WorldWideScience

Sample records for megaherbs plant colonisation

  1. Patterns of Gondwana plant colonisation anddiversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. M.; Anderson, H. M.; Archangelsky, S.; Bamford, M.; Chandra, S.; Dettmann, M.; Hill, R.; McLoughlin, S.; Rösler, O.

    Charting the broad patterns of vascular plant evolution for Gondwana againstthe major global environmental shifts and events is attempted here for the first time. This is based on the analysis of the major vascular plant-bearing formations of the southern continents (plus India) correlated against the standard geological time-scale. Australia, followed closely by South America, are shown to yield by far the most complete sequences of productive strata. Ten seminal turnover pulses in the unfolding evolutionary picture are identified and seen to be linked to continental drift, climate change and mass global extinctions. The rise of vascular plants along the tropical belt, for instance, followed closely after the end-Ordovician warming and extinction. Equally remarkable is that the Late Devonian extinction may have caused both the terrestrialisation of the vertebrates and the origin of the true gymnosperms. The end-Permian extinction, closure of Iapetus, together with warming, appears to have set in motion an unparalleled, explosive, gymnosperm radiation; whilst the Late Triassic extinction dramatically curtailed it. It is suggested that the latitudinal diversity gradient clearly recognised today, where species richness increases towards the tropics, may have been partly reversed during phases of Hot House climate. Evidence hints at this being particularly so at the heyday of the gymnosperms in the Late Triassic super-Hot House world. As for the origin of terrestrial, vascular, plant life, the angiosperms seem closely linked to a phase of marked shift from Ice House to Hot House. Insect and tetrapod evolutionary patterns are discussed in the context of the plants providing the base of the ever-changing ecosystems. Intimate co-evolution is often evident. This isn't always the case, for example the non-linkage between the dominant, giant, long-necked, herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs and the dramatic radiation of the flowering plants in the Mid Cretaceous.

  2. Dispersal and colonisation of plants in lowland streams: success rates and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna

    2008-01-01

    -rich lowland streams. Rather, I conclude that primary colonisation is the main constraint to regaining vegetation in lowland streams in general and in vegetation-free rehabilitated streams in particular. Therefore, if plant colonisation is a target for stream rehabilitation, it is important to enhance......Plant dispersal and colonisation, including rates of dispersal, retention, colonisation and survival of dispersed propagules (shoots and seeds), were studied in a 300-m stream reach in a macrophyte-rich lowland stream during one growing season. Relationships between colonisation processes...... and simple flow parameters were tested. Each fortnight during a growing season, the number of dispersed plant propagules and the number of new and lost plant colonisations since the last sampling day were recorded. The retention of dispersing shoots was tested on two occasions during the growing season...

  3. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  4. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  5. Reintroduction of salt marsh vegetation and phosphorus fertilisation improve plant colonisation on seawater-contaminated cutover bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal bogs that are used for peat extraction are prone to contamination by seawater during storm events. Once contaminated, they remain mostly bare because of the combination of high salinity, low pH, high water table and low nutrient availability. The goal of this research was to investigate how plant colonisation at salt-contaminated bogs can be accelerated, in order to prevent erosion and fluvial export of the peat. At two seawater-contaminated bogs, we tested the application of rock phosphate and dolomitic lime in combination with five plant introduction treatments: transplantation of Carex paleacea; transplantation of Spartina pectinata; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in July; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in August; and no treatment (control. The effects of different doses of lime on the growth of C. paleacea and S. pectinata were also investigated in a greenhouse experiment. In the field, phosphorus fertilisation improved plant growth. Transplantation of C. paleacea resulted in the highest plant colonisation, whereas salt marsh diaspore transfer led to the highest species diversity. Lime applications did not improve plant establishment in either the field or the greenhouse. To promote revegetation of seawater-contaminated cutover bogs, adding P is an asset, Carex paleacea is a good species to transplant, and the transfer of salt marsh diaspores improves plant diversity.

  6. The Identification of Genes Important in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Plant Colonisation Using In Vitro Screening of Transposon Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani Manoharan

    Full Text Available The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph colonises the surface of common bean plants before moving into the interior of plant tissue, via wounds and stomata. In the intercellular spaces the pathogen proliferates in the apoplastic fluid and forms microcolonies (biofilms around plant cells. If the pathogen can suppress the plant's natural resistance response, it will cause halo blight disease. The process of resistance suppression is fairly well understood, but the mechanisms used by the pathogen in colonisation are less clear. We hypothesised that we could apply in vitro genetic screens to look for changes in motility, colony formation, and adhesion, which are proxies for infection, microcolony formation and cell adhesion. We made transposon (Tn mutant libraries of Pph strains 1448A and 1302A and found 106/1920 mutants exhibited alterations in colony morphology, motility and biofilm formation. Identification of the insertion point of the Tn identified within the genome highlighted, as expected, a number of altered motility mutants bearing mutations in genes encoding various parts of the flagellum. Genes involved in nutrient biosynthesis, membrane associated proteins, and a number of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP genes were also identified. A mutation of one CHP gene caused a positive increase in in planta bacterial growth. This rapid and inexpensive screening method allows the discovery of genes important for in vitro traits that can be correlated to roles in the plant interaction.

  7. Models to Study Colonisation and Colonisation Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Boreau, H.; Hartmann, L.; Karjalainen, T.; Rowland, I.; Wilkinson, M. H. F.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes various in vivo animal models (humans; conventional animals administered antimicrobial agents and animals species used; gnotobiotic and germ-free animals), in vitro models (luminal and mucosal), and in silico and mathematicalmodels which have been developed to study colonisation and colonisation resistance and effects of gut flora on hosts. Where applicable, the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed.Keywords: colonisation, colonisation resistance, anim...

  8. Factors influencing the local scale colonisation and change in density of a widespread invasive plant species, Lantana camara, in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Sundaram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that underlie invasive species colonisation and change in density could provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of biological invasions and for invasive species management. We examined a suite of factors potentially influencing the landscape-level invasion of Lantana camara L., one of the most ubiquitous invasive species in South Asia. These factors included disturbance factors like forest fires, historical habitat modification, and edge effects, in addition to factors like propagule pressure and habitat suitability. We examined the relative importance of these factors on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. We used extensive (1997–2008 datasets tracking the presence and abundance of L. camara and combined these with corresponding data on disturbances, propagule pressure, and habitat suitability. We used an information-theoretic model selection approach to determine the relative importance of each factor on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara. Colonisation was mainly a function of proximity to already established populations (i.e. propagule pressure, whereas increase in L. camara density appeared to be constrained by high fire frequency. Research and management efforts need to recognize the multi-dimensional nature of mechanisms underlying L. camara’s success during different invasion phases when strategizing interventions to mitigate its effects.

  9. Deciphering the Niches of Colonisation of Vitis vinifera L. by the Esca-Associated Fungus Phaeoacremonium aleophilum Using a gfp Marked Strain and Cutting Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pierron

    Full Text Available Esca disease has become a major threat for viticulture. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum is considered a pioneer of the esca complex pathosystem, but its colonisation behaviour inside plants remains poorly investigated.In this study, P. aleophilum::gfp7 colonisation was assessed six and twelve weeks post-inoculation in two different types of tissues: in the node and the internode of one year-old rooted cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon. These processes of colonisation were compared with the colonisation by the wild-type strain using a non-specific lectin probe Alexa Fluor 488-WGA.Data showed that six weeks post-inoculation of the internode, the fungus had colonised the inoculation point, the bark and xylem fibres. Bark, pith and xylem fibres were strongly colonised by the fungus twelve weeks post-inoculation and it can progress up to 8 mm from the point of inoculation using pith, bark and fibres. P. aleophilum was additionally detected in the lumen of xylem vessels in which tyloses blocked its progression. Different plant responses in specific tissues were additionally visualised. Inoculation of nodes led to restricted colonisation of P. aleophilum and this colonisation was associated with a plant response six weeks post-inoculation. The fungus was however detected in xylem vessels, bark and inside the pith twelve weeks post-inoculation.These results demonstrate that P. aleophilum colonisation can vary according to the type of tissues and the type of spread using pith, bark and fibres. Woody tissues can respond to the injury and to the presence of this fungus, and xylem fibres play a key role in the early colonisation of the internode by P. aleophilum before the fungus can colonise xylem vessels.

  10. Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT, are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance.

  11. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  12. Campylobacter spp. contamination of chicken carcasses during processing in relation to flock colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V M; Bull, S A; Corry, J E L; Domingue, G; Jørgensen, F; Frost, J A; Whyte, R; Gonzalez, A; Elviss, N; Humphrey, T J

    2007-01-01

    The presence and numbers of campylobacters on chicken carcasses from 26 slaughter groups, originating from 22 single-house flocks and processed in four UK plants, were studied in relation to the level of flock colonisation determined by examining the caecal contents of at least ten birds per group. The prevalence of campylobacters on carcasses from five campylobacter-negative flocks processed just after other negative flocks was low (8.0 log(10) cfu) than carcasses originating from low prevalence flocks (average of 2.3 log(10) cfu; range: defeathering and evisceration areas but not in the chillers. This was the case even when campylobacters were not isolated from the target flock. Campylobacters on carcasses from two partly colonised flocks were either the same subtype, as determined by speciation, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and flaA Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing, as those in the fully colonised flocks processed previously, although not necessarily the most prevalent ones; or were the same subtypes as those found in the caeca of the flock itself. The prevalences of the different campylobacter subtypes found on carcasses from two fully colonised flocks did not closely reflect those found in the caeca. MLST combined with flaA RFLP provided a good method for ascertaining the relatedness of strains isolated from carcasses and caecal contents. This study showed that carcass contamination is related to the within-flock prevalence of campylobacter colonisation, but that contamination from previously processed flocks was also significant, especially on carcasses from low prevalence flocks. Forced dry air cooling of carcasses reduced contamination levels.

