years) were trained on a visible platform and had to locate an invisible platform over a series of trials. On all but the first trial, participants' eye movements were recorded for 3s and they were asked to orient themselves in the environment. While the behavioural data replicated previous findings of improved spatial performance for males relative to females, distinct sex differences in eye movements were found. Males tended to explore consistently more space early on while females demonstrated initially longer fixation durations and increases in pupil diameter usually associated with memory processing. The eye movement data provides novel insight into differences in navigational strategies between the sexes.

  7. Individual Differences in Spatial Knowledge Acquisition from a Virtual Environment: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Uenaka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that spatial knowledge acquisition differs across individuals in both real and virtual environments. For example, in a real environment, Ishikawa & Montello (2006 showed that some participants had almost perfect configural knowledge of the environment after one or two learning trials, whereas others performed at chance even after repeated learning trials. Using a virtual version of Ishikawa & Montello's layouts, we measured eye movements while participants were learning a layout of a route, as eye movements are shown to be closely linked to performance in spatial navigation tasks. We prepared three different layouts of a route depicted in a desktop virtual environment, along with the locations of four landmarks on that route. After learning each of the routes, we administered three different measures of spatial knowledge: numbering the landmark order, estimation of direction, and map sketching. Self-reported sense-of-direction (SDQ-S was also measured. Behavioral analyses showed positive correlations across the routes in the estimation of direction. However, consistent correlations were not observed between eye movements and performance of the estimation of direction in each route. Those results suggest that eye movements do not predict individual differences in spatial knowledge acquisition.

  8. Eye contact perception in the West and East: a cross-cultural study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Uono

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether eye contact perception differs in people with different cultural backgrounds. Finnish (European and Japanese (East Asian participants were asked to determine whether Finnish and Japanese neutral faces with various gaze directions were looking at them. Further, participants rated the face stimuli for emotion and other affect-related dimensions. The results indicated that Finnish viewers had a smaller bias toward judging slightly averted gazes as directed at them when judging Finnish rather than Japanese faces, while the bias of Japanese viewers did not differ between faces from their own and other cultural backgrounds. This may be explained by Westerners experiencing more eye contact in their daily life leading to larger visual experience of gaze perception generally, and to more accurate perception of eye contact with people from their own cultural background particularly. The results also revealed cultural differences in the perception of emotion from neutral faces that could also contribute to the bias in eye contact perception.

  9. The specificity of attentional biases by type of gambling: An eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Daniel S.; Meitner, Amadeus; Sears, Christopher R.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that gamblers develop an attentional bias for gambling-related stimuli. Compared to research on substance use, however, few studies have examined attentional biases in gamblers using eye-gaze tracking, which has many advantages over other measures of attention. In addition, previous studies of attentional biases in gamblers have not directly matched type of gambler with personally-relevant gambling cues. The present study investigated the specificity of at...

  10. Study On Technology Based Home Vision Screening And Creating Awareness On Eye Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Mehta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Technology is one of most important factor in todays life. IPAD is leading as people can make use of technology by just pressing buttons. Networking technology and education makes communication easier and helps people in easy education and awareness. Aim amp objectives The main aim of the study is to educate and aware among people regarding eye health and the check the visual function of their eye by using Apple I pad. Material and Methodology The following study is a home based vision screening program using IPAD which uses the basic tests like visual acuity color vision contrast sensitivity and amsler tests for checking the basic functions of the eye. The study was performed in many societies moving from one place to another using IPAD as a tool. Reliability of ipad was checked a pilot study on 25 subjects visual acuity colour vision and contrast sensitivity was taken on both ipad and Original chart like snellen ishihara and pellirobson and compared in which the results and the accuracy were same. The study also contains questionnaire on the awareness and education about eye health. The subjects included in the study were an age group of 10 to 70. Subjects like infants and blind were not included in the study. Results During the study it was observed that there is no significant difference in testing of visual acuity between ipad and Snellen standard chart. The subjects responded actively towards screening and that home vision screening can be possible. During the study it was found that 40 subjects out of 100 needed further detailed check-up and were referred in Rotary eye hospital hospital but only 3 out of 40 came for it. This shows that they are less aware and education about their eye health. Software used in IPAD were visual acuity color vision contrast sensitivity and amsler tests A questionnaire was also asked which indicated less awareness among the common people. Conclusion We examined with just an ipad and not an

  11. Heritability of the severity of diabetic retinopathy: the FIND-Eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Nedal H; Freedman, Barry I; Adler, Sharon G; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily Y; Davis, Mathew D; Satko, Scott G; Bowden, Donald W; Duggirala, Ravi; Elston, Robert C; Guo, Xiuxing; Hanson, Robert L; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G; Pahl, Madeleine V; Quade, Shannon R E; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Rotter, Jerome I; Saad, Mohammed F; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Zager, Philip G; Abboud, Hanna E

    2008-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Correlations between severity of DR and DN and computed heritability estimates for DR were determined in a large, multiethnic sample of diabetic families. The hypothesis was that (1) the severity of DR correlates with the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and (2) the severity of DR is under significant familial influence in members of multiplex diabetic families. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was designed to evaluate the genetic basis of DN in American Indians, European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. FIND enrolled probands with advanced DN, along with their diabetic siblings who were concordant and discordant for nephropathy. These diabetic family members were invited to participate in the FIND-Eye study to determine whether inherited factors underlie susceptibility to DR and its severity. FIND-Eye participants underwent eye examinations and had fundus photographs taken. The severity of DR was graded by using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Classification (ETDRS). Sib-sib correlations were calculated with the SAGE 5.0 program FCOR, to estimate heritability of retinopathy severity. This report summarizes the results for the first 2368 diabetic subjects from 767 families enrolled in FIND-Eye; nearly 50% were Mexican American, the largest single ethnicity within FIND. The overall prevalence of DR was high; 33.4% had proliferative DR; 7.5%, 22.8%, and 9.5% had severe, moderate, and mild nonproliferative DR, respectively; 26.6% had no DR. The severity of DR was significantly associated with severity of DN, both by phenotypic category and by increasing serum creatinine concentration (chi(2) = 658.14, df = 20; P FIND-Eye sample. These data confirm that the severity of DR parallels the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes

  12. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  13. Physical activity in childhood and the association with myopia in adolescence – The CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Jacobsen, Nina

    Purpose: Myopia is the most frequent eye disease globally and is usually caused by increasing axial growth of the eye during childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle changes such as reduced physical activity (PA) are thought to be the driving force behind the rapid increase of myopia worldwide....... The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PA on the development of myopia in a Danish cohort of schoolchildren. The hypothesis was that decreased PA during childhood is associated with increased axial length and myopia. Methods: A prospective study of 198 children from the CHAMPS-study DK...... cohort (Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark). PA was assessed with GT3X accelerometer (ActiGraph, Florida, USA) worn for 7 full consecutive days at the period August to October 2010: mean intensity was estimated as counts/min (CPM); and cut off-points for sedentary (SED...

  14. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  15. Using Eye Movement Analysis to Study Auditory Effects on Visual Memory Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG) was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjo...

  16. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different

  17. An Eye-tracking Study of Notational, Informational, and Emotional Aspects of Learning Analytics Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an eye-tracking study of notational, informational, and emotional aspects of nine different notational systems (Skill Meters, Smilies, Traffic Lights, Topic Boxes, Collective Histograms, Word Clouds, Textual Descriptors, Table, and Matrix) and three different information states...... (Weak, Average, & Strong) used to represent student's learning. Findings from the eye-tracking study show that higher emotional activation was observed for the metaphorical notations of traffic lights and smilies and collective representations. Mean view time was higher for representations...... of the "average" informational learning state. Qualitative data analysis of the think-aloud comments and post-study interview show that student participants reflected on the meaning-making opportunities and action-taking possibilities afforded by the representations. Implications for the design and evaluation...

  18. Relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in twin children: the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Decai; Liu, Bin; Huang, Shengsong; Huang, Wenyong; He, Mingguang

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in children from the Guangzhou twin eye study. Twin participants aged 7-15 years were selected from Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Ocular examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and anterior segment, media, and fundus examination. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature radius were measured using partial coherence laser interferometry. A multivariate linear regression model was used for statistical analysis. Twin children from Guangzhou city showed a decreased spherical equivalent with age, whereas both AL and ACD were increased and corneal curvature radius remained unchanged. When adjusted by age and gender, the data from 77% of twins presenting with spherical equivalent changes indicated that these were caused by predictable variables (R2 = 0.77, P biometrics. Refractive status is largely determined by axial length as the major factor.

  19. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  20. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.

  1. Pioneering Studies on Cephalopod's Eye and Vision at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (1883-1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröscher, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemists, and ophthalmologists to travel to the Zoological Station in Naples. Initially, their preferred research objects were fish, but it soon became evident that cephalopods have features which make them particularly suited to research. After the first studies, which outlined the anatomical structure of cephalopods' eyes and optic nerves, the research rapidly shifted to the electrophysiology and biochemistry of vision. In the twentieth century these results were integrated with behavioral tests and training techniques. Between 1909 and 1913 also the well-known debate on color vision between ophthalmologist Carl von Hess and zoologist Karl von Frisch took place in Naples. Largely unknown is that the debate also concerned cephalopods. A comparative historical analysis of these studies shows how different experimental devices, theoretical frameworks, and personal factors gave rise to two diametrically opposing views.

  2. Pioneering Studies on Cephalopod's Eye and Vision at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (1883-1977)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr?scher, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemists, and ophthalmologists to travel to the Zoological Station in Naples. Initially, their preferred research objects were fish, but it soon became evident that cephalopods have features which make them particularly suited to research. After the first studies, which outlined the anatomical structur...

  3. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Jyotirmay; Raman Rajiv

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, ...

  4. SPECTRUM OF CHILDHOOD EYE DISEASES IN A RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaga Murthy K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eye disorders in children with different presentations come to Ophthalmology OPD. Early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity is important. This study aimed to detect the prevalence and pattern of common ophthalmic problems in paediatric age group, in a rural based tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study design was observational, retrospective review of all children less than 12 yrs. old, who came to the rural based Chengalpattu Government medical college Ophthalmology OPD, between September 2015 and May 2016. Data collection and analysis was based on the age of presentation of both sexes (newborn (0-28 days, infants (1 year, preschool (1-5 years, school going (above 5 years from rural and semi-rural areas and diagnosis were analysed using graph pad prism 5.0. 'P value' less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS During the study period, out of total 2520 OP cases (100%, 230 children (10.95% were evaluated. The male: Female ratio was 1.1:1. The children from school going age constituted the largest group, male (48 .4% & Female (51.5% (p<0.001. Children from semi-rural area constituted (55% and rural area constituted (45%. Defective vision (26% was the common complaint, eye discharge accounts for (20%, and lid swelling accounts for (11.3 %. Common conditions were refractive error (26%, Conjunctivitis (20%, Lid Inflammations (11.3%, and Injuries for (10.3%. Refractive Error was common in females (53.3% and in school going children (60 %. Myopia (85% was the common refractive error. Conjunctivitis was seen more in males (52.17% and less in females (47.8%. In pre-school age group conjunctivitis was common. CONCLUSION The common childhood eye diseases observed in our study is refractive error. This has led to poor scholastic performance in school and absenteeism. Health Education & Environmental Hygiene will help in managing most of these eye disorders.

  5. A clinical study of the efficacy of topical corticosteroids on dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chong-qing; Sun, Wen; Gu, Yang-shun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of topical corticosteroid for treatment of moderate or severe dry eye. Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with moderate or severe dry eye, who were not sensitive to artificial tears, were treated with 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops. Subjective symptom and objective tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment before and after application of 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops for 1 week and 1 month. Side effects were also evaluated. Results: After 1 week ...

  6. The specificity of attentional biases by type of gambling: An eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S McGrath

    Full Text Available A growing body of research indicates that gamblers develop an attentional bias for gambling-related stimuli. Compared to research on substance use, however, few studies have examined attentional biases in gamblers using eye-gaze tracking, which has many advantages over other measures of attention. In addition, previous studies of attentional biases in gamblers have not directly matched type of gambler with personally-relevant gambling cues. The present study investigated the specificity of attentional biases for individual types of gambling using an eye-gaze tracking paradigm. Three groups of participants (poker players, video lottery terminal/slot machine players, and non-gambling controls took part in one test session in which they viewed 25 sets of four images (poker, VLTs/slot machines, bingo, and board games. Participants' eye fixations were recorded throughout each 8-second presentation of the four images. The results indicated that, as predicted, the two gambling groups preferentially attended to their primary form of gambling, whereas control participants attended to board games more than gambling images. The findings have clinical implications for the treatment of individuals with gambling disorder. Understanding the importance of personally-salient gambling cues will inform the development of effective attentional bias modification treatments for problem gamblers.

  7. The specificity of attentional biases by type of gambling: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel S; Meitner, Amadeus; Sears, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that gamblers develop an attentional bias for gambling-related stimuli. Compared to research on substance use, however, few studies have examined attentional biases in gamblers using eye-gaze tracking, which has many advantages over other measures of attention. In addition, previous studies of attentional biases in gamblers have not directly matched type of gambler with personally-relevant gambling cues. The present study investigated the specificity of attentional biases for individual types of gambling using an eye-gaze tracking paradigm. Three groups of participants (poker players, video lottery terminal/slot machine players, and non-gambling controls) took part in one test session in which they viewed 25 sets of four images (poker, VLTs/slot machines, bingo, and board games). Participants' eye fixations were recorded throughout each 8-second presentation of the four images. The results indicated that, as predicted, the two gambling groups preferentially attended to their primary form of gambling, whereas control participants attended to board games more than gambling images. The findings have clinical implications for the treatment of individuals with gambling disorder. Understanding the importance of personally-salient gambling cues will inform the development of effective attentional bias modification treatments for problem gamblers.

  8. The socialization effect on decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game: An eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia G Peshkovskaya

    Full Text Available We used a mobile eye-tracking system (in the form of glasses to study the characteristics of visual perception in decision making in the Prisoner's Dilemma game. In each experiment, one of the 12 participants was equipped with eye-tracking glasses. The experiment was conducted in three stages: an anonymous Individual Game stage against a randomly chosen partner (one of the 12 other participants of the experiment; a Socialization stage, in which the participants were divided into two groups; and a Group Game stage, in which the participants played with partners in the groups. After each round, the respondent received information about his or her personal score in the last round and the overall winner of the game at the moment. The study proves that eye-tracking systems can be used for studying the process of decision making and forecasting. The total viewing time and the time of fixation on areas corresponding to noncooperative decisions is related to the participants' overall level of cooperation. The increase in the total viewing time and the time of fixation on the areas of noncooperative choice is due to a preference for noncooperative decisions and a decrease in the overall level of cooperation. The number of fixations on the group attributes is associated with group identity, but does not necessarily lead to cooperative behavior.

  9. Awareness and eye health-seeking practices for cataract among urban slum population of Delhi: The North India eye disease awareness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasundhra; Vashist, Praveen; Singh, Senjam Suraj; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, Vivek; Dwivedi, S N; Gupta, Sanjeev K

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices related to cataract in urban slums of Delhi. This study design was a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants aged 18-60 years were recruited from randomly selected five slums of South Delhi. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule on awareness and eye health-seeking practices related to cataract. The practices were recorded if the respondents themselves or any other member of the family was diagnosed with cataract in previous 2 years. A total of 1552 respondents participated in the study, of which, 89.9% had heard of cataract but only (42%) were aware of any symptom of cataract. The common symptoms of cataract reported by the participants were white opacity in eyes (25.9%) and loss of vision (20.6%). Surgery as a treatment of cataract was known to only 559 (40.1%) participants. Awareness about surgery as treatment of cataract was significantly higher among people aged 45-60 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-3.97) and in educated people (adjusted OR = 3.69 95% CI = 2.37-5.73). Out of 84 respondents who had been diagnosed with cataract, the health-seeking practices were observed by 70 (83.3%) participants. Among them, 51 (72.9%) had undergone surgery and another 19 (27.1%) had been advised to wait for surgery. Most of the operated patients 48 (94.1%) attended the postoperative follow-up. The study findings suggest the majority of participants have heard of cataract, but there is low awareness of its symptoms and treatment, and good eye health-seeking practices observed for cataract in urban slum population. Gaps in awareness observed can be filled up by implementing proper eye health education programs.

  10. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M

    2017-02-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.

  11. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.

  12. An Eye-Movement Study of relational Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melanie; Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2017-10-01

    Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate good memory for single items but difficulties remembering contextual information related to these items. Recently, we found compromised explicit but intact implicit retrieval of object-location information in ASD (Ring et al. Autism Res 8(5):609-619, 2015). Eye-movement data collected from a sub-sample of the participants are the focus of the current paper. At encoding, trial-by-trial viewing durations predicted subsequent retrieval success only in typically developing (TD) participants. During retrieval, TD compared to ASD participants looked significantly longer at previously studied object-locations compared to alternative locations. These findings extend similar observations recently reported by Cooper et al. (Cognition 159:127-138, 2017a) and demonstrate that eye-movement data can shed important light on the source and nature of relational memory difficulties in ASD.

  13. The Added Value of Eye-tracking in Diagnosing Dyscalculia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske eVan Viersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared eye movements and performance of a nine-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD children (n = 10, in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2 and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to approximately 10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  14. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  15. Histological study on the effect of He-Ne laser on the compound eyes of the locust Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk (Orthoptera-Acridiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Meguid, A.; El-Gundi, A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; El-Kes, N.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the He-Ne laser beam at different exposure periods (10,30 and 60 minutes) on the histological structure of the compound eyes of Schistocerca Gregaria Forsk is investigated. This study shows that various remarkable changes occurred in the histological structure of the right exposed eye (R) as in the left eye (L) (unexposed eye of the same insect), which may be due to a change in the micro-environment of the compound eyes, affected by the laser beam, furthermore, damage in the photoreceptors of the compound eyes of the insect was observed. 23 figs

  16. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  17. Dosimetric studies of the eye lens using a new dosemeter – Surveys in interventional radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Domazet, W.

    2014-01-01

    During interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, medical staff can receive high doses to their eye lenses. The Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose study organized in Argentina in 2010 found incipient opacity in 50% of IC physicians and 41% of IC technicians/nurses. These results, added to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which lowered their former occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens, led us to assess the eye lens dose, Hp(3), during interventional procedures. To this end, a new dosemeter was designed and calibrated at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina to evaluate Hp(3). Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)), and Hp(3) were assessed for 3 months in two IC and IR departments. An Alderson phantom was used to simulate monthly exposures of five occupational staff members. Hp(3) and Hp(10) were obtained monthly for 14 occupational staff members exposed to 121 IR and IC procedures. We concluded that the annual effective dose and Hp(3) were lower than 0.3 and 10 mSv, respectively and the average cumulative Hp(3) for working life was lower than 400 and 200 mSv for physicians and technicians/scrub nurse, respectively. An occupational annual dose constraint of 0.3 mSv was calculated. - Highlights: • An eye lens dosimeters was designed at the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of CNEA. • A successful dosimetric survey in two interventional departments was done. • The annual effective dose and the annual eye lens dose are lower than the ICRP dose thresholds. • In order to reduce doses actions should be promoted to maximize radiation protection

  18. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Reduced vision in highly myopic eyes without ocular pathology: the ZOC-BHVI high myopia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Monica; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Li, Wayne; Resnikoff, Serge; Naidoo, Kovin; He, Mingguang

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship of the magnitude of myopia with visual acuity in highly myopic eyes without ocular pathology. Twelve hundred and ninety-two highly myopic eyes (up to -6.00 DS both eyes, no astigmatic cut-off) with no ocular pathology from the ZOC-BHVI high myopia study in China, had cycloplegic refraction, followed by subjective refraction and visual acuities and axial length measurement. Two logistic regression models were undertaken to test the association of age, gender, refractive error, axial length and parental myopia with reduced vision. Mean group age was 19.0 ± 8.6 years; subjective spherical equivalent refractive error was -9.03 ± 2.73 D; objective spherical equivalent refractive error was -8.90 ± 2.60 D and axial length was 27.0 ± 1.3 mm. Using visual acuity, 82.4 per cent had normal vision, 16.0 per cent had mildly reduced vision, 1.2 per cent had moderately reduced vision, 0.3 per cent had severely reduced vision and no subjects were blind. The percentage with reduced vision increased with spherical equivalent to 74.5 per cent from -15.00 to -39.99 D, axial length to 67.7 per cent of eyes from 30.01 to 32.00 mm and age to 22.9 per cent of those 41 years and over. Spherical equivalent and axial length were significantly associated with reduced vision (p vision. Gender was significant for one model (p = 0.04). Mildly reduced vision is common in high myopia without ocular pathology and is strongly correlated with greater magnitudes of refractive error and axial length. Better understanding is required to minimise reduced vision in high myopes. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  20. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  1. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  2. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  4. Influence of aspheric intraocular lens on frequency doubling technology and contrast sensitivity: a fellow eye study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether implantation of an aspheric intraocular lens (IOL results in reduced ocular aberrations and improved contrast sensitivity after cataract surgery and, therefore, changes on frequency-doubling technology (FDT testing. Methods: The present prospective clinical study enrolled 25 patients with bilateral cataract (50 eyes, who randomly received either an aspheric (Akreos AO or a spherical (Akreos Fit IOL in one eye and the other IOL in the second eye. Assessment 12 months postoperatively included photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity testing. Higher-order aberrations (HOAs were computed. FDT testing was divided into four areas to evaluate the variation of the values at different points. The median values of the local pattern thresholds (median area contrast sensitivity [MACS] obtained with that division were calculated. Results: The Akreos AO group obtained statistically significantly lower values of HOAs and spherical aberration compared with the Akreos Fit group. There was a statistically significant between-group difference in contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. No statistically significant differences were observed in mean deviation and pattern standard deviation. The aspheric IOL exhibited higher MACS in all areas, although a statistically significant difference was reached only in the 20-degree field area (P=0.043. Conclusion: Aspheric IOLs significantly reduced spherical aberration and HOAs, improving mesopic contrast sensitivity. Although there was a trend toward slightly improved FDT in the aspheric IOL group, it was not statistically significant.

  5. Eye movements as an index of pathologist visual expertise: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available A pilot study examined the extent to which eye movements occurring during interpretation of digitized breast biopsy whole slide images (WSI can distinguish novice interpreters from experts, informing assessments of competency progression during training and across the physician-learning continuum. A pathologist with fellowship training in breast pathology interpreted digital WSI of breast tissue and marked the region of highest diagnostic relevance (dROI. These same images were then evaluated using computer vision techniques to identify visually salient regions of interest (vROI without diagnostic relevance. A non-invasive eye tracking system recorded pathologists' (N = 7 visual behavior during image interpretation, and we measured differential viewing of vROIs versus dROIs according to their level of expertise. Pathologists with relatively low expertise in interpreting breast pathology were more likely to fixate on, and subsequently return to, diagnostically irrelevant vROIs relative to experts. Repeatedly fixating on the distracting vROI showed limited value in predicting diagnostic failure. These preliminary results suggest that eye movements occurring during digital slide interpretation can characterize expertise development by demonstrating differential attraction to diagnostically relevant versus visually distracting image regions. These results carry both theoretical implications and potential for monitoring and evaluating student progress and providing automated feedback and scanning guidance in educational settings.

