More than 300 megaspore specimens have been recovered from samples from the Late Permian, Lower Whybrow coal seam of the Wittingham Coal Measures of the Sydney Basin. Only two species are recognised: Singhisporites surangei (Singh) Potonié, emend. and a new species of Singhisporites. Species distribution within the seam is controlled by a major fire event, as recognised by coal petrology and mesofossil content: Singhisporites surangei is dominant before the event, but following it, it is subordinate to the new species.The abundance of megaspores recovered has allowed recognition of the full range of morphologic variation of Singhisporites surangei, which encompasses specimens assigned previously to Singraulispora Pant & Mishra, 1986 and Mammilaespora Pant & Srivastava, 1961; both are regarded as junior synonyms of Singhisporites Potonié, emend. Ultrastructurally, the new species shows affinities with Mesozoic isoetalean megaspores.
Full Text Available The morphology and wall ultrastructure of megaspores and microspores of Isoetes sehnemii that grows in Brazil were analyzed as part of the study of the Isoetaceae present in Southern South America. The observations were performed with light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The megaspores are trilete, 350-450μm in equatorial diameter. The surface is reticulate. In section, the sporoderm is 100μm thick including the ornamentation. The wall is composed of a siliceous perispore, which consists of short fused flatten, elements forming a three-dimensional mesh. The exospore has two zones of different structure. The endospore is fibrillar. The microspores are monolete, 21-27μm in equatorial diameter. The sporoderm is composed of a sporopollinic rugulate perispore. A space between the paraexospore and the exospore is evident. The exospore is compact. The endospore is fibrillar. The ultrastructural analysis akes hoologies evident concerning structure and organization of the layers belo the perispore in both spore types. A possible similarity and stability in the ultrustructure of the present spores and fossils could be also inferred. In addition, there would be a correlation among the plant habitat, the spore ornamentation and the geographic distribution.A morfologia e a ultraestrutura da parede de megasporos e microspores de Isoetes sehnemii que crescem no Brasil foram analisados como parte do estudo de Isoetaceae presente no sul da América do Sul. As observações foram realizadas com microscopias de luz e eletrônicas de transmissão e varredura. Os megasporos são triletes com 350-450μm de diâmetro equatorial. A superfície é reticulada. Em secção o esporoderma possui 100μm de espessura incluindo ornamentação. A parede é composta de um perisporo silicoso que consiste de elementos fusionados curtos e achatados formando uma rede tridimensional. O exosporo tem duas zonas com diferentes estruturas. O endosporo é fibrilar. Os
Full Text Available Regnellidium diphyllum is considered as endangered, occurring in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and a few adjoining localities in Uruguay, Argentina and the State of Santa Catarina. It grows in wetlands frequently altered for agricultural activities. Herbicides based on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D are widely used in these fields. The effects of 2,4-D on the germination of megaspores and initial sporophytic development of R. diphyllum were investigated. Six concentrations of 2,4-D (0.32; 0.64; 1.92; 4.80; 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1, and the control (0.00 mg.L-1, were tested in vitro, using Meyer's medium. Cultures were maintained in a growth chamber at 24 ± 1 °C, under artificial light with nominal irradiance of 110 µmol.m-2/s and 16 hours photoperiod. Megaspore germination was lower at 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D (56 and 48%, respectively, compared with the control (68%. Herbicide concentrations of up to 1.92 mg.L-1 did not significantly decrease the number of sporophytes formed. At 19.20 mg.L-1, no sporophytes were formed. The lengths of the primary root, primary and secondary leaves were greater at concentrations of 0.32 and 0.64 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D. Low concentrations of 2,4-D do not affect germination rates and initial development of R. diphyllum in a significant way. However, higher concentrations (9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1 affect substantially the germination of the megaspores and interfere with the establishment of the species.
van Dijk, P.J.; Bakx-Schotman, J.M.T.
In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This
van Dijk, Peter J; Bakx-Schotman, J M Tanja
In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated approximately 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This population was created by crossing a sexual diploid (2x = 16) with a tetraploid diplosporous pollen donor (4x = 32) that was derived from a triploid apomict. Six different inheritance models for diplospory were tested. The segregation ratio and the tight association with specific alleles at the microsatellite loci MSTA53 and MSTA78 strongly suggest that diplospory is controlled by a dominant allele D on a locus, which we have named DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP). Diplosporous plants have a simplex genotype, Ddd or Dddd. MSTA53 and MSTA78 were weakly linked to the 18S-25S rDNA locus. The D-linked allele of MSTA78 was absent in a hypotriploid (2n = 3x - 1) that also lacked one of the satellite chromosomes. Together these results suggest that DIP is located on the satellite chromosome. DIP is female specific, as unreduced gametes are not formed during male meiosis. Furthermore, DIP does not affect parthenogenesis, implying that several independently segregating genes control apomixis in dandelions. PMID:15020437
van Dijk, Peter J; Bakx-Schotman, J M Tanja
In apomictic dandelions, Taraxacum officinale, unreduced megaspores are formed via a modified meiotic division (diplospory). The genetic basis of diplospory was investigated in a triploid (3x = 24) mapping population of 61 individuals that segregated approximately 1:1 for diplospory and meiotic reduction. This population was created by crossing a sexual diploid (2x = 16) with a tetraploid diplosporous pollen donor (4x = 32) that was derived from a triploid apomict. Six different inheritance models for diplospory were tested. The segregation ratio and the tight association with specific alleles at the microsatellite loci MSTA53 and MSTA78 strongly suggest that diplospory is controlled by a dominant allele D on a locus, which we have named DIPLOSPOROUS (DIP). Diplosporous plants have a simplex genotype, Ddd or Dddd. MSTA53 and MSTA78 were weakly linked to the 18S-25S rDNA locus. The D-linked allele of MSTA78 was absent in a hypotriploid (2n = 3x - 1) that also lacked one of the satellite chromosomes. Together these results suggest that DIP is located on the satellite chromosome. DIP is female specific, as unreduced gametes are not formed during male meiosis. Furthermore, DIP does not affect parthenogenesis, implying that several independently segregating genes control apomixis in dandelions.