  13. Assessment of mycorrhizal colonisation and soil nutrients in unmanaged fire-impacted soils from two target restoration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, J. M.; Oliveira, R. S.; Franco, A. R.; Ritz, K.; Nunan, N.; Castro, P. M. L.

    2010-07-01

    The mycorrhizal colonisation of plants grown in unmanaged soils from two restoration sites with a fire history in Northern Portugal was evaluated from the perspective of supporting restoration programmes. To promote restoration of original tree stands, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. were used as target species on two sites, denoted Site 1 and 2 respectively. The aim of the study was to assess whether mycorrhizal propagules that survived fire episodes could serve as in situ inoculum sources, and to analyse the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters. In a laboratory bioassay, P. pinaster and Q. ilex seedlings were grown on soils from the target sites and root colonisation by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined. The ECM root colonisation levels found indicated that soil from Site 2 contained sufficient ECM propagules to serve as a primary source of inoculum for P. pinaster. The low levels of ECM and AM colonisation obtained on the roots of plants grown in soil from Site 1 indicated that the existing mycorrhizal propagules might be insufficient for effective root colonisation of Q. ilex. Different ECM morphotypes were found in plants grown in soil from the two sites. At Site 2 mycorrhizal parameters were found to be spatially structured, with significant differences in ECM colonisation and soil P concentrations between regions of either side of an existing watercourse. The spatial distribution of mycorrhizal propagules was related to edaphic parameters (total C and extractable P), and correlations between soil nutrients and mycorrhizal parameters were found. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake

  15. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  16. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Michael J; Miller, Joseph T; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-09-09

    Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation.

  17. The ability of the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise vegetable brassicas endophytically following seed inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulff, E.G.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Hockenhull, J.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Bacillus subtilis, strain BB, to colonise cabbage seedlings endophytically was examined following seed inoculation. Strain BB was recovered from different plant parts including leaves (cotyledons), stem (hypocotyl) and roots. While high bacterial populations persisted in the roots and

  18. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  19. Factors associated with airway colonisation and invasion due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with airway colonisation and invasion due to Klebsiella spp. ... for nosocomial infections which occurred more conunonly with antibiotic-resistant organisms. ... acute community-acquired chest infections, and nosocomial chest infections. Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon.

  20. Poor Beehive Colonisation: Another Emerging Obstacle to Beekeeping in Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ja’afar-Furo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A two-year survey was conducted in the Northeast geo political zone of Nigeria to assess the rate of beehive colonisation in apiaries using improved and traditional methods of beekeeping. Snow-ball and purposive sampling methods were applied to select 185 traditional and three low-technology (Kenya TopBar Beehives: KTBH apiarists, respectively, from the study area. A four-item open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents in 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons. Findings show that majority of the apiarists used local attractants in bee baiting with cow dung accounting for 47.4% and 26.9% as the larger proportions in 2015 and 2016, respectively. While cumulatively beehive colonisation accounted for only 22.5% against 77.5% empty beehives in the first year, the second year recorded 62.5% and 37.5% colonised and unoccupied beehives, respectively. It’s therefore, concluded that there was a remarkably low rate of beehive colonisation in the study area. In this regards, research-based institutions should intensify efforts towards providing effective training on colony division for local farmers, financial assistance to beekeeping beginners and beekeeping-based curricula by institutions of learning to capture youths as future apiculturists for sustainability.

  1. Dynamiques sociale et spatio-temporelle resultant de la colonisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à analyser le phénomène de la colonisation agricole, les changements socio-économiques apparus et les nouvelles formes de gestion des ressources ... Through Models used for better understanding the land use change dynamics, it appeared clearly that agricultural colonization will gain always more in ...

  2. Investigating Aspergillus nidulans secretome during colonisation of cork cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel; Garcia, Helga; Varela, Adélia; Núñez, Oscar; Planchon, Sébastien; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Renaut, Jenny; Rebelo, Luís P N; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2014-02-26

    Cork, the outer bark of Quercus suber, shows a unique compositional structure, a set of remarkable properties, including high recalcitrance. Cork colonisation by Ascomycota remains largely overlooked. Herein, Aspergillus nidulans secretome on cork was analysed (2DE). Proteomic data were further complemented by microscopic (SEM) and spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) evaluation of the colonised substrate and by targeted analysis of lignin degradation compounds (UPLC-HRMS). Data showed that the fungus formed an intricate network of hyphae around the cork cell walls, which enabled polysaccharides and lignin superficial degradation, but probably not of suberin. The degradation of polysaccharides was suggested by the identification of few polysaccharide degrading enzymes (β-glucosidases and endo-1,5-α-l-arabinosidase). Lignin degradation, which likely evolved throughout a Fenton-like mechanism relying on the activity of alcohol oxidases, was supported by the identification of small aromatic compounds (e.g. cinnamic acid and veratrylaldehyde) and of several putative high molecular weight lignin degradation products. In addition, cork recalcitrance was corroborated by the identification of several protein species which are associated with autolysis. Finally, stringent comparative proteomics revealed that A. nidulans colonisation of cork and wood share a common set of enzymatic mechanisms. However the higher polysaccharide accessibility in cork might explain the increase of β-glucosidase in cork secretome. Cork degradation by fungi remains largely overlook. Herein we aimed at understanding how A. nidulans colonise cork cell walls and how this relates to wood colonisation. To address this, the protein species consistently present in the secretome were analysed, as well as major alterations occurring in the substrate, including lignin degradation compounds being released. The obtained data demonstrate that this fungus has superficially attacked the cork cell walls apparently by

  3. Experimental strain analysis of Clarens Sandstone colonised by endolithic lichens

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    D. Wessels

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Endolithic lichens occur commonly on Clarens Sandstone in South Africa, where they significantly contribute to the weathering of sandstone by means of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This preliminary investigation reports on the success- ful use of strain gauges in detecting strain differences between sandstone without epilithic lichens and sandstone colonised by the euendolithic lichen Lecidea aff. sarcogynoides Korb. Mechanical weathering, expressed as strain changes, in Clarens Sandstone was studied during the transition from relatively dry winter to wet summer conditions. Daily weathering of sandstone due to thermal expansion and contraction of colonised and uncolonised sandstone could be shown. Our results show that liquid water in sandstone enhances the mechanical weathering of uncolonised Clarens Sandstone while water in the gaseous phase enhances mechanical weathering of sandstone by euendolithic lichens.

  4. Root fungal colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa: Effects of pollution and neighbouring trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Markkola, Annamari; Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2007-01-01

    In industrial barrens adjacent to a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, the Kola Peninsula, root colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-type of hyphae was lower than in unpolluted forests (60.9 vs. 80.4%), while Olpidium-colonisation showed a marginally significant decline, and dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonisation was not affected. We detected an interactive effect of pollution and a neighbouring tree on DSE hyphal colonisation: at the highly polluted sites, colonisation was lower in D. flexuosa growing near trees, whereas at sites with low pollution the presence of the neighbouring tree had no effect on colonisation. High numbers of intracellular DSE sclerotia in the industrial barrens (13.3 vs. 3.4%) may indicate a survial strategy in an unfavourable environment and a dispersal strategy into a more favourable environment. While lower root colonisation by AM fungi has been also earlier reported in graminoids for heavy metal contamination, the results on other ubiquitous fungi colonising D. flexuosa roots are more novel. - Severe pollution decreased root colonisation by some fungal groups; neighbouring trees decreased root colonisation by dark septate endophytic fungi in highly polluted sites

  5. Root fungal colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa: Effects of pollution and neighbouring trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa [Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland) and Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: annu.ruotsalainen@oulu.fi; Markkola, Annamari [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: annamari.markkola@oulu.fi; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi

    2007-06-15

    In industrial barrens adjacent to a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, the Kola Peninsula, root colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-type of hyphae was lower than in unpolluted forests (60.9 vs. 80.4%), while Olpidium-colonisation showed a marginally significant decline, and dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonisation was not affected. We detected an interactive effect of pollution and a neighbouring tree on DSE hyphal colonisation: at the highly polluted sites, colonisation was lower in D. flexuosa growing near trees, whereas at sites with low pollution the presence of the neighbouring tree had no effect on colonisation. High numbers of intracellular DSE sclerotia in the industrial barrens (13.3 vs. 3.4%) may indicate a survial strategy in an unfavourable environment and a dispersal strategy into a more favourable environment. While lower root colonisation by AM fungi has been also earlier reported in graminoids for heavy metal contamination, the results on other ubiquitous fungi colonising D. flexuosa roots are more novel. - Severe pollution decreased root colonisation by some fungal groups; neighbouring trees decreased root colonisation by dark septate endophytic fungi in highly polluted sites.