  6. Attitudes and Perception Towards Eye Donation in Patients with Corneal Disease: A Case-controlled Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noopur, Gupta; Praveen, Vashist; Radhika, Tandon; Sanjeev K, Gupta; Mani, Kalaivani; Deepak, Kumar

    2018-06-01

    To assess awareness, barriers, and misconceptions related to eye donation in people with corneal disease as compared to controls in a population setting. A population-based study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India, as part of the CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to ophthalmic examination, knowledge and perceptions regarding eye donation were assessed through a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire captured the sociodemographic factors influencing awareness regarding eye donation in participants with corneal disease and twice the number of age- and gender-matched controls recruited from the same study clusters. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for awareness of eye donation. In the CORE study, 452 participants had corneal opacities on ocular examination. Of these, 442 were assessed for eye donation awareness. Additionally, 884 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. The mean age of cases and controls was 60.9 ± 15.5 and 59.6 ± 14.3 years, respectively. Awareness of eye donation in cases and controls was 46.4% (n = 205 of 442) and 52.3% (n = 462 of 884), respectively (P = 0.044). Educational status was an important factor determining knowledge about eye donation in both cases and controls (P = donated before death or even after 24 h of death and that any type of blindness could be treated with corneal transplantation were prevalent. The study demonstrated that although there is substantial awareness about eye donation, there are numerous barriers in this population that need to be resolved to improve donation rates. Additional efforts are needed to translate this awareness into actual eye donation in both cases with corneal disease and controls.

  7. Physical activity and myopia in Danish children-The CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian; Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Søgaard Hansen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine associations between physical activity (PA) and myopia in Danish school children and investigate the prevalence of myopia. METHODS: This is a prospective study with longitudinal data on PA in a Danish child cohort. Physical activity (PA) was measured objectively by repeated....... The ophthalmologic examination was conducted at the mean age of 15.4 ± 0.7 years and included cycloplegic autorefraction and biometry. RESULTS: A total of 307 children participated in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School (CHAMPS) Eye Study. The cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was 0...... PA and myopia, in this first of its kind study based on objective and repeated PA data....

  8. [Study on A White-Eye Pattern in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Dong, Li-fang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    The white-eye pattern was firstly observed and investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system in the mixture of argon and air whose content can be varied whenever necessary, and the study shows that the white-eye cell is an interleaving of three different hexagonal sub-structures: the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots. The white-eye pattern is observed at a lower applied voltage. In this experiment, the heat capacity of water is high so that the water in water electrode is good at absorbing heat. In the process of pattern discharging the gas gap didn't increase its temperature, and the discharging phenomenon of this pattern has not changed. The temperature of the water electrodes almost keeps unchanged during the whole experiment, which is advantageous for the long-term stable measurement. Pictures recorded by ordinary camera with long exposure time in the same argon content condition show that the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots og the white-eye pattern have different brightness, which may prove that their plasma states are different. And, it is worth noting that there are obvious differences of brightness not only on the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots at the same pressure but also at the different pressure, which shows that its plasma state also changed with the variation of the pressure. Given this, in this experiment plasma temperatures of the central spot, halo, and ambient spots in a white-eye pattern at different gas pressure were studied by using optical emission spectra. The molecular vibration temperature is investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3Πu --> B3Πg ). The electron excitation temperature is researched by the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm (2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772. 42 nm (2P2 --> 1S3). The electronic density is investigated by the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm. Through the analysis of experimental results, it

  9. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  10. Case control study of dry eye and related ocular surface abnormalities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibele, C O; Baiyeroju, A M; Ajaiyeoba, A; Akang, E E U; Ajayi, B G K

    2010-02-01

    Tear instability is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort and irritation. Many patients with dry eyes remain untreated due to improper diagnoses. To identify symptoms and surface abnormalities associated with dry eyes. One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 78 subjects attending the Eye Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan were screened for dry eyes/tear instability using rose Bengal stain (graded 0-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's 1 tests, tear meniscus height and a standardised symptoms questionnaire. Grades 4-9 rose Bengal staining were considered as positive dry eye and were compared with grades 0-3 staining eyes as negative controls. Mean tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and TBUT were lower among cases than their corresponding control eyes. The difference between the mean Schirmer's test values of cases and their controls were statistically significant (P = 0.00 for right eyes and P = 0.002 for left eyes). Rose Bengal grades were inversely correlated with the mean Schirmer's values (Pearson correlation -0.429, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.335, P = 0.03 for left eyes) and TBUT (Pearson correlation -0.316, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.212, P = 0.06 for left eyes). About 95.8% of the cases were symptomatic, as opposed to 70.4% of the controls (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and 95.8% of dry right eyes compared to 61.1% of their controls had ocular surface abnormalities (P = 0.001), while 89.5% of dry left eyes compared to 62.7% of controls had surface abnormalities (P = 0.07). A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms, surface abnormalities and functional evidence of tear instability. Such patients should be treated empirically or screened for dry eyes.

  11. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  12. Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements : a pilot functional MRI study in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Engelhard, Iris M; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cath, Danielle C; Van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality

  13. Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Ingmar; Baldofski, Sabrina; L?thold, Patrick; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free ex...

  14. [Prospective, monocentric, uncontrolled study of efficacy, tolerance and adherence of cyclosporin 0.1 % for severe dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujnah, Y; Mouchel, R; El-Chehab, H; Dot, C; Burillon, C; Kocaba, V

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and treatment adherence of Ikervis ® (Santen, SAS) (ciclosporine 0.1 %) for first line therapy or following treatment with Restasis ® (Allergan, Inc.) (ciclosporine 0.05 %) for severe dry eye syndrome. A prospective, monocentric, uncontrolled study was conducted between January 2012 and March 2015 on 110 eyes of 55 patients with severe dry eye on first line therapy or previously treated with Restasis ® who required the introduction of Ikervis ® . Patients' quality of life was assessed before and after treatment was started using a standardized questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index © [OSDI]), clinical efficacy was quantified at the slit lamp, by measurement of the Break Up time Test (BUT) and the Oxford classification. Tolerability and adherence to treatment were measured using a simple questionnaire. A total of 72 eyes of 37 patients were included. Etiologies of dry eye syndrome were dominated by Sjögren syndrome (32 %) and severe ocular surface conditions (48 %). The mean age was 57.7 years (±17.45) and mean follow-up was 458 days (±292). The mean BUT increased by 2.043seconds [1.522-2.563] (Pdry eye. Its indications tend to evolve towards less severe dry eye. However, the tolerability profile remains poor, and an improvement in this would be desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Loneliness and hypervigilance to social cues in females: an eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerine M A Lodder

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlonely individuals in their overt visual attention to social cues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of social cues (e.g., negative interpretation bias, but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show differences in an earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part in an eye-tracking study consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1, at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression (Task 2, at quadrants with positive and negative social and nonsocial images (Task 3, and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4. In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1, and social images (T3. Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2 in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4. No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at social cues in the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention to social cues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases in social information processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information processing. Alternatively, biased overt attention to social cues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals.

  16. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY REGARDING PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE DISEASE IN POST-OPERATIVE CATARACT SURGERY PATIENTS OF 140 CASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye disease is one of the most common ocular surface disorder with large number of studies carried out in various countries estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease to be between 5-34%. The prevalence of dry eye increases with age. As per Breaver Dam study regarding dry eye the prevalence of DED 13.3%. Dry eye was apparently higher in women than men. Studies have shown that cataract surgery worsen dry eye symptoms in patients with preexisting dry eye symptoms as well as without preexisting DES, mostly dry eye symptoms last for two months of post cataract surgery period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology, Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. The total number of cataract surgery performed cases were 140 in number. The study period was four months, conducted in tertiary eye center. The Cataract patients were preoperatively at normal tear secretions. Post cataract surgery period from first POD, one week POD, four weeks, six weeks, two months and three months POD examined by slit lamp, Schirmer's test I, TBUT and corneal sensitivity test were performed. RESULTS Our study revealed that increased prevalence in female sex with increased age group range from 51-70 years showed post cataract surgery period dryness of eye. The ratio of Post cataract surgery DED in male and female is 13:29. This shows increased female sex prevalence of postoperative DED. In our study, the prevalence of post cataract surgery dry eye disease was 30%. CONCLUSION 73% cataract surgeries is now clear corneal cataract surgery and this procedure cuts a large part of corneal nerves. The nerve essential for tear production gets disturbed leading to dryness and hence decreased visual function. The corneal nerves are important in self-regulation of tears since they provide the sensation in the feedback loop that signals tear production. When the functions of the nerves get blocked

  17. Cyclosporine A Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Dry Eye Disease: In Vitro Characterization Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, V.D.; Apar, D.U.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a common disease of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for CsA (CsA) ophthalmic delivery, for the treatment of dry eye disease. Topical CsA is currently the only and safe pharmacologic treatment of severe dry eye symptoms. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by W/O solvent evaporation technique followed by probe sonicator and characterized for various properties such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation studies by Franz diffusion cells, XRD, DSC, SEM, and stability studies. The developed nano suspension showed a mean particle size in the range from 128 to 253.50 nm before freeze drying and after freeze drying 145.60 to 260.0 nm. The drug entrapment efficiency was from 58.35 to 95.69% and production yield was found between 52.29±2.4 and 85.30±2.1 % in all preparations. The zeta potential of the Eudragit RL containing nanoparticles was positive, that is, 20.3 mV to 34.5 mV. The NPs formulations exhibited a biphasic drug release with initial burst followed by a very slow drug release and total cumulative release up to 24 h ranged from 69.83 to 91.92%. Kinetically, the release profiles of CsA from NPs appeared to fit best with the Higuchi model. The change of surface characteristics of NPs represents a useful approach for improvement of ocular retention and drug availability.

  18. Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-04-01

    To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P < 0.001 for all). Peripheral reticular pseudodrusen were seen in 15%. Senile reticular pigmentary change was the predominant peripheral change seen in 48% of cases and 16% of controls in zone 2 (P < 0.001). Nonreticular pigment changes were less frequent in the periphery than in the posterior pole (46% vs. 76%) and negligible in controls. Peripheral retinal changes are more prevalent in eyes with AMD than in control eyes. Drusen are seen in a majority of eyes with AMD in both the mid and far periphery, whereas

  19. Towards Diagram Understanding: A Pilot Study Measuring Cognitive Workload Through Eye-Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Baltsen, Nick; Christoffersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate model understanding, in particular , how the quality of the UML diagram layout impacts cognitive load. We hypothesize that this w ill have a significant impact on the structure and effectiveness of engineers’ communication. In previous work, we have studied task performance...... measurements and subjective assessments; here, we also investigate behavioral indicators such as fixation and pupillary dilation. We use such indicators to explore diagram understanding- and reading strategies and how such strategies are impacted, e.g. by diagram type and expertise level. In the pilot eye...

  20. Systemic medication and intraocular pressure in a British population: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Garway-Heath, David F; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Hayat, Shabina; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    To determine the association between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population of older British men and women. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We included 7093 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye Study. Exclusion criteria were a history of glaucoma therapy (medical, laser, or surgical), IOP asymmetry between eyes of >5 mmHg, and missing data for any covariables. The mean age of participants was 68 years (range, 48-92) and 56% were women. We measured IOP using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Three readings were taken per eye and the best signal value of the Goldmann-correlated IOP value considered. Participants were asked to bring all their medications and related documentation to the health examination, and these were recorded by the research nurse using an electronic case record form. The medication classes examined were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, nitrates, statins, insulin, biguanides, sulfonylureas, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We examined associations between medication use and IOP using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Models containing diabetic medication were further adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Mean IOP of the right and left eyes. Use of systemic β-blockers (-0.92 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.19, -0.65; Pnitrates (-0.63 mmHg; 95% CI, -1.12, -0.14; P = 0.011) were independently associated with lower IOP. The observed associations between statin or aspirin use with IOP were no longer significant after adjustment for β-blocker use. This is the first population-based study to demonstrate and quantify clinically significant differences in IOP among participants using systemic β-blockers or nitrates. Lower IOP observed in participants using statins or aspirin was explained by concurrent

  1. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed.

  2. Morphological study of the eye and adnexa in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Nascimento Silva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration. Histological fragments were fixated in buffered formalin 10%, processed by the routine paraffin inclusion technique, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. CT scan evaluation showed no differences between the live animal and the formolized head on identification of visual apparatus structures. Anatomic and histologic evaluation revealed rounded orbit, absence of the supraorbital foramen and frontal notch, little exposure of the sclera, with slight pigmentation of the exposed area and marked pigmentation at the sclerocorneal junction. Masson's Trichrome revealed the Meibomian glands, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's membrane; in the choroid, melanocytes and Bruch's membrane were observed; and in the retina, cones and rods as well as, optic nerve, the lamina cribrosa of the nerve fibers bundles. Toluidine blue highlighted the membranes: Bowman, Descemet and the endothelium; in the choroid: melanocytes; and in the retina: nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium. In view of the observed results Sapajus sp. is an important experimental model for research in the ophthalmology field, which has been shown due to the high similarity of its anatomical and histological structures with the human species.

  3. Study of wavefront aberration in DR patients with different degree of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ran Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the changes of wavefront aberrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRand with different degrees of dry eye and to explore the reasons of visual quality decline in them. METHODS: We randomly selected 40 eyes in our hospital for treatment with DR and varying degrees of dry eye, and 40 eyes of normal control group. Topcon KR-1W visual quality analyzer was used to record the mean square the total high order corneal aberration, spherical aberration, comatic aberration and trefoil aberration of cornea with pupil diameters of 4mm and 6mm. Analysis of variance were used to compare the wavefront aberrations and the aberration values in the control group and in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with different degrees of dry eye. RESULTS: For 4mm and 6mm pupil diameters, nondiabetic retinopathy(NDRwith dry eye group, the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRwith dry eye group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRdry eye group had significantly increased tHOA, coma and trefoil compared with the contrast group(PPCONCLUSION: Dry eye of diabetic retinopathy with different degrees is closely related to the increase of wavefront aberration. Increased wavefront aberration may be one of the reasons to reduced visual quality in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with dry eye, and provide the basis for the decline of visual function of diabetic patients with dry eye.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellez-Vazquez J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Tellez-Vazquez On behalf of the Dry Eye In Glaucoma Study Group (DEIGSG Glaucoma Section, Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods: A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively], conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results: After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001 (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision. The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study

  5. Intense pulsed light treatment for dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction; a 3-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyos, Rolando; McGill, William; Briscoe, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical benefits of intense-pulsed-light therapy for the treatment of dry-eye disease caused by meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). MGD is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease. It is currently treated with a range of methods that have been shown to be only somewhat effective, leading to the need for advanced treatment options. A retrospective noncomparative interventional case series was conducted with 91 patients presenting with severe dry eye syndrome. Treatment included intense-pulsed-light therapy and gland expression at a single outpatient clinic over a 30-month study. Pre/post tear breakup time data were available for a subset of 78 patients. For all patients, a specially developed technique for the treatment of dry eye syndrome was applied as a series of monthly treatments until there was adequate improvement in dry eye syndrome symptoms by physician judgment, or until patient discontinuation. Primary outcomes included change in tear breakup time, self-reported patient satisfaction, and adverse events. Physician-judged improvement in dry eye tear breakup time was found for 68 of 78 patients (87%) with seven treatment visits and four maintenance visits on average (medians), and 93% of patients reported post-treatment satisfaction with degree of dry eye syndrome symptoms. Adverse events, most typically redness or swelling, were found for 13% of patients. No serious adverse events were found. Although preliminary, study results of intense-pulsed-light therapy treatment for dry eye syndrome caused by meibomian gland dysfunction are promising. A multisite clinical trial with a larger sample, treatment comparison groups, and randomized controlled trials is currently underway.

  6. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, M. [Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  7. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  8. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  9. The chick eye in vision research: An excellent model for the study of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, C Ellis; Sayed, Javed A; Tamez, Heather; Zelinka, Chris; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Fischer, Andy J; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2017-11-01

    The domestic chicken, Gallus gallus, serves as an excellent model for the study of a wide range of ocular diseases and conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to outline some anatomic, physiologic, and genetic features of this organism as a robust animal model for vision research, particularly for modeling human retinal disease. Advantages include a sequenced genome, a large eye, relative ease of handling and maintenance, and ready availability. Relevant similarities and differences to humans are highlighted for ocular structures as well as for general physiologic processes. Current research applications for various ocular diseases and conditions, including ocular imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, are discussed. Several genetic and non-genetic ocular disease models are outlined, including for pathologic myopia, keratoconus, glaucoma, retinal detachment, retinal degeneration, ocular albinism, and ocular tumors. Finally, the use of stem cell technology to study the repair of damaged tissues in the chick eye is discussed. Overall, the chick model provides opportunities for high-throughput translational studies to more effectively prevent or treat blinding ocular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A retrospective study of low-vision cases in an Indian tertiary eye-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sarfaraz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To obtain data on the characteristics of low-vision patients seen at a tertiary eye care hospital in India. Methods:Records of 410 patients were retrospectively reviewed at the Centre for Sight Enhancement, L.V.Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Patients underwent a comprehensive clinical low-vision examination. Data obtained included age, gender, consangunity, visual acuity, visual fields, ocular conditions causing low vision and types of low-vision devices and methods prescribed. Results:Two hundred and ninety seven (72% of 450 patients were male. One-fifth were in the 11-20 years age group (21%. Visual acuity in the better eye was <6/18 - 6/60 in almost half these patients (49.3%. One hundred and twenty two patients (29.9% referred with a visual acuity of ≥ 6/18, either had difficulty in reading normal print or had restricted visual fields. The main causes for low vision were: retinitis pigmentosa (19%, diabetic retinopathy (13%, Macular diseases (17.7%, and degenerative myopia (9%. Visual rehabilitation was achieved using accurate correction of ametropia (174 patients, approach magnification (74 patients and telescopes (45 patients for recognising faces, watching television and board work. Spectacle magnifiers (187 patients, hand/stand magnifiers (9 patients, closed-circuit television (3 patients, overhead illumination lamp (143 patients and reading stand (24 patients were prescribed for reading tasks. Light control devices (146 patients were used for glare control, and cane (128 patients and flashlight (50 patients for mobility. Patients were trained in activities to improve their daily living skills, (54 patients; counselled in environmental modification (144 patients and ancillary care (63 patients for educational and vocational needs. Conclusion:Data obtained from this study elucidates the characteristics of low-vision patients. This information is likely to help in the development of appropriate low vision services.

  11. Effect of cycloplegia on the refractive status of children: the Shandong children eye study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan Hu

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of 1% cyclopentolate on the refractive status of children aged 4 to 18 years.Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergardens, primary schools, junior and senior high schools in a rural county and a city. Auto-refractometry was performed before and after inducing cycloplegia which was achieved by 1% cyclopentolate eye drops.Out of 6364 eligible children, data of 5999 (94.3% children were included in the statistical analysis. Mean age was 10.0±3.3 years (range: 4-18 years. Mean difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error (DIFF was 0.78±0.79D (median: 0.50D; range: -1.00D to +10.75D. In univariate analysis, DIFF decreased significantly with older age (P<0.001;correlation coefficient r:-0.24, more hyperopic non-cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001;r = 0.13 and more hyperopic cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001;r = 0.49. In multivariate analysis, higher DIFF was associated with higher cycloplegic refractive error (P<0.001; standardized regression coefficient beta:0.50; regression coefficient B: 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18, 0.20, followed by lower intraocular pressure (P<0.001; beta: -0.06; B: -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.01, rural region of habitation (P = 0.001; beta: -0.04; B: -0.07; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.03, and, to a minor degree, with age (P = 0.006; beta: 0.04; B: 0.009; 95%CI: 0.003, 0.016. 66.4% of all eyes with non-cycloplegic myopia (≤-0.50D remained myopic after cycloplegia while the remaining 33.6% of eyes became emmetropic (18.0% or hyperopic (15.7% under cycloplegia. Prevalence of emmetropia decreased from 37.5% before cycloplegia to 19.8% after cycloplegia while the remaining eyes became hyperopic under cycloplegia.The error committed by using non-cycloplegic versus cycloplegic refractometry in children with mid to dark-brown iris color decreased with older age, and in parallel

  12. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Dry Eye: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Sevil Karaman; Aydin, Rukiye; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Olmuscelik, Oktay; Eliacik, Mustafa; Demirci, Goktug; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome. 108 eyes of 64 patients with metabolic syndrome (group 1) and 110 eyes of 55 healthy individuals (group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity. Main outcome measures were Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity values and OSDI scores were significantly higher in group 1 (314.4 ± 19.1 mOsm and 38.9 ± 1.1, respectively) compared with group 2 (295 ± 14.3 mOsm and 18.69 ± 17.2, respectively) (p = 0.01 for both). The Schirmer test values and TBUT in group 1 (10 ± 3.7 mm and 14.8 ± 3.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.8 ± 2.6 mm and 18.1 ± 0.5 sec, respectively) (p syndrome can influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  13. A study on fungal flora of the normal eye surface in Iranian native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tohid nouri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of the normal ocular surface is one of the sources supplying fungal agents for keratomycosis. This study was conducted to identify fungal isolates of the conjunctiva in clinically healthy Iranian native cattle in Urmia district. Swabs were taken from both eyes of cattle (n=45 and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C and examined for 7 days. Data were analyzed for the effect of age and sex by fisher’s exact test. Thirteen cattle (28.89% were found to be positive for fungal growth. The isolated fungal genera were Aspergillus spp-7 cases (53.84%, Penicillium spp-6 cases (46.15%, Rhodotorula sp-1 case (7.69% and Candida sp-1 case (7.69%. Yeast genera represented 13.3% of all the isolates. Sex and age of cattle had no significant effect on prevalence of isolates. Incidence of fungal colonization of the eyes compared with similar studies was low which may reflect differences in season and technique of sampling. Unexpected high frequency of Aspergillus may be due to geographic differences.

  14. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Raman, Rajiv

    2002-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch's membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark's classification. Twenty-four donor eyes (48%) had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  15. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  16. HAPTIC LOCATION IN PSEUDOPHAKIC EYES AND NONINFECTIOUS POSTOPERATIVE INFLAMMATION- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Baranwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative noninfectious inflammation after cataract surgery, which can be persistent, remains an undesirable consequence despite many advances in surgical techniques. This ocular inflammation after cataract surgery presents ophthalmologists with a treatment dilemma. The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate the IOL haptic location and the presence of noninfectious postoperative inflammation in pseudophakic eyes using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this prospective study, 80 eyes of 80 cataract patients underwent SICS with 6 mm optic non-foldable PCIOL implantation. Post surgery, an examination protocol was followed wherein the patients were assessed by slit-lamp examination on day 1, 2, 7, 14 and 30 for flare and cells. A UBM examination was performed on day 30 for locating the IOL haptic position. Finally, the postoperative inflammation was correlated with IOL haptic position. RESULTS The results showed that IOL haptic position outside the capsular bag significantly increased the amount and duration of postoperative inflammation. CONCLUSION Haptic position outside the bag increases the incidence and duration of postoperative inflammation significantly. In patients undergoing SICS, the aim should be a large continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis within the bag implantation of IOL. UBM examination on day 30 after surgery to know position of IOL haptics outside the bag will be helpful in decreasing apprehension of operating surgeon and suggesting prolonged need of steroids in cases having more than expected postoperative inflammation.

  17. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  18. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  19. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  20. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  1. A prospective, contralateral eye study comparing thin-flap LASIK (sub-Bowman keratomileusis) with photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Stephen G; Durrie, Daniel S; Binder, Perry S

    2009-06-01

    To determine the differences in the visual results, pain response, biomechanical effect, quality of vision, and higher-order aberrations, among other parameters, in eyes undergoing either photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or thin-flap LASIK/sub-Bowman keratomileusis (SBK; intended flap thickness of +/-100 microm and 8.5-mm diameter) at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. A contralateral eye pilot study. Fifty patients (100 eyes) were enrolled at 2 sites. The mean preoperative spherical refraction was -3.66 diopters (D) and the mean cylinder was -0.66 D for all eyes. Eyes in the PRK group underwent 8.5-mm ethanol-assisted PRK, whereas in eyes in the SBK group, an 8.5-mm, (intended) 100-microm flap was created with a 60-kHz IntraLase femtosecond laser (Advanced Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA). All eyes underwent a customized laser ablation using an Alcon LADARVision 4000 CustomCornea excimer laser (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). Preoperative and postoperative tests included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), corneal topography, wavefront aberrometry, retinal image quality, and contrast sensitivity. Patients completed subjective questionnaires at each visit. One- and 3-month UCVA results showed a statistically significant difference: SBK, 88% 20/20 or better vs. 48% 20/20 or better for PRK. At 6 months, UCVA was 94% 20/20 or better for PRK and 92% for SBK. At 1 and 3 months, the SBK group had lower higher-order aberrations (coma and spherical aberration; PPRK group. By 3 months, the vision in the 2 groups had begun to equalize, although the SBK eyes continued to have better vision. At 6 months, there were no statistical differences between the 2 groups. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.