Ricardi-Branco, Fresia; Rohn, Rosemarie; Longhim, Marcia Emilia; Costa, Juliana Sampaio; Martine, Ariel Milani; Christiano-de-Souza, Isabel Cortez
Fossil bryophytes are rare because their preservation is compromised by the presence of a thin cuticle (if any) and a lack of lignin. Except for the occurrence of one bryophyte in the glacial Dwyka Group of the Karoo Basin, the other rare Late Paleozoic records in Gondwana are notably from the Paraná Basin in Southeast/South Brazil. Four bryophyte sites (including a newly discovered one) were found in the lower part of the thick Permo-Carboniferous glacial succession of the Itararé Group, and one was found in the Guadalupian Teresina Formation, which was roughly assigned to an epeiric sea (or "lake") dominated by a warm, semi-arid climate. This study describes the fossils from the new occurrence from the Itararé Group and discusses the context in which the bryophyte beds originated in the basin. The new samples confirm that all of the bryophytes of the Itararé Group can be classified as Dwykea araroii Ricardi-Branco et al. (a possible pleurocarp) and are associated with the lycophyte megaspore Sublagenicula brasiliensis (Dijkstra) Dybová-Jachowicz. In the much younger Teresina Formation, the bryophytes are Yguajemanus yucapirus Cristiano-de-Souza et al. and Capimirinus riopretensis Cristiano-de-Souza et al., and abundant charophytes and rare dwarf lycophyte stems and bracts are present in the same layers. Although the two stratigraphic units represent distinct paleoenvironments and climates, they seem to share some characteristics: a) the bryophyte assemblages were transported very little; b) they were deposited in very calm environments; c) they were the main components (along with some lycophytes) of local or poorly diversified regional vegetation. The low number of species, which is characteristic of opportunistic communities, can be explained by local or regional conditions that would have been stressful for the vascular plants in other areas. During the deposition of the Itararé Group, the main control was probably the cold climate in addition to a
Effects of 2,4-D on the germination of megaspores and initial development of Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Monilophyta, Marsileaceae Efeitos do 2,4-D sobre a germinação de megásporos e o desenvolvimento inicial de Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Monilophyta, Marsileaceae
Full Text Available Regnellidium diphyllum is considered as endangered, occurring in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and a few adjoining localities in Uruguay, Argentina and the State of Santa Catarina. It grows in wetlands frequently altered for agricultural activities. Herbicides based on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D are widely used in these fields. The effects of 2,4-D on the germination of megaspores and initial sporophytic development of R. diphyllum were investigated. Six concentrations of 2,4-D (0.32; 0.64; 1.92; 4.80; 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1, and the control (0.00 mg.L-1, were tested in vitro, using Meyer's medium. Cultures were maintained in a growth chamber at 24 ± 1 °C, under artificial light with nominal irradiance of 110 µmol.m-2/s and 16 hours photoperiod. Megaspore germination was lower at 9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D (56 and 48%, respectively, compared with the control (68%. Herbicide concentrations of up to 1.92 mg.L-1 did not significantly decrease the number of sporophytes formed. At 19.20 mg.L-1, no sporophytes were formed. The lengths of the primary root, primary and secondary leaves were greater at concentrations of 0.32 and 0.64 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D. Low concentrations of 2,4-D do not affect germination rates and initial development of R. diphyllum in a significant way. However, higher concentrations (9.60 and 19.20 mg.L-1 affect substantially the germination of the megaspores and interfere with the establishment of the species.Regnellidium diphyllum é considerada ameaçada, ocorrendo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e em algumas localidades vizinhas no Uruguai, na Argentina e no Estado de Santa Catarina. Cresce em áreas alagáveis, frequentemente alteradas para atividades agrícolas. Herbicidas baseados em ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D são largamente utilizados nestas plantações. Os efeitos do 2,4-D sobre a germinação de megásporos e o desenvolvimento esporofítico inicial de R. diphyllum foram
Roč. 2008, - (2009), s. 91-92 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA304070701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : palynology * spores * palaeobotany * methods Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2008/2008-24.pdf
The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid (2n=4x=48) plant species, which after its introduction into Europe in the 16th century has become one of the world's major food crops. The potato has traditionally been grown from
Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Milocani, Eva; Tani, Gabriele; Di Falco, Pietro; Brighigna, Luigi
The degeneration of three of four meiotic products is a very common process in the female gender of oogamous eukaryotes. In Tillandsia (and many other angiosperms), the surviving megaspore has a callose-free wall in chalazal position while the other three megaspores are completely embedded in callose. Therefore, nutrients and signals can reach more easily the functional megaspore from the nucellus through the chalazal pole with respect to the other megaspores. The abortion of three of four megaspores was already recognized as the result of a programmed cell death (PCD) process. We investigated the process to understand the modality of this specific type of PCD and its relationship to the asymmetric callose deposition around the tetrad. The decision on which of the four megaspores will be the supernumerary megaspores in angiosperms, and hence destined to undergo programmed cell death, appears to be linked to the callose layer deposition around the tetrad. During supernumerary megaspores degeneration, events leading to the deletion of the cells do not appear to belong to a single type of cell death. The first morphological signs are typical of autophagy, including the formation of autophagosomes. The TUNEL positivity and a change in morphology of mitochondria and chloroplasts indicate the passage to an apoptotic-like PCD phase, while the cellular remnants undergo a final process resembling at least partially (ER swelling) necrotic morphological syndromes, eventually leading to a mainly lipidic cell corpse still separated from the functional megaspore by a callose layer.
Tucker, M.R.; Araujo, A.C.G.; Paech, N.A.; Hecht, V.; Schmidt, E.D.L.; Rossel, J.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Koltunow, A.M.
Seed formation in flowering plants requires meiosis of the megaspore mother cell (MMC) inside the ovule, selection of a megaspore that undergoes mitosis to form an embryo sad, and double fertilization to initiate embryo and endosperm formation. During apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in
Bek, J; Oplustil, S; Drábková, J
Two species of Selaginella cones from the Bohemian Upper Carboniferous continental basins of the Bolsovian and Westphalian D age are described, together with their in situ spores. Two specimens of Selaginella gutbierii yielded microspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Cirratriradites saturnii and megaspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Triangulatisporites vermiculatus. Microspores closely comparable with the dispersed species Cirratriradites annulatus and megaspores resemble the dispersed species Triangulatisporites tertius were isolated from cones of Selaginella cf. leptostachys. All the spores isolated from one cone are of the same type and would be referred to one dispersed micro- and megaspore species if found as Sporae dispersae. The paper contains a review of all palynologically studied Carboniferous Selaginella and Selaginella-like cones and reviews of all in situ and dispersed Cirratriradites and Triangulatisporites spores.
Lugardon, Bernard; Grauvogel-Stamm, Léa; Dobruskina, Inna
The ultrastructural features of the microspores of the Triassic lycopsid Pleuromeia rossica are similar to those of the microspores of the living Isoetes, except that the latter have an additional outermost wall. These features differ greatly from those of the spores of all the other extant Pteridophyta. Likewise, the megaspores of P. rossica, of which the comparative analysis will be presented later, are also ultrastructurally analogous to the megaspores of Isoetes. These ultrastructural similarities very likely imply close relationships between Pleuromeia and Isoetes. Moreover they suggest that these genera belong to a distinct group among the heterosporous lycopsids, in which the ultrastructural features of the microspores remained outstandingly steady.
(C) Ovule after the completion of meiosis, showing the meiotic tetrad (mt) of reduced megaspores, outer integument (oi) and inner integument (ii). (D) Ovule at anthesis, containing an egg cell (ec) and fused central cell nucleus (ccn), indicated with arrows. The embryo sac is outlined with a dotted line. (E) Developing seed.
Van Baarlen, P.; De Jong, J.H.; Van Dijk, P.J.
In the autonomous apomictic Taraxacum offinale (common dandelion), parthenogenetic egg cells develop into embryos and central cells into endosperm without prior fertilisation. Unreduced (2n) megaspores are formed via meiotic diplospory, a nonreductional type of meiosis. In this paper, we describe
Batten, D J.; Collinson, M E.