  6. Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in Central Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keston O. W. Njira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2 as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05 VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies.

  7. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  8. ORCONECTES LIMOSUS COLONISES NEW AREAS FAST ALONG THE DANUBE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUKY M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced species are one of the most important anthropogenic impacts on freshwater ecosystems with many direct and indirect effects on native taxa. Among other invasive groups, such as plants, mussels and fish, several alien Decapoda species have also spread successfully in Europe in the last 110 years. In Hungary three native (Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus, Austropotamobius torrentium and three alien Decapoda species, namely Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Eriocheir sinensis are known to be present. O. limosus, which had been tried for use in crayfish farming in the 1950s, was the first to occur in the country’s natural waters. Initially it was found in the Danube at river km 1,653 at Budapest in 1985. Since then, it has been spreading fast and populations have reached high abundances. By 1998, it was already in the Gemenc section of the river colonising five 50 km × 50 km UTM squares. In the early 2000s it was also found at Mohács (and further downstream in Croatia, in canals in the Great Hungarian Plain and in the River Ipoly, which added three new 50 km × 50 km UTM squares to its previously known distribution area in the Carpathian Basin. On the basis of the available records from the past 20 years, the downstream colonisation speed of this decapod was calculated to be more than 13 km yr–1, but if its presence at Kopácsi rét/Kopacki rit in Croatia is also taken into consideration, it is over 16 km yr–1. It is unknown, however, how much this process was helped by deliberate introductions, if at all. Besides the main watercourse of Hungary, O. limosus is also common in its lowland tributaries and spreading towards Lake Balaton along the Sió canal. However, it has not been recorded entering mountain streams in the Danube Bend, where A. torrentium lives, which is important for the conservation of that native species. If O. limosus spreads with the same speed and distribution pattern in the Carpathian Basin

  9. Microbial colonisation in diverse surface soil types in Surtsey and diversity analysis of its subsurface microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsson, V.; Klonowski, A.; Reynisson, E.; Vannier, P.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Ólafsson, M.

    2014-09-01

    Colonisation of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island 50 years ago. Although the first colonisers were prokaryotes, such as bacteria and blue-green algae, most studies have been focusing on settlement of plants and animals but less on microbial succession. To explore microbial colonization in diverse soils and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on numbers of environmental bacteria, we collected 45 samples from different soils types on the surface of the island. Total viable bacterial counts were performed with plate count at 22, 30 and 37 °C for all soils samples and the amount of organic matter and nitrogen (N) was measured. Selected samples were also tested for coliforms, faecal coliforms aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The deep subsurface biosphere was investigated by collecting liquid subsurface samples from a 182 m borehole with a special sampler. Diversity analysis of uncultivated biota in samples was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and cultivation. Correlation was observed between N deficits and the number of microorganisms in surface soils samples. The lowest number of bacteria (1 × 104-1 × 105 g-1) was detected in almost pure pumice but the count was significant higher (1 × 106-1 × 109 g-1) in vegetated soil or pumice with bird droppings. The number of faecal bacteria correlated also to the total number of bacteria and type of soil. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae were only detected in vegetated and samples containing bird droppings. The human pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria were not in any sample. Both thermophilic bacteria and archaea 16S rDNA sequences were found in the subsurface samples collected at 145 m and 172 m depth at 80 °C and 54 °C, respectively, but no growth was observed in enrichments. The microbiota sequences generally showed low affiliation to any known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  10. Colour of sputum is a marker for bacterial colonisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millares Laura

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial colonisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD contributes to airway inflammation and modulates exacerbations. We assessed risk factors for bacterial colonisation in COPD. Methods Patients with stable COPD consecutively recruited over 1 year gave consent to provide a sputum sample for microbiologic analysis. Bronchial colonisation by potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs was defined as the isolation of PPMs at concentrations of ≥102 colony-forming units (CFU/mL on quantitative bacterial culture. Colonised patients were divided into high (>105 CFU/mL or low (5 CFU/mL bacterial load. Results A total of 119 patients (92.5% men, mean age 68 years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] [% predicted] 46.4% were evaluated. Bacterial colonisation was demonstrated in 58 (48.7% patients. Patients with and without bacterial colonisation showed significant differences in smoking history, cough, dyspnoea, COPD exacerbations and hospitalisations in the previous year, and sputum colour. Thirty-six patients (62% of those colonised had a high bacterial load. More than 80% of the sputum samples with a dark yellow or greenish colour yielded PPMs in culture. In contrast, only 5.9% of white and 44.7% of light yellow sputum samples were positive (P P = 0.004 and a darker sputum colour (OR = 4.11, 95% CI 2.30-7.29, P Conclusions Almost half of our population of ambulatory moderate to very severe COPD patients were colonised with PPMs. Patients colonised present more severe dyspnoea, and a darker colour of sputum allows identification of individuals more likely to be colonised.

  11. Effects of flower dimorphism and light environment on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in a cleistogamous herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Tabla, V; Munguía-Rosas, M; Campos-Navarrete, M J; Ramos-Zapata, J A

    2015-01-01

    Although it is known that floral dimorphism contributes to the maintenance of mixed breeding systems, the consequences of producing progeny of a contrasting genetic background and seeds with differential resource allocation has been practically ignored regarding establishment of belowground organisms-plant interactions. This article evaluates the combined effect of floral dimorphism with cross type and light environment on interactions between Ruellia nudiflora and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). R. nudiflora produces cleistogamous (CL) flowers that exhibit obligate self-pollination and chasmogamous (CH) flowers with facultative self- (CHs) or cross- (CHc) pollination. We evaluated the establishment of the plant-AMF interaction in progeny derived from each floral type, under two light conditions (shaded versus open). We established different scenarios depending on the existence of inbreeding depression (ID) and whether the differential resource allocation (DRA) to CH and CL flowers affected the R. nudiflora-AMF interaction. We predicted that under shaded light conditions there might be an intensification of ID, having a negative effect on AMF colonisation. The percentages of hyphae and vesicles in the harvested roots was significantly higher in the shaded plants (F ≥ 4.11, P nudiflora-AMF interaction. The results also suggest that even under stressful light conditions, endogamy does not affect this interaction, which may explain the success of R. nudiflora as an invasive species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Pneumococcal Serotypes Colonise the Nasopharynx in Children at Different Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in carriage and disease has been described but absolute serotype colonisation densities have not been reported. 515 paediatric nasal swab DNA extracts were subjected to lytA qPCR and molecular serotyping by microarray. Absolute serotype densities were derived from total pneumococcal density (qPCR cycle threshold and standard curve and relative abundance (microarray and varied widely. Compared to all serotype densities observed, the strongest evidence of differences was seen for serotypes 21 and 35B (higher and 3, 38 and non-typeables (lower (p<0.05 with a similar hierarchy when only a single serotype carriage was assessed. There was no evidence of any overall density differences between children with single or multiple serotypes detected but serotypes with mid-range densities were more prevalent. The hierarchy of distinct pneumococcal serotype carriage densities described here for the first time, may help explain the dynamics of transmission between children.

  13. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Effect of chromium contaminated soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of roots and metal uptake by Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estaun, V.; Cortes, A.; Velianos, K.; Camprubi, A.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    Industrial practices are the primary causes for the accumulation of chromium in the environment, an element considered as a toxic heavy metal when present in high concentrations. The beneficial contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to plant nutrition and growth has been acknowledged, however, results of heavy metal uptake by plants under mycorrhizal symbiosis vary. The AMF Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) was used with Plantago lanceolata as a host plant in three experiments. In the first one, devised to assess the plant tolerance to Cr(III) in the soil, four levels of chromium concentration were applied in a sterile soil mix, placed in pots with inoculated and non inoculated plant treatments. Plant survival, shoot weight and AMF root colonisation were measured. In the second experiment which was designed in order to determine the effect of the symbiosis on the chromium uptake, similar treatments were used, and in addition, the heavy metal plant tissue content was measured and the bioconcentration factors calculated. In the third experiment the chromium uptake from an industrial chromium waste contaminated soil was assessed using treatments with and without the AMF. Results showed that chromium has a severe impact on the survival of non inoculated plants, however, plants inoculated with AMF in moderately contaminated soil, perform in terms of growth and survival rate, as well as the non inoculated plants in soil with no chromium added, suggesting a buffering effect of the AMF by decreased intake of the toxic element in the roots and its translocation to the shoot. (Author) 28 refs.

  15. Genomic epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus across colonisation and skin and soft tissue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Alex; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhang, Ji; Ritchie, Stephen; Oneroa, Zachary; O'Neill, Charlotte; Karkaba, Ali; Velathanthiri, Niluka S; Coombs, Geoffrey W

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection (Sa-SSTI) places a significant burden on healthcare systems. New Zealand has a high incidence of Sa-SSTI, and here most morbidity is caused by a polyclonal methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) bacterial population. However, MSSA also colonise asymptomatically the cornified epithelia of approximately 20% of the population, and their divide between commensalism and pathogenicity is poorly understood. We aimed to see whether MSSA are genetically differentiated across colonisation and SSTI; and given the close interactions between people and pets, whether strains isolated from pets differ from human strains. We compared the genomes of contemporaneous colonisation and clinical MSSA isolates obtained in New Zealand from humans and pets. Core and accessory genome comparisons revealed a homogeneous bacterial population across colonisation, disease, humans, and pets. The rate of MSSA colonisation in dogs was comparatively low (5.4%). In New Zealand, most Sa-SSTI morbidity is caused by a random sample of the colonising MSSA population, consistent with the opportunistic infection model rather than the paradigm distinguishing strains according to their pathogenicity. Thus, studies of the factors determining colonisation and immune-escape may be more beneficial than comparative virulence studies. Contact with house-hold pets may pose low zoonotic risk. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extensive behavioural divergence following colonisation of the freshwater environment in threespine sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Di-Poi

    Full Text Available Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population.