  2. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  3. A Study of Deep CNN-Based Classification of Open and Closed Eyes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Wan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for the classification of open and closed eyes is increasing in various fields, including analysis of eye fatigue in 3D TVs, analysis of the psychological states of test subjects, and eye status tracking-based driver drowsiness detection. Previous studies have used various methods to distinguish between open and closed eyes, such as classifiers based on the features obtained from image binarization, edge operators, or texture analysis. However, when it comes to eye images with different lighting conditions and resolutions, it can be difficult to find an optimal threshold for image binarization or optimal filters for edge and texture extraction. In order to address this issue, we propose a method to classify open and closed eye images with different conditions, acquired by a visible light camera, using a deep residual convolutional neural network. After conducting performance analysis on both self-collected and open databases, we have determined that the classification accuracy of the proposed method is superior to that of existing methods.

  4. Uncovering the cognitive processes underlying mental rotation: an eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiguo; Li, Chunyong; Quan, Cheng; Lu, Yiming; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang

    2017-08-30

    Mental rotation is an important paradigm for spatial ability. Mental-rotation tasks are assumed to involve five or three sequential cognitive-processing states, though this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we investigated how processing states alternate during mental-rotation tasks. Inference was carried out using an advanced statistical modelling and data-driven approach - a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) trained using eye-movement data obtained from an experiment consisting of two different strategies: (I) mentally rotate the right-side figure to be aligned with the left-side figure and (II) mentally rotate the left-side figure to be aligned with the right-side figure. Eye movements were found to contain the necessary information for determining the processing strategy, and the dHMM that best fit our data segmented the mental-rotation process into three hidden states, which we termed encoding and searching, comparison, and searching on one-side pair. Additionally, we applied three classification methods, logistic regression, support vector model and dHMM, of which dHMM predicted the strategies with the highest accuracy (76.8%). Our study did confirm that there are differences in processing states between these two of mental-rotation strategies, and were consistent with the previous suggestion that mental rotation is discrete process that is accomplished in a piecemeal fashion.

  5. Visual attention to food cues in obesity: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Katy J; Breslin, Gavin; Hanna, Donncha; Murphy, Kate; Gallagher, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in attentional processing of food-related visual cues between normal-weight and overweight/obese males and females. Twenty-six normal-weight (14M, 12F) and 26 overweight/obese (14M, 12F) adults completed a visual probe task and an eye-tracking paradigm. Reaction times and eye movements to food and control images were collected during both a fasted and fed condition in a counterbalanced design. Participants had greater visual attention towards high-energy-density food images compared to low-energy-density food images regardless of hunger condition. This was most pronounced in overweight/obese males who had significantly greater maintained attention towards high-energy-density food images when compared with their normal-weight counterparts however no between weight group differences were observed for female participants. High-energy-density food images appear to capture visual attention more readily than low-energy-density food images. Results also suggest the possibility of an altered visual food cue-associated reward system in overweight/obese males. Attentional processing of food cues may play a role in eating behaviors thus should be taken into consideration as part of an integrated approach to curbing obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Effects of split-dose irradiation of the rabbit's eye - a histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabenbauer, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six rabbits were included in a study investigating into the effects of split-dose 300 KV X-irradiation on the cornea, ciliary body, nictitating membrane and lacrimal gland. In each animal, soly the right the eye was irradiated using total doses of 21 Gy, 30 Gy, 36 Gy and 45 Gy that were administered according to a fixed schedule in fractions of 3 Gy five times per week. After latency periods of six weeks, three months and six months the animals receiving 21 Gy, 30 Gy and 36 Gy showed no changes of the bulbi, eye lids and lacrimal glands that could be ascertained by histopathological evaluation. In the animals exposed to the 45 Gy dose, changes of the cornea and conjunctiva caused by radiation injuries to the lacrimal glands and conjunctival goblet cells started to appear after a minimum period of 3 months. This dose level was also the threshold for the occurrence of corneal damage or even ulceration as a result of secondary reduction or qualitative change of lacrimal secretions. (ECB) [de

  7. Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunjung; Wiseheart, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs. Axes and legends were labelled either with words (mixed-modality graphs) or icons (orthography-free graphs). Students also answered informationally equivalent questions presented in sentences (orthography-only condition). Response times were slower in the dyslexic group only for processing sentences. However, eye tracking data revealed group differences for processing mixed-modality graphs, whereas no group differences were found for the orthography-free graphs. When processing bar graphs, students with dyslexia differ from their able reading peers only when graphs contain orthographic features. Implications for processing informational text are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  9. Exploring Responses to Art in Adolescence: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813

  10. Natural decay series radionuclide studies at the Needle's Eye Natural Analogue Site, II, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, A.B.; Whitton, A.M.; Shimmield, T.M.; Jemielita, R.A.; Scott, R.D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1991-12-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic databases and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes the study of transport and retardation processes affecting natural radionuclides, mainly uranium (U), in the vicinity of pitchblende veins in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coast, SW Scotland. The natural decay series results from this study have been used to develop a well constrained geochemical model within which the codes can be tested. A conceptual geochemical model for the behaviour of U at the site was developed in stage I of the study; work in stage II is concerned with improving the information available on the U source term, groundwater chemistry, U aqueous phase specification, U retardation by fracture-lining minerals during fissure flow of groundwater, U-organic associations and loss of U from the site by stream drainage. (author)

  11. Protecting the ocular surface and improving the quality of life of dry eye patients: a study of the efficacy of an HP-guar containing ocular lubricant in a population of dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Maurizio; Autori, Silvia; Badino, Francesco; Barabino, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-Newtonian tear substitute containing 0.4% polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and 0.3% propylene glycol in an 0.18% hydroxypropyl-guar (HPG) containing vehicle (Systane Lubricant Eye Drops; Alcon) in reducing the signs and symptoms of dry eye, as well as its effect on ocular protection. Twenty patients with moderate to severe dry eye were enrolled in a 28-day prospective, randomized, controlled study. Subjects self-administered the HPG containing ocular lubricant four times daily (QID) over the study duration. After 28 days, the effect of the HPG containing ocular lubricant was evaluated by means of the Global Staining Score (a measure of the corneal and conjunctival staining), inter-blink tear film stability, Ocular Protection Index (OPI), and subjective symptoms. The HPG containing ocular lubricant produced statistically significant improvements compared with baseline in dry eye symptoms (P eye symptoms with the HPG containing ocular lubricant -- evident as early as the first follow-up visit (Day 7) and continued throughout the 28 days of the study with a concurrent, increase in OPI to a level greater than unity -- indicate that this preparation is a fast-acting, long-lasting, and effective treatment for dry eye. In concurrence with the results from previously published clinical studies, the HPG containing ocular lubricant has shown efficacy in alleviating the signs and symptoms of dry eye as well as affording improved ocular surface protection.

  12. Relationship between retinal vessel diameters and retinopathy in the Inter99 Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobnjak, Dragana; Munch, Inger Christine; Glümer, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between retinal vessel diameters and retinopathy in participants with and without type 2 diabetes in a Danish population-based cohort. METHODS: The study included 878 persons aged 30 to 60 years from the Inter99 Eye Study. Retinopathy was defined as a presence...... was 6.3 µm (CI 95%: 1.0 to 11.6, p = 0.020) wider and CRVE was 7.9 µm (CI 95%: 0.7 to 15.2, p = 0.030) wider in those with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy, after adjusting for age, gender, HbA1c, blood pressure, smoking, serum total and HDL cholesterol. In all participants, CRAE.......001), and decreased with higher HDL cholesterol (p gender was associated with wider CRVE (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Wider retinal vessel diameters were associated with the presence of retinopathy in participants with diabetes, but not in participants without diabetes...

  13. The Way Dogs (Canis familiaris Look at Human Emotional Faces Is Modulated by Oxytocin. An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs have been shown to excel in reading human social cues, including facial cues. In the present study we used eye-tracking technology to further study dogs’ face processing abilities. It was found that dogs discriminated between human facial regions in their spontaneous viewing pattern and looked most to the eye region independently of facial expression. Furthermore dogs played most attention to the first two images presented, afterwards their attention dramatically decreases; a finding that has methodological implications. Increasing evidence indicates that the oxytocin system is involved in dogs’ human-directed social competence, thus as a next step we investigated the effects of oxytocin on processing of human facial emotions. It was found that oxytocin decreases dogs’ looking to the human faces expressing angry emotional expression. More interestingly, however, after oxytocin pre-treatment dogs’ preferential gaze toward the eye region when processing happy human facial expressions disappears. These results provide the first evidence that oxytocin is involved in the regulation of human face processing in dogs. The present study is one of the few empirical investigations that explore eye gaze patterns in naïve and untrained pet dogs using a non-invasive eye-tracking technique and thus offers unique but largely untapped method for studying social cognition in dogs.

  14. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A

    2015-11-18

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement

  15. The Evonik-Mainz-Eye-Care-Study (EMECS: design and execution of the screening investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Barleon

    Full Text Available To determine if screening for major ophthalmological diseases is feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations in a large working population.13037 employees of Evonik Industries aged 40 to 65 years were invited to be screened for major ophthalmological diseases (glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy between June 2007 and March 2008 within an extended setting of occupational medicine. Ophthalmological examinations consisted of visual acuity, objective refraction, pachymetry, tonometry, perimetry (frequency doubling technology, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and digital fundus photography. Participants responded to a questionnaire addressing history of ocular and general diseases and social history.4183 participants (961 female and 3222 male were examined at 13 different sites. Response rates for eligible persons at those sites ranged from 17.9 to 60.5% but were in part limited by availability of examination slots. Average age of participants was 48.4 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD. 4147 out of 4183 subjects (99.1% had a visual acuity ≥ 0.5 in the better eye and 3665 out of 4183 (87.6% subjects had a visual acuity ≥ 0.8 in the better eye. 1629 participants (38.9% had previously not been seen by an ophthalmologist at all or not within the last three years.This article describes the study design and basic characteristics of study participants within a large occupational medicine based screening study for ophthalmological diseases. Response rates exceeded expectations and were limiting examination capacity. Meaningful data could be obtained for almost all participants. We reached participants who previously had not received ophthalmic care. Thus, ophthalmological screening appears to be feasible within the frame of routine occupational medicine examinations.

  16. A study of the level of awareness of different Cadre of eye care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The choice of a qualified eye care practitioner, a critical factor in eye care services, pre-supposes that the practitioner has the requisite training and skill. Often, lack of this knowledge among patients, relative overlap of functions among practitioners and attempts occasionally, to assume responsibility, has led to ...

  17. The embodiment of emotional words in a second language: An eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Naveed A; Titone, Debra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that word representations are emotionally impoverished in a second language (L2) has variable support. However, this hypothesis has only been tested using tasks that present words in isolation or that require laboratory-specific decisions. Here, we recorded eye movements for 34 bilinguals who read sentences in their L2 with no goal other than comprehension, and compared them to 43 first language readers taken from our prior study. Positive words were read more quickly than neutral words in the L2 across first-pass reading time measures. However, this emotional advantage was absent for negative words for the earliest measures. Moreover, negative words but not positive words were influenced by concreteness, frequency and L2 proficiency in a manner similar to neutral words. Taken together, the findings suggest that only negative words are at risk of emotional disembodiment during L2 reading, perhaps because a positivity bias in L2 experiences ensures that positive words are emotionally grounded.

  18. Nuclear fuel waste management program geotechnical studies of Eye-Dashwa Lakes research area rock properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernis, P.J.; Robertson, P.B.

    1992-05-01

    The Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton near Atikokan Ontario has been used as a study area for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management research program. The pluton consists predominately of granite. Fractures formed during cooling of the pluton were filled with a succession of different materials at different times. Measurements of a series of geophysical and geotechnical properties of rock samples are published here in this report, including especially microcrack and pore structures. An indication has been found that a larger proportion of the porosity of Whiteshell and Atikokan samples is contained in connecting pores, compared to other rocks. This may seem surprising in view of the finding that approximately 70% of the effective porosity of Atikokan samples is contained in pockets

  19. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  20. Processing rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading: An eye movement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis

  1. Sub-Tenon Atracurium Injection in Rabbit Eyes; a Histopathologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To evaluate early and late histopathologic changes following posterior sub-Tenon injection of atracurium in the rabbit eye. METHODS: This study was performed on 39 healthy white New Zealand rabbits which received sub-Tenon injection of 0.05-0.08 mg/kg atracurium diluted in 0.5 ml normal saline (N/S in the left and 0.5 ml N/S in the right eyes. Bilateral enuclation was performed one hour after the injection to evaluate early changes in 19 rabbits and one week later to determine late changes in the remaining 20 animals. After enucleation, the rabbits were euthanized. Enucleated eyes were sent in 10% formalin solution for histopathologic examination. After processing, the specimens were evaluated by light microscopy following staining with hematoxylin and eosin, and trichrome. RESULTS: Congestion was more common in the control group 1 hour after injection. Liquifaction necrosis was seen in both groups but was significantly increased one week after the injection in the atracurium group. CONCLUSION: Congestion is a transient complication related to injection which disappears after one week, but necrosis seems to be an important late complication of atracurium injection.

  2. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G; Hammond, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesis-free metabolomics approach. Cross-sectional association study. A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean age of 57 years (range, 17-82 years). We tested associations between 222 known serum metabolites and DED. All subjects underwent nontargeted metabolomic analysis of plasma samples using gas and liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (Metabolon Inc., Durham, NC). Dry eye disease was defined from the validated Short Questionnaire for Dry Eye Syndrome (SQDES) as a previous diagnosis of DED by a clinician or "often" or "constant" symptoms of dryness and irritation. Analyses were performed with linear mixed effect models that included age, BMI, and sex as covariates, corrected for multiple testing. Primary outcome was DED as defined by the SQDES, and secondary outcomes were symptom score of DED and a clinical diagnosis of DED. Prevalence of DED as defined by the SQDES was 15.5% (n = 436). A strong and metabolome-wide significant association with DED was found with decreased levels of the metabolites androsterone sulfate (P = 0.00030) and epiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.00036). Three other metabolites involved in androgen metabolism, 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1 and 2, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, were the next most strongly associated of the 222 metabolites, but did not reach metabolome-wide significance. Dryness and irritation symptoms, as opposed to a clinical diagnosis, were particularly strongly associated with decreased androgen steroid metabolites, with all reaching metabolome-wide significance (androsterone sulfate, P = 0.000000029; epiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.0000040; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1, P = 0.000016; 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 2, P = 0.000064; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, P = 0.00011). Of these 5

  3. Dry eye disease and work productivity loss in visual display users: the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Miki; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Kawashima, Motoko; Yokoi, Norihiko; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Schaumberg, Debra A; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    To estimate the impact of dry eye disease (DED) on work performance and productivity in office workers using visual display terminals (VDTs). Cross-sectional study. Six hundred seventy-two Japanese young and middle-aged office workers using VDTs completed a questionnaire that was designed to measured at-work performance deficits and productivity losses using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire, completed by e-mail. Using the Japanese dry eye diagnostic criteria, respondents were classified into 3 groups: definite DED, probable DED, and non DED. Of the 672 office workers, 553 subjects (82.3%), including 366 men and 187 women, completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical evaluation. As for the total workplace productivity loss, the non DED group demonstrated a loss of 3.56%, those with probable DED demonstrated a loss of 4.06%, and those with definite DED demonstrated a loss of 4.82%, indicating significantly worse performance and productivity (P = .014, trend test). For the 4 subscales, DED was associated with significantly lower on-the-job time management (P = .009, trend test) and combined mental performance and interpersonal functioning (P = .011, trend test). After controlling for age, sex, VDT working hours, and diagnosis of DED, time management, physical demands, and mental and interpersonal functioning showed a significant relationship to DED (each P > .05). Annual DED productivity losses were estimated to be $6160 per employee when measured by total production and $1178 per employee calculated by wage. This study indicated that there is a significant impact of DED on the total productivity of Japanese VDT users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pilot Study: The Role of the Hemispheric Lateralization in Mental Disorders by Use of the Limb (Eye, Hand, Foot) Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Naser; Dabbaghi, Parviz; Valipour, Habib; Vafadari, Behnam

    2015-04-01

    Based on the previous studies, we know that the hemispheric lateralization defects, increase the probability of psychological disorders. We also know that dominant limb is controlled by dominant hemisphere and limb preference is used as an indicator for hemisphere dominance. In this study we attempted to explore the hemispheric dominance by the use of three limbs (hand, foot and eye). We performed this survey on two samples, psychiatric patients compared with normal population. For this purpose, knowing that the organ dominance is stabilized in adolescence, and age has no effect on the people above 15, we used 48 high school girls and 65 boys as the final samples of normal population. The patient group included 57 male and 26 female who were chronic psychiatric patients. The result shows that left-eye dominance is more in patients than the normal group (P=0.000) but the handedness and footedness differences are not significance. In psychotic, bipolar and depressive disorders, eye dominance had significant difference (P=0.018). But this is not true about hand and foot dominance. Our findings proved that generally in psychiatric patients, left-eye dominance is more common, left-eye dominance is also more in psychotic and depressive disorders. It is less common in bipolar disorders.

  5. Study on establishment and mechanics application of finite element model of bovine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Hui; Huang, Ju-Fang; Cheng, Si-Ying; Wei, Wei; Shang, Lei; Li, Na; Xiong, Kun

    2015-08-13

    Glaucoma mainly induced by increased intraocular pressure (IOP), it was believed that the pressure that wall of eyeball withstands were determined by material properties of the tissue and stereoscopic geometry of the eyeball. In order to study the pressure changes in different parts of interior eyeball wall, it is necessary to develop a novel eye ball FEM with more accurate geometry and material properties. Use this model to study the stress changes in different parts of eyeball, especially the lamina cribrosa (LC) under normal physiological and pathological IOP, and provide a mathematical model for biomechanical studies of selected retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death. (1) Sclera was cut into 3.8-mm wide, 14.5-mm long strips, and cornea was cut into 9.5-mm-wide and 10-mm-long strips; (2) 858 Mini BionixII biomechanical loading instrument was used to stretch sclera and cornea. The stretching rate for sclera was 0.3 mm/s, 3 mm/s, 30 mm/s, 300 mm/s; and for cornea were 0.3 mm/s and 30 mm/s. The deformation-stress curve was recorded; (3) Naso-temporal and longitudinal distance of LC were measured; (4) Micro-CT was used to accurately scan fresh bovine eyes and obtain the geometrical image and data to establish bovine eye model. 3-D reconstruction was performed using these images and data to work out the geometric shape of bovine eye; (5) IOP levels for eyeball FEM was set and the inner wall of eyeball was used taken as load-bearing part. Simulated eyeball FE modeling was run under the IOP level of 10 mmHg, 30 mmHg, 60 mmHg and 100 mmHg, and the force condition of different parts of eyeball was recorded under different IOP levels. (1) We obtained the material parameters more in line with physiological conditions and established a more realistic eyeball model using reversed engineering of parameters optimization method to calculate the complex nonlinear super-elastic and viscoelastic parameters more accurately; (2) We observed the following phenomenon by

  6. Parent Perception of Two Eye-Gaze Control Technology Systems in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Petra; Wallen, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Eye-gaze control technology enables people with significant physical disability to access computers for communication, play, learning and environmental control. This pilot study used a multiple case study design with repeated baseline assessment and parents' evaluations to compare two eye-gaze control technology systems to identify any differences in factors such as ease of use and impact of the systems for their young children. Five children, aged 3 to 5 years, with dyskinetic cerebral palsy, and their families participated. Overall, families were satisfied with both the Tobii PCEye Go and myGaze® eye tracker, found them easy to position and use, and children learned to operate them quickly. This technology provides young children with important opportunities for learning, play, leisure, and developing communication.

  7. The prevalence and types of glaucoma in malay people: the Singapore Malay eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sunny Y; Wong, Tien Y; Foster, Paul J; Loo, Jing-Liang; Rosman, Mohamad; Loon, Seng-Chee; Wong, Wan Ling; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin

    2008-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and types of glaucoma in an Asian Malay population. The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based, cross-sectional survey that examined 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40 to 80 years. Participants underwent a standardized clinical examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and dilated optic disc assessment. Participants who were suspected to have glaucoma also underwent visual field examination (24-2 SITA standard, Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer II), gonioscopy, and repeat applanation tonometry. Glaucoma was defined according to International Society for Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria. Of the 3280 participants, 150 (4.6%) had diagnosed glaucoma, giving an age- and sex-standardized prevalence of 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3%-3.5%). The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 2.5% (95% CI, 2.4%-2.6%), primary angle-closure glaucoma 0.12% (95% CI, 0.10%-0.14%), and secondary glaucoma 0.61% (95% CI, 0.59%-0.63%). Of the 150 glaucoma cases, only 12 (8%) had a previous known history of glaucoma. Twenty-seven (18%) eyes had low vision (based on best corrected visual acuity logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution [logMAR] >0.30 to /=1.00). The prevalence of glaucoma among Malay persons 40 years of age and older in Singapore is 3.4%, comparable to ethnic Chinese people in Singapore and other racial/ethnic groups in Asia. As in Chinese, Caucasians, and African people, primary open-angle glaucoma was the main form of glaucoma in this population. More than 90% of glaucoma cases were previously undetected.

  8. Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Adam J; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2014-04-01

    To estimate dry eye prevalence in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), including a young adult population, and investigate associated risk factors and impact on health-related quality of life. Cohort study. The BOSS (2005-2008) is a study of aging in the adult offspring of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Questionnaire data on health history, medication use, risk factors, and quality of life were available for 3275 participants. Dry eye was determined by self-report of frequency of symptoms and the intensity of those symptoms. Associations between dry eye and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. The prevalence of dry eye in the BOSS was 14.5%: 17.9% of women and 10.5% of men. In a multivariate model, statistically significant associations were found with female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.11), current contact lens use (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53-2.64), allergies (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22-2.08), arthritis (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.85), thyroid disease (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-1.99), antihistamine use (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18-2.02), and steroid use (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16-2.06). Dry eye was also associated with lower scores on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (β = -3.9, P < .0001) as well as on the National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) (β = -3.4, P < .0001) when controlling for age, sex, and comorbid conditions. The prevalence of dry eye and its associated risk factors in the BOSS were similar to previous studies. In this study, dry eye was associated with lower quality of life on a health-related quality-of-life instrument and the vision-specific NEI VFQ-25. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PREVALENCE OF EYE DISEASES AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AMONG THE RURAL POPULATION – A CASE STUDY OF TEMERLOH HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thevi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of eye diseases and visual impairment among new patients at the eye clinic ofHospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang.Method: In this cross-sectional prospective study, 1081 new patients were examined over a period of six months. Age,gender, ethnicity, visual acuity and diagnosis were noted from the medical records.Results: Out of 1081 examined, 607 (56.1% were males, 783 (72.4% were Malays. The mean age of patients was45.2 years (ranging from one month to 91 years. Cataract (248, 22.9% was the most common eye disease, followed byretinal diseases (124, 11.5% and ocular trauma (106, 9.8%. Majority of the patients (48 suffering from ocular traumahad foreign body cornea. In 85 premature infants screened for retinopathy, 19 showed different stages of retinopathy ofprematurity. Visual impairment was noted in 89 (8.2% patients, severe visual impairment in 12 (1.1% and blindness in 35(3.2%; vision could not be determined in 85 premature infants (7.9%. Cataract was singled out as the cause of severevisual impairment in 11 out of 12 patients.Conclusion: Health education at primary health centres and availability of eye specialists in all the district hospitals willfacilitate the rehabilitation of visually impaired and blind persons by providing early treatment for eye problems (specificallyprescription for spectacles, medical treatment and cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation.