Species of the megaspore genus Minerisporites Potonié, megaspore apparatuses of species of the water fern Azolla Lamarck, and some associated organic-walled microfossils recovered from deposits of the Upper Palaeocene and Palaeocene/Eocene transition in the southern part of the Netherlands and neighbouring Belgium are redescribed on the basis of an examination of specimens under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Originally studied about 40 years ago by S.J. Dijkstra, the re-examination has enabled emended diagnoses to be produced for six taxa: Minerisporites glossoferus (Dijkstra) Tschudy, M. mirabilis (Miner) Potonié, M. mirabilissimus (Dijkstra) Potonié, Azolla schopfii Dijkstra, A. teschiana Florschütz, and A. velus (Dijkstra) Jain and Hall. In addition, a revised description is provided for massulae of Salvinia Séguier that were originally thought to be megaspores and, hence, named by Dijkstra as Triletes? exiguus. The gross morphology and construction of the exospore of the species of Minerisporites are similar, but nevertheless sufficiently distinct for them to be maintained as separate taxa. Monolete microspores are preserved in hollows in the reticulate surface of some of the specimens of M. mirabilissimus. This is consistent with the presumed isoetalean affinity of Minerisporites. An apparent stratigraphic morphocline from M. glossoferus to M. mirabilis, suggested previously, is confirmed following our reassessment of their characteristics. The species of Azolla are all multi-floated, but they differ from each other in several ways, in particular with respect to the ultrastructure of the megaspore wall. They are also distinct from all other species that have been considered in sufficient detail for satisfactory comparisons to be made. The massulae of A. teschiana are described for the first time. The floats in A. velus are attached to the proximal part of the megaspore only by suprafilosal hairs. There are no maniculae. It is argued that
Ronceret, Arnaud; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe
Meiosis and unreduced gametes. Sexual flowering plants produce meiotically derived cells that give rise to the male and female haploid gametophytic phase. In the ovule, usually a single precursor (the megaspore mother cell) undergoes meiosis to form four haploid megaspores; however, numerous mutants result in the formation of unreduced gametes, sometimes showing female specificity, a phenomenon reminiscent of the initiation of gametophytic apomixis. Here, we review the developmental events that occur during female meiosis and megasporogenesis at the light of current possibilities to engineer unreduced gamete formation. We also provide an overview of the current understanding of mechanisms leading to parthenogenesis and discuss some of the conceptual implications for attempting the induction of clonal seed production in cultivated plants.
A new species of Discinites is described from the Late Permian Upper Shihhotse Formation of the Weibei Coalfield, Shaanxi Province, China. D. hanchengensis sp. nov. has decurrent and disk-like sporophylls with deep-toothed apices, elliptical sporangia and rectangular epidermal cells. The spores are generally of the Calamospora type. The megaspores and microspores are 300-380 and 45-90µm in diameter, respectively. The microspores are similar in size to those of all other species of Discinites that contain Calamospora, but the megaspores are remarkably smaller. The new species represents the first record of Discinites with Calamospora from China and from the Cathaysian flora. Finally, we summarize the associated foliages of Discinites in the Cathaysian flora and find that they are all markedly different from those found in the Euramerican flora.
Kieling-Rubio,MA.; Droste,A.; Windisch,PG
Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman is a heterosporous fern, growing in aquatic environments and surrounding wetlands, which is assumed to be threatened by increasing water pollution and disappearance of its natural habitats. Among contaminants, hexavalent chromium - Cr(VI) - is known to be present in effluents from some leather tanning factories. Megaspore germination tests were performed using Meyer's solution, at concentrations 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 80 mg.L-1, fro...
Leszczuk, Agata; Szczuka, Ewa
Arabinogalactan proteins are present in the extracellular matrix and their occurrence is developmentally regulated. The studies were carried out to localise arabinogalactan proteins in ovary cells of Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (strawberry) during megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, and formation of the embryo. The research included studies of ovary histochemistry and immunofluorescence labelling of AGP epitopes was performed with antibodies JIM13, JIM15 and MAC207. The use of the immunogold labelling method allowed specific detection of AGP epitopes at the subcellular level. The localization of AGPs was studied in the cells of the ovary wall and elements building the developing ovule i.e. the integument, nucellus, archespore, megaspores, embryo sac, and embryo of a facultative apomict Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Mount Everest'. For the first time the presence of AGP epitopes at the stage of a multicellular archespore was described. The occurrence of AGPs in the functional megaspore walls is related to selection of a megaspore continuing development; during later stages of development, AGPs are also evident markers of the female gametophyte. The intense fluorescence indicates the presence of AGPs in the embryo sac wall as well as in the cytoplasm compartment of the egg apparatus and around the secondary nucleus of the central cell. The localization of AGPs in the ovule of F. x ananassa resembles the distribution of these proteins in amphimictic plants. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in similar parts of the ovule of amphimictic and apomictic plants. The results confirm the participation of AGPs in reproductive structures as a useful marker during development of female gametophyte. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Figs, 12-27. Fig. 12, Cross-section of anther, X200. Figs. 13-15. A part of anther icte, x1,620. Figs. 16-18. Pollen grains, x2,125. Fig. 19. Archesporial cell, X2,125. Fig. 20. Megaspore mother cell, X2,125. Figs. 21-22. Tetrads, X2,125. Fig. 23. Functional nega- spore, X2,125. Fig. 24. Four-nucleate embryo-sac, X2,125. Fig. 25.
Full Text Available The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2 are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.
Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk
Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle
Full Text Available Isoetes nana, a new species from the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil (Serra de Itatiaia, is described, illustrated and compared to similar species. This species can be distinguished from similar species by a set of characters that include 5–15 small erect leaves reaching only up to 3.5cm long, megaspores rugulate (rarely laevigate or obscurely cristate and microspores sparsely echinate. We include a key to identify this new species and spore images for all species that are discussed in this study. Isoetes nana is known only from the type locality, where it was reported to occur in small ponds on rocky outcrops at high elevations. We suggest it should be classified as a data deficient species based on the IUCN criteria.
Pereira, Jovani B S; Stützel, Thomas; Schulz, Christian
Isoetes nana , a new species from the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil (Serra de Itatiaia), is described, illustrated and compared to similar species. This species can be distinguished from similar species by a set of characters that include 5-15 small erect leaves reaching only up to 3.5cm long, megaspores rugulate (rarely laevigate or obscurely cristate) and microspores sparsely echinate. We include a key to identify this new species and spore images for all species that are discussed in this study. Isoetes nana is known only from the type locality, where it was reported to occur in small ponds on rocky outcrops at high elevations. We suggest it should be classified as a data deficient species based on the IUCN criteria.