  17. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  18. Incidence of bacterial colonisation after indwelling of double-J ureteral stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riza Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the bacterial colonisation after double-J stent use and the risk factors for bacteriuria linked to the stent. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 patients (61 men and 41 women, mean age 47.5 ± 14.16 were examined. The stents were removed under aseptic conditions, and a urine culture was obtained before the removal of the stents. After the stents were removed, the upper, central and lower sections were separated, and washing water was sent through the stent. Results: Bacterial colonisation was found in 29.4% (30 of 102 of the stents. The most frequently observed microorganisms were determined as staphylococcus, coagulase negative (8 of 30 and E. coli (5 of 30. The washing fluid used to clean the interior of the catheter produced pathogens in 8 patients (7.8%, and these pathogens were observed to be the same microorganisms that colonised the outside of the stent. There was no statistical difference between the patients with colonisation and those without in terms of age, gender, duration of stenting and reason for stent insertion. Conclusions: Though stent colonisation does not always entail symptomatic urinary tract infections, as shown in our study, the pathogens in the urine culture are the same as those colonising the stent, confirming the reality that colonisation is the main factor in these events. Additionally, according to our study, significant colonisation may be found in the first 3 weeks, contrary to the literature, causing us to consider that urinary tract infections may develop even in the early period.

  19. Contributions of long-distance dispersal to population growth in colonising Pinus ponderosa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Mark R; Jackson, Stephen T

    2013-03-01

    Long-distance dispersal is an integral part of plant species migration and population development. We aged and genotyped 1125 individuals in four disjunct populations of Pinus ponderosa that were initially established by long-distance dispersal in the 16th and 17th centuries. Parentage analysis was used to determine if individuals were the product of local reproductive events (two parents present), long-distance pollen dispersal (one parent present) or long-distance seed dispersal (no parents present). All individuals established in the first century at each site were the result of long-distance dispersal. Individuals reproduced at younger ages with increasing age of the overall population. These results suggest Allee effects, where populations were initially unable to expand on their own, and were dependent on long-distance dispersal to overcome a minimum-size threshold. Our results demonstrate that long-distance dispersal was not only necessary for initial colonisation but also to sustain subsequent population growth during early phases of expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low...... to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using...... backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years...

  1. An early colonisation pathway into northwest Australia 70-60,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kasih; Inglis, Josha; Clarkson, Chris; Faith, J. Tyler; Shulmeister, James; Harris, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Colonisation of Sahul 70-60 thousand years ago (kya) represents the first great maritime migration undertaken by anatomically modern humans in one of the final phases of the Out of Africa dispersal. Visual connectivity network analyses, agent-based simulations and ocean current modelling reveal that modern humans could follow numerous northern and southern migration pathways into Sahul. Our results support a southern route out of Africa through South Asia with entry into ISEA through the Banda Arc, culminating in an early colonisation of Sahul on the northwest shelf. Our results show multiple colonisation events through other entry points were also probable, and raise interesting possibilities for complex regional migration and population histories.

  2. Rapid colonisation of Lymnaea stagnalis by larval trematodes in eutrophic ponds in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldánová, Miroslava; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2011), 981-990 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lymnaea stagnalis * Freshwater pulmonate snail * Larval trematodes * Colonisation and extinction * Competition-colonisation trade-off * Eutrophic ponds * Central Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  3. Phosphate concentration and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation influence the growth, yield and expression of twelve PHT1 family phosphate transporters in foxtail millet (Setaria italica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Antony Ceasar

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12 in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet.

  4. Phosphate concentration and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation influence the growth, yield and expression of twelve PHT1 family phosphate transporters in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, S Antony; Hodge, Angela; Baker, Alison; Baldwin, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet) is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12) in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet.

  5. The effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation screening in asymptomatic healthcare workers in an Irish orthopaedic unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edmundson, S P

    2012-01-31

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are associated with increased mortality, costs and length of stay compared to non-MRSA infections. This observational 4-year study analyses the impact of screening and treating orthopaedic healthcare workers for MRSA colonisation. A total of 1,011 swabs were taken from 566 healthcare workers. Positive healthcare workers were treated with topical mupirocin to both anterior nares. The prevalence of MRSA colonisation on initial testing was 4.77%. The rate of positive MRSA colonisation of those tested on more than one occasion fell from 5.88% to 2.71% (p = 0.055) on subsequent screening. All healthcare workers receiving treatment were successfully cleared of colonisation; however, some required more than one course of treatment. These results show that there could be a role for screening and treating orthopaedic staff for MRSA colonisation as part of a strategy to reduce the prevalence of MRSA infections in orthopaedic units.

  6. Comparative metabolite fingerprinting of the rumen system during colonisation of three forage grass (Lolium perenne L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison H Kingston-Smith

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota enable ruminants to degrade complex ligno-cellulosic compounds to produce high quality protein for human consumption. However, enteric fermentation by domestic ruminants generates negative by-products: greenhouse gases (methane and environmental nitrogen pollution. The current lack of cultured isolates representative of the totality of rumen microbial species creates an information gap about the in vivo function of the rumen microbiota and limits our ability to apply predictive biology for improvement of feed for ruminants. In this work we took a whole ecosystem approach to understanding how the metabolism of the microbial population responds to introduction of its substrate. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy-based metabolite fingerprinting was used to discriminate differences in the plant-microbial interactome of the rumen when using three forage grass varieties (Lolium perenne L. cv AberDart, AberMagic and Premium as substrates for microbial colonisation and fermentation. Specific examination of spectral regions associated with fatty acids, amides, sugars and alkanes indicated that although the three forages were apparently similar by traditional nutritional analysis, patterns of metabolite flux within the plant-microbial interactome were distinct and plant genotype dependent. Thus, the utilisation pattern of forage nutrients by the rumen microbiota can be influenced by subtleties determined by forage genotypes. These data suggest that our interactomic approach represents an important means to improve forages and ultimately the livestock environment.

  7. Colonisation of a phage susceptible Campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Kittler

    Full Text Available The pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. Phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal Campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. The aim of this study was to further investigate Campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broiler farm. This study determines the superiority in colonisation of a Campylobacter type found in a field trial that was susceptible to phages in in vitro tests. The colonisation factors, i.e. motility and gamma glutamyl transferase activity, were increased in this type. The clustering in phylogenetic comparisons of MALDI-TOF spectra did not match the ST, biochemical phenotype and phage susceptibility. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni strains and phage susceptibility types with different colonisation potential seem to play a very important role in the success of phage therapy in commercial broiler houses. Thus, mechanisms of both, phage susceptibility and Campylobacter colonisation should be further investigated and considered when composing phage cocktails.

  8. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  9. A case of failed eradication of cystic fibrosis-related sinus colonisation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Linnane, Barry

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen associated with cystic fibrosis that has potential to decrease lung function and cause respiratory failure. Paranasal sinuses are increasingly recognised as potential reservoirs for intermittent colonisation by P. aeruginosa. This case documents investigation and outcome of P. aeruginosa recurrence in a male paediatric patient over an eight year period.

  10. Is bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa a factor in post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, J. C.; Georgalas, C.; Kyi, M.; Ghufoor, K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify if there is a link between bacterial colonisation of the tonsillar fossa and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective non-interventional study of 105 patients who underwent tonsillectomy during a seven-month period. The study took place in a

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, D; Enoh, D O; Kinge, T N; Akam, W; Bumah, M K; Russow, K; Klammt, S; Loebermann, M; Fritzsche, C; Eyong, J E; Eppel, G; Kundt, G; Hemmer, C J; Reisinger, E C

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in Europe and the USA, in Cameroon. Induced sputum samples from 237 patients without pulmonary symptoms (126 HIV-positive and 111 HIV-negative outpatients) treated at a regional hospital in Cameroon were examined for the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii by specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and staining methods. CD 4 counts and the history of antiretroviral therapy of the subjects were obtained through the ESOPE database system. Seventy-five of 237 study participants (31.6%) were colonised with Pneumocystis, but none showed active PCP. The Pneumocystis colonisation rate in HIV-positive subjects was more than double that of HIV-negative subjects (42.9% vs. 18.9%, P 500 cells/μl were colonised at a rate of 20.0%, subjects with CD 4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/μl of 42.5%, and subjects with CD 4 counts <200 cells/μl of 57.1%. Colonisation with Pneumocystis in Cameroon seems to be comparable to rates found in Western Europe. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against Pneumocystis should be taken into account in HIV care in western Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on zooplankton colonisation in new temporary ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badosa, Anna; Frisch, Dagmar; Green, Andy J.; Rico, Ciro; Gómez, Africa

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the colonisation process in zooplankton is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the cyclical parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by following populations established in new temporary ponds during the first three hydroperiods. Rotifer populations established rapidly after first flooding, although colonisation was ongoing throughout the study. Multilocus genotypes from 7 microsatellite loci suggested that most populations (10 of 14) were founded by few clones. The exception was one of the four populations that persisted throughout the studied hydroperiods, where high genetic diversity in the first hydroperiod suggested colonisation from a historical egg bank, and no increase in allelic diversity was detected with time. In contrast, in another of these four populations, we observed a progressive increase of allelic diversity. This population became less differentiated from the other populations suggesting effective gene flow soon after its foundation. Allelic diversity and richness remained low in the remaining two, more isolated, populations, suggesting little gene flow. Our results highlight the complexity of colonisation dynamics, with evidence for persistent founder effects in some ponds, but not in others, and with early immigration both from external source populations, and from residual, historical diapausing egg banks.