  10. Comparing search patterns in digital breast tomosynthesis and full-field digital mammography: an eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenman, Avi; Drew, Trafton; Ehinger, Krista A; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-10-01

    As a promising imaging modality, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) leads to better diagnostic performance than traditional full-field digital mammograms (FFDM) alone. DBT allows different planes of the breast to be visualized, reducing occlusion from overlapping tissue. Although DBT is gaining popularity, best practices for search strategies in this medium are unclear. Eye tracking allowed us to describe search patterns adopted by radiologists searching DBT and FFDM images. Eleven radiologists examined eight DBT and FFDM cases. Observers marked suspicious masses with mouse clicks. Eye position was recorded at 1000 Hz and was coregistered with slice/depth plane as the radiologist scrolled through the DBT images, allowing a 3-D representation of eye position. Hit rate for masses was higher for tomography cases than 2-D cases and DBT led to lower false positive rates. However, search duration was much longer for DBT cases than FFDM. DBT was associated with longer fixations but similar saccadic amplitude compared with FFDM. When comparing radiologists' eye movements to a previous study, which tracked eye movements as radiologists read chest CT, we found DBT viewers did not align with previously identified "driller" or "scanner" strategies, although their search strategy most closely aligns with a type of vigorous drilling strategy.

  11. Psoriasis: an eye opener – a cross-sectional study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Kishan Kumar Yadalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a multi-system chronic inflammatory skin disease targeting 2% to 3% of the general population. It is a prototype of immune dysregulation mediated by TH1 proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-12 with far reaching systemic effects. There is growing and emerging evidence that psoriasis patients have a higher prevalence of associated comorbid diseases, with severe skin disease portends a serious risk for development of these comorbidities and are found to have a higher association of extracutaneous disease manifestations. Aim: To look for eye involvement in psoriasis patients and to evaluate the risk and prognostic factors of disease association. Material and Methods: 200 Patients with psoriasis were screened for any eye involvement after few unusual case presentations with eye complications during the period from September 2013 - August 2014. Results: First case was a post cataract sudden loss of vision secondary to development of uveitis in a female patient aged 52 years, with past history of psoriasis with minimal skin lesions and no arthritis. Another 5 cases of psoriasis with eye involvement were detected during the screening employed in a series of 200 psoriasis cases. Conclusion: The present report highlights the importance of psoriasis and eye involvement, need for collaboration between dermatologists and ophthalmologists for thorough examination and evaluation prior to any surgical intervention and also further long term follow-up studies are warranted for confirmation of this causal relationship.

  12. Eye disease related to onchocerciasis: a clinical study in the Aratha-ú, Yanomami Tribe, Roraima State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Guilherme Herzog; Jaegger, Karen; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Calvão-Brito, Regina Helena Santos; Vieira, João Batista; Banic, Dalma Maria; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of ocular lesions due to onchocerciasis was evaluated among residents of the Yanomami Tribe, in the northern Amazon, Brazil, an endemic area for onchocerciasis. 83 natives were submitted to an ocular examination including an external examination, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus examination. Clinical, parasitological and serological tests were carried out simultaneously. The population demonstrated a high prevalence of eosinophilia, skin microfilaria (55%) and onchocercal subcutaneous nodules (35%). A high prevalence of probable onchocerciasis related eye lesions was detected. Punctate keratitis (41%) and microfilaria in the anterior chamber (39%) were found as well as other probable onchocercotic lesions-chorioretinitis (7.2%) and anterior uveitis (6.0%). Other anterior eye lesions (corneal leucomas, conjunctival injection, lid nodules) occurred in 51% of the individuals. The anterior eye lesions were more prevalent than the posterior lesions. We did not find an association of glaucoma with onchocerciasis. The prevalence of these suggestive ocular lesions strongly correlates with the cutaneous nodules and eosinophilia, suggesting that skin nodules may be an indication for an eye examination. The present study provides evidence that significant infection and eye disease due to onchocerciasis persists in certain regions of Northern South America.

  13. Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Klein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 µm and intermediate drusen (diameter 63–124 µm are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least two consecutive visits spaced five years apart over a 20-year period were included. A 6-level severity scale, including no drusen, four levels of increasing area (from minimal (<2596 µm² to large (>9086 µm² of only small hard drusen, and intermediate drusen, was used. The five-year incidence of AMD was 3% in eyes at the start of the interval with no, minimal, small, and moderate areas of only small drusen and 5% and 25% for eyes with large area of only small drusen and intermediate drusen, respectively. Compared to eyes with a moderate area of small drusen, the odds ratio (OR of developing AMD in eyes with a large area of only small drusen was 1.8 (p < 0.001. Compared to eyes with large area of only small drusen, eyes with intermediate drusen had an OR of 5.5 (p < 0.001 of developing AMD. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that large areas of only small drusen are associated with the incidence of AMD.

  14. Use of traditional eye medicine and self-medication in rural India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Kalaivani, Mani; Dwivedi, S N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the type and nature of traditional eye medicine (TEM), their sources and use and practices related to self-medication for ophthalmic diseases in a rural Indian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 25 randomly selected clusters of Rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India as part of CORE (Cornea Opacity Rural Epidemiological) study. In addition to comprehensive ophthalmic examination, health-seeking behavior and use of self-medication and TEM was assessed in the adult population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Physical verification of available ophthalmic medications in the enumerated households was conducted by the study team. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for use of self-medication and TEM. Of the 2160 participants interviewed, 396 (18.2%) reported using ophthalmic medications without consulting an ophthalmologist, mainly for symptoms like watering (37.1%), redness (27.7%), itching (19.2%) and infection (13.6%). On physical verification of available eye drops that were being used without prescription, 26.4% participants were practicing self-medication. Steroid, expired/unlabeled and indigenous eye drops were being used by 151(26.5%), 120(21.1%) and 75 (13.2%) participants respectively. Additionally, 25.7% (529) participants resorted to home remedies like 'kajal'(61.4%), honey (31.4%), ghee (11.7%) and rose water (9.1%). Use of TEM is prevalent in this population. The rampant use of steroid eye drops without prescription along with use of expired or unlabelled eye drops warrants greater emphasis on safe eye care practices in this population. Public awareness and regulatory legislations must be implemented to decrease harmful effects arising due to such practices.

  15. WEB ANALYTICS COMBINED WITH EYE TRACKING FOR SUCCESSFUL USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena BORYS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analysis of participants’ behaviour during eye-tracking sessions allowed improvements of the prototype.

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  17. Eye-gaze patterns as students study worked-out examples in mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Ross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores what introductory physics students actually look at when studying worked-out examples. Our classroom experiences indicate that introductory physics students neither discuss nor refer to the conceptual information contained in the text of worked-out examples. This study is an effort to determine to what extent students incorporate the textual information into the way they study. Student eye-gaze patterns were recorded as they studied the examples to aid them in solving a target problem. Contrary to our expectations from classroom interactions, students spent 40±3% of their gaze time reading the textual information. Their gaze patterns were also characterized by numerous jumps between corresponding mathematical and textual information, implying that they were combining information from both sources. Despite this large fraction of time spent reading the text, student recall of the conceptual information contained therein remained very poor. We also found that having a particular problem in mind had no significant effects on the gaze-patterns or conceptual information retention.

  18. The Age-Related Eye Disease 2 Study: Micronutrients in the Treatment of Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress-related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. In this review, we examine the science behind the nutritional factors included in these interventional studies and the reasons for considering their inclusion to lower the rate of AMD progression. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The Age-Related Eye Disease 2 Study: Micronutrients in the Treatment of Macular Degeneration123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress–related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n–3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. In this review, we examine the science behind the nutritional factors included in these interventional studies and the reasons for considering their inclusion to lower the rate of AMD progression. PMID:28096126

  20. A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Laser Refractive Eye Surgery in Military Aircrew

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinton, Patricia; Niall, Keith K; Wainberg, Dan; Bateman, Bill; Courchesne, Cyd; Gray, Gary; Quick, Gayle; Thatcher, Bob

    2005-01-01

    .... Postoperative low contrast acuity has improved with newer laser techniques but there was still concern that vision after laser eye surgery would be not good enough for military aircrew demands...

  1. A cross-sectional study of the actual use of eye drops in a Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and storage of eye drops, and the participants' understanding of the role of pharmacist in enhancing ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers .... to minimise the risks and optimise the potential.

  2. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  3. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets. In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical information in ski resorts.

  4. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  5. Pseudoexfoliation: normative data and associations. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX and its associations in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 individuals. All study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination. After medical pupil dilation, PEX was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist using slit-lamp based biomicroscopy. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination results were available for 4646 (98.6% study participants with a mean age of 49.3 ± 13.3 years (range: 30-100 years. PEX was detected in 87 eyes (prevalence: 0.95 ± 0.10% (95%CI: 0.75, 1.15 of 69 subjects (prevalence: 1.49 ± 0.18% (95%CI: 1.14, 1.83. PEX prevalence increased significantly (P<0.001 from 0% in the age group of 30-39 years, to 2.85 ± 0.56% in the age group of 60-69 years, to 6.60 ± 1.21% in the age group of 70-79 years, and to 12.3 ± 4.11% in the age group of 80+ years. In multivariate analysis, PEX prevalence was associated with higher age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B:0.11; odds ratio (OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.13, lower body mass index (P = 0.001; B: -0.12; OR: 0.88 (95CI: 0.82, 0.95 and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002; B: 0.02; OR: 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.04. In the multivariate analysis, PEX was not associated with retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (P = 0.76 and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural Central Indian population aged 30+ years, PEX prevalence (mean: 1.49 ± 0.18% was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index and higher diastolic blood pressure. It was not significantly associated with optic nerve head measurements, refractive error, any ocular biometric parameter, nuclear cataract, early age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia.

  6. Using combined eye tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Salgado, A.; Spence, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data

  7. Chronic Pain and Selective Attention to Pain Arousing Daily Activity Pictures: Evidence From an Eye Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mahmoodi-Aghdam

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Although these results did not provide unequivocal support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, they are generally consistent with the results of studies using eye tracking technology. Furthermore, our findings put a question over characterization of attentional biases in patients with chronic pain by simply relating that to difficulty in disengaging from pain-related stimuli.

  8. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  9. An Exploration of the Use of Eye-Gaze Tracking to Study Problem-Solving on Standardized Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Robert H.; Loehr, John F.; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the capacity of eye-gaze tracking to identify differences in problem-solving behaviours within a group of individuals who possessed varying degrees of knowledge and expertise in three disciplines of science (biology, chemistry and physics). The six participants, all pre-service science teachers, completed an 18-item…

  10. Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) was a 5- to 6-year follow-up of the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At follow-up, 2103 children were reexamined: 892 (50.5%) from the younger cohort and 1211 (51.5%) from the older cohort. Of these, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1; Canon, Tokyo, Japan) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤-0.50 diopters (D). Children were classified as having incident myopia if they were nonmyopic at baseline and myopic in either eye at follow-up. A comprehensive questionnaire determined the amount of time children spent outdoors and doing near work per week at baseline, as well as ethnicity, parental myopia, and socioeconomic status. Incident myopia. Children who became myopic spent less time outdoors compared with children who remained nonmyopic (younger cohort, 16.3 vs. 21.0 hours, respectively, Phours, respectively, P=0.001). Children who became myopic performed significantly more near work (19.4 vs. 17.6 hours; P=0.02) in the younger cohort, but not in the older cohort (P=0.06). Children with 1 or 2 parents who were myopic had greater odds of incident myopia (1 parent: odds ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; both parents: OR, 3.3, 95% CI, 1.6-6.8) in the younger but not the older cohort. Children of East Asian ethnicity had a higher incidence of myopia compared with children of European Caucasian ethnicity (both Pwork, parental myopia, and ethnicity to the model significantly improved the predictive power (Pwork and parental myopia were additional significant risk factors for myopia only in the younger cohort. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article

  12. Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Ingmar; Baldofski, Sabrina; Lüthold, Patrick; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-08-19

    Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED.

  13. Orienting and maintenance of attention to threatening facial expressions in anxiety--an eye movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holas, Pawel; Krejtz, Izabela; Cypryanska, Marzena; Nezlek, John B

    2014-12-15

    Cognitive models posit that anxiety disorders stem in part from underlying attentional biases to threat. Consistent with this, studies have found that the attentional bias to threat-related stimuli is greater in high vs. low anxious individuals. Nevertheless, it is not clear if similar biases exist for different threatening emotions or for any facial emotional stimulus. In the present study, we used eye-tracking to measure orienting and maintenance of attention to faces displaying anger, fear and disgust as threats, and faces displaying happiness and sadness. Using a free viewing task, we examined differences between low and high trait anxious (HTA) individuals in the attention they paid to each of these emotional faces (paired with a neutral face). We found that initial orienting was faster for angry and happy faces, and high trait anxious participants were more vigilant to fearful and disgust faces. Our results for attentional maintenance were not consistent. The results of the present study suggest that attentional processes may be more emotion-specific than previously believed. Our results suggest that attentional processes for different threatening emotions may not be the same and that attentional processes for some negative and some positive emotions may be similar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  15. STUDYING STUDENT BEHAVIOR AND CHEMISTRY SKILL USING BROWSER-BASED TOOLS AND EYE-TRACKING HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert J. Pienta

    Full Text Available Browser-based tools were created to collect quantitative data about university student problem-solving skills. Three of these tools have been described: a word question tool that creates ideal gas law and stoichiometry questions using a set of complexity factors; a Lewis structure drawing tool that enables the user to draw a solution to an ion or molecule assigned to them; and a "spheres" tool that uses spheres to represent atoms and molecules to denote the particulate nature of matter. Results from these studies show that relatively simple questions can be made very complex by the addition of many complexity factors that challenge the cognitive skills. The drawing tools can be used for instruction or to collect data about student understanding; the outcomes suggest that students with more instruction in chemistry are more successful but even the performance of students after four semesters is somewhat disappointing. Eye-tracking hardware enabled the study of the student use of the visual interface of the other tools and to study molecular representation or interpret spectral data.

  16. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  17. Histoanatomical study on the uveal coat of eye in mature ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadali Ebrahimi saadatlou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the uveal coats of 20 healthy adult ostriches were studied anatomically and histologically. At first, the appearance, dimension, structure and vicinity of choroid, ciliary body and iris were evaluated macroscopically. Then they were studied microscopically after preparing histological slides and staining by H&E, Verhoeff, Van Gieson, and P.A.S. Tapetum lucidum was not seen in the choroid. The average thickness of ciliary body was measured as 1.48±0.01 centimeters. Moreover, the number of macroscopic ciliary body process in the ostrich eye was about 120. Iris thickness in the normal state is 0.7 centimeters and the diameter of pupil was measured as 1.2 centimeters. Pupil is round shaped in ostrich. There is a hyaline cartilage membrane between the sclera and choroid. There is bruch's membrane in the choroid and the total thickness of the choroid was measured as 350 µm. The ciliary body was supported by a hyaline cartilage. Skeletal muscle fibers in the ciliary body were seen as separated masses. Epithelium is lacking on the anterior surface of the iris. Iridial muscle fibers were smooth. The posterior epithelium of the iris had two pigmented layers with the inner layer acting as myoepithelial cells. In conclusion, the uveal coat of ostrich was similar to other birds although there were little differences in anatomical dimensions and histological characteristics

  18. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.

  19. Eye-tracking computer systems for inpatients with tetraplegia: findings from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, J J; Watkins, F; Park, C; Landymore, H

    2014-12-02

    Study design:A longitudinal, prospective, self-controlled cohort study.Objectives:To determine (1) the preliminary benefits of using eye-tracking computer systems (ETCSs) among inpatients with tetraplegia and (2) the feasibility of carrying out a well-powered randomized controlled trial.Setting:Specialist Spinal Cord Injuries Centre, United Kingdom; 6 months during 2013-2014.Methods:Individuals with tetraplegia who were admitted to the center and enrolled in this study were trained and allowed to use the ETCS (Tobii Eyegaze C15 System) twice a week for a duration of 10 weeks. Standardized training modules were developed and offered to all study participants. Study feasibility indicators as well as the Appraisals of Disability: Primary and Secondary Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment questionnaire scores were taken before and after study enrollment.Results:A total of 31 inpatients with tetraplegia were screened. Although 14 patients (45%) met the study eligibility criteria, 6 patients (19%) consented to be enrolled in the study. Three participants did not complete the planned training schedule because of medical, technical and logistic reasons. Although half of the participants agreed that the ETCS under study was easy to use, no substantial improvements were seen in terms of psychological outcomes, appraisals of disability or independence.Conclusions:The conduct of a controlled trial evaluating the benefits of using ETCSs among newly injured patients with tetraplegia comes with considerable feasibility challenges. Until substantial technical improvements of ETCSs have been implemented, future research should initially focus on those individuals with tetraplegia who are living in the community and who have expressed a need to enhance their computer access and communication skills.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.219.

  20. Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements: a pilot functional MRI study in PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Thomaes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs. Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a “working-memory” (WM theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs compete for limited capacity of WM resources. However, prior research has mainly relied on self-report measures. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether “recall with EMs,” relative to a “recall-only” control condition, was associated with reduced activity of primary visual and emotional processing brain regions, associated with vividness and emotionality respectively, and increased activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, associated with working memory. We used a randomized, controlled, crossover experimental design in eight adult patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. A script-driven imagery (SDI procedure was used to measure responsiveness to an audio-script depicting the participant's traumatic memory before and after conditions. Results: SDI activated mainly emotional processing-related brain regions (anterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, WM-related (DLPFC, and visual (association brain regions before both conditions. Although predicted pre- to post-test decrease in amygdala activation after “recall with EMs” was not significant, SDI activated less right amygdala and rostral ACC activity after “recall with EMs” compared to post-“recall-only.” Furthermore, functional connectivity from the right amygdala to the rostral ACC was decreased after “recall with EMs” compared with after “recall-only.” Conclusions: These preliminary results in a small sample

  1. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  2. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  3. Subliminally perceived odours modulate female intrasexual competition: an eye movement study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Parma

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that subliminal odorants influence human perception and behavior. It has been hypothesized that the human sex-steroid derived compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone functions as a human chemosignal. The most intensively studied steroid compound, androstadienone is known to be biologically relevant since it seems to convey information about male mate quality to women. It is unclear if the effects of androstadienone are menstrual cycle related.In the first experiment, heterosexual women were exposed to androstadienone or a control compound and asked to view stimuli such as female faces, male faces and familiar objects while their eye movements were recorded. In the second experiment the same women were asked to rate the level of stimuli attractiveness following exposure to the study or control compound. The results indicated that women at high conception risk spent more time viewing the female than the male faces regardless of the compound administered. Women at a low conception risk exhibited a preference for female faces only following exposure to androstadienone.We contend that a woman's level of fertility influences her evaluation of potential competitors (e.g., faces of other women during times critical for reproduction. Subliminally perceived odorants, such as androstadienone, might similarly enhance intrasexual competition strategies in women during fertility phases not critical for conception. These findings offer a substantial contribution to the current debate about the effects that subliminally perceived body odors might have on behavior.

  4. Subliminally perceived odours modulate female intrasexual competition: an eye movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Valentina; Tirindelli, Roberto; Bisazza, Angelo; Massaccesi, Stefano; Castiello, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that subliminal odorants influence human perception and behavior. It has been hypothesized that the human sex-steroid derived compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone) functions as a human chemosignal. The most intensively studied steroid compound, androstadienone is known to be biologically relevant since it seems to convey information about male mate quality to women. It is unclear if the effects of androstadienone are menstrual cycle related. In the first experiment, heterosexual women were exposed to androstadienone or a control compound and asked to view stimuli such as female faces, male faces and familiar objects while their eye movements were recorded. In the second experiment the same women were asked to rate the level of stimuli attractiveness following exposure to the study or control compound. The results indicated that women at high conception risk spent more time viewing the female than the male faces regardless of the compound administered. Women at a low conception risk exhibited a preference for female faces only following exposure to androstadienone. We contend that a woman's level of fertility influences her evaluation of potential competitors (e.g., faces of other women) during times critical for reproduction. Subliminally perceived odorants, such as androstadienone, might similarly enhance intrasexual competition strategies in women during fertility phases not critical for conception. These findings offer a substantial contribution to the current debate about the effects that subliminally perceived body odors might have on behavior.

  5. Using Eye Movement Analysis to Study Auditory Effects on Visual Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramtin Zargari Marandi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjoining three seconds interval. Similarly, this task was performed with new pictures together with related sounds. The task was free viewing and participants were not informed about the task’s purpose. Using pattern recognition techniques, participants’ EOG signals in response to repeated and non-repeated pictures were classified for with and without sound stages. The method was validated with eight different participants. Recognition rate in “with sound” stage was significantly reduced as compared with “without sound” stage. The result demonstrated that the familiarity of visual-auditory stimuli can be detected from EOG signals and the auditory input potentially improves the visual recall process.

  6. Using eye movement analysis to study auditory effects on visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG) was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjoining three seconds interval. Similarly, this task was performed with new pictures together with related sounds. The task was free viewing and participants were not informed about the task's purpose. Using pattern recognition techniques, participants' EOG signals in response to repeated and non-repeated pictures were classified for with and without sound stages. The method was validated with eight different participants. Recognition rate in "with sound" stage was significantly reduced as compared with "without sound" stage. The result demonstrated that the familiarity of visual-auditory stimuli can be detected from EOG signals and the auditory input potentially improves the visual recall process.

  7. Characterization of Retinal Disease Progression in a 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Eyes With Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Diabetes Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify eyes of patients with diabetes type 2 that show progression of retinal disease within a 1-year period using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-four type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy......DR and in central retinal thickness in eyes with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetes type 2 are able to identify eyes at risk of progression. These eyes/patients should be selected for inclusion in future clinical trials of drugs targeted to prevent diabetic retinopathy progression to vision...... (SD-OCT) were assessed by a central reading center at all visits and ETDRS severity level in the first and last visits. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-one eyes/patients completed the study. Microaneurysm formation rate greater than or equal to 2 was present in 68.1% of the eyes and MA turnover greater...

  8. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  9. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtir, Corina J; Marjoram, Paul; Azen, Stanley; Conti, David V; Le Marchand, Loic; Haiman, Christopher A; Varma, Rohit

    2009-11-10

    Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP), formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians). Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that it will be important to assess this heterogeneity

  10. Estimation of the mechanical properties of the eye through the study of its vibrational modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Á Aloy

    Full Text Available Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-seismic techniques. As a biomechanical system, the eyeball possesses normal vibrational modes encompassing rich information about its structure and mechanical properties. However, the integral analysis of the eyeball vibrational modes has not been performed yet. Here we develop a new finite difference method to compute both the spheroidal and, specially, the toroidal eigenfrequencies of the human eye. Using this numerical model, we show that the vibrational eigenfrequencies of the human eye fall in the interval 100 Hz-10 MHz. We find that compressible vibrational modes may release a trace on high frequency changes of the intraocular pressure, while incompressible normal modes could be registered analyzing the scattering pattern that the motions of the vitreous humour leave on the retina. Existing contact lenses with embebed devices operating at high sampling frequency could be used to register the microfluctuations of the eyeball shape we obtain. We advance that an inverse problem to obtain the mechanical properties of a given eye (e.g., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio measuring its normal frequencies is doable. These measurements can be done using non-invasive techniques, opening very interesting perspectives to estimate the mechanical properties of eyes in vivo. Future research might relate various ocular pathologies with anomalies in measured vibrational frequencies of the eye.