Bennett, Carys; Kearsey, Timothy; Davies, Sarah; Millward, David; Marshall, John; Reeves, Emma
Romer's Gap, the interval following the end Devonian mass extinction, is traditionally considered to be depauperate in tetrapod and fish fossils. A major research project (TW:eed -Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification) focusing on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland is investigating how early Carboniferous ecosystems rebuilt following the extinction. A multi-proxy approach, combining sedimentology, micropalaeontology and palynology, is used to investigate the different floodplain environments in which tetrapods, fish, arthropods and molluscs lived. The formation is characterised by an overbank facies association of siltstone, sandstone and palaeosols, interbedded with dolostone and evaporite units, and cut by fluvial sandstone facies associations of fining-upwards conglomerate lags, cross-bedded sandstone and rippled siltstone. Macrofossils are identified from 326 horizons within a 520 metre thick Ballagan Formation field section at Burnmouth, near Berwick-upon-Tweed, Scottish Borders. Common fauna are ostracods, bivalves, arthropods, sarcopterygians, dipnoans, acanthodians, tetrapods and chondrichthyans. Quantitative microfossil picking of the three sedimentary rock types in which tetrapods occur was undertaken to gain further insight into the palaeoecology. The sediments are; 1) laminated grey siltstones, deposited in floodplain lakes; 2) sandy siltstones, grey siltstones with millimetre size clasts. 71% of these beds overlie palaeosols or desiccated surfaces and are formed in small-scale flooding events; 3) conglomerates, mostly lags at the base of thick sandstones, with centimetre sized siltstone, sandstone and dolostone clasts. Grey siltstones contain a microfauna of common plant fragments, megaspores and sparse actinopterygian and rhizodont fragments. Sandy siltstones have the highest fossil diversity and contain microfossil fragments of plants, megaspores, charcoal, ostracods, actinopterygians, rhizodonts, eurypterids and rarer non
Fraser, W T; Scott, A C; Forbes, A E S; Glasspool, I J; Plotnick, R E; Kenig, F; Lomax, B H
The biopolymer sporopollenin present in the spore/pollen walls of all land plants is regarded as one of the most recalcitrant biomacromolecules (biopolymers), providing protection against a range of abiotic stresses. This long-term stability is demonstrated by the near-ubiquitous presence of pollen and spores in the fossil record with spores providing the first evidence for the colonization of the land. Here, we report for the first time chemical analyses of geologically unaltered sporopollenin from Pennsylvanian (c. 310 million yr before present (MyBP)) cave deposits. Our data show that Pennsylvanian Lycophyta megaspore sporopollenin has a strong chemical resemblance to extant relatives and indicates that a co-polymer model of sporopollenin formation is the most likely configuration. Broader comparison indicates that extant sporopollenin structure is similar across widely spaced phylogenetic groups and suggests land plant sporopollenin structure has remained stable since embryophytes invaded land. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Neraudenau, D.; Saint Martin, S.; Battern, D.J.; Colin, J.P.; Daviero-Gomez, V.; Girard, V.; Gomez, B.; Nohra, Y.A.; Polette, F.; Platel, J.P.; Saint Martin, J.P.; Vullo, R.
The upper Turonian lignite deposits of Sainte-Mondane, Dordogne (Aquitaine Basin, SW France), consist of clays bearing translucent, orange to red, amber micrograins. The amber exhibits different types of microbial inclusions. The clays contain several conifers including the genera Brachyphyllum, Frenelopsis and Glenrosa, and a few leaf fragments of eudicot angiosperms. Among the plant meso-fossils the occurrence of Costatheca, Spermatites and abundant, diverse, megaspores, including species of Ariadnaesporites, Bacutriletes, Echitriletes, Erlansonisporites, Maexisporites, Minerisporites and Verrutriletes, is noteworthy. Pollen grains of the Normapolles group are important components of the palynomorph assemblage. The clays were deposited in a calm, estuarine or lagoonal, muddy environment. The overlying lignitic sands contain large fossil wood pieces of the conifer Agathoxylon, small solitary corals, fragmentary oysters and pectinids, echinoid spines, a few teeth of marine selachians and bony fishes, but no amber is present. These sands were deposited in a high-energy coastal marine environment. (Author)
Tseng, Shih-Hsuan; Peng, Shu-Fen; Cheng, Ya-Ming
The maize B chromosome typically undergoes nondisjunction during the second microspore division. For normal A chromosomes, the r-X1 deficiency in maize can induce nondisjunction during the second megaspore and first microspore divisions. However, it is not known whether the r-X1 deficiency also induces nondisjunction of the maize B chromosome during these cell divisions. To answer this question, chromosome numbers were determined in the progeny of r-X1/R-r female parents carrying two B chromosomes. Some of the r-X1-lacking progeny (21.2%) contained zero or two B chromosomes. However, a much higher percentage of the r-X1-containing progeny (43.4%) exhibited zero or two B chromosomes, but none displayed more than two B chromosomes. Thus, the results indicated that the r-X1 deficiency could also induce nondisjunction of the B chromosome during the second megaspore division; moreover, the B chromosome in itself could undergo nondisjunction during the same division. In addition, pollen grains from plants with two B chromosomes lacking or exhibiting the r-X1 deficiency were compared via pollen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a B chromosome-specific probe. The results revealed that the r-X1 deficiency could induce the occurrence of B chromosome nondisjunction during the first microspore division and that the B chromosome in itself could undergo nondisjunction during the same division at a lower frequency. Our data shed more light on the behavior of the maize B chromosome during cell division.
Krohn, Nadia Graciele; Lausser, Andreas; Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas
Unlike in animals, female gametes of flowering plants are not the direct products of meiosis but develop from a functional megaspore after three rounds of free mitotic divisions. After nuclei migration and positioning, the eight-nucleate syncytium differentiates into the embryo sac, which contains two female gametes as well as accessory cells at the micropylar and chalazal pole, respectively. We report that an egg-cell-specific gene, ZmEAL1, is activated at the micropylar pole of the eight-nucleate syncytium. ZmEAL1 translation is restricted to the egg cell, resulting in the generation of peptide-containing vesicles directed toward its chalazal pole. RNAi knockdown studies show that ZmEAL1 is required for robust expression of the proliferation-regulatory gene IG1 at the chalazal pole of the embryo sac in antipodal cells. We further show that ZmEAL1 is required to prevent antipodal cells from adopting central cell fate. These findings show how egg cells orchestrate differentiation of the embryo sac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kimoto, Yukitoshi; Tobe, Hiroshi
Embryological characters of Siparunaceae, which are poorly understood, were studied on the basis of two constituent genera, an African Glossocalyx and a South American Siparuna, to better understand their evolution within Laurales. These two genera have many embryological characteristics in common with the other lauralean families. Noticeably, they share the multi-celled ovule archesporium (uncertain in Glossocalyx) as a synapomorphy with all the other lauralean families except Lauraceae, the anthers dehisced by valves as a synspomorphy with all the other lauralean families except Calycanthaceae and Monimiaceae, and the bisporangiate anther as a synapomorphy with Gomortegaceae and Atherospermataceae. Siparunaceae are, however, distinct from all other laularean families in having unitegmic ovules that were derived from bitegmic ovules, probably due to an elimination of the outer integument. Likewise, the lack of the testa (i.e., developed outer integument), the "endotegmic" seed coat, and the perichalazal seed at maturity are also characteristics of Siparunaceae. Within the family, Siparuna differs from Glossocalyx in having plural tetrads of megaspores and plural, starchy-rich, one-nucleate, tubular embryo sacs (autapomorphies). On the other hand, Glossocalyx is characterized by having bilaterally flattened seeds (autapomorphy). Although functional aspects of those autapomorphies are uncertain, both Glossocalyx and Siparuna show evolution in different embryological characters.