  13. Immigrant or Refugee: Perceived Effects of Colonisation of Academia by Market Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Peter; Hansen, Sally; Jorgensen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Managers and personnel within tertiary institutions colonised by neo-liberal ministrations and buffeted by the winds of a "change culture" formed within the philosophical shifts of the last century can be considered in terms of "immigrants" or "refugees" within this new territory. The case story of this article is set…

  14. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonisation in long-term overseas business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Miura, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    International travel is considered a risk for colonisation with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). To our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on ESBL-PE colonisation among long-term business travellers. Therefore this study aimed to clarify the characteristics associated with ESBL-PE colonisation in Japanese long-term business travellers. Japanese business travellers planning to stay abroad for ≥6 months were enrolled. Of the 192 travellers, 135 provided only post-travel stool samples and 57 provided both pre- and post-travel stool samples. Additionally, microbiological analyses of ESBL-PE strains, including susceptibility tests and polymerase chain reaction amplification of CTX-M genes and their sequencing were performed. A post-travel survey showed that of the 55 travellers (40.7%) who tested positive for ESBL-PE after travel, the highest proportion was travellers returning from East and Central Asia. CTX-M gene analyses showed that CTX-M-15 was the most frequently observed (55.0%). A pre- and post-travel survey showed that of the 22 travellers (44.9%) acquired ESBL-PE during their travel, with acquisition most frequently observed in travellers returning from South Asia. Risk-based evaluations of ESBL-PE colonisation should be performed not only for regular tourists but also for long-term business travellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrack, S; Panjikar, P; Duster, M; Safdar, N

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE). Subjects with a history of MRSA were recruited from a large, academic medical center and randomised to take either a placebo or probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001). Subjects returned to the clinic after four weeks for further testing to determine adherence to the probiotic regimen and colonisation of MRSA. 48 subjects were enrolled and randomised. Nearly 25% were transplant recipients and 30% had diabetes. The probiotic was well tolerated in the study population though minor side effects, such as nausea and bloating, were observed. A majority of the subjects randomised to HN001 had good adherence to the regimen. At the four week time point among subjects randomised to the probiotic, MRSA was detected in 67 and 50% of subjects colonised in the nares and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Three subjects who initially tested positive for VRE were negative after four weeks of probiotic exposure. Probiotics were well tolerated in our study population of largely immunocompromised subjects with multiple comorbidities. Adherence to the intervention was good. Probiotics should be studied further for their potential to reduce colonisation by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  16. Does mobility explain variation in colonisation and population recovery among stream fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Albanese, Brett; Peterson, James T.

    2009-01-01

    1. Colonisation and population recovery are crucial to species persistence in environmentally variable ecosystems, but are poorly understood processes. After documenting movement rates for several species of stream fish, we predicted that this variable would influence colonisation rates more strongly than local abundance, per cent occupancy, body size and taxonomic family. We also predicted that populations of species with higher movement rates would recover more rapidly than species with lower movement rates and that assemblage structure would change accordingly. 2. To test these predictions, we removed fishes from a headwater and a mainstem creek in southwest Virginia and monitored colonisation over a 2-year period. Using an information–theoretic approach, we evaluated the relative plausibility of 15 alternative models containing different combinations of our predictor variables. Our best-supported model contained movement rate and abundance and was 41 times more likely to account for observed patterns in colonisation rates than the next-best model. Movement rate and abundance were both positively related to colonisation rates and explained 88% of the variation in colonisation rates among species. 3. Population recovery, measured as the per cent of initial abundance restored, was also positively associated with movement rate. One species recovered within 3 months, most recovered within 2 years, but two species still had not recovered after 2 years. Despite high variation in recovery, the removal had only a slight impact on assemblage structure because species that were abundant in pre-removal samples were also abundant in post-removal samples. 4. The significance of interspecific variation in colonisation and recovery rates has been underappreciated because of the widely documented recovery of stream fish assemblages following fish kills and small-scale experimental defaunations. Our results indicate that recovery of the overall assemblage does not imply

  17. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  18. The colonisation of woodland gaps by ferns and horsetails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Voorsterbos, a planted woodland on a former sea-floor (the Netherlands), artificial gaps within stands of Fagus sylvatica on boulder clay were monitored for five or six years after cutting. Ten fern species and three species of horsetail established in these gaps, with Dryopteris cristata,

  19. Relationship between Fungal Colonisation of the Respiratory Tract in Lung Transplant Recipients and Fungal Contamination of the Hospital Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bonnal

    Full Text Available Aspergillus colonisation is frequently reported after lung transplantation. The question of whether aspergillus colonisation is related to the hospital environment is crucial to prevention.To elucidate this question, a prospective study of aspergillus colonisation after lung transplantation, along with a mycological survey of the patient environment, was performed.Forty-four consecutive patients were included from the day of lung transplantation and then examined weekly for aspergillus colonisation until hospital discharge. Environmental fungal contamination of each patient was followed weekly via air and surface sampling. Twelve patients (27% had transient aspergillus colonisation, occurring 1-13 weeks after lung transplantation, without associated manifestation of aspergillosis. Responsible Aspergillus species were A. fumigatus (6, A. niger (3, A. sydowii (1, A. calidoustus (1 and Aspergillus sp. (1. In the environment, contamination by Penicillium and Aspergillus was predominant. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between occurrence of aspergillus colonisation and fungal contamination of the patient's room, either by Aspergillus spp. in the air or by A.fumigatus on the floor. Related clinical and environmental isolates were genotyped in 9 cases of aspergillus colonisation. For A. fumigatus (4 cases, two identical microsatellite profiles were found between clinical and environmental isolates collected on distant dates or locations. For other Aspergillus species, isolates were different in 2 cases; in 3 cases of aspergillus colonisation by A. sydowii, A. niger and A. calidoustus, similarity between clinical and environmental internal transcribed spacer and tubulin sequences was >99%.Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of environmental risk of hospital acquisition of aspergillus colonisation in lung transplant recipients.

  20. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective......Various animal species, wild birds, rodents and pets are the main source of Campylobacter contamination in broiler farms. However, little is known about the ability of these bacteria to survive outside the host and their role in the colonisation of broilers. Therefore, in this study we aimed...... medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...

  1. Chemical mediation of bacterial surface colonisation by secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maximilien, Ria; de Nys, Rocky; Holmström, Carola

    1998-01-01

    -occurring algal species, all of which lack furanones. There was also a strong inverse correlation between bacterial abundance and furanone content (previously determined) for different sections of the thallus of D. pulchra, consistent with inhibition of bacteria by furanones. Based on these observations we....... pulchra the most. As inhibition of growth did not provide an adequate explanation for the inverse relationship between levels of furanones and bacteria abundance on D. pulchra, we proceeded to investigate the effects of these metabolites on other bacterial characteristics relevant to colonisation...... of different bacterial isolates or phenotypes by furanones, as well as affecting overall bacterial abundance on the alga, should have strong effects on the species composition of the bacterial community on the alga's surface. The effects of furanones on specific bacterial colonisation traits are discussed...

  2. Effect of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, E.J.M.; Hak, E.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Rodenburg, G.D.; Bogaert, D.; Bruin, J.P.; van Alphen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) shifts nasopharyngeal colonisation with vaccine serotype pneumococci towards nonvaccine serotypes. Because of the reported negative association of vaccine serotype pneumococci and Staphylococcus aureus in the nasopharynx, we explored the

  3. The effect of multiple paternity on genetic diversity of small populations during and after colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rafajlović

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by [Formula: see text] males increased the heterozygosity by [Formula: see text] in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was [Formula: see text] compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity.

  4. Local extinction and colonisation in native and exotic fish in relation to changes in land use

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp , Dorothée; Figuerola , Jordi; Compin , Arthur; Santoul , Frédéric; Céréghino , Régis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Distribution patterns of many native and exotic fish species are well documented, yet little is known about the temporal dynamics of native and exotic diversity in relation to changes in land use. We hypothesised that colonisation rates would be higher for exotic fish species and that extinction rates would be higher for native species in large stream systems. We also predicted that cold-water species would be more impacted than thermally tolerant species. To test thes...