  11. Macular Choroidal Thickness in Myopic Eyes with and without a Dome-Shaped Macula: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudier, Guillaume; Gaudric, Alain; Gualino, Vincent; Massin, Pascale; Nardin, Mathieu; Tadayoni, Ramin; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Gaucher, David

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) has recently been described with myopic staphyloma, which may cause decreased vision. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the choroidal thickness of eyes with and eyes without DSM. A total of 26 eyes with DSM were paired based on axial length with 26 eyes without DSM. All patients underwent spectral-domain OCT examination using the 7-line EDI (enhanced depth imaging) protocol. The mean choroidal thickness was measured using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid areas. Both nasal choroidal thickness and temporal choroidal thickness were significantly thinner in the DSM group (120.43 vs. 159.46 µm, p = 0.035, and 142.17 vs. 187.23 µm, p = 0.021, respectively). However, the mean central choroidal thickness did not differ (152.61 vs. 175.96 µm, p = 0.20). The ratio between central and peripheral choroidal thickness was very significantly elevated with DSM (1.18 ± 0.12 vs. 0.99 ± 0.09, p < 0.0001). Choroidal thickness decreases at the periphery but not in the macular area with DSM. DSM seems not to be due to an inward protrusion of the globe but due to macular anatomical preservation in a growing staphyloma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajudeen KNS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05 between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade. There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkaran, Karuppannan; Zunaina, Embong; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, Kns; Naik, Venkatesh

    2011-10-09

    Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous humour (p = 0.117, p = 0

  14. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous

  16. Structure modulates similarity-based interference in sluicing: An eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines, as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don’t know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity of retrieval cues.

  17. Studies on activated cytostatic fluorouracil as photosensitizer: to use in eye tumor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Carstocea, Benone D.; Brezeanu, Mihail; Voicu, Letitia; Staicu, Angela; Gazdaru, Doina M.; Pascu, Ruxandra A.

    2004-09-01

    Hydroxypyrimidine 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) belongs to the cytostatics group known as antimetabolites. The effect of UV irradiation on 5-FU was investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The study of the photosensitizer properties of 5-FU was made since their effects could be enhanced by exposure to UV radiation at different doses. Solutions 2.5x10-4M in natural saline water (0.8% NaCl), irradiated with optical beams emitted by N2 laser and UV Hg classic lamp, were used. The 5-FU was chosen due to its strong absorption along a large spectral range which makes possible the fluorescence excitation in UV. The absorption spectra exhibit bands between 250 - 450 nm. The emission fluorescence was measured in the 400-550 nm spectral range, with λex=320 and 350 nm for samples irradiated with Hg lamp and with λex=360 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The excitation fluorescence was measured in the spectral range 200-400 nm, with λem=440 nm for samples irradiated with N2 laser. The spectra reveal a fluorescence enhancement with the exposure time, with a maximum at 3 min due to the transformation of 5-FU molecule into a fluorescent tautomeric form. The destruction more rapid than usual of the neovascularisation was observed for conjunctive of rabbit eyes, when they are impregnated with 5-FU solution and exposed to incoherent UV and visible light.

  18. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.

  19. Efficacy of topical cyclosporine 0.05% eye drops in the treatment of dry eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Haitham Y Al-Nashar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclosporine 0.05% in the treatment of dry-eye disease. Patients and methods A total of 35 eyes of 20 patients with dry-eye disease were included in the present study. Ten patients (20 eyes) had dry eyes associated with systemic rheumatologic disease (Sjögren′s syndrome), five patients (10 eyes) had dry eyes after undergoing laser in-situ keratomileusis, and five patients (five eyes) had dry eyes after cataract...

  20. Objective measurement of intraocular forward light scatter using Hartmann-Shack spot patterns from clinical aberrometers. Model-eye and human-eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerviño, Alejandro; Bansal, Dheeraj; Hosking, Sarah L; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2008-07-01

    To apply software-based image-analysis tools to objectively determine intraocular scatter determined from clinically derived Hartmann-Shack patterns. Aston Academy of Life Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom, and Department of Optics, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Purpose-designed image-analysis software was used to quantify scatter from centroid patterns obtained using a clinical Hartmann-Shack analyzer (WASCA, Zeiss/Meditec). Three scatter values, as the maximum standard deviation within a lenslet for all lenslets in the pattern, were obtained in 6 model eyes and 10 human eyes. In the model-eye sample, patterns were obtained in 4 sessions: 2 without realigning between measurements, 1 with realignment, and 1 with an angular shift of 6 degrees from the instrument axis. Three measurements were made in the human eyes with the C-Quant straylight meter (Oculus) to obtain psychometric and objective measures of retinal straylight. Analysis of variance, intraclass correlation coefficients, coefficient of repeatability (CoR), and correlations were used to determine intrasession and intersession repeatability and the relationship between measures. No significant differences were found between the sessions in the model eye (P=.234). The mean CoR was less than 10% in all model- and human-eye sessions. After incomplete patterns were removed, good correlation was achieved between psychometric and objective scatter measurements despite the small sample size (n=6; r=-0.831; P=.040). The methodology was repeatable in model and human eyes, strong against realignment and misalignment, and sensitive. Clinical application would benefit from effective use of the sensor's dynamic range.

  1. Baseline risk factors for incidence of blindness in a South Indian population: the chennai eye disease incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaya, Lingam; Asokan, Rashima; Panday, Manish; Choudhari, Nikhil S; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Boddupalli, Sachi Devi; Sunil, Govindan T; George, Ronnie

    2014-08-07

    To report the baseline risk factors and causes for incident blindness. Six years after the baseline study, 4419 subjects from the cohort underwent a detailed examination at the base hospital. Incident blindness was defined by World Health Organization criteria as visual acuity of less than 6/120 (3/60) and/or a visual field of less than 10° in the better-seeing eye at the 6-year follow-up, provided that the eye had a visual acuity of better than or equal to 6/120 (3/60) and visual field greater than 10° at baseline. For incident monocular blindness, both eyes should have visual acuity of more than 6/120 (3/60) at baseline and developed visual acuity of less than 6/120 (3/60) in one eye at 6-year follow-up. For incident blindness, 21 participants (0.48%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.7) became blind; significant baseline risk factors were increasing age (P = 0.001), smokeless tobacco use (P blindness was found in 132 participants (3.8%, 95% CI, 3.7-3.8); it was significantly more (P blindness and monocular blindness. No history of cataract surgery was a risk factor for blindness and a protective factor for monocular blindness. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Parapapillary Gamma Zone and Progression of Myopia in School Children: The Beijing Children Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Li Juan; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi; Lv, Yan Yun; Wu, Min; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-01

    To assess the development and enlargement of the parapapillary gamma zone in school children. This school-based prospective longitudinal study included Chinese children attending grade 1 in 2011 and returning for yearly follow-up examinations until 2016. These examinations consisted of a comprehensive ocular examination with biometry and color fundus photographs. The parents underwent a standardized interview. The parapapillary gamma zone was defined as the area with visible sclera at the temporal optic disc margin, and the optic disc itself was measured on fundus photographs. The study included 294 children (mean age in 2016, 11.4 ± 0.5 years [range, 10-13 years]; mean axial length, 24.1 ± 1.1 mm [range, 21.13-27.29 mm]). In multivariate analysis, larger increases in the gamma zone area during the study period were correlated (coefficient of determination for bivariate analysis [r2], r2 = 0.69) with larger increases in the vertical-to-horizontal disc diameter ratios (P zone area at baseline (P time spent indoors studying (P = 0.015; beta, 0.10; B, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.17). The development and enlargement of the gamma zone in the temporal parapapillary region were associated with an optic disc rotation around the vertical disc axis as indicated by an increasing vertical-to-horizontal disc diameter ratio. These morphologic findings fit with the notion of a backward pull of the temporal peripapillary sclera through the optic nerve dura mater in axially elongated eyes.

  3. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: The Tromso Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.; Lindekleiv, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. Methods: The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87years from the TromsO Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based TromsO Study in Norway. Retinal images from both...... eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis...... excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43mg/mmol). Conclusion: This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis...

  4. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Tae Jin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung, E-mail: kjkim@hallym.or.kr; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  6. Clinical evaluation of the additive effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy in patients with dry eye syndrome: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K; Nakanishi, M; Ishii, R; Kobashi, H; Igarashi, A; Sato, N; Shimizu, K

    2012-10-01

    To assess the additive effect of diquafosol tetrasodium on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy in patients with dry eye syndrome. This study evaluated 64 eyes of 32 patients (age: 62.6±12.8 years (mean±SD)) in whom treatment with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate was insufficiently responsive. The eyes were randomly assigned to one of the two regimens in each patient: topical administration of sodium hyaluronate and diquafosol tetrasodium in one eye, and that of sodium hyaluronate in the other. Before treatment, and 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, we determined tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), fluorescein and rose bengal vital staining scores, subjective symptoms, and adverse events. We found a significant improvement in BUT (P=0.049, Dunnett test), fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores (P=0.02), and in subjective symptoms (P=0.004 for dry eye sensation, P=0.02 for pain, and P=0.02 for foreign body sensation) 4 weeks after treatment in the diquafosol eyes. On the other hand, we found no significant change in these parameters after treatment in the control eyes. In dry eyes, where sodium hyaluronate monotherapy was insufficient, diquafosol tetrasodium was effective in improving objective and subjective symptoms, suggesting its viability as an option for the additive treatment of such eyes.

  7. Clinical results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: a multicenter study of 265 eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron-Rosa, D S; Colin, J; Aron, B; Burin, N; Cochener, B; Febraro, J L; Gallinaro, C; Ganem, S; Valdes, R

    1995-11-01

    Efficacy, predictability, and safety of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy were evaluated at centers in Paris and Brest, France. Photoablation was performed with the VISX laser on 265 eyes (151 at the Paris center and 114 at the Brest center). The eyes were clinically and statistically evaluated over a six month follow-up. Initial myopia ranged from -0.7 to -19.4 diopters (D) (mean spherical equivalent [SE] -5.9 D) in the Paris center and from -0.9 to -14.5 D (SE -4.5 D) in the Brest center. At both centers, the mean uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/200; over 90% of cases in each center had a best uncorrected visual acuity of 20/100 or worse. Results are reported globally and for subgroups of myopia: Group A, SE better than or equal to -3.0 D; Group B, SE worse than -3.0 D and better than or equal to -7.0 D; Group C, SE worse than -7.0 D. Uncorrected visual acuity was significantly improved in the patients followed for six months; 64% of Paris cases and 62% of Brest cases obtained an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Predictability of the treatment was good; 67% of Paris eyes and 74% of Brest eyes were less than 1.0 D from the intended correction after six months. The data suggest that the initial myopia affected the efficacy and predictability of the treatment; results in the mild to moderate myopia eyes were significantly better than results in the severe myopia eyes. One case of visual acuity regression (less than one line) was observed in the two groups. This was associated with corneal haze of moderate intensity.

  8. Qualitative Assessment of Ultrasound Biomicroscopic Images Using Standard Photographs: The Liwan Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Qunxiao; Zhang, Jian; Foster, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To classify anatomic features related to anterior chamber angles by a qualitative assessment system based on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images. Methods. Cases of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), defined by pigmented trabecular meshwork that is not visible in two or more quadrants on static gonioscopy (cases) and systematically selected subjects (1 of every 10) who did not meet this criterion (controls) were enrolled during a population-based survey in Guangzhou, China. All subjects underwent UBM examination. A set of standard UBM images was used to qualitatively classify anatomic features related to the angle configuration, including iris thickness, iris convexity, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary process position. All analysis was conducted on right eye images. Results. Based on the qualitative grades, the difference in overall iris thickness between gonioscopically narrow eyes (n = 117) and control eyes (n = 57) was not statistically significant. The peripheral one third of the iris tended to be thicker in all quadrants of the PACS eyes, although the difference was statistically significant only in the superior quadrant (P = 0.008). No significant differences were found in the qualitative classifications of iris insertion, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary process position. The findings were similar when compared with the control group of eyes with wide angles in all quadrants. Conclusions. Basal iris thickness seems to be more relevant to narrow angle configuration than to overall iris thickness. Otherwise, the anterior rotation and size of the ciliary body, the iris insertion, and the overall iris thickness are comparable in narrow- and wide-angle eyes. PMID:19834039

  9. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  10. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  11. A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Ines; Matthes, Jörg; Naderer, Brigitte; Karsay, Kathrin

    2018-06-01

    Based on cue reactivity theory, food cues embedded in media content can lead to physiological and psychological responses in children. Research suggests that unhealthy food cues are represented more extensively and interactively in children's media environments than healthy ones. However, it is not clear to this date whether children react differently to unhealthy compared to healthy food cues. In an experimental study with 56 children (55.4% girls; M age  = 8.00, SD = 1.58), we used eye-tracking to determine children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues embedded in a narrative cartoon movie. Besides varying the food type (i.e., healthy vs. unhealthy), we also manipulated the integration levels of food cues with characters (i.e., level of food integration; no interaction vs. handling vs. consumption), and we assessed children's individual susceptibility factors by measuring the impact of their hunger level. Our results indicated that unhealthy food cues attract children's visual attention to a larger extent than healthy cues. However, their initial visual interest did not differ between unhealthy and healthy food cues. Furthermore, an increase in the level of food integration led to an increase in visual attention. Our findings showed no moderating impact of hunger. We conclude that especially unhealthy food cues with an interactive connection trigger cue reactivity in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. WEB ANALYTICS COMBINED WITH EYE TRACKING FOR SUCCESSFUL USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena BORYS; Monika CZWÓRNÓG; Tomasz RATAJCZYK

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a new approach for the mobile user experience design process by means of web analytics and eye-tracking. The proposed method was applied to design the LUT mobile website. In the method, to create the mobile website design, data of various users and their behaviour were gathered and analysed using the web analytics tool. Next, based on the findings from web analytics, the mobile prototype for the website was created and validated in eye-tracking usability testing. The analy...

  13. Dry eye disease and allergic conditions: A Korean nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Sang Wha

    2016-11-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. No epidemiologic reports have yet been published about the relationship between DED and allergic rhinitis or sensitization to allergens. To investigate the association between DED and allergic conditions in the general adult Korean population. This population-based cross-sectional study included 17,542 individuals (ages ≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012. Data for total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE levels were available for 1857 subjects. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to determine the association of DED with allergy or allergic conditions, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, increased total serum IgE, and sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae), dog, and cockroach allergens. The prevalence of DED, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was 10.4, 13.1, 2.2, and 3.3%, respectively. The prevalence of the increased total serum IgE level and sensitization to D. farinae, dog, and cockroach allergens was 34.6, 15.7, 1.0, and 2.8%, respectively. After adjusting for general characteristics, DED was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval, 1.38-1.81]) and D. farinae sensitization (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.79]). This study demonstrated a close association between DED and both allergic rhinitis and D. farinae sensitization in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to establish temporal relationships between DED and allergic rhinitis.

  14. Visual attention to emotional face in schizophrenia: an eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania Asgharpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in the processing of facial emotions have been reported extensively in patients with schizophrenia. To explore whether restricted attention is the cause of impaired emotion processing in these patients, we examined visual attention through tracking eye movements in response to emotional and neutral face stimuli in a group of patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. We also examined the correlation between visual attention allocation and symptoms severity in our patient group.Thirty adult patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched healthy controls participated in this study. Visual attention data were recorded while participants passively viewed emotional-neutral face pairs for 500 ms. The relationship between the visual attention and symptoms severity were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS in the schizophrenia group. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to compare the groups.Comparing the number of fixations made during face-pairs presentation, we found that patients with schizophrenia made fewer fixations on faces, regardless of the expression of the face. Analysis of the number of fixations on negative-neutral pairs also revealed that the patients made fewer fixations on both neutral and negative faces. Analysis of number of fixations on positive-neutral pairs only showed more fixations on positive relative to neutral expressions in both groups. We found no correlations between visual attention pattern to faces and symptom severity in schizophrenic patients.The results of this study suggest that the facial recognition deficit in schizophrenia is related to decreased attention to face stimuli. Finding of no difference in visual attention for positive-neutral face pairs between the groups is in line with studies that have shown increased ability to positive emotional perception in these patients.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  17. Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-02-01

    substitute. The purpose of artificial tears is, among other things, to provide comfort and a reduction of dry eye symptoms such as poor quality of vision. This study demonstrates that 0.5% carmellose and 0.1% hyaluronic acid allowed better stabilization of the tear film and thus a significant improvement in the quality of vision compared to normal saline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparison of objective optical quality measured by double-pass aberrometry in patients with moderate dry eye: Normal saline vs. artificial tears: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, G; Chamy, Y; Pisella, P-J

    2018-03-01

    substitute. The purpose of artificial tears is, among other things, to provide comfort and a reduction of dry eye symptoms such as poor quality of vision. This study demonstrates that 0.5% carmellose and 0.1% hyaluronic acid allowed better stabilization of the tear film and thus a significant improvement in the quality of vision compared to normal saline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes': an fMRI study of adolescents with autism and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R J; Chura, L R; Lai, M-C; Suckling, J; von dem Hagen, E; Calder, A J; Bullmore, E T; Baron-Cohen, S; Spencer, M D

    2014-11-01

    Mentalizing deficits are a hallmark of the autism spectrum condition (ASC) and a potential endophenotype for atypical social cognition in ASC. Differences in performance and neural activation on the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' task (the Eyes task) have been identified in individuals with ASC in previous studies. Performance on the Eyes task along with the associated neural activation was examined in adolescents with ASC (n = 50), their unaffected siblings (n = 40) and typically developing controls (n = 40). Based on prior literature that males and females with ASC display different cognitive and associated neural characteristics, analyses were stratified by sex. Three strategies were applied to test for endophenotypes at the level of neural activation: (1) identifying and locating conjunctions of ASC-control and sibling-control differences; (2) examining whether the sibling group is comparable to the ASC or intermediate between the ASC and control groups; and (3) examining spatial overlaps between ASC-control and sibling-control differences across multiple thresholds. Impaired behavioural performance on the Eyes task was observed in males with ASC compared to controls, but only at trend level in females; and no difference in performance was identified between sibling and same-sex control groups in both sexes. Neural activation showed a substantial endophenotype effect in the female groups but this was only modest in the male groups. Behavioural impairment on complex emotion recognition associated with mental state attribution is a phenotypic, rather than an endophenotypic, marker of ASC. However, the neural response during the Eyes task is a potential endophenotypic marker for ASC, particularly in females.

  20. Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels--An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  1. Visual acuity and associated factors. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available Visual acuity is a major parameter for quality of vision and quality of life. Information on visual acuity and its associated factors in rural societies almost untouched by any industrialization is mostly non-available. It was, therefore, the purpose of our study to determine the distribution of visual acuity and its associated factors in a rural population not marked influenced by modern lifestyle. The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years, who underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity measurement. Visual acuity measurements were available for 4706 subjects with a mean age of 49.5±13.4 years (range: 30-100 years. BCVA decreased significantly (P<0.001 from the moderately hyperopic group (0.08±0.15 logMAR to the emmetropic group (0.16±0.52 logMAR, the moderately myopic group (0.28±0.33 logMAR, the highly hyperopic group (0.66±0.62 logMAR and finally the highly myopic group (1.32±0.92 logMAR. In multivariate analysis, BCVA was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of lower age (P<0.001, higher level of education (P<0.001, higher body stature (P<0.001 and higher body mass index (P<0.001, and with the ophthalmic parameters of more hyperopic refractive error (spherical equivalent (P<0.001, shorter axial length (P<0.001, lower degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001, and lower intraocular pressure (P = 0.006. The results suggest that in the rural population of Central India, major determinants of visual acuity were socioeconomic background, body stature and body mass index, age, refractive error, cataract and intraocular pressure.

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY OF INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS IN A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhini Arumugam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intermediate Uveitis also known as pars planitis essentially affects the pars plana of ciliary body and periphery of choroid. It occurs particularly in young adults with female predominance. Determining the aetiology of intermediate uveitis is one of the most difficult problem in curing the patient. This is a study of presentation, progression and follow up of a group of people diagnosed as intermediate uveitis, seeking medical care in south Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was done to identify the pattern of uveitis in a uveitis clinic population of a major referral centre in South India. A total number of 25 patient and 30 eyes were followed from January 2016 to April 2017. A standard clinical protocol, laboratory investigations, were used for the final diagnosis. A standard treatment protocol was followed and patients were reviewed accordingly. RESULTS There were 13 female and 12 male patients. Mean age of presentation was 29 ± 3.6 years (with a range of 10- 47 years. Among the 25 patient 15 were bilateral rest being unilateral. Among the cases 3 presented with grade 1 vitritis, 15 with grade 2 vitritis, 5 with grade 3 vitritis and 2 with grade 4 vitritis. Snowballs were seen in inferior quadrant of 7 patients. Among the 25 cases, 10 had ocular tuberculosis, 6 had sarcoidosis, 2 had multiple sclerosis and 7 diagnosed to be pars planitis. All cases were given specific treatment according to their aetiology. In idiopathic cases periocular injection of triamcinolone was instituted. CONCLUSION Intermediate uveitis is a potentially vision threatening condition because of its chronic course and complications if appropriate therapy is not instituted. Thorough investigations to find out the underlying aetiology should be performed to institute cause specific treatment.

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  5. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kensaku; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms), and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT) six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036), fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012), but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (Pdry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%). The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7%) compared with before surgery (69.7%). Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015), but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001). Total subjective symptom score was significantly decreased in the AT group (P<0.001), but not in the DQS group. Conclusion Our study suggests that cataract surgery has harmful effects on tear film stability and ocular surface, and DQS has a capability to improve them. PMID:28360509

  6. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  7. Office characteristics and dry eye complaints in European workers : The OFFICAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluizenaar, Y; Roda, C.; Dijkstra, NE; Fossati, S; Mandin, C; Mihucz, VG; Hänninen, O; de Oliveira Fernandes, E; Silva, GV; Carrer, P; Bartzis, J; Bluijssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ocular discomfort is a prevalent health complaint in offices. It is hypothesized that, in addition to individual and occupational factors, the buildings' indoor environment may affect eye complaints. However, insight in potential building-related causal factors, needed to allow

  8. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Fea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT. A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n=20 patients mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n=10 patients. The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p<0.05. Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  9. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  10. Predictive saccades in children and adults: A combined fMRI and eye tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lukasova

    Full Text Available Saccades were assessed in 21 adults (age 24 years, SD = 4 and 15 children (age 11 years, SD = 1, using combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and eye-tracking. Subjects visually tracked a point on a horizontal line in four conditions: time and position predictable task (PRED, position predictable (pPRED, time predictable (tPRED and visually guided saccades (SAC. Both groups in the PRED but not in pPRED, tPRED and SAC produced predictive saccades with latency below 80 ms. In task versus group comparisons, children's showed less efficient learning compared to adults for predictive saccades (adults = 48%, children = 34%, p = 0.05. In adults brain activation was found in the frontal and occipital regions in the PRED, in the intraparietal sulcus in pPRED and in the frontal eye field, posterior intraparietal sulcus and medial regions in the tPRED task. Group-task interaction was found in the supplementary eye field and visual cortex in the PRED task, and the frontal cortex including the right frontal eye field and left frontal pole, in the pPRED condition. These results indicate that, the basic visuomotor circuitry is present in both adults and children, but fine-tuning of the activation according to the task temporal and spatial demand mature late in child development.