Salinas-Gamboa, Rigel; Johnson, Susan D; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Koltunow, Anna M G; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe
Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties. Here, we show that these two varieties exhibit distinct morphological and phenological traits but share a common developmental sequence in terms of ovule formation and gametogenesis. We present a reproductive calendar that allows prediction of male and female gametogenesis on the basis of sporophytic parameters related to floral bud size and reproductive organ development, determining that gametogenesis occurs more rapidly in the anther than in the ovule. We also show that the mode of megagametogenesis is of the Polygonum-type and not Oenothera-type, as previously reported. Finally, we developed a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol and applied it to detect meiotic proteins in the cowpea megaspore mother cell, opening opportunities for comparing the dynamics of protein localization during male and female meiosis, as well as other reproductive events in this emerging legume model system.
Full Text Available To investigate the genetic and molecular regulation that the female gametophyte could exert over neighboring sporophytic regions of the ovule, we performed a quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and nozzle/sporocyteless (spl ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis, using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. This comparison resulted in 1517 genes showing at least 3-fold increased expression in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 89 transcription factors, 50 kinases, 25 proteins containing a RNA-recognition motif (RRM, and 20 WD40 repeat proteins. We confirmed that eleven of these genes are either preferentially expressed or exclusive of spl ovules lacking a female gametophyte as compared to wild-type, and showed that six are also upregulated in determinant infertile1 (dif1, a meiotic mutant affected in a REC8-like cohesin that is also devoided of female gametophytes. The sporophytic misexpression of IOREMPTE, a WD40/transducin repeat gene that is preferentially expressed in the L1 layer of spl ovules, caused the arrest of female gametogenesis after differentiation of a functional megaspore. Our results show that in Arabidopsis, the sporophytic-gametophytic cross talk includes a negative regulation of the female gametophyte over specific genes that are detrimental for its growth and development, demonstrating its potential to exert a repressive control over neighboring regions in the ovule.
Armenta-Medina, Alma; Huanca-Mamani, Wilson; Sanchez-León, Nidia; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe
To investigate the genetic and molecular regulation that the female gametophyte could exert over neighboring sporophytic regions of the ovule, we performed a quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and nozzle/sporocyteless (spl) ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). This comparison resulted in 1517 genes showing at least 3-fold increased expression in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 89 transcription factors, 50 kinases, 25 proteins containing a RNA-recognition motif (RRM), and 20 WD40 repeat proteins. We confirmed that eleven of these genes are either preferentially expressed or exclusive of spl ovules lacking a female gametophyte as compared to wild-type, and showed that six are also upregulated in determinant infertile1 (dif1), a meiotic mutant affected in a REC8-like cohesin that is also devoided of female gametophytes. The sporophytic misexpression of IOREMPTE, a WD40/transducin repeat gene that is preferentially expressed in the L1 layer of spl ovules, caused the arrest of female gametogenesis after differentiation of a functional megaspore. Our results show that in Arabidopsis, the sporophytic-gametophytic cross talk includes a negative regulation of the female gametophyte over specific genes that are detrimental for its growth and development, demonstrating its potential to exert a repressive control over neighboring regions in the ovule.
Vajda, Vivi; Raine, J. Ian
Mangahouanga Stream, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand is world-famous for its high southern latitude vertebrate fossils including plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and more rarely, dinosaurs. The fossils are preserved in the conglomeratic facies of the Maungataniwha Sandstone Member of the Tahora Formation. A palynological investigation of sediments from the boulders hosting vertebrate fossils reveals well-preserved palynological assemblages dominated by pollen and spores from land plants but also including marine dinoflagellate cysts in one sample. The palynofacies is strongly dominated by wood fragments including charcoal, and the sample taken from a boulder hosting plesiosaur vertebrae is entirely terrestrially derived, suggesting a fresh-water habitat for at least some of these plesiosaurs. The key-pollen taxa Nothofagidites senectus and Tricolpites lilliei, together with the dinocyst Isabelidinium pellucidum and the megaspore Grapnelispora evansii, strongly indicate an early Maastrichtian age for the host rock. The terrestrial palynoflora reflects a mixed vegetation dominated by podocarp conifers and angiosperms with a significant tree-fern subcanopy component. The presence of taxa with modern temperate distributions such as Nothofagus (southern beech), Proteaceae and Cyatheaceae (tree-ferns), indicates a mild-temperate climate and lack of severe winter freezing during the latest Cretaceous, providing an ecosystem which most probably made it possible for polar dinosaurs to overwinter. The paper is dedicated to Mrs Joan Wiffen who with her great persistence, enthusiasm and courage put Mangahouanga on the world map, becoming a role model for many young scientists.
Willard, Debra A. [US Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston (VA 20192 USA); Phillips, Tom L. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana (IL 61801 USA); Lesnikowska, Alicia D. [Box 24, Rt. 2, Vineyard Haven (MA 02568 USA); DiMichele, William A. [Department of Paleobiology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington (DC 20560 USA)
Quantitative plant assemblage data from coal balls, miospores, megaspores, and compression floras from the Calhoun coal bed (Missourian) of the Illinois Basin (USA) are used to interpret spatial and temporal changes in plant communities in the paleo-peat swamp. Coal-ball and miospore floras from the Calhoun coal bed are dominated strongly by tree ferns, and pteridosperms and sigillarian lycopsids are subdominant, depending on geographic location within the coal bed. Although the overall composition of Calhoun peat-swamp assemblages is consistent both temporally and spatially, site-to-site differences and short-term shifts in species dominance indicate local topographic and hydrologic control on species composition within the broader context of the swamp. Statistical comparison of the Calhoun miospore assemblages with those from other Late Pennsylvanian coal beds suggests that the same basic species pool was represented in each peat-swamp landscape and that the relative patterns of dominance and diversity were persistent from site to site. Therefore, it appears that the relative patterns of proportional dominance stayed roughly the same from one coal bed to the next during Late Pennsylvanian glacially-driven climatic oscillations. (author)
Tobe, Hiroshi; Kimoto, Yukitoshi; Prakash, Nallamilli
Austrobaileyales, comprising the four families Austrobaileyaceae, Trimeniaceae, Schisandraceae, and Illiciaceae, are included in the basal angiosperms along with Amborellaceae and Nymphaeaceae. Here, we present the first developmental study of the female gametophyte in Austrobaileya scandens, the only species of Austrobaileyaceae, which are sister to the rest of the Austrobaileyales. Austrobaileya scandens has a four-celled/four-nucleate embryo sac as in the derived families of the order, e.g., Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae. It is monosporic, with the chalazal megaspore of a tetrad developing into the embryo sac composed of an egg cell, two synergids, and one polar nucleus. This mode of embryo sac formation was first reported in Schisandra over 40 years ago and should now be established as the Schisandra type. Its occurrence in A. scandens shows that the Schisandra-type embryo sac is likely common to the whole Austrobaileyales as well as to Nymphaeaceae. Amborellaceae were recently reported to have an eight-celled/nine-nucleate embryo sac, clarifying that none of the basal angiosperms has the seven-celled/eight-nucleate Polygonum-type embryo sac found in the majority of angiosperms, and that the Polygonum-type embryo sac represents a derived character state in angiosperms.