  5. Colonisation of epiphytic ferns by skinks and geckos in the high canopy of a Bornean rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, J.; Clegg, J.; Ellwood, M. D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Nest site availability limits the fitness and survival of skinks and geckos, particularly in the canopy of tall tropical rainforests. We document the systematic colonisation and nest use of epiphytic bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium spp) by the gecko Hemiphyllodactylus typus and the skink Lipinia cf. vittigera. As part of a controlled experiment we placed 32 ferns of similar sizes in the high canopy of a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Half of these ferns, sampled after...

  6. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2013-10-28

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by 2-10 males increased the heterozygosity by 10-300% in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was 10-50% compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. 2013 Rafajlovi? et al.

  7. Nineteenth century early childhood institutions in Aotearoa New Zealand: Legacies of enlightenment and colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Helen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ is the most distant from the cradle of European Enlightenment that sparked new understandings of childhood, learning and education and spearheaded new approaches to the care and education of young children outside of the family home. The broader theme of the Enlightenment was about progress and the possibilities of the ongoing improvement of peoples and institutions. The young child was seen as a potent force in this transformation and a raft of childhood institutions, including the 19th century infant school, kindergarten, and crèche were a consequence. The colonisation and settlement of Aotearoa NZ by European settlers coincided with an era in which the potency of new aspirations for new kinds of institutions for young children seeded. It is useful in the 21st century to reframe the various waves of colonial endeavour and highlight the dynamic interfaces of being colonised for the indigenous populations; being a colonial for the settler populations; and the power and should be purposed of the colonising cultures of Europe. It can be argued that in the context of ECE neither the indigenous nor settler populations of Aotearoa NZ were passive recipients of European ECE ideas but, separately and together, forged new understandings of childhood and its institutions; enriched and shaped by the lessons learned in the colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ.

  8. Pernicious anaemia and Campylobacter like organisms; is the gastric antrum resistant to colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flejou, J F; Bahame, P; Smith, A C; Stockbrugger, R W; Rode, J; Price, A B

    1989-01-01

    Gastric biopsies from 86 patients with pernicious anaemia were examined for Campylobacter like organisms with particular attention to those showing an antral gastritis in addition to the usual pattern of body gastritis. All the patients had chronic atrophic gastritis in the body but Campylobacter like organisms were found at this site in only three patients. Thus the Type A pattern of gastritis (autoimmune) seen in patients with pernicious anaemia is only rarely associated with Campylobacter like organisms. Forty four of these patients had biopsies from body and antrum, 16 showed an antral gastritis of whom only one had Campylobacter like organism present. Twenty five of this latter group of patients were rebiopsied after five years. There was no change in the pattern of gastritis, and the same single patient remained colonised. The frequency of an antral gastritis in patients with pernicious anaemia was 36% yet the frequency of antral colonisation by Campylobacter like organisms was very low (6%). These results show that, as in the body, Campylobacter like organisms are not associated with gastritis when it occurs at this site in pernicious anaemia. The antral gastritis that may accompany body gastritis in pernicious anaemia seems more likely therefore to be an extension of primary type A body gastritis (autoimmune) rather than a secondary type B (chronic) gastritis and, it is argued, the antrum may exhibit resistance to colonisation. PMID:2920929

  9. Maternal genital tract colonisation by group-b streptococcus: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmi, N.; Sikandar, R.; Zuberi, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus genital tract infection in pregnant women and to determine the risk factors for its colonisation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi and Sobhraj Hospital, Karachi, from May to August 2007. Pregnant women at 35-37 weeks gestation attending antenatal clinic at these hospitals constituted the study population. Based on stratified sampling, 405 patients were recruited. High vaginal swabs of these patients were taken in order to calculate the prevalence of infection at each hospital. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factor association. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of colonisation was 17% (n=69) (95% CI: 13.4-20.7). Of the 155(38.27%) women at the Aga Khan Hospital, 35(22.6%) were positive, while among the 250 (61.72%) women at Sobhraj Hospital, the prevalence was 13.6% (n=34). The colonisation was found to be significantly associated inversely with the body mass index of the patient (OR 0.91; 95% CI: 0.08-1.0). Conclusion: Group B Streptococcus screening should be an integral part of antenatal care and should be offered to all pregnant women. (author)

  10. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonisation in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki Surendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE has been established as a significant health-care associated problem since its first isolation in Australia in 1994. In this study, we measured the point prevalence and identified risk factors associated with vanB VRE colonisation in a tertiary care hospital in Melbourne, Australia where VRE has been endemic for 15 years. Methods A hospital-wide point prevalence survey was conducted on October 13, 2008 with colonisation detected using rectal swab culture. Patient’s demographic and medical information was collected through a review of medical records. Factors associated with VRE colonisation in univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression model to adjust for confounding. Results The prevalence of VRE colonisation on the day of screening was 17.5% (95% CI, 13.7 to 21.9. VRE was detected from patients in each ward with the prevalence ranging from 3% to 29%. Univariate analysis showed the use of any antibiotic, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, diarrhoea and longer length of hospital stay were associated with increased risk of VRE colonisation (p0.05. Multivariate analysis showed the exposure to meropenem (p=0.004, age (≥65 years (p=0.036 and length of stay ≥7 days (p Conclusion Our study suggests that exposure to antibiotics may have been more important than recent cross transmission for a high prevalence of vanB VRE colonisation at our hospital.

  12. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  13. Colonisation and extinction in relation to competition and resource partitioning in acanthocephalans of freshwater fishes of the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, A R; Kennedy, C R

    2001-01-01

    This paper challenges two paradigms long held in relation to the ecology of parasites in freshwater systems: (1) autogenic species are poorer colonisers than allogenic ones; and (2) parasites with direct life cycles are more successful colonisers than those with complex life cycles. Using new and existing data for Acanthocephala in freshwater fish from the British Isles, it is suggested that all six species present have been able to colonise and persist successfully, in spite of the supposed limitations of their autogenic life-style. It is proposed that these parasites have overcome these limitations by a variety of means, which apply equally to all species considered. Foremost among these is the utilisation of a migratory fish host as either a preferred or a suitable host in their life cycle, allowing colonisation of new areas and rescue effects in established areas, whilst equally important is the use of a common and widespread crustacean as the intermediate host. In addition, all six species appear to exhibit resource partitioning by host at either or both the larval and adult stages, thus reducing the potential for competition and further facilitating colonisation and survival. This hypothesis is supported by data from previous studies both on acanthocephalans from Europe and North America and on other autogenic parasites. It also provides an explanation for the apparently atypical host utilisation patterns of some acanthocephalan species in areas on the edge of their distributions, notably in Ireland.

  14. SERS spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen cyanide in breath from children colonised with P. aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Skou, Peter Bæk; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    ) nanochip optimised for detection of trace amounts of the P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was mounted inside a Tedlar bag, which the patient breathed into. The SERS chip was then analysed in a Raman spectrometer, investigating the C≡N peak at 2131 cm-1 and correlated with sputum cultures. One...... new P. aeruginosa colonisation occurred during the trial period. The C≡N peak intensity was enhanced in this sample in contrast to the subject's 3 other samples. Three additional patients had intense C≡N SERS signals from their breath, but no P. aeruginosa was cultured from their sputum...

  15. Co-colonisation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with poorer health in cystic fibrosis patients: an Irish registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Emma; Segurado, Ricardo; Jackson, Abaigeal; McClean, Siobhán; Renwick, Julie; Greally, Peter

    2017-04-21

    Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. Our aim was to determine the effect of different colonisation profiles of AF and PA on the clinical status of patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of data from the Cystic Fibrosis Registry of Ireland from 2013 was performed to determine the effect of intermittent and persistent colonisation with AF or PA or co-colonisation with both microorganisms on clinical outcome measures in patients with CF. Key outcomes measured included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), number of hospitalisations, respiratory exacerbations and antimicrobials prescribed, and complications of CF, including CF related diabetes (CFRD) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The prevalence of AF and PA colonisation were 11% (5% persistent, 6% intermittent) and 31% (19% persistent, 12% intermittent) in the Irish CF population, respectively. Co-colonisation with both pathogens was associated with a 13.8% reduction in FEV 1 (p = 0.016), higher levels of exacerbations (p = 0.042), hospitalisations (p = 0.023) and antimicrobial usage (p = 0.014) compared to non-colonised patients and these clinical outcomes were comparable to those persistently colonised with PA. Intermittent and persistent AF colonisation were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes or ABPA. Patients with persistent PA had a higher prevalence of CFRD diagnosis (p = 0.012). CF patients co-colonised with AF and PA had poor clinical outcomes comparable to patients persistently colonised with PA, emphasising the clinical significance of co-colonisation with these microorganisms.

  16. Investigation of mircroorganisms colonising activated zeolites during anaerobic biogas production from grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Zankel, A; Lebuhn, M; Petrak, S; Somitsch, W; Guebitz, G M

    2011-03-01

    The colonisation of activated zeolites (i.e. clinoptilolites) as carriers for microorganisms involved in the biogas process was investigated. Zeolite particle sizes of 1.0-2.5mm were introduced to anaerobic laboratory batch-cultures and to continuously operated bioreactors during biogas production from grass silage. Incubation over 5-84 days led to the colonisation of zeolite surfaces in small batch-cultures (500 ml) and even in larger scaled and flow-through disturbed bioreactors (28 l). Morphological insights were obtained by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis based on amplification of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA fragments demonstrated structurally distinct populations preferring zeolite as operational environment. via sequence analysis conspicuous bands from SSCP patterns were identified. Populations immobilised on zeolite (e.g. Ruminofilibacter xylanolyticum) showed pronounced hydrolytic enzyme activity (xylanase) shortly after re-incubation in sterilised sludge on model substrate. In addition, the presence of methanogenic archaea on zeolite particles was demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bierowiec

    Full Text Available In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it's prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants.