  11. Omega-3 supplementation is neuroprotective to corneal nerves in dry eye disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Naranjo Golborne, Cecilia; Downie, Laura E

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether oral, long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplementation, for 3 months, induces changes to the central corneal sub-basal nerve plexus in dry eye disease and whether nerve alterations correlate with clinical findings. This prospective, comparative study involved the final 12 participants enrolled in a randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 60 participants with moderate dry eye disease. Participants received either placebo (olive oil 1500 mg/day; n = 4) or ω-3 EFA supplements (~1000 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid + ~500 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid; n = 8) for 90 days. The main outcome measure was the mean change in central corneal sub-basal plexus nerve parameters between days one and 90, quantified using in vivo confocal microscopy. Secondary outcomes included mean change in tear osmolarity, corneal dendritic cell density and basal epithelial cell density. Compared with baseline, the reduction in OSDI score and tear osmolarity at day 90 were greater in the ω-3 EFA group than the placebo group (OSDI: ω-3 EFA, mean ± SEM: -15.6 ± 2.8 vs placebo: -2.8 ± 4.1 units, t 5 = 2.6, p = 0.04; tearosmolarity: ω-3 EFA: -22.63 ± 5.7 vs placebo: -8 ± 2.7 mOsmol/L, t 9 = 2.3, p = 0.04). At day 90, corneal total nerve branch density (CTBD: 91.1 ± 8.6 vs 45.1 ± 13.4 branches/mm 2 , F 1,10 = 14, p = 0.004) and corneal nerve branch density on the main fibre (CNBD: 63.4 ± 6.5 vs 27.9 ± 11.5 branches/mm 2 , F 1,10 = 6, p = 0.03) were higher in the ω-3 EFA group compared with placebo. Relative to day 1, CNBD (branches/mm 2 ) increased at day 90 in the ω-3 EFA group (+20.0 ± 9.2, t 8 = 3.2 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-10.8 ± 3.2). Similar changes were evident for corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL, mm/mm 2 ), which increased from baseline at day 90 in the omega-3 EFA group (+2.9 ± 1.6, t 8 = 3.4 p = 0.01) compared with placebo (-2.7 ± 0.5). There was a negative correlation between CTBD and tear osmolarity

  12. Attentional processing of food pictures in individuals with anorexia nervosa--an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin E; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Teufel, Martin; Hautzinger, Martin; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    Etiologic models of anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest that cognitive factors play a crucial role in the disorder's psychopathology. Attentional aspects of food processing in AN remain largely unknown. Both an early attentional bias (vigilance) and inattentiveness (avoidance) to food pictures have been reported in patients with eating disorders. The study's aim was to examine the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis concerning food information processing by unraveling the time course of attention deployment in individuals with AN. We used eye-tracking to examine continuous attention deployment in 19 individuals with AN during free visual exploration of food pictures versus nonfood pictures compared with 18 fasted and 20 nonfasted healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, AN patients allocated overall less attention to food pictures but showed no early attentional bias toward food pictures. Attentional engagement for food pictures was most pronounced in fasted healthy control subjects. The extent of attention deployment in AN patients was associated with indicators of the disorder's severity. Gaze data suggest that individuals with AN show no early vigilance but later avoidance when confronted with food information. This suggests that initially, AN patients perceive incentive salience from food information because they process food pictures in the same way healthy control subjects do. The time course of attention deployment suggests that it is only after a first phase of stimulus encoding and labeling as food that individuals with AN avoid food pictures. This pattern of attention deployment is probably mediated by disorder-specific dysfunctional cognitions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Older drivers and rapid deceleration events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2013-09-01

    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers aged 67-87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration's rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created driving monitoring system (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDEs), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers drivingRDE's were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more "fit", with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential public health impact of Age-Related Eye Disease Study results: AREDS report no. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Neil M; Bressler, Susan B; Congdon, Nathan G; Ferris, Frederick L; Friedman, David S; Klein, Ronald; Lindblad, Anne S; Milton, Roy C; Seddon, Johanna M

    2003-11-01

    To estimate the potential public health impact of the findings of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) on reducing the number of persons developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during the next 5 years in the United States. The AREDS clinical trial provides estimates of AMD progression rates and of reduction in risk of developing advanced AMD when a high-dose nutritional supplement of antioxidants and zinc is used. These results are applied to estimates of the US population at risk, to estimate the number of people who would potentially avoid advanced AMD during 5 years if those at risk were to take a supplement such as that used in AREDS. An estimated 8 million persons at least 55 years old in the United States have monocular or binocular intermediate AMD or monocular advanced AMD. They are considered to be at high risk for advanced AMD and are those for whom the AREDS formulation should be considered. Of these people, 1.3 million would develop advanced AMD if no treatment were given to reduce their risk. If all of these people at risk received supplements such as those used in AREDS, more than 300,000 (95% confidence interval, 158,000-487,000) of them would avoid advanced AMD and any associated vision loss during the next 5 years. If people at high risk for advanced AMD received supplements such as those suggested by AREDS results, the potential impact on public health in the United States would be considerable during the next 5 years.

  15. Retinal vessel diameter and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in arterial hypertension: the Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive retinal microvascular abnormalities include an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio. Because central retinal vein pressure depends on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), we examined whether the retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio and other retinal hypertensive signs are associated with CSFP. Participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (n = 1,574 subjects) underwent measurement of the temporal inferior and superior retinal artery and vein diameter. CSFP was calculated as 0.44 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Larger retinal vein diameters and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratios were significantly associated with higher estimated CSFP (P = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. In contrast, temporal inferior retinal arterial diameter was marginally associated (P = 0.03) with estimated CSFP, and temporal superior artery diameter was not significantly associated (P = 0.10) with estimated CSFP; other microvascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous crossing signs, were also not significantly associated with estimated CSFP. In a reverse manner, higher estimated CSFP as a dependent variable in the multivariable analysis was associated with wider retinal veins and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio. In the same model, estimated CSFP was not significantly correlated with retinal artery diameters or other retinal microvascular abnormalities. Correspondingly, arterial hypertension was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous crossing signs (P = 0.003), thinner temporal retinal arteries (P arterial hypertension, an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio depends on elevated CSFP, which is correlated with blood pressure. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. What checkers actually check: an eye tracking study of inhibitory control and working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Harkin

    Full Text Available Not only is compulsive checking the most common symptom in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD with an estimated prevalence of 50-80% in patients, but approximately ∼15% of the general population reveal subclinical checking tendencies that impact negatively on their performance in daily activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand how checking affects attention and memory in clinical as well as subclinical checkers. Eye fixations are commonly used as indicators for the distribution of attention but research in OCD has revealed mixed results at best.Here we report atypical eye movement patterns in subclinical checkers during an ecologically valid working memory (WM manipulation. Our key manipulation was to present an intermediate probe during the delay period of the memory task, explicitly asking for the location of a letter, which, however, had not been part of the encoding set (i.e., misleading participants. Using eye movement measures we now provide evidence that high checkers' inhibitory impairments for misleading information results in them checking the contents of WM in an atypical manner. Checkers fixate more often and for longer when misleading information is presented than non-checkers. Specifically, checkers spend more time checking stimulus locations as well as locations that had actually been empty during encoding.We conclude that these atypical eye movement patterns directly reflect internal checking of memory contents and we discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of behavioural and neuropsychological data. In addition our results highlight the importance of ecologically valid methodology for revealing the impact of detrimental attention and memory checking on eye movement patterns.

  17. Visual and refractive outcomes of LASIK with the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-q excimer lasers: a prospective, contralateral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearza, Ali A; Muhtaseb, Mohammed; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2008-11-01

    To compare the safety, efficacy, and predictability of LASIK with the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q excimer laser platforms. This prospective study comprised 44 eyes of 22 consecutive patients who were treated with LASIK using the Moria M2 microkeratome. One eye was treated with the SCHWIND ESIRIS laser and the fellow eye treated with the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q laser. All eyes operated with the SCHWIND ESIRIS were treated with standard aspheric ablation, whereas the eyes operated with the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q received treatment with three different ablation types according to the common practice at our clinic. Outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction, and proximity to target refraction at 6-month follow-up. At 6 months postoperative, mean decimal UCVA was 0.96+/-0.22 (range: 0.3 to 1.2) for ESIRIS eyes and 0.98+/-0.17 (range: 0.6 to 1.2) for ALLEGRETTO eyes (P=.57). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -0.02+/-0.28 diopters (D) (range: -0.75 to +0.75 D) for ESIRIS eyes and 0.11+/-0.91 D (range: -1.00 to +3.88 D) for ALLEGRETTO eyes (P=.49). Of the ESIRIS eyes, 20/22 (91%) were within +/-1.00 D of target refraction and 20/22 (91%) were within +/-0.50 D of target refraction. Of the ALLEGRETTO eyes, 20/22 (91%) and 19/22 (86%) were within +/-1.00 D and +/-0.50 D, respectively, of target refraction. No patient lost > or =2 lines of BSCVA in either group. No differences were seen in safety and efficacy outcome parameters between the SCHWIND ESIRIS and WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE Eye-Q excimer lasers when used according to a previously established treatment algorithm at our clinic in the treatment of refractive error.

  18. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. Methods 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and princ...

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extract...

  20. Pneumatic retinopexy: the evolution of case selection and surgical technique. A twelve-year study of 302 eyes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tornambe, P E

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic retinopexy is an operation for reattaching the retina by injecting an expanding gas bubble and using laser and/or cryopexy. The procedure is controversial because the literature reports a variable initial success rate, sometimes less than conventional scleral buckling surgery. PR is done in an office setting and may be the most cost-effective means of retinal reattachment. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to decide which eyes are most successfully treated with pneuma...

  1. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The European Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753. The mean age of participants was 73.2 years (standard deviation, 5.6), and 55% were women. Participants underwent an eye examination and digital retinal color photography. The images were graded at a single center. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A previously published Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was used to classify participants according to their responses on the FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of the MDS score and AMD, taking account of potential confounders and the multicenter study design. Images were graded according to the International Classification System for age-related maculopathy and stratified using the Rotterdam staging system into 5 exclusive stages (AMD 0-4) and a separate category of large drusen (≥125 μm). Age-related macular degeneration 4 included neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and geographic atrophy (GA). Increasing MDS was associated with reduced odds of nvAMD in unadjusted and confounder-adjusted analysis. Compared with the lowest MDS adherence (≤4 score), those in the highest category MDS adherence (>6 score) showed lower odds of nvAMD (odds ratio, 0.53; 0.27-1.04; P trend = 0.01). The association with MDS did not differ by Y204H risk allele (P = 0.89). For all early AMD (grade 1-3), there was no relationship with MDS (P trend = 0.9). There was a weak trend (P = 0.1) between MDS and large drusen; those in the highest category of MDS had 20% reduced odds compared with those in

  2. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kensaku Miyake,1 Norihiko Yokoi2 On behalf of Dry Eye After Cataract Surgery Investigational Study Group (DASIS group 1Miyake Eye Hospital, Nagoya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design: This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods: Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms, and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results: At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036, fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012, but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (P<0.001. The majority of postoperative dry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%. The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7% compared with before surgery (69.7%. Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015, but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001. Total subjective symptom

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jehn-Yu Huang, Po-Ting Yeh, Yu-Chih Hou Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as

  4. Prevalence and determinants of comprehensive eye care in a group of patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional study in a sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Bilong, Yannick; Tankeu, Aurel T; Ebana Mvogo, Côme

    2018-02-27

    We aimed to investigate the determinants of comprehensive eye examination in diabetes patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the eye department of the Douala General Hospital. Adult patients with diabetes were consecutively interviewed on the history of their diabetes. Main outcomes were a first ever comprehensive eye examination including fundoscopy, and diagnosis-to-fundoscopy time. 52 patients were included of whom 59.6% were males with a mean age of 55.9 ± 10.9 years. 51.9% have had counselling on the risk of visual impairment and blindness due to diabetes, and 61.5% [95% CI 47-74.7] have had a comprehensive eye examination. Of those with a first ever fundoscopy, only 21.9% had the test performed within 1 year of diagnosis. Thus, after an average of 10 years of the diagnosis of diabetes, 13.5% (7/52) of patients have had a comprehensive eye examination within 1 year of diagnosis. Only dose with duration of diabetes of more than 10 years were 7-24 times more likely to have a comprehensive eye examination. In summary, patients with diabetes in this low-income setting do not receive a comprehensive eye care as recommended. Most patients will get an eye examination at least 10 years after the diagnosis of diabetes.

  5. Sorption studies of uranium in sediment-groundwater systems from the natural analogue sites of Needle's Eye and Broubster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.; Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of sorption experiments designed to provide essential data for migration modelling. Sorption of 233 U from natural ground-water onto peat from Broubster and silt from Needle's Eye was studied under atmospheric conditions and different pH regimes. The temperature was maintained at 10 0 C and, in the case of Needle's Eye silt, the kinetics of sorption were followed. The results were analyzed in conjunction with speciation modelling in an attempt to understand the sorption mechanisms and to extrapolate the findings to cover the range of conditions likely to be met in the field. This work is part of the CEC project Mirage - Second phase, research area 'Natural analogues'

  6. The influences of working memory representations on long-range regression in text reading: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei eTanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity and long-range regression (i.e., word relocation processes in reading. We analyzed eye movements during a whodunit task, in which readers were asked to answer a content question while original text was being presented. The eye movements were more efficient in relocating a target word when the target was at recency positions within the text than when it was at primacy positions. Furthermore, both verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity partly predicted the efficiency of the initial long-range regression. The results indicate that working memory representations have a strong influence at the first stage of long-range regression by driving the first saccade movement toward the correct target position, suggesting that there is a dynamic interaction between internal working memory representations and external actions during text reading.

  7. An Eye-tracking Study of Feature-based Choice in One-shot Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devetag, Giovanna; Di Guida, Sibilla; Polonio, Luca

    2016-01-01

    for a subset of game outcomes. We analyze subjects’ eye movements while playing a series of two-person, 3x3 one-shot games in normal form. Games within each class differ by a set of descriptive features (i.e., features that can be changed without altering the game equilibrium properties). Data show......Previous experimental research suggests that individuals apply rules of thumb to a simplified mental model of the "real" decision problem. We claim that this simplification is obtained either by neglecting the other players' incentives and beliefs or by taking them into consideration only...... that subjects on average perform partial or non-strategic analysis of the payoff matrix, often ignoring the opponent´s payoffs and rarely performing the necessary steps to detect dominance. Our analysis of eye-movements supports the hypothesis that subjects use simple decision rules such as "choose the strategy...

  8. Towards understanding addiction factors of mobile devices: An eye tracking study on effect of screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Nugroho, Hanung A

    2017-07-01

    Mobile devices addiction has been an important research topic in cognitive science, mental health, and human-machine interaction. Previous works observed mobile device addiction by logging mobile devices activity. Although immersion has been linked as a significant predictor of video game addiction, investigation on addiction factors of mobile device with behavioral measurement has never been done before. In this research, we demonstrated the usage of eye tracking to observe effect of screen size on experience of immersion. We compared subjective judgment with eye movements analysis. Non-parametric analysis on immersion score shows that screen size affects experience of immersion (pmobile devices addiction. Our experimental results are also useful to develop a guideline as well as intervention strategy to deal with smartphone addiction.

  9. Study of the dose to the thyroid and the eye in computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeside, D.E.; Anderson, D.W.; Galloway, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Thermoluminescent doimeters were used to estimate the dose to the thyroid and the eye for routine clinical computer tomography of the brain using an EMI CT 5005 scanner (20-sec data acquisition mode, bolus covering the head). The data can be summarized by the linear relations D/sub t/ = (7.5 +- 0.8)N millirads (8 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 18) and D/sub e/ = (39 +- 5)N + (1400 +- 200)n millirads (8 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 20,0 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 6) where D/sub t/ is the dose to the tissue anterior to the thyroid, D/sub e/ is the dose to the anterior tissue of the eyelid, N is the total number of DT cuts, and n is the number of cuts in which the globe of the eye is imaged

  10. Psychophysiological Responsivity to Script-Driven Imagery: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Eye Movements on Public Speaking Flashforwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M

    2015-01-01

    A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such "flashforwards" can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants' self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties.

  11. A randomised, double-masked comparison study of diquafosol versus sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Etsuko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was -0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile.

  12. Prevalence of cataract surgery and visual outcomes in Indian immigrants in Singapore: the Singapore Indian eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ting, Tay Wan; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and factors associated with post-surgical visual outcomes in migrant Indians living in Singapore. We conducted a population-based study in 3,400 Indian immigrants residing in Singapore-the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI). All participants underwent comprehensive medical eye examination and a standardized interview. Post-operative visual impairment (VI) was defined as best-corrected or presenting visual acuity (BCVA or PVA) of 20/60 or worse. The age- and gender-standardized prevalence of cataract surgery was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.9%, 10.7%) in Singapore resident Indians. Post-operative VI defined by BCVA occurred in 10.9% eyes (87/795). The main causes of post-operative VI were diabetic retinopathy (20.7%), posterior capsular opacification (18.4%), and age-related macular degeneration (12.6%). Undercorrected refractive error doubled the prevalence of post-operative VI when PVA was used. The rate of cataract surgery is about 10% in Indian residents in Singapore. Socioeconomic variables and migration had no significant impact on the prevalence of cataract surgery. Diabetic retinopathy was a major cause of post-operative VI in migrant Indians living in Singapore. Uncorrected postoperative refractive error remains an efficient way to improve vision.

  13. Others' emotions teach, but not in autism: an eye-tracking pupillometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather J; Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated deficit in emotional reactivity to others in people with autism, but scant attention has been paid to how this deficit affects their own reactions to features of their environment (objects, events, practices, etc.). The present study presents a preliminary analysis on whether calibrating one's own emotional reactions to others' emotional reactions about features of the world, a process we term social-emotional calibration, is disrupted in autism. To examine this process, we used a novel eye-tracking pupillometry paradigm in which we showed 20 preschoolers with autism and 20 matched typically developing preschoolers' videos of an actor opening a box and reacting to the occluded object inside, with fear or happiness. We expected preschoolers to come to perceive the box as containing a positive or threatening stimulus through emotionally calibrating to the actor's emotional expressions. Children's mean pupil diameter (indicating emotional reactivity) was measured whilst viewing an up-close, visually identical image of the box before and then after the scene, and this difference was taken as an index of social-emotional calibration and compared between groups. Whilst the typically developing preschoolers responded more emotionally to the box after, compared to before the scene (as indexed by an increase in pupil size), those with autism did not, suggesting their reaction to the object was not affected by the actor's emotional expressions. The groups did not differ in looking duration to the emotional expressions; thus, the pupil dilation findings cannot be explained by differences in visual attention. More social-emotional calibration on the happy condition was associated with less severe autism symptoms. Through the measurement of physiological reactivity, findings suggest social-emotional calibration is diminished in children with autism, with calibration to others' positive emotions as particularly important. This study highlights a

  14. STUDY OF CORRELATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE PHASE OF THYROID EYE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of Interleukin-6 and HS-CRP Levels in the assessment of active thyroid eye disease. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective observational study of 30 patients from the age group of 20-60 years with thyroid eye disease done at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. All patients were subjected to detailed history, ocular examination, systemic examination, biochemical analysis and Imaging. Patients are categorised as mild, moderate and severe active disease based on clinical activity score. For the period of two years, patients are followed at regular periodic intervals according to the severity of disease and results were analysed. RESULTS Out of 30 patients studied, majority of the patients were females (60%, and 70% of the patients had bilateral disease. Among 30 patients, 83.33% in hyperthyroid state, 3.33% in Hypothyroid state, 13.33% in Euthyroid state (Table 3. Smoking being important risk factor in 30% among males. 50% of patients presented with mild disease, 30% with moderate disease, 0% with severe disease. IL-6, HS-CRP levels are increased only in patients with severe active disease (Table 6. Remission attained in all patients when treated earlier with steroids. CONCLUSION Identifying disease activity early and aggressive treatment with systemic steroids in active phase of moderate and severe disease has reduced the morbidity associated with disease. Correlation of IL-6, HS-CRP, TFT levels are significantly increased only in patients with active phase of severe thyroid eye disease but not significantly elevated in active phase of moderate disease. Another pitfall is IL-6 is an expensive ELISA based diagnosis. Thus, IL-6 & HS-CRP cannot be routinely used to screen patients with Thyroid eye disease.

  15. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  16. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  17. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chaumillon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE. Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  18. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  19. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization. PMID:29515351

  20. Rett syndrome: basic features of visual processing-a pilot study of eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Aleksandra; Valicenti McDermott, Maria; Mavrommatis, Kathleen; Martins, Cristina L

    2012-07-01

    Consistently observed "strong eye gaze" has not been validated as a means of communication in girls with Rett syndrome, ubiquitously affected by apraxia, unable to reply either verbally or manually to questions during formal psychologic assessment. We examined nonverbal cognitive abilities and basic features of visual processing (visual discrimination attention/memory) by analyzing patterns of visual fixation in 44 girls with Rett syndrome, compared with typical control subjects. To determine features of visual fixation patterns, multiple pictures (with the location of the salient and presence/absence of novel stimuli as variables) were presented on the screen of a TS120 eye-tracker. Of the 44, 35 (80%) calibrated and exhibited meaningful patterns of visual fixation. They looked longer at salient stimuli (cartoon, 2.8 ± 2 seconds S.D., vs shape, 0.9 ± 1.2 seconds S.D.; P = 0.02), regardless of their position on the screen. They recognized novel stimuli, decreasing the fixation time on the central image when another image appeared on the periphery of the slide (2.7 ± 1 seconds S.D. vs 1.8 ± 1 seconds S.D., P = 0.002). Eye-tracking provides a feasible method for cognitive assessment and new insights into the "hidden" abilities of individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Children’s Empathy and Their Perception and Evaluation of Facial Pain Expression: An Eye Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of empathic concern to process pain is a product of evolutionary adaptation. Focusing on 5- to 6-year old children, the current study employed eye-tracking in an odd-one-out task (searching for the emotional facial expression among neutral expressions, N = 47 and a pain evaluation task (evaluating the pain intensity of a facial expression, N = 42 to investigate the relationship between children’s empathy and their behavioral and perceptual response to facial pain expression. We found children detected painful expression faster than others (angry, sad, and happy, children high in empathy performed better on searching facial expression of pain, and gave higher evaluation of pain intensity; and rating for pain in painful expressions was best predicted by a self-reported empathy score. As for eye-tracking in pain detection, children fixated on pain more quickly, less frequently and for shorter times. Of facial clues, children fixated on eyes and mouth more quickly, more frequently and for longer times. These results implied that painful facial expression was different from others in a cognitive sense, and children’s empathy might facilitate their search and make them perceive the intensity of observed pain on the higher side.