Full Text Available Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMCs committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition towards the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMCs differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organization. This is characterized by significant increase in nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation, reduction in heterochromatin, eviction of linker histones and the H2AZ histone variant. These structural alterations are accompanied by dramatic, quantitative changes in histone modifications levels compared to that of surrounding somatic cells that do not share a sporogenic fate. All these changes are highly reminiscent of those we have formerly described in female megaspore mother cells (MMCs. This indicates that chromatin reprogramming is a common underlying scenario in the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition in both male and female lineages.
Full Text Available Production of pure lines is an important step in biological studies and breeding of many crop plants. The major types of pure lines for biological studies and breeding include doubled haploid (DH lines, recombinant inbred lines (RILs, and near isogenic lines (NILs. DH lines can be produced through microspore and megaspore culture followed by chromosome doubling while RILs and NILs can be produced through introgressions or repeated selfing of hybrids. DH approach was developed as a quicker method than conventional method to produce pure lines. However, its drawbacks of genotype-dependency and only a single chance of recombination limited its wider application. A recently developed fast generation cycling system (FGCS achieved similar times to those of DH for the production of selfed pure lines but is more versatile as it is much less genotype-dependent than DH technology and does not restrict recombination to a single event. The advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and their produced pure line populations for different purposes of biological research and breeding are discussed. The development of a concept of complete in vitro meiosis and mitosis system is also proposed. This could integrate with the recently developed technologies of single cell genomic sequencing and genome wide selection, leading to a complete laboratory based pre-breeding scheme.
Full Text Available The regulation of female fertility is an important field of rice sexual reproduction research. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that dynamically regulates gene expression during development processes. However, few reports have described the methylation profiles of female-sterile rice during ovule development. In this study, ovules were continuously acquired from the beginning of megaspore mother cell meiosis until the mature female gametophyte formation period, and global DNA methylation patterns were compared in the ovules of a high-frequency female-sterile line (fsv1 and a wild-type rice line (Gui99 using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS. Profiling of the global DNA methylation revealed hypo-methylation, and 3471 significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed in fsv1 ovules compared with Gui99. Based on functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes (DMGs, we observed more DMGs enriched in cellular component, reproduction regulation, metabolic pathway, and other pathways. In particular, many ovule development genes and plant hormone-related genes showed significantly different methylation patterns in the two rice lines, and these differences may provide important clues for revealing the mechanism of female gametophyte abortion.
Germination and sporophytic development of Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Marsileaceae in the presence of hexavalent chromium Germinação e desenvolvimento esporofítico de Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Marsileaceae na presença de cromo hexavalente
Full Text Available Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman is a heterosporous fern, growing in aquatic environments and surrounding wetlands, which is assumed to be threatened by increasing water pollution and disappearance of its natural habitats. Among contaminants, hexavalent chromium - Cr(VI - is known to be present in effluents from some leather tanning factories. Megaspore germination tests were performed using Meyer's solution, at concentrations 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 80 mg.L-1, from a standard solution of Titrisol® 1000 mg.L-1. The primary development of apomictic sporophytes was studied using solutions containing 0.025 to 4.8 mg.L-1 of Cr(VI. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 24 ± 1 ºC and for a 12-hour photoperiod under fluorescent lights, providing a nominal irradiance of 77 µmol.m-2/s. Significant differences in megaspore germination, with subsequent sporophytic development, were verified from 0.5 mg.L-1 Cr(VI concentration onwards. Growth of primary root and primary and secondary leaves was significantly reduced at 3.2 mg.L-1 Cr(VI concentration or higher. Considering the pollution from Cr(VI in some areas of R. diphyllum natural occurrence, these data indicate that low reproductive rates and disappearance of populations are likely to occur in these situations.Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman é uma filicínea heterosporada que se desenvolve em ambientes aquáticos e áreas úmidas circundantes, sendo considerada ameaçada pelo aumento da poluição e desaparecimento dos seus hábitats naturais. Entre os contaminantes, o cromo hexavalente - Cr(VI - é conhecido por estar presente nos efluentes de algumas indústrias de curtimento de couro. Testes de germinação foram realizados em meio líquido de Meyer, com concentrações de 0(controle; 0,1; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15; 20; 30; 50; e 80 mg.L-1 de Cr(VI, a partir de uma solução padrão de Titrisol® a 1000 mg.L-1. O desenvolvimento primário dos esporófitos apom
Margarete Magalhães de Souza
Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.
Chen, H; Zhao, Z; Liu, L; Kong, W; Lin, Y; You, S; Bai, W; Xiao, Y; Zheng, H; Jiang, L; Li, J; Zhou, J; Tao, D; Wan, J
Oryza longistaminata originates from African wild rice and contains valuable traits conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, interspecific crosses between O. longistaminata and Oryza sativa cultivars are hindered by reproductive barriers. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) using indica variety RD23 as the recipient parent and O. longistaminata as the donor parent. Both pollen and embryo sac semi-sterility were observed in F 1 hybrids between RD23 and NIL. Cytological analysis demonstrated that pollen abortion in F 1 hybrids occurred at the early bi-nucleate stage due to a failure of the first mitosis in microspores. Partial embryo sacs in the F 1 hybrids were defective during the functional megaspore formation stage. Most notably, nearly half of the male or female gametes were aborted in heterozygotes S40 i S40 l , regardless of their genotypes. Thus, S40 was indicated as a one-locus sporophytic sterility gene controlling both male and female fertility in hybrids between RD23 and O. longistaminata. A population of 16 802 plants derived from the hybrid RD23/NIL-S40 was developed to fine-map S40. Finally, the S40 locus was delimited to an 80-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 1 in terms with reference sequences of cv. 93-11. Eight open reading frames (ORFs) were localized in this region. On the basis of gene expression and genomic sequence analysis, ORF5 and ORF8 were identified as candidate genes for the S40 locus. These results are helpful in cloning the S40 gene and marker-assisted transferring of the corresponding neutral allele in rice breeding programs.