  18. Is the Colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus in Pets Associated with Their Close Contact with Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierowiec, Karolina; Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In human beings and animals, staphylococci constitute part of the normal microbial population. Staphylococcus aureus could be classified as an opportunistic pathogen because the bacteria are noted in clinically healthy individuals, but when the immune system becomes compromised, they can also cause a wide range of infections. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cats who are in close contact with their owners are at the greatest risk of being colonised with S. aureus. Two groups of cats were investigated: single, pet (domestic) cats that do not have outdoor access; and a local population of feral cats living in urban areas. The prevalence of S. aureus in domestic cats was 19.17%, while it’s prevalence in the feral cat population was only 8.3%; which was statistically significant. Analysis of antibiotic resistance, at the genotypic as well as phenotypic level, showed that S. aureus isolates from pet cats were more likely to harbour antibiotic resistant determinants. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in households was 10.21%, while in feral cats it was only 1.4%. In conclusion, this study has revealed a correlation between close contact with humans and a higher risk of the cats being colonised with S. aureus and harbouring the antibiotic resistant determinants. PMID:27227897

  19. Country, climate change adaptation and colonisation: insights from an Indigenous adaptation planning process, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursey-Bray, Melissa; Palmer, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Indigenous peoples are going to be disproportionately affected by climate change. Developing tailored, place based, and culturally appropriate solutions will be necessary. Yet finding cultural and institutional 'fit' within and between competing values-based climate and environmental management governance regimes remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reports on a collaborative research project with the Arabana people of central Australia, that resulted in the production of the first Indigenous community-based climate change adaptation strategy in Australia. We aimed to try and understand what conditions are needed to support Indigenous driven adaptation initiatives, if there are any cultural differences that need accounting for and how, once developed they be integrated into existing governance arrangements. Our analysis found that climate change adaptation is based on the centrality of the connection to 'country' (traditional land), it needs to be aligned with cultural values, and focus on the building of adaptive capacity. We find that the development of climate change adaptation initiatives cannot be divorced from the historical context of how the Arabana experienced and collectively remember colonisation. We argue that in developing culturally responsive climate governance for and with Indigenous peoples, that that the history of colonisation and the ongoing dominance of entrenched Western governance regimes needs acknowledging and redressing into contemporary environmental/climate management.

  20. Loss of Wolbachia infection during colonisation in the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M; Pedersen, J S; Keller, L

    2005-03-01

    WOLBACHIA are maternally inherited bacteria, which are very common in arthropods and nematodes. Wolbachia infection may affect host reproduction through feminisation, parthenogenesis, male-killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased fecundity. Previous studies showing discrepancies between the phylogenies of Wolbachia and its arthropod hosts indicate that infection is frequently lost, but the causes of symbiont extinction have so far remained elusive. Here, we report data showing that colonisation of new habitats is a possible mechanism leading to the loss of infection. The presence and prevalence of Wolbachia were studied in three native and eight introduced populations of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The screening shows that the symbiont is common in the three native L. humile populations analysed. In contrast, Wolbachia was detected in only one of the introduced populations. The loss of infection associated with colonisation of new habitats may result from drift (founder effect) or altered selection pressures in the new habitat. Furthermore, a molecular phylogeny based on sequences of the Wolbachia wsp gene indicates that L. humile has been infected by a single strain. Horizontal transmission of the symbiont may be important in ants as suggested by the sequence similarity of strains in the three genera Linepithema, Acromyrmex, and Solenopsis native from South and Central America.

  1. Candida albicans colonisation, continence status and incontinence-associated dermatitis in the acute care setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Mudge, Alison M; Robertson, Ivan M; Osborne, Sonya R

    2017-06-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal commensal organism and is reported to be the most frequent aetiological organism responsible for infection associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. However, it remains unclear whether incontinence predisposes a patient to increased Candida colonisation or whether incontinence acts as a trigger for Candida infection in those already colonised. The purpose of this observational cross-sectional study was to estimate colonisation rates of C. albicans in continent, compared to incontinent patients, and patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Data were collected on 81 inpatients of a major Australian hospital and included a pelvic skin inspection and microbiological specimens to detect C. Albicans at hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 76 years (SD = 12.22) with 53% being male. Incontinent participants (n = 53) had a non-significant trend towards greater Candida colonisation rates at the perianal site (43% versus 28%) χ 2 (1, N = 81) = 4·453, p = ·638 and the inguinal site (24% versus 14%) χ 2 (1, N = 81) = 6·868, p = ·258 compared to continent patients (n = 28). The incontinent subgroup with incontinence-associated dermatitis (n = 22) showed no difference in colonisation rates compared to those without incontinence-associated dermatitis. Understanding the epidemiology of colonisation may have implications for the prevention of Candida infection in these patients. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  3. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,

  4. Use of multilocus sequence typing for the investigation of colonisation by Candida albicans in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, P R; Sandoe, J A T; Heritage, J; Barton, R C

    2008-05-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the prevalence of candidal colonisation on the general intensive care unit at a large teaching hospital. Colonisation with Candida spp. was found to be common, occurring in 79% of patients on the unit. C. albicans was the commonest species, colonising 64% of patients, followed by C. glabrata (18%) and C. parapsilosis (14%). Most of the members of staff tested carried Candida spp. at some point, although carriage appeared to be transient. C. parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated species from staff hands, whereas C. albicans was the most commonly isolated species from the mouth. The molecular epidemiology of C. albicans was investigated using Ca3 typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST proved to be a reproducible typing method and a useful tool for the investigation of the molecular epidemiology of C. albicans. The results of the molecular typing provided evidence for the presence of an endemic strain on the unit, which was isolated repeatedly from patients and staff. This finding suggests horizontal transmission of C. albicans on the unit though it may also reflect the relative frequency of C. albicans strain types colonising patients on admission. This study has important implications for the epidemiology of systemic candidal infections.

  5. Successful split thickness skin grafting in the presence of heavy colonisation with rare bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koschel

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: Contemporary literature is yet to make the distinction between colonisation and infection of this bacterium, with clinicians relying solely on the presence of infective stigmata and serum analysis. However, this is a critically important distinction when ascertaining the likelihood of success of wound healing.

  6. Mycorrhizal colonisation of highbush blueberry and its native relatives in central Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KASURINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electromicroscopy, trypan blue staining in combination with stereomicroscope analysis and biochemical ergosterol assay were used to study the mycorrhizal symbionts in wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus, bog whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum roots. TEM-analysis showed that in all species ericoid mycorrhizas formed hyphae coil inside the epidermal root cells. In stereomicroscopic viewing the highest mycorrhizal colonisation was observed in the roots of wild bilberries (51%, whereas according to the ergosterol assay the highest total fungal biomass of roots was found in bog whortleberries (209 mg g-1 of root d. wt. Both ergosterol and microscopical method showed that the mycorrhizal associations in blueberry cultivars and their wild relatives growing on natural soil medium are frequent, although ericoid mycorrhiza formation of highbush blueberries was somewhat weaker than that of wild bilberries and bog whortleberries.

  7. Biological traits explain the distribution and colonisation ability of the invasive shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothland, M.; Dauvin, J. C.; Denis, L.; Dufossé, F.; Jobert, S.; Ovaert, J.; Pezy, J. P.; Tous Rius, A.; Spilmont, N.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehending marine invasions requires a better knowledge of the biological traits of invasive species, and the future spread of invasive species may be predicted through comprehensive overviews of their distribution. This study thus presents the current distribution of a non-indigenous species, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus takanoi, as well as the species population characteristics (size distribution and cohorts), based on a five-year survey (2008-2012) along the French coast of the English Channel. Two large populations were found near harbours: one on the Opal Coast (where density reached 61 ± 22 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d., in Dunkirk harbour) and one on the Calvados coast (density up to 26 ± 6 ind.m-2, mean ± s.d, in Honfleur harbour). H. takanoi exhibited a short life cycle, a rapid growth, an early sexual maturity and a high adult mortality. These features, combined with previously described high fecundity and high dispersal ability, endow this species with an 'r-selected strategy'. This strategy, which usually characterises species with a high colonisation ability, would explain the success of H. takanoi for colonising the French coast of the Channel. However, the species was found only in harbours and their vicinity; H. takanoi thus exhibited a discontinuous distribution along the 700 km of coastline. These results are discussed regarding sediment preference and potential introduction vectors. Hemigrapsus takanoi is now considered as established on the French coast and further studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of its introduction on the structure and functioning of the impacted shores.