  2. Factors associated with myopia in school children in China: the Beijing childhood eye study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sheng You

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess factors associated with myopia in school children in rural and urban parts of Greater Beijing. METHODS: The Beijing Pedriatic Eye Study was a population-based cross-sectional study, in which one school of each level (primary, junior high, senior high was randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts out of 18 districts of Greater Beijing. The children underwent non-cylcoplegic refractometry and their parents an interview. RESULTS: Of 16,771 eligible students, 15,066 (89.8% children (7,769 (51.6% girls participated, with 8,860 (58.8% participants living in the rural region. Mean age was 13.2±3.4 years (range:7-18 years. In multivariate analysis, prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤-1.00 diopters was associated with higher age (Odds ratio(OR:1.37; 95% confidence interval(CI:1.35,1.39, female gender (OR:1.35;95%CI:1.25,1.47, key school type (OR:0.77;95%CI: 0.70,0.85, higher family income (OR:1.04;95%CI:1.01,1.07, parental myopia (OR:1.46;95%CI:1.40,1.53, dim reading illumination (OR:0.93;95%CI: 0.88,0.98, longer daily studying duration (OR:1.10;95%CI:1.06,1.15, shorter duration of watching television (or computer (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.97, higher self-reported protein intake (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.90,0.99, feeling well about life and status (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.89,0.98, and feeling tired or dizzy (OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97. Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-6.00 diopters was associated with higher age (OR:1.43;95%CI:1.38, 1.48, key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0.49,0.74, family income (OR:1.07;95%CI:1.02,1.13, parental myopia (OR:1.65;95%CI:1.54,1.76, dim reading illumination (OR:0.86;95%CI:0.77,0.96, less rest during studying (OR:1.18;95%CI:1.10,1.27, feeling well about life and studying (OR:0.88;95%CI: 0.81,0.96 and feeling dizzy or tired (OR:0.93;95%CI:0.87,0.99. Prevalence of high myopia (defined as ≤-8.00 diopters was significantly associated with higher age (OR:1.39;95%CI:1.31,1.48;, key school type (OR:0.61;95%CI:0

  3. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  4. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  5. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  6. Natural history of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Agrón, Elvira; Klein, Michael L; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Gensler, Gary; Wong, Wai T

    2010-03-01

    To describe the natural history of eyes with drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPEDs) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, clinic-based, prospective cohort study. Among 4757 participants enrolled in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), 255 were identified as having DPED in at least 1 eye and having 5 or more years of follow-up after the initial detection of the DPED. Baseline and annual fundus photographs were evaluated for the evolution of the fundus features and the development of advanced AMD in the forms of central geographic atrophy (CGA) or neovascular (NV) AMD. Kaplan-Meier analyses of progression to advanced AMD and of moderate vision loss (> or =15 letters compared with baseline) were performed. Rate of progression to advanced AMD and change in visual acuity from baseline (in terms of mean letters lost and proportion losing > or =15 letters). A total of 311 eyes (from 255 participants) with DPED were followed for a median follow-up time of 8 years subsequent to the initial detection of a DPED. Of the 282 eyes that did not have advanced AMD at baseline, advanced AMD developed within 5 years in 119 eyes (42%) (19% progressing to CGA and 23% progressing to NV-AMD). In the remaining eyes that did not develop advanced AMD (n=163), progressive fundus changes, typified by the development of calcified drusen and pigmentary changes, were detected. Visual decline was prominent among study eyes, with approximately 40% of all eyes decreasing in visual acuity by > or =15 letters at 5 years follow-up. Mean visual acuity decreased from 76 letters ( approximately 20/30) at baseline to 61 letters ( approximately 20/60) at 5 years. Five-year decreases in mean visual acuity averaged 26 letters for eyes progressing to advanced AMD and 8 letters for non-progressing eyes. The natural history of eyes containing DPED is characterized by a high rate of progression to both CGA and NV-AMD. Among eyes not progressing to advanced AMD

  7. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pdry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution 5.0% versus Placebo for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease: Results of the Randomized Phase III OPUS-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Joseph; Karpecki, Paul; Latkany, Robert; Luchs, Jodi; Martel, Joseph; Sall, Kenneth; Raychaudhuri, Aparna; Smith, Valerie; Semba, Charles P

    2015-12-01

    Lifitegrast is an integrin antagonist that decreases T-cell-mediated inflammation associated with dry eye disease (DED). We report the results of OPUS-2, a phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast compared with placebo for the treatment of DED. A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Adults aged ≥18 years with use of artificial tears within 30 days, inferior corneal staining score ≥0.5 (0-4 scale), Schirmer tear test (without anesthesia) ≥1 and ≤10 mm, and eye dryness score ≥40 (0-100 visual analogue scale [VAS]). Subjects were randomized 1:1 after 14-day placebo run-in to lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% or placebo twice daily for 84 days. Co-primary efficacy end points were change, from baseline to day 84, in eye dryness score (VAS, both eyes) and inferior corneal fluorescein staining score in the designated study eye. Secondary end points were change, from baseline to day 84, in ocular discomfort score (0-4 scale) in study eye, eye discomfort score (VAS), total corneal staining score in the study eye, and nasal conjunctival lissamine green staining score (0-4 scale) in the study eye. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded. A total of 718 subjects were randomized: placebo, n = 360; lifitegrast, n = 358 (intent-to-treat population). Lifitegrast-treated subjects experienced greater improvement in eye dryness than placebo-treated subjects (treatment effect, 12.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.51-16.70; P < 0.0001). There was no between-group difference in inferior corneal staining (treatment effect, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.17; P = 0.6186). There was nominally significant improvement of secondary symptom end points among lifitegrast-treated subjects: ocular discomfort (nominal P = 0.0005) and eye discomfort (nominal, P < 0.0001). There were no between-group differences on secondary signs: total corneal staining and nasal lissamine staining. More

  9. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24?hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where ...

  10. Studies on α-Al2O3: C based optically stimulated luminescence badge for eye lens monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish; Kulkarni, M.S.; Ratna, P.; Gaikwad, N.; Tripathi, S.M.; Sharma, S.D.; Babu, D.A.R.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Muthe, K.P.; Sharma, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype two element eye-lens dosimeter badge based on indigenously developed α-Al 2 O 3 : C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter was investigated comprehensively for its suitability for eye-lens monitoring applications. The badge is calibrated to measure the eye-lens dose in terms of H p (3). The minimum measurable dose using the eye-lens dosimeter badge is observed to be ∼ 35 μSv. This prototype eye-lens dosimeter badge was found to be suitable for measuring doses from X-rays, beta and gamma radiations to the eye-lens. The satisfactory performance of the prototype two element eye-lens dosimeter badge along with its attractive features such as multiple readout, less processing time, very good beta response uniquely position it for monitoring the eye-lens dose are presented. (author)

  11. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  16. Social attention in ASD: A review and meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia

    2016-01-01

    Determining whether social attention is reduced in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and what factors influence social attention is important to our theoretical understanding of developmental trajectories of ASD and to designing targeted interventions for ASD. This meta-analysis examines data from 38 articles that used eye-tracking methods to compare individuals with ASD and TD controls. In this paper, the impact of eight factors on the size of the effect for the difference in social attention between these two groups are evaluated: age, non-verbal IQ matching, verbal IQ matching, motion, social content, ecological validity, audio input and attention bids. Results show that individuals with ASD spend less time attending to social stimuli than typically developing (TD) controls, with a mean effect size of 0.55. Social attention in ASD was most impacted when stimuli had a high social content (showed more than one person). This meta-analysis provides an opportunity to survey the eye-tracking research on social attention in ASD and to outline potential future research directions, more specifically research of social attention in the context of stimuli with high social content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processing of Written Irony in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Eye-Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au-Yeung, Sheena K; Kaakinen, Johanna K; Liversedge, Simon P; Benson, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties understanding others communicative intent and with using contextual information to correctly interpret irony. We recorded the eye movements of typically developing (TD) adults ASD adults when they read statements that could either be interpreted as ironic or non-ironic depending on the context of the passage. Participants with ASD performed as well as TD controls in their comprehension accuracy for speaker's statements in both ironic and non-ironic conditions. Eye movement data showed that for both participant groups, total reading times were longer for the critical region containing the speaker's statement and a subsequent sentence restating the context in the ironic condition compared to the non-ironic condition. The results suggest that more effortful processing is required in both ASD and TD participants for ironic compared with literal non-ironic statements, and that individuals with ASD were able to use contextual information to infer a non-literal interpretation of ironic text. Individuals with ASD, however, spent more time overall than TD controls rereading the passages, to a similar degree across both ironic and non-ironic conditions, suggesting that they either take longer to construct a coherent discourse representation of the text, or that they take longer to make the decision that their representation of the text is reasonable based on their knowledge of the world. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quiet eye training improves surgical knot tying more than traditional technical training: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Route planning with transportation network maps: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Elise; Gyselinck, Valérie; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Wiener, Jan Malte

    2017-09-01

    Planning routes using transportation network maps is a common task that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we present a novel eye-tracking paradigm to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms involved in such a route planning. In the experiment, participants were first presented with an origin and destination pair before we presented them with fictitious public transportation maps. Their task was to find the connecting route that required the minimum number of transfers. Based on participants' gaze behaviour, each trial was split into two phases: (1) the search for origin and destination phase, i.e., the initial phase of the trial until participants gazed at both origin and destination at least once and (2) the route planning and selection phase. Comparisons of other eye-tracking measures between these phases and the time to complete them, which depended on the complexity of the planning task, suggest that these two phases are indeed distinct and supported by different cognitive processes. For example, participants spent more time attending the centre of the map during the initial search phase, before directing their attention to connecting stations, where transitions between lines were possible. Our results provide novel insights into the psychological processes involved in route planning from maps. The findings are discussed in relation to the current theories of route planning.

  20. Choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula in highly myopic eyes: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Dell'Arti, Laura; Benatti, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Mapelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Fabio; Ratiglia, Roberto; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Barteselli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula. Retrospective, observational case series. We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT. Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum Phosphate and Retinal Microvascular Changes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rupal; Hodakowski, Alexander; Cai, Xuan; Lee, Kris E; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; de Boer, Ian H; Fawzi, Amani; Wong, Tien Yin; Ix, Joachim; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Isakova, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Higher levels of serum phosphate are strongly linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and therapies aimed to lower serum phosphate are employed in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data are limited, however, on serum phosphate as a risk factor for microvascular disease in community-based populations. It is important to determine the impact of novel risk factors, such as phosphate, on the microvasculature. We conducted a prospective study of 3919 individuals in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 3544 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) to test the associations of serum phosphate with retinopathy and retinal vessel caliber, and change in retinopathy severity and change in retinal vessel caliber. Mean (standard deviation) serum phosphate was 3.66 (0.52) mg/dl in the MESA and 3.77 (0.55) mg/dl in the BDES. In multivariable adjusted models, phosphate was significantly associated with prevalent retinopathy in the MESA (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1 mg/dl increase in phosphate, 1.22; Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02-1.47) and the BDES (OR 1.06; CI 1.01-1.11). In stratified analyses, these relationships were even stronger and only seen in individuals with diabetes in both the MESA (OR 1.81; CI 1.30-2.53) and the BDES (OR 1.16; CI 1.05-1.29). Phosphate was not associated with incident or change in retinopathy severity, nor any retinal caliber outcome. Among community-living individuals with low prevalence of CKD, higher serum phosphate was associated with prevalent retinopathy in individuals with diabetes. Further longitudinal assessments in patients with diabetes necessitate further investigation.

  2. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical formulation containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a large series of patients with dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatell-Tortajada, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    To assess the benefits and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on omega-3 fatty acids to relieve dry eye symptoms. A total of 1,419 patients (74.3% women, mean age 58.9 years) with dry eye syndrome using artificial tears participated in a 12-week prospective study. Patients were instructed to take 3 capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec(®) 1.5 g). Study variables were dry eye symptoms (scratchy and stinging sensation, eye redness, grittiness, painful and tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time (TBUT), Schrimer I test, and Oxford grading scheme. At 12 weeks, each dry eye symptom improved significantly (Pdry eye symptoms were also found in compliant versus noncompliant patients as well as in those with moderate/severe versus none/mild conjunctival hyperemia. Oral ω-3 fatty acids supplementation was an effective treatment for dry eye symptoms.

  3. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  4. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ© in glaucoma using a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudeau Elyse

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Results Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. Conclusion The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer's test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer's test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES.

  6. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) in glaucoma using a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Philippe; Vigneux, Marc; Trudeau, Elyse; Guillemin, Isabelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2007-08-06

    Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English) for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk of being non-compliant prior to clinical trials or innovative

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  10. Ancestry, Socioeconomic Status, and Age-Related Cataract in Asians: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Koh, Jia Yu; Tan, Ava Grace; Zhao, Wanting; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of age-related cataract and its ancestral and socioeconomic risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Study participants were invited for a structured interview and received a standardized comprehensive eye examination. Digital lens photographs were taken from eyes of each participant and graded for nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Prevalence data were compared with the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) in Australia. Information on medical and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires and blood samples. To increase the precision of racial definition, genetic ancestry was derived from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers using principal component analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of cataract with socioeconomic factors (education and income) and genetic ancestry. Age-related cataract. A total of 8750 participants (94.0%) had gradable lens photographs. The age-standardized prevalence of cataract surgery in Chinese (16.0%), Malays (10.6%), and Indians (20.2%) was higher than in white subjects (4.1%). We found the age-standardized cataract prevalence in Chinese (30.4%), Malays (37.8%), and Indians (33.1%) was higher than in whites (18.5%). Cataract was 1.5 to 2 times more common in Asians and began 10 years earlier than in white subjects. Malays had significantly higher age-standardized prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and PSC cataract than Chinese (PChinese and Indians but not Malays. The presence of visual impairment associated with cataract was higher in people aged ≥60 years and Malays. We showed that people of different Asian ethnicities had a higher prevalence and earlier age of onset of cataract than Europeans. People

  11. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25.METHODS:NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA.RESULTS:We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25 were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health, with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79.CONCLUSION:ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  13. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  14. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  15. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; pmercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  16. Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% for treatment of dry eye disease: results of the OPUS-1 phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D; Torkildsen, Gail L; Lonsdale, John D; D'Ambrosio, Francis A; McLaurin, Eugene B; Eiferman, Richard A; Kennedy, Kathryn S; Semba, Charles P

    2014-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% compared with placebo in subjects with dry eye disease. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel arm, multicenter clinical trial. A total of 588 adult subjects with dry eye disease. Eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive topically administered lifitegrast (5.0%) or placebo (vehicle) twice daily for 84 days after a 14-day open-label placebo run-in period. After enrollment (day 0), subjects were evaluated at days 14, 42, and 84. Key objective (fluorescein and lissamine staining scores [Ora scales]) and subjective (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI], 7-item visual analog scale, and ocular discomfort score [Ora scale]) measures were assessed at all visits. The primary objective efficacy measure (sign) was mean change from baseline inferior corneal staining score (ICSS) at day 84. The co-primary subjective efficacy measure (symptom) was the mean change from baseline in the visual-related function subscale score of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (VR-OSDI). Supportive measures included corneal fluorescein scores (superior, central, total region) and conjunctival lissamine scores (nasal, temporal, total region) and symptom scores at day 84. The study met the primary objective efficacy ICSS end point in demonstrating superiority of lifitegrast compared with placebo (P = 0.0007). Lifitegrast significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining (superior, P = 0.0392; total cornea, P = 0.0148) and conjunctival lissamine staining (nasal, P = 0.0039; total conjunctiva, P = 0.0086) at day 84 versus placebo. Significant (P ophthalmic solution 5.0% significantly reduced corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine staining and improved symptoms of ocular discomfort and eye dryness compared with placebo when administered twice daily over 84 days. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of combat training on visuomotor performance in children aged 9 to 12 years - an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Liu, Yen-Hsiu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Lee, Yu-Lung; Chang, Shih-Tsung; Sun, Chi-Chin; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2018-02-07

    Data on visuomotor performance in combat training and the effects of combat training on visuomotor performance are limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a specially designed combat sports (CS) training program on the visuomotor performance levels of children. A pre-post comparative design was implemented. A total of 26 students aged 9-12 years underwent 40-min CS training sessions twice a week for 8 weeks during their physical education classes. The CS training program was designed by a karate coach and a motor control specialist. The other 30 students continued their regular activities and were considered as a control group. Each student's eye movement was monitored using an eye tracker, whereas the motor performance was measured using a target hitting system with a program-controlled microprocessor. The measurements were taken 8 weeks before (baseline), 1 day before (pretest), and 1 week after (posttest) the designated training program. The task used for evaluating these students was hitting or tracking random illuminated targets as rapidly as possible. A two-way analysis of variance [group(2) × time(3)] with repeated measures of time was performed for statistical analysis. For the children who received combat training, although the eye response improvement was not significant, both the primary and secondary saccade onset latencies were significantly earlier compared to the children without combat training. Both groups of students exhibited improvement in their hit response times during the target hitting tasks. The current finding supported the notion that sports training efforts essentially enhance visuomotor function in children aged 9-12 years, and combat training facilitates an earlier secondary saccade onset.

  18. Social-economic analysis of patients with Sjogren's syndrome dry eye in East China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Le, Qihua

    2018-02-02

    Sjogren's syndrome is the leading cause for aqueous tear-deficiency dry eye. Little is known regarding the relationship between Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) and patients' medical expenditure, clinical severity and psychological status changes. Thirty-four SSDE patients and thirty non-Sjogren's syndrome dry eye (non-SSDE) subjects were enrolled. They were required to complete three self-report questionnaires: Ocular Surface Disease Index, Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scales, and a questionnaire designed by the researchers to study the patients' treatment, medical expenditure and income. The correlations between expenditures and these parameters were analyzed. The annual total expenditure on the treatment of SSDE was Chinese Yuan 7637.2 (approximately US$1173.8) on average, and the expense paid by SSDE patients themselves was Chinese Yuan 2627.8 (approximately US$403.9), which were 5.5 and 4.5 times higher than non-SSDE patients (both P < 0.001). The annual total expense on Chinese medicine and western medicine were 35.6 times and 78.4% higher in SSDE group than in non-SSDE group (both P < 0.001). Moreover, indirect costs associated with the treatment were 70.0% higher in SSDE group. In SSDE group, the score of Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scales had significantly positive correlation with total medical expenditure and the expense on Chinese medicine (ρ = 0.399 and ρ = 0.400,both P = 0.019). Nevertheless, total medical expenditure paid by the patients in non-SSDE group positively correlated with the score of Ocular Surface Disease Index (ρ = 0.386, P = 0.035). Medication expenditures and associated costs is an unignorable economic burden to the patients with SSDE. The medical expense had a significantly correlation with clinical severity of SSDE and the patients' psychological status.

  19. Cancer through black eyes - The views of UK based black men towards cancer: A constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Betselot; Williamson, Susan; Monks, Rob; Hack, Thomas; Beaver, Kinta

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about black African (BA) and black African-Caribbean (BAC) men's views towards cancer; yet culture and acculturation can contribute to the way in which people understand, explain and develop their attitudes towards cancer. Hence, cancer prevention and early detection strategies may not be sensitive to United Kingdom (UK)-based black men's views, affecting their awareness of risk factors and early detection services. This study explored the views of UK-based BA and BAC men towards cancer. In collaboration with black community organisations based in four major cities in the UK, 25 participants were recruited using convenience and theoretical sampling methods. Data were collected using 33 semi-structured interviews, and analysed using grounded theory analytic procedures. One core category (cancer through black eyes) and seven sub-categories emerged; 'cultural views', 'religious beliefs', 'avoiding Babylon', 'alienation', 'suspicious mind', 'advertisements and information influence very little', and 'gap in service provision (bridging the gap)'. Participants' views towards cancer were linked to socially constructed perspectives, linked with cultural and religious beliefs, and shaped by what being a black male means in society. Risk factors such as smoking and obesity had different meanings and symbolisation through black eyes. There were macro- and micro-level similarities and differences between BA and BAC men. Cancer services and related public-health campaigns aimed at black men need to understand cancer through black eyes. Public health campaigns based solely on the clinical meaning of cancer are incongruent with black men's understandings of cancer, and therefore ineffective at reducing health inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  1. Use of Cooking Fuels and Cataract in a Population-Based Study: The India Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Gupta, Sanjeev; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Vashist, Praveen; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Maraini, Giovanni; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2016-12-01

    Biomass cooking fuels are commonly used in Indian households, especially by the poorest socioeconomic groups. Cataract is highly prevalent in India and the major cause of vision loss. The evidence on biomass fuels and cataract is limited. To examine the association of biomass cooking fuels with cataract and type of cataract. We conducted a population-based study in north and south India using randomly sampled clusters to identify people ≥ 60 years old. Participants were interviewed and asked about cooking fuel use, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended hospital for digital lens imaging (graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III), anthropometry, and blood collection. Years of use of biomass fuels were estimated and transformed to a standardized normal distribution. Of the 7,518 people sampled, 94% were interviewed and 83% of these attended the hospital. Sex modified the association between years of biomass fuel use and cataract; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1-SD increase in years of biomass fuel use and nuclear cataract was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.23) for men and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.48) for women, p interaction = 0.07. Kerosene use was low (10%). Among women, kerosene use was associated with nuclear (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) and posterior subcapsular cataract (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.64). There was no association among men. Our results provide robust evidence for the association of biomass fuels with cataract for women but not for men. Our finding for kerosene and cataract among women is novel and requires confirmation in other studies. Citation: Ravilla TD, Gupta S, Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Krishnan T, Maraini G, Chakravarthy U, Fletcher AE. 2016. Use of cooking fuels and cataract in a population-based study: the India Eye Disease Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1857-1862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP193.

  2. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  3. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  4. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20-60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446).

  5. Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES # 2 Rayagada school screening program: efficacy of multistage screening of school teachers in detection of impaired vision and other ocular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda L

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lapam Panda,1 Taraprasad Das,1 Suryasmita Nayak,1 Umasankar Barik,2 Bikash C Mohanta,1 Jachin Williams,3 Vivekanand Warkad,4 Guha Poonam Tapas Kumar,5 Rohit C Khanna3 1Indian Oil Center for Rural Eye Health, GPR ICARE, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 2Naraindas Morbai Budhrani Eye Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Rayagada, India; 3Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, KAR Campus, Hyderabad, India; 4Miriam Hyman Children Eye Care Center, L V Prasad Eye Institute, MTC Campus, Bhubaneswar, India; 5District Administration, Government of Odisha, Rayagada, India Purpose: To describe program planning and effectiveness of multistage school eye screening and assess accuracy of teachers in vision screening and detection of other ocular anomalies in Rayagada District School Sight Program, Odisha, India.Methods: This multistage screening of students included as follows: stage I: screening for vision and other ocular anomalies by school teachers in the school; stage II: photorefraction, subjective correction and other ocular anomaly confirmation by optometrists in the school; stage III: comprehensive ophthalmologist examination in secondary eye center; and stage IV: pediatric ophthalmologist examination in tertiary eye center. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of teachers for vision screening and other ocular anomaly detection were calculated vis-à-vis optometrist (gold standard.Results: In the study, 216 teachers examined 153,107 (95.7% of enrolled students aged 5–15 years. Teachers referred 8,363 (5.4% of examined students and 5,990 (71.6% of referred were examined in stage II. After prescribing spectacles to 443, optometrists referred 883 students to stage III. The sensitivity (80.51% and PPV (93.05% of teachers for vision screening were high, but specificity (53.29% and NPV (26.02% were low. The

  6. Attentional biases toward emotional images in the different episodes of bipolar disorder: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2014-03-30

    Attentional biases toward emotional information may represent vulnerability and maintenance factors in bipolar disorder (BD). The present experimental study examined the processing of emotional information in BD patients using the eye-tracking technology. Bipolar patients in their different states (euthymia, mania, depression) simultaneously viewed four pictures with different emotional valence (happy, neutral, sad, threatening) for 20s while their eye movements were monitored. A group of healthy individuals served as the control. The data revealed the following: (i) a decrease in attention to happy images in BD patients in their depressive episodes compared to healthy individuals, and (ii) an increase in attention to threatening images in BD patients (regardless of their episode) relative to the healthy controls. These biases appeared in the late stages of information processing and were sustained over the 20s interval. Thus, the present findings reveal that attentional biases toward emotional information can be a key feature of BD, in that: (i) an anhedonic lack of sensitivity to positive stimuli during the bipolar depressive episode may be considered a maintaining factor of this clinical state, and (ii) the trait-bias toward threat, even in asymptomatic patients, may reflect a marker of vulnerability in BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in patients admitted at tertiary eye care centre: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junejo, S.A.; Khan, N.A.; Lodhi, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and the risk factors in patients admitted for ocular treatment at a tertiary eye care centre in Sindh Pakistan. Methodology: Nine hundred thirty one patients admitted at Liaquat University Eye Hospital Hyderabad for ocular treatment, were screened for HBV and HCV. Patients of either sex, with more than thirty years of age were included. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV) was performed through chromatography method. Samples repeatedly reactive for HBsAg or anti-HCV were considered positive. Results: Out of 931 registered patients, 497 (53.3%) were male and 434 (46.7%) female. Hepatitis B and C was detected in 167 (17.9%) subjects. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection within the study period was 4.6%, HCV 13.3%, and for HBV and HCV both was 3.9%. Regarding the predisposing factors, past history of blood transfusion was present in 08.3% subjects, needle injection 89.2%, barber shaving 52.6%, and 46 (27.5%) patients presented with past history of surgery. Conclusion: For the prevention of transmission of HBV and HCV infection, the community awareness regarding vaccination against Hepatitis B and risk factors for spread of HBV and HCV, implementation of population based screening and vaccination for HBV on large scale should be ensured. (author)

  9. Where do neurologists look when viewing brain CT images? An eye-tracking study involving stroke cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate where neurologists look when they view brain computed tomography (CT images and to evaluate how they deploy their visual attention by comparing their gaze distribution with saliency maps. Brain CT images showing cerebrovascular accidents were presented to 12 neurologists and 12 control subjects. The subjects' ocular fixation positions were recorded using an eye-tracking device (Eyelink 1000. Heat maps were created based on the eye-fixation patterns of each group and compared between the two groups. The heat maps revealed that the areas on which control subjects frequently fixated often coincided with areas identified as outstanding in saliency maps, while the areas on which neurologists frequently fixated often did not. Dwell time in regions of interest (ROI was likewise compared between the two groups, revealing that, although dwell time on large lesions was not different between the two groups, dwell time in clinically important areas with low salience was longer in neurologists than in controls. Therefore it appears that neurologists intentionally scan clinically important areas when reading brain CT images showing cerebrovascular accidents. Both neurologists and control subjects used the "bottom-up salience" form of visual attention, although the neurologists more effectively used the "top-down instruction" form.