Shen, Yumin; Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Hongyang; Bian, Xiaofeng; Yu, Yang; Yu, Xiaowen; Chen, Haiyuan; Liu, Linglong; Zhang, Wenwei; Jiang, Ling; Zhou, Jiawu; Tao, Dayun; Wan, Jianmin
Hybrid sterility locus S37 between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa results in both pollen and embryo sac sterility. Interspecific crossing between African cultivated rice Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa cultivars is hindered by hybrid sterility. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL)-S37 using Dianjingyou1 (DJY1) as the recipient parent and an African cultivated rice variety as the donor parent. Empty pollen and embryo sac sterility were observed in F1 hybrids between DJY1 and NIL-S37. Cytological analyses showed that pollen abortion in the F1 hybrids occurred at the late binucleate stage due to a failure of starch accumulation in pollen grains. In addition, partial abortion of the embryo sac in the F1 hybrid was observed during function megaspore developing into mature embryo sac. Molecular analysis revealed that the semi-sterility was largely caused by the abortion of male and female gametophytes carrying the S37 allele from DJY1. A population of 25,600 plants derived from the hybrid DJY1/NIL-S37 was developed to fine map S37. Based on the physical location of molecular markers, S37 locus was finally delimited to a region of 205 kb on the short arm of chromosome 1 in terms of reference sequences of cv. Nipponbare. Interestingly, an about 97-kb DNA segment was deleted in the NIL-S37 based on BAC clone information of O. glaberrima. Fifty-four open reading frames (ORF) were predicted in this 205-kb region of DJY1, whereas only 31 ORFs were in that of NIL-S37. These results are valuable for cloning of S37 gene and further breaking reproductive isolation between Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa cultivars, as well as marker-assisted transferring of the corresponding neutral allele in rice breeding programs.
Full Text Available The Lower Jurassic plant macrofossils of Poland are poorly known. Relatively rich sources of fossils are found in only a few outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains. Other described plant remains come from drill cores taken from most areas of Poland, but as a rule these are single specimens. The only professional descriptions of Lower Jurassic macroflora are papers by Raciborski, Makarewiczówna, and a team of researchers consisting of Reymanówna, Barbacka, Ziaja, and Wcisło-Luraniec. Raciborski’s fossil collection is still available for research and revision. Such work is in progress. The collection described by Makarewiczówna contained many interesting specimens but unfortunately the majority of them are now missing. Stratigraphic research by geologists has provided some new specimens from drill cores and outcrops in the Holy Cross Mountains but these have not been subjected to detailed palaeobotanical analysis. The palynology of the Lower Jurassic was focused on biostratigraphy from the outset of that research. As an outcome it provided spore-pollen and megaspore zonations for Lower Jurassic strata in Poland. The Polish Lower Jurassic flora is comprised of ferns (very numerous, lycopsids, sphenopsids, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, gnetaleans, ginkgoaleans, and conifers. This flora is taxonomically poorer than the equally old and geographically close floras of Denmark, Sweden, and Germany. Macrofloristic data have been used by geologists as an important source of information for assessing the age of Lower Jurassic formations, particularly in the Holy Cross Mountains. Hence the need for the old collections to be taxonomically revised and for new material from outcrops and drill cores to be examined and described.
Rudall, Paula J; Remizowa, Margarita V; Beer, Anton S; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Stevenson, Dennis W; Macfarlane, Terry D; Tuckett, Renee E; Yadav, Shrirang R; Sokoloff, Dmitry D
The embryo sac, nucellus and integuments of the early-divergent angiosperms Hydatellaceae and other Nymphaeales are compared with those of other seed plants, in order to evaluate the evolutionary origin of these characters in the angiosperms. Using light microscopy, ovule and embryo sac development are described in five (of 12) species of Trithuria, the sole genus of Hydatellaceae, and compared with those of Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae. The ovule of Trithuria is bitegmic and tenuinucellate, rather than bitegmic and crassinucellate as in most other Nymphaeales. The seed is operculate and possesses a perisperm that develops precociously, which are both key features of Nymphaeales. However, in the Indian species T. konkanensis, perisperm is relatively poorly developed by the time of fertilization. Perisperm cells in Trithuria become multinucleate during development, a feature observed also in other Nymphaeales. The outer integument is semi-annular ('hood-shaped'), as in Cabombaceae and some Nymphaeaceae, in contrast to the annular ('cap-shaped') outer integument of some other Nymphaeaceae (e.g. Barclaya) and Amborella. The megagametophyte in Trithuria is monosporic and four-nucleate; at the two-nucleate stage both nuclei occur in the micropylar domain. Double megagametophytes were frequently observed, probably developed from different megaspores of the same tetrad. Indirect, but strong evidence is presented for apomictic embryo development in T. filamentosa. Most features of the ovule and embryo sac of Trithuria are consistent with a close relationship with other Nymphaeales, especially Cabombaceae. The frequent occurrence of double megagametophytes in the same ovule indicates a high degree of developmental flexibility, and could provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of the Polygonum-type of angiosperm embryo sac.
Park, Guen Tae; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Jin-Sup; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, Jong Seob; Oh, Sung Aeong; Twell, David; Brooks, Janie Sue; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee
Angiosperm reproduction is characterized by alternate diploid sporophytic and haploid gametophytic generations. Gametogenesis shares similarities with that of animals except for the formation of the gametophyte, whereby haploid cells undergo several rounds of postmeiotic mitosis to form gametes and the accessory cells required for successful reproduction. The mechanisms regulating gametophyte development in angiosperms are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup88-homolog MOS7 (Modifier of Snc1,7) plays a crucial role in mitosis during both male and female gametophyte formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using a mutagenesis screen, we identify the mos7-5 mutant allele, which causes ovule and pollen abortion in MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygous plants, and preglobular stage embryonic lethality in homozygous mos7-5 seeds. During interphase, we show that MOS7 is localized to the nuclear membrane but, like many nucleoporins, is associated with the spindle apparatus during mitosis. We detect interactions between MOS7 and several nucleoporins known to control spindle dynamics, and find that in pollen from MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygotes, abortion is accompanied by a failure of spindle formation, cell fate specification, and phragmoplast activity. Most intriguingly, we show that following gamete formation by MOS7/mos7-5 heterozygous spores, inheritance of either the MOS7 or the mos7-5 allele by a given gamete does not correlate with its respective survival or abortion. Instead, we suggest a model whereby MOS7, which is highly expressed in the Pollen- and Megaspore Mother Cells, enacts a dosage-limiting effect on the gametes to enable their progression through subsequent mitoses.
Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C
Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus
Paul E Grini
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to
Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin
The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes. Its role as a precursor to the evolution of seeds has received much attention, but this is an evolutionary consequence of heterospory that cannot explain the transition from homospory to heterospory (and the lack of evolutionary reversal from heterospory to homospory). Enforced outcrossing of gametophytes has often been mentioned in connection to heterospory, but we review the shortcomings of this argument as an explanation of the selective advantage of heterospory. Few alternative arguments concerning the selective forces favouring heterospory have been proposed, a paucity of attention that is surprising given the importance of this innovation in land plant evolution. In this review we highlight two ideas that may lead us to a better understanding of why heterospory evolved. First, models of optimal resource allocation - an approach that has been used for decades in evolutionary ecology to help understand parental investment and other life-history patterns - suggest that an evolutionary increase in spore size could reach a threshold at which small spores yielding small, sperm-producing gametophytes would return greater fitness per unit of resource investment than would large spores and bisexual gametophytes. With the advent of such microspores, megaspores would evolve under frequency-dependent selection. This argument can account for the appearance of heterospory in the Devonian, when increasingly tall and complex
Petersen, Kurt B; Burd, Martin
The division of resource investment between male and female functions is poorly known for land plants other than angiosperms. The ancient lycophyte genus Selaginella is similar in some ways to angiosperms (in heterospory and in having sex allocation occur in the sporophyte generation, for example) but lacks the post-fertilization maternal investments that angiosperms make via fruit and seed tissues. One would therefore expect Selaginella to have sex allocation values less female-biased than in flowering plants and closer to the theoretical prediction of equal investment in male and female functions. Nothing is currently known of sex allocation in the genus, so even the simplest predictions have not been tested. Volumetric measurements of microsporangial and megasporangial investment were made in 14 species of Selaginella from four continents. In five of these species the length of the main above-ground axis of each plant was measured to determine whether sex allocation is related to plant size. Of the 14 species, 13 showed male-biased allocations, often extreme, in population means and among the great majority of individual plants. There was some indication from the five species with axis length measurements that relative male allocation might be related to the release height of spores, but this evidence is preliminary. Sex allocation in Selaginella provides a phylogenetic touchstone showing how the innovations of fruit and seed investment in the angiosperm life cycle lead to typically female-biased allocations in that lineage. Moreover, the male bias we found in Selaginella requires an evolutionary explanation. The bias was often greater than what would occur from the mere absence of seed and fruit investments, and thus poses a challenge to sex allocation theory. It is possible that differences between microspores and megaspores in their dispersal ecology create selective effects that favour male-biased sexual allocation. This hypothesis remains tentative. © The
Macrosporogênese, formação e desenvolvimento do saco embrionário, do endosperma e do embrião em Coffea Dewevrei De Wild, et Th. Dur Megasporogenesis, formation and development of embriosac and embryo in Coffea Dewevrei de Wild Et Th. Dur
Dixier M. Medina
Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do saco embrionário nas flores de Coffea Dewevrei é um processo mais demorado do que em C. canephora e muito mais lento do que em C. arabica. As primeiras divisões do megasporo funcional têm início no dia da abertura da flor, raros sacos embrionários se apresentando completos no 1.° dia; em geral estão completos aos oito dias e, independentemente da fertilização, apresentam os núcleos polares fundidos 10 dias após a abertura das flores. A fertilização se dá a partir do 6.° dia, sendo mais comum a partir do 10.° dia. É também a partir do 10.° dia que ocorrem as primeiras divisões do endosperma, que pode apresentar até 20 núcleos antes de se tornar celular, e isto pode ocorrer dos 22 aos 107 dias. Somente depois que o endosperma se apresenta celular é que se dá a l.ª divisão na célula-ôvo; e esta primeira divisão só foi observada aos 142 dias. Em óvulos dessa mesma idade foram observados pró-embriões em estado um pouco mais adiantado de desenvolvimento. O crescimento do endosperma em volume é lento na primeira fase; o óvulo, no entanto, cresce rapidamente em seguida à fertilização, atingindo em média, aos 142 dias, um tamanho 1500 vezes maior que seu tamanho por ocasião da abertura da flor. No mesmo espaço de tempo o endosperma torna-se, em média, somente 230 vezes o volume inicial. Mesmo na falta da fertilização o óvulo cresce ligeiramente durante os 30 primeiros dias; observam-se, porém, os sinais de degenerescência do saco embrionário, que não cresce. Em seguida, os tecidos do óvulo também degeneram e se isto ocorrer nos dois óvulos, o ovário se desprende da árvore; alguns chegam a se manter na planta até 107 dias.The embryo sac development in Coffea Dewevrei De Wild et Th. Dur. is a slower process than in the other diploid species C. canephora and still slower than in the tetra-ploid species C. arábica. First divisions of functional megaspore begin on the day the
Ashworth, Allan; Lewis, Adam
Paleontological and stratigraphic studies of sites in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are advancing knowledge of the landscape, vegetation and climate that existed immediately before the growth of the modern East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sites are located in the Friis Hills and the western Olympus Range in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In both localities, parts of ancient landscapes are preserved on upland surfaces high above modern valley floors. The early to mid-Miocene interval is bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages on volcanic ashes of 19.76 ± 0.11 Ma to 13.85 ± 0.03 Ma. Like all glacial records it is discontinuous but even so several trends can be detected. The record is one of an evolving glacial system during which ice caps coalesced to form an ice sheet. Initially, small alpine glaciers flowed southwestward toward the continental interior eroding shallow troughs into granitic bedrock. By the close of the interval, large glaciers flowed eastward from the continental interior to the Ross Sea. The interval was marked by numerous glacial advances and retreats. Tills are matrix-rich, and outwash sands and gravels ripple-laminated and cross-bedded, typical of those associated with wet-based glaciation. The vegetation during the interval was in a dynamic flux retreating downslope during glacial advances and recolonizing valleys after retreats. Fossils accumulated in peat beds and organic silts representing lacustrine, fluvial and paludal environments. Fossils include diatoms, fungal ascomycetes, pollen and spores, lycopod megaspores, mosses, wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), fruits of vascular plants, and insect skeletal parts of Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles). The vegetation was a tundra, initially shrub- and later moss-dominated. During the interval there was a marked decline in biodiversity. Initially, there were 4 species of Nothofagus represented by different leaf types and at least 9 species of vascular plants by their seeds. At the close of
Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.
The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an
, collotelinite, and corpogelinite macerals. Collodetrinite maceral (20 to 65.6 vol.% is the most abundant maceral in the vitrinite group and is associated with inertodetrinite and microspornite macerals. Callotelinite (8.4 to 46.7 wt% occurs as a structureless, homogeneous mass in the Gheshlagh coal seams. The inertinite group (4.9 to 23.3 vol% includes fusinite, semifusinite, macrinite, secretinite, funginite and inertodetrinite macerals. Fusinite (1.7 to12.7 vol.% is present in all coal seams in the Gheshlagh area. Cell cavities of fusinite are filled mostly by corpogelinite and clay minerals. Semifusinite occurs in appreciable concentrations (2.1to 14.3vol.% and Cell lumens of this maceral are filled with mineral matter, pyrite and clay. The liptinite group (nil to 3.5 vol% includes sporinite, cutinite and resinite macerals. Sporinite is the dominant maceral in the liptinite group (nil to 2.3 vol.% and occurs as elongated thread-like or spindle-shaped bodies and occurs as microspores and megaspores. Resinite (nil to 0.1 vol.% occurs as round to oval bodies and as fillings of the cell cavities of fusinite, semifusinite and funginite. The mineral matter content of most of the Gheshlagh coal seams varies between 3.1 and 24.9 vol.%. Mineral matter occurs in primary ground mass or secondary cavity filling form and includes clay minerals, carbonate and sulphide. Conclusion Based on organic petrographic studies carried out on four active coal mines in the Gheshlagh area, the presence of three maceral groups were determined. The vitrinite group (66.2 to 87.2 vol% is the dominant maceral group, and callodetrinite maceral (20 to 65.6 vol% is also abundant. The inertinite group contenthas a range of 4.9 to 23.3 vol% while the fusinite and semifusinite macerals are the most abundant of this group. The lowest volume percentage of macerals belongs to the liptinite group (0 to 3.5 vol% with 2.3 vol% espornitebeing the most abundant Maceral of this group. The presence of espornite maceral at