  10. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into "definite DED," "probable DED," or "non-DED" groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week). Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT) (≤5 s) were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P = 0.035). Non-DED participants (14.5%) tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%). Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P = 0.025). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  11. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS: Design, baseline characteristics, and therapeutic effect of tafluprost in preperimetric glaucoma eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Aizawa

    Full Text Available There is no consensus on the diagnosis or treatment policy for Preperimetric Glaucoma (PPG because the pathogenesis of PPG is not clear at this time. Preperimetric Glaucoma Prospective Observational Study (PPGPS is a first multicenter, prospective, observational study to clarify the pathogenesis of PPG. This article indicates study design, patient baseline characteristics, and analysis focused on optic nerve head (ONH blood flow in PPG, as well as the intraocular pressure (IOP -lowering effect and ONH blood flow-improving effects of Tafluprost.In this study, 122 eyes from 122 subjects (mean age: 53.1 ± 14.3 newly diagnosed as PPG were enrolled. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT. The ONH blood flow was measured with laser speckle flowgraphy. The therapeutic effect of Tafluprost was evaluated at Month 0 (ONH blood flow-improving effect and Month 4 (IOP-lowering effect.The untreated IOP, cpRNFLT, and baseline Mean deviation (MD value was 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg, 80.4 ± 8.2 μm, and -0.48 ± 1.29 dB, respectively. In the site-specific visual field evaluation using the sector map, there was no appreciable site-specific visual field defect in the eye with PPG. The inferior region of cpRNFLT in 4-quadrant OCT sector analysis and 6 o'clock region in 12-o'clock OCT sector analysis was the highest rate of abnormality in PPG eyes. Topical administration of Tafluprost significantly reduced IOP from 16.4 ± 2.5 mmHg at baseline to 14.5 ± 2.3 mmHg at Month 4 (P < 0.001, paired t-test. In the linear regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between the increase of ONH blood flow and baseline value.PPGPS is a first prospective study focusing on the pathology of PPG. This study is expected to elucidate the pathology of PPG, with evidence useful for determining a treatment strategy for PPG.

  12. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  13. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-08

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not. Next, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a different video story, in which a human grabbed one of two objects to hit back at the character. In their second viewing after a 24-hour delay, 18- and 24-month-old infants increased viewing time on the objects before the character grabbed one. In this viewing, 24-month-old infants preferentially looked at the object that the human had used, but 18-month-old infants did not show such preference. Our results show that infants at 18 months of age have developed long-term event memory, an ability to encode and retrieve a one-time event and this ability is elaborated thereafter.

  14. Telemedicine and Diabetic Eye Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults is eye disease related to poorly managed diabetes. In a prevention research study, telemedicine was shown to increase the number of people getting screened for diabetic eye disease.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  17. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  19. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: the Tromsø Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon; Schirmer, Henrik; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Njølstad, Inger

    2014-06-01

      To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population.   The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis.   The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96). In women, retinopathy was associated with age (OR per 10 years, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.52), log-transformed urinary albumin excretion (OR per log unit, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87) and hypertension (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). In women, retinopathy was associated with very low levels of urinary albumin excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43 mg/mmol).   This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis leading to retinopathy. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  1. Eye tracker based study: Perception of faces with a cleft lip and nose deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel, Olaf; Litschel, Ralph; Maal, Thomas J J; Bergé, Stefaan J; Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of visual attention directed towards cleft stigmata and its impact on the perception of selected personality traits. Forty observers were divided into two groups and their visual scan paths were recorded. Both groups observed a series of photographs displaying full frontal views of the faces of 18 adult patients with clefts, nine with residual cleft stigmata and nine with digitally-corrected stigmata (each patient only appeared once per series). Patients that appeared with residual stigmata in one series appeared digitally corrected in the other series and vice versa. Visual fixation times on the upper lip and nose were compared between the original and corrected photographs. Observers subsequently rated personality traits as perceived using visual analogue scales and the same photographs that they had observed in the series. In faces depicting cleft stigmata observers spent more time looking at the oronasal region of interest, followed by the eyes (39.6%; SD 5.0 and 35.1%; SD 3.6, respectively, p = 0.0198). Observers spent more time looking at the cleft lip compared with the corrected lip (21.2%; SD 4.0 and 16.7%; SD 5.0, respectively, p = 0.006). The differences between questionnaire scores for faces with cleft stigmata compared with faces with corrected stigmata for withdrawn-sociable, discontent-content, lazy-assiduous, unimaginative-creative, unlikeable-likeable, and the sum of individual personality traits were not significant. According to these findings, cleft lip and cleft nose have an attention-drawing potential with the cleft lip being the major attention drawing factor. These data do not provide supportive evidence for the notion reported in literature that patients with clefts are perceived as having negative personality traits. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Character drawing style in cartoons on empathy induction: an eye-tracking and EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Il; Choi, Yeojeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-01-01

    In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES) had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration). Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process), even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot) is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style) in empathy induction when viewing cartoons.

  3. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  4. Visual acuity at 10 years in Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) study eyes: effect of retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty

    2006-02-01

    To describe recognition (letter) acuity at age 10 years in eyes with and without retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Presence and severity of ROP residua were documented by a study ophthalmologist. Masked testers measured monocular recognition visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) when the children were 10 years old. Two hundred forty-seven of 255 surviving Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) randomized trial patients participated. A reference group of 102 of 104 Philadelphia-based CRYO-ROP study participants who did not develop ROP was also tested. More severe retinal residua were associated with worse visual acuity, regardless of whether retinal ablation was performed to treat the severe acute-phase ROP. However, within each ROP residua category, there was a wide range of visual acuity results. This is the first report of the relation between visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts) and structural abnormalities related to ROP in a large group of eyes that developed threshold ROP in the perinatal period. Visual deficits are greater in eyes with more severe retinal residua than in eyes with mild or no residua. However, severity of ROP residua does not predict the visual acuity of an individual eye because within a single residua category, acuity may range from near normal to blind.

  5. When and why might a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system interfere with visual search? An eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Cunningham, Corbin; Wolfe, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Rational and Objectives Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems are intended to improve performance. This study investigates how CAD might actually interfere with a visual search task. This is a laboratory study with implications for clinical use of CAD. Methods 47 naïve observers in two studies were asked to search for a target, embedded in 1/f2.4 noise while we monitored their eye-movements. For some observers, a CAD system marked 75% of targets and 10% of distractors while other observers completed the study without CAD. In Experiment 1, the CAD system’s primary function was to tell observers where the target might be. In Experiment 2, CAD provided information about target identity. Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant enhancement of observer sensitivity in the presence of CAD (t(22)=4.74, pCAD system were missed more frequently than equivalent targets in No CAD blocks of the experiment (t(22)=7.02, pCAD, but also no significant cost on sensitivity to unmarked targets (t(22)=0.6, p=n.s.). Finally, in both experiments, CAD produced reliable changes in eye-movements: CAD observers examined a lower total percentage of the search area than the No CAD observers (Ex 1: t(48)=3.05, pCAD signals do not combine with observers’ unaided performance in a straight-forward manner. CAD can engender a sense of certainty that can lead to incomplete search and elevated chances of missing unmarked stimuli. PMID:22958720

  6. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  7. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  8. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  9. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  10. A contralateral eye study comparing apodized diffrative and full diffrative lenses: wavefront analysis and distance and near uncorrected visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony Rodrigues de Santhiago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate intraindividual visual acuity, wavefront errors and modulation transfer functions in patients implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. METHODS: This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 20 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a spherical multifocal ReSTOR intraocular lens in one eye and an aspheric Tecnis ZM900 multifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. The main outcome measures, over a 3-month follow-up period, were the uncorrected photopic distance and near visual acuity and the defocus curve. The visual acuity was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis and is presented in decimal scale. The wavefront error and modulation transfer function were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative visit, the mean photopic distance uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.74 ± 0.20 in the ReSTOR group and 0.76 ± 0.22 in the Tecnis group (p=0.286. The mean near UCVA was 0.96 ± 0.10 in the ReSTOR group and 0.93 ± 0.14 in the Tecnis group (p=0.963. The binocular defocus curve showed measurements between the peaks better than 0.2 logMAR. The total aberration, higher-order aberration and coma aberration were not significantly different between the groups. The spherical aberration was significantly lower in the Tecnis group than in the ReSTOR group. (p=0.004. Both groups performed similarly for the modulation transfer function. CONCLUSION: The ReSTOR SN60D3 and Tecnis ZM 900 intraocular lenses provided similar photopic visual acuity at distance and near. The diffractive intraocular lenses studied provided a low value of coma and spherical aberrations, with the Tecnis intraocular lens having a statistically lower spherical aberration compared to the ReSTOR intraocular lens. In the 5 mm pupil diameter analyses, both intraocular lens groups showed similar modulation transfer functions.

  11. Topics on distance correlation, feature screening and lifetime expectancy with application to Beaver Dam eye study data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing

    This thesis includes 4 pieces of work. In Chapter 1, we present the work with a method for examining mortality as it is seen to run in families, and lifestyle factors that are also seen to run in families, in a subpopulation of the Beaver Dam Eye Study that has died by 2011. We find significant distance correlations between death ages, lifestyle factors, and family relationships. Considering only sib pairs compared to unrelated persons, distance correlation between siblings and mortality is, not surprisingly, stronger than that between more distantly related family members and mortality. Chapter 2 introduces a feature screening procedure with the use of distance correlation and covariance. We demonstrate a property for distance covariance, which is incorporated in a novel feature screening procedure based on distance correlation as a stopping criterion. The approach is further implemented to two real examples, namely the famous small round blue cell tumors data and the Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer data Chapter 3 pays attention to the right censored human longevity data and the estimation of lifetime expectancy. We propose a general framework of backward multiple imputation for estimating the conditional lifetime expectancy function and the variance of the estimator in the right censoring setting and prove the properties of the estimator. In addition, we apply the method to the Beaver Dam eye study data to study human longevity, where the expected human lifetime are modeled with smoothing spline ANOVA based on the covariates including baseline age, gender, lifestyle factors and disease variables. Chapter 4 compares two imputation methods for right censored data, namely the famous Buckley-James estimator and the backward imputation method proposed in Chapter 3 and shows that backward imputation method is less biased and more robust with heterogeneity.

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  14. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  18. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  19. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  20. Small, hard macular drusen and peripheral drusen: associations with AMD genotypes in the Inter99 Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Ek, Jakob; Kessel, Line

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study associations of small, hard macular drusen and peripheral drusen with genotypes associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Digital grayscale fundus photographs recorded in red-free illumination were graded for the presence of drusen in 1107 subjects aged 30...... to 66 years. Participants were genotyped for AMD-related polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFH), in LOC387715, and in complement factor B (CFB). RESULTS: The prevalence of 20 or more small, hard macular drusen per eye was 14%, with no association to the investigated polymorphisms. Peripheral drusen...... were associated with CFHY402H (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.4-13, for CC versus TT genotypes) as was macular drusen >63 microm (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1, for CC versus TT genotypes). Macular drusen >63 microm were associated with the presence of 20 or more small, hard...

  1. Removal of the eye in a tertiary care center of China:a retrospective study on 573 cases in 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the original protopathy, direct indications, clinical characteristics, complications of orbit plants and visual conditions of eye enucleation/evisceration.METHODS: A retrospective study of 573 eyes removed (573 inpatients at Ophthalmology Department in a tertiary care center of China from January 1993 to December 2012 was completed.RESULTS:Cases underwent removal of the eye accounted for 2.15% of total ophthalmology inpatients, whose annual frequency declined from 3.80% to 0.52%. There were 167 eyes (29.14% being enucleated and 406 (70.86% eviscerated. Annual proportion of evisceration rose from 16.67% in 1993 to 90.48% in later years. Trauma was the top one (65.62% in original protopathies followed by neoplasm (13.44% and ocular infections (5.76%. Phthisis bulbi (45.20% was the most common direct indication, succeeded by malignant tumor (12.57%, loss/unreconstructed of intraocular tissues due to trauma (11.00%, untreatable inflammation (9.60%, intractable glaucoma (8.55% and sclerocorneal staphyloma (5.24%. Exenteration was underwent in 20 (25.97% cases (40% for recurrent carcinoma. Following evisceration, secondary prosthesis implantation was more and earlier, implant exposure occurred in less but earlier and infection and extraction/exchange of implants were more than those following enucleation. Male, phthisis bulbi, evisceration and secondary implantation meant lower risk of implant exposure; eyes removed within 24h following trauma was an independent risk factor. There were 14.37% of eyes with vision of light perception at least as been removed. In the residual contralateral eyes, low vision accounted 5.58% and blindness 3.14%.CONCLUSION:Ocular trauma, tumor and infections were great threats to eyeball preservation. Early and effective controlling of any original protopathies was vital. Generally evisceration presented more superior and safe outcomes than enucleation did. Visual conditions of the sufferers should be

  2. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  3. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Thrasher, James F

    2016-01-01

    As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail 'power wall' behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1) evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2) evaluate the duration (dwell-time) of these fixations, and (3) evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Data from 13 Smokers (S) and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS) aged 180-30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation) and duration (dwell-time) of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10), Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6), and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9). A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72%) fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67%) or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%). In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96%) indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  4. Vision-Related Quality of Life and Appearance Concerns Are Associated with Anxiety and Depression after Eye Enucleation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables with levels of anxiety and depression in participants wearing an ocular prosthesis after eye enucleation.This cross-sectional study included 195 participants with an enucleated eye who were attending an ophthalmic clinic for prosthetic rehabilitation between July and November 2014. Demographic and clinical data, and self-reported feelings of shame, sadness and anger were collected. Participants also completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, the Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression models were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression.The proportion of participants with clinical anxiety was 11.8% and clinical depression 13.8%. More anxiety and depression were associated with poorer vision-related quality of life and greater levels of appearance concerns. Younger age was related to greater levels of anxiety. Less educated participants and those feeling more angry about losing an eye are more prone to experience depression. Clinical variables were unrelated to anxiety or depression.Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in eye-enucleated patients than the general population, which brings up the issues of psychiatric support in these patients. Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were associated with anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the direction of causality before interventions to improve mood states are developed.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (Peye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Objective eye-gaze behaviour during face-to-face communication with proficient alaryngeal speakers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Paul; Gallop, Robert

    2011-01-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating the impact of visual information on speaker intelligibility in both normal and disordered speaker populations. However, there is minimal information on which specific visual features listeners find salient during conversational discourse. To investigate listeners' eye-gaze behaviour during face-to-face conversation with normal, laryngeal and proficient alaryngeal speakers. Sixty participants individually participated in a 10-min conversation with one of four speakers (typical laryngeal, tracheoesophageal, oesophageal, electrolaryngeal; 15 participants randomly assigned to one mode of speech). All speakers were > 85% intelligible and were judged to be 'proficient' by two certified speech-language pathologists. Participants were fitted with a head-mounted eye-gaze tracking device (Mobile Eye, ASL) that calculated the region of interest and mean duration of eye-gaze. Self-reported gaze behaviour was also obtained following the conversation using a 10 cm visual analogue scale. While listening, participants viewed the lower facial region of the oesophageal speaker more than the normal or tracheoesophageal speaker. Results of non-hierarchical cluster analyses showed that while listening, the pattern of eye-gaze was predominantly directed at the lower face of the oesophageal and electrolaryngeal speaker and more evenly dispersed among the background, lower face, and eyes of the normal and tracheoesophageal speakers. Finally, results show a low correlation between self-reported eye-gaze behaviour and objective regions of interest data. Overall, results suggest similar eye-gaze behaviour when healthy controls converse with normal and tracheoesophageal speakers and that participants had significantly different eye-gaze patterns when conversing with an oesophageal speaker. Results are discussed in terms of existing eye-gaze data and its potential implications on auditory-visual speech perception. © 2011 Royal College of Speech

  7. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that ‘wrap around’ glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient’s skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the H p (10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the H p (3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. (paper)

  8. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Mao

    Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  9. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...... the present hair colour and eye colour, and the constitutive skin pigmentation was measured objectively by skin reflectance of UV unexposed buttock skin. There were no differences between basal cell carcinoma cases and controls in hair colour or eye colour or constitutive skin pigmentation, but more cases...... were of skin type II than skin type IV; skin type 11 was a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3. For cutaneous malignant melanoma, more cases than controls were red-haired or blond and of skin type II, but there was no difference in constitutive skin pigmentation. Hair...

  10. A nationwide study on the incidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Denmark, with emphasis on the risk of the fellow eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad N; Bjerrum, Søren S; Christensen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the risk of developing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in the fellow eye in patients with RRD in the first eye and to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: We used the Danish National Patient Registry to identify all surgeries performed for RRD in Denmark...... on the lens, and young age as significant risk factors (P risk of developing RRD on the second eye, and the risk increases with male gender and surgery on the lens but decreases with age....... in the period from January 2000 to July 2011. RESULTS: In 11,451 cases of RRD in the study period, 8,553 cases in 8,081 patients were identified as primary RRD with an annual incidence of 13.7 per 100,000 citizens. There was a significant increase in the number of cases with RRD during the study period...

  11. Analysis of Eye Care Services in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh A. Al-Akily; Mutahar Y. Al-Shaer; Mahfouth A. Bamashmus; Abdulmoghni O. Al-Barrag; Tawfik K. Alkhatib; Hisham A. Al-Akhlee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to undertake an analysis of the eye care services situation in Yemen and to assess ophthalmic human resources, eye units’ ownership and ophthalmic equipments. Methods: Eye care providers were surveyed by a standardized questionnaire which was sent to the 184 eye units in governmental, university, military, private and charity clinics and hospitals in Yemen and covered the period between 01 January to 31 December 2012. The questionnaire determined l...

  12. Reduced appearance of under-eye bags with twice-daily application of epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Rachel; Moy, Ronald L

    2015-04-01

    Under-eye bags are a common manifestation of age and a frequent complaint among patients who no longer feel youthful. Non-invasive topical agents are largely ineffective at reducing their appearance. We studied the ability of a topical serum containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) to minimize the appearance of under-eye bags. A single-center clinical trial was performed on eighteen volunteer male and female patients with under-eye bags. Subjects applied EGF serum to the infraorbital area twice daily for 12 weeks. At each visit, subjects were evaluated using clinical photography and written self-assessment. A grade on the Merz Infraorbital Hollowness Scale was also given and two independent, blind investigators assigned an Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score. At the trial's end, patients shared their final evaluation and perception of results with a questionnaire. Sixteen subjects completed the trial. The final average Merz grade was 1.63 (SEM = .273), statistically significantly lower than the mean baseline average of 2.06 (SEM = .232) (P = .0019). A reduction in average IGA score was also significant (Pbags as milder at the end of the trial compared to the first visit. Seven subjects reported greater satisfaction with their overall facial appearance. Of the subjects who had used other topical treatments in the past, two reported the serum to be "significantly better" and four said it was "better" in treating their under-eye bags. Our results offer evidence that topical EGF can reduce the appearance of under-eye bags.

  13. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  14. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of hair and eye colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma in fair-skinned Caucasians, we conducted two identical case-control studies in Denmark. We studied 145 cases with basal cell...

  15. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis-treated group. The AUC₀₋₂₄ h for rabbit's tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 μg·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 μg·h/mg reported with Restasis. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis. These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes.

  16. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN FuXi; CHENG HuanSheng; HU YongQing; MA Bo; GU DongHong

    2009-01-01

    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the samples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly imported from the West.

  17. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the sam- ples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly im- ported from the West.

  18. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-Year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Natalia F; Ludwig, Cassie A; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and location of fundus hemorrhages (FHs) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and stable were eligible for screening. Infants with known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013, through July 25, 2014, were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained from hospital records. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by 1 pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics, and adverse events. The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self-identified ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino showed a protective effect (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94). Other study factors were not significant. Fundus

  19. A Pilot Study to Improve Access to Eye Care Services for Patients in Rural India by Implementing Community Ophthalmology through Innovative Telehealth Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sheila; Premila, M; Javed, Mohd; Vikas, G; Wagholikar, Amol

    2015-01-01

    To inform about a very unique and first of its kind telehealth pilot study in India that has provided virtual telehealth consultation to eye care patients in low resource at remote villages. Provision of Access to eye care services in remote population is always challenging due to pragmatic reasons. Advances in Telehealth technologies have provided an opportunity to improve access to remote population. However, current Telehealth technologies are limited to face-to-face video consultation only. We inform about a pilot study that illustrates real-time imaging access to ophthalmologists. Our innovative software led technology solution allowed screening of patients with varying ocular conditions. Eye camps were conducted in 2 districts in South India over a 12-month period in 2014. Total of 196 eye camps were conducted. Total of 19,634 patients attended the eye camps. Innovative software was used to conduct consultation with the ophthalmologist located in the city hospital. The software enabled virtual visit and allowed instant sharing of fundus camera images for assessment and diagnosis. About 71% of the patients were found to have Refractive Error problems, 15% of them were found to have cataract, 7% of the patients were diagnosed to have Retina problems and 7% of the patients were found to have other ocular diseases. The patients requiring cataract surgery were immediately transferred to city hospital for treatment. Software led assessment of fundus camera images assisted in identifying retinal eye diseases. Our real-time virtual visit software assisted in specialist care provision and illustrated a novel tele health solution for low resource population.

  20. The Nine-Step Minnesota Grading System for Eyebank Eyes With Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Approach to Study Disease Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy W; Liao, Albert; Robinson, Hershonna S; Palejwala, Neal V; Sprehe, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    To refine the Minnesota Grading System (MGS) using definitions from the Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS) into a nine-step grading scale (MGS-9). A nine-step grading scale descriptive analysis using three key phenotypic features (total drusen area, increased, and decreased pigmentation) of human eyebank eyes that were graded according to definitions from the AREDS criteria in order to harmonize studies of disease progression for research involving human tissue. From 2005 through February 2017, we have analyzed 1159 human eyes, procured from two eyebanks. Each macula was imaged using high-resolution, stereoscopic color fundus photography with both direct- and transillumination. Fundus images were digitally overlaid with a grading template and triangulated for foveal centration. We documented and stratified risk for each globe by applying the AREDS nine-step grading scale to the key clinical features from the MGS-9. We found a good distribution within the MGS categories (1-9) with few level eight globes. Eyes were processed within 12.1 ± 6.3, hours from the time of death through imaging, dissection, and freezing or fixation. Applying the MGS-9 to 331 pairs (662 eyes were simultaneously graded), 84% were within one-grading step and 93% within two steps of the fellow eye. We also document reticular pseudodrusen, basal laminar drusen, and pattern dystrophy. The MGS nine-step grading scale enables researchers using human tissue to refine the risk assessment of donor tissue. This analysis will harmonize results among researchers when grading human tissue using MGS criteria. Most importantly, the MGS-9 links directly to the known risk for progression from the AREDS.

  1. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  2. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life

  3. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision. Before the AREDS2 study finished, manufacturers began marketing supplements based on the study design. In AREDS2, ... Feed Connect with Us Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer ...

  4. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED) with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n = 672). DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were ...

  5. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  6. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  7. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…