  8. Social information in nest colonisation and occupancy in a long-lived, solitary breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Valera, Francisco; Martínez, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Recent work increasingly reveals the importance of social information in individual dispersal decisions, population dynamics and conservation. Much of the knowledge gained to date comes from studies on short-lived and/or densely breeding species. In contrast, our understanding of the processes involved in nest-site selection for long-lived, solitary breeding species is insufficient. We increased nest-site availability by nest-box supplementation over a 5-year period in a population of a long-lived, solitary, secondary-cavity nesting bird, the European roller Coracias garrulus, breeding in natural cavities and human constructions. We tested the nest limitation and the inadvertent conspecific social information hypothesis in order to study the dynamics and mechanisms of abandonment of previously used nests and the colonisation of new ones. Our data lend support to the nest-limitation hypothesis both in terms of quantity-population and the size of breeding clusters increased, and suitability--the majority of pairs used and re-occupied nest-boxes. Nevertheless, the use of natural cavities did not decrease after 5 years. At the between-patch scale, rollers were revealed to colonise nest-boxes based on conspecific social attraction, namely distance to the nearest neighbour in the same season. Despite the unpredictability of patch productivity, at the within--patch scale, the selection of previously unoccupied cavities was consistent with the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis. Philopatry could account for the repeated use of cavities, because nests that were used for two successive years were more likely to also be reused in the subsequent season.

  9. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in the spore numbers of AM fungi and in AM colonisation of roots of clovers and grasses on a peat-muck soil with respect to mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, T. K.; Kwiatkowaska, E.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100 percent of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1 percent to 12.2 percent). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi. (author)

  11. The Importance of Urease in Acid Protection for the Gastric-colonising Bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, R. L.; Lee, A.

    2011-01-01

    The urease of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori shares numerous characteristics with the urease of a bacterium isolated from cat gastric mucosa, Helicobacter felis sp. nov. The native enzymes have similar apparent molecular weights and, when subjected to SDS-PAGE, disassociate into active subunits of comparable relative mobilities. In contrast, a bacterium (St1) that colonises rodent ileal mucosa, and is related to Helicobacter spp., expresses a distinct urease from those of the gastri...

  12. Impact of oral gut decontamination on Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, C Matthias; Weber, Isabel; Seidl, Kati; Rachmühl, Carole; Holzmann-Bürgel, Anne; Müller, Antonia M S; Kuster, Stefan P; Schanz, Urs; Zinkernagel, Annelies S

    2017-12-01

    Recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are severely immunocompromised and are at increased risk of infection. In this prospective, observational, single-centre study including 110 allo-HSCT recipients, the rate of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was reduced from 11.8% to 0% (P <0.001) following peritransplant oral gut decontamination. No invasive S. aureus infections were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzurovic, Selma; Babajic, Emina; Masic, Tarik; Smajic, Rubina; Selmanagic, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine relationship between oral hygiene and colonisation of Candia species in oral cavity. Maintenance oral hygiene is reducing pathological agents in the mouth and preventing violation of oral health. Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva. For isolation of Candida species oral swabs were taken to all patients. It was found out that pH of oral cavity does not varies notably, no matter of oral hygiene level. Candida species were identified in 28.6% respondents. The most present were Candida albicans, in 85% cases. The presence of plaque, tartar and high index oral hygiene (IOH) in patients with Candida is statistically significant. It was found that 83.4% of patients with Candida poorly maintained oral hygiene. Poor oral hygiene is associated with a significantly higher score in the presence of tartar, plaque and high IOH. In total patient's population 67% has amalgam fillings. Presence of amalgam fillings in patients with identified Candida was statistically significant. This study indicates low level of oral hygiene. Correlation between presence of Candida species and poor oral hygiene was proved. Also Candida was more present among patients with amalgam fillings. Improvement of oral hygiene is necessery for oral health and health in general, as well.

  14. Neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin adversely affect the colonisation of invertebrate populations in aquatic microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-01

    Surface waters are sometimes contaminated with neonicotinoids: a widespread, persistent, systemic class of insecticide with leaching potential. Previous ecotoxicological investigations of this chemical class in aquatic ecosystems have largely focused on the impacts of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid; few empirical, manipulative studies have investigated the effect on invertebrate abundances of two other neonicotinoids which are now more widely used: clothianidin and thiamethoxam. In this study, we employ a simple microcosm semi-field design, incorporating a one-off contamination event, to investigate the effect of these pesticides at field-realistic levels (ranging from 0 to 15 ppb) on invertebrate colonisation and survival in small ephemeral ponds. In line with previous research on neonicotinoid impacts on aquatic invertebrates, significant negative effects of both neonicotinoids were found. There were clear differences between the two chemicals, with thiamethoxam generally producing stronger negative effects than clothianidin. Populations of Chironomids (Diptera) and Ostracoda were negatively affected by both chemicals, while Culicidae appeared to be unaffected by clothianidin at the doses used. Our data demonstrate that field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoids are likely to reduce populations of invertebrates found in ephemeral ponds, which may have knock on effects up the food chain. We highlight the importance of developing pesticide monitoring schemes for European surface waters.

  15. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  16. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo.

  17. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, A; Thorarinsdottir, H R; Holmberg, A; Schött, U; Klarin, B

    2018-03-08

    The normal body exists in mutualistic balance with a large range of microbiota. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is an imbalance in the oropharyngeal flora early after hospital or ICU admittance, and whether flora differs between control, ward and critically ill patients. The secondary goal was to explore whether there are patient characteristics that can be associated with a disturbed oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from three different study groups: (1) controls from the community, (2) ward patients and (3) critically ill patients, the two latter within 24 h after admittance. Cultures were obtained from 487 individuals: 77 controls, 193 ward patients and 217 critically ill patients. Abnormal pharyngeal flora was more frequent in critically ill and ward patients compared with controls (62.2% and 10.4% vs. 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx was more frequent in critically ill patients compared with ward patients or controls (26.3% vs. 4.7% and 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx in both ward and critically ill patients (P = 0.030 and P = 0.044, respectively). This study indicates that abnormal oropharyngeal flora is an early and frequent event in hospitalised patients and more so in the critically ill, compared to controls. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naivete Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, K.; Korpimaki, E.; Banks, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison). We translocated experienced voles from islands with mink, and inexperienced voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and micro habitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but experienced voles did not survive better than inexperienced voles. Experienced voles were more often located in juniper habitats than inexperienced voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered micro habitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  19. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  20. New evidence for variation in colonisation, cultural transmission, and subsistence from Lapita (2900 BP) to the historic period in southwest Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, E.E.; Rivera-Collazo, I.C.; Walsh, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fiji was colonised approximately 3000 BP by populations with intricately decorated Lapita pottery. At nearly the same time, culturally related populations also colonised nearby Tonga and Samoa and the archaeology of each archipelago indicates continued contact, but also cultural divergence over time. Previous research in the far western islands of Fiji has also identified late Lapita colonisation deposits and subsequent cultural changes that have raised further questions about regional variation in the Fijian archaeological record. Here we present results of the first survey, excavation, and archaeological analyses from the islands of southwestern Fiji and interpret these findings relative to current research on the colonisation of Fiji-West Polynesia, changes in the spatial scale of cultural transmission in the region, and changes in foraging practices and environments. Survey and test excavations identified eleven sites and pushed back the colonisation of the far western islands to 2900 BP. Preliminary analyses of cultural materials from these sites indicate a complexly structured colonising population in Fiji-West Polynesia, variation over time in the frequency of contact between populations in Fiji, and subsistence practices likely influenced by environmental change and human competition. (author). 47 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Deep-sea nematodes actively colonise sediments, irrespective of the presence of a pulse of organic matter: results from an in-situ experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Guilini

    Full Text Available A colonisation experiment was performed in situ at 2500 m water depth at the Arctic deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN to determine the response of deep-sea nematodes to disturbed, newly available patches, enriched with organic matter. Cylindrical tubes,laterally covered with a 500 µm mesh, were filled with azoic deep-sea sediment and (13C-labelled food sources (diatoms and bacteria. After 10 days of incubation the tubes were analysed for nematode response in terms of colonisation and uptake. Nematodes actively colonised the tubes, however with densities that only accounted for a maximum of 2.13% (51 ind.10 cm(-2 of the ambient nematode assemblages. Densities did not differ according to the presence or absence of organic matter, nor according to the type of organic matter added. The fact that the organic matter did not function as an attractant to nematodes was confirmed by the absence of notable (13C assimilation by the colonising nematodes. Overall, colonisation appears to be a process that yields reproducible abundance and diversity patterns, with certain taxa showing more efficiency. Together with the high variability between the colonising nematode assemblages, this lends experimental support to the existence of a spatio-temporal mosaic that emerges from highly localised, partially stochastic community dynamics.

  2. Differential endophytic colonization of sorghum plant by eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virulence of the conidia before and after endophytic growth phases were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae mortality bioassay in-vitro. All the strains of the fungi colonised the sorghum plant. The strains of I. farinosa and B. bassiana were detected in the roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was ...

  3. Fungi in roots of nursery grown Pinus sylvestris: ectomycorrhizal colonisation, genetic diversity and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate patterns of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonisation and community structure on nursery grown seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot and genetic diversity of commonly isolated ECM basidiomycete Hebeloma cavipes. One hundred seedlings were sampled in 225 m(2) area using a systematic grid design. For each seedling, 20 individual root tips were randomly collected, morphotyped, and surface sterilised for fungal isolation in pure culture. Results showed that ECM community was comprised of nine distinct morphotypes among which Thelephora terrestris (39.7%), Hebeloma sp. (17.8%) and Suillus luteus (6.1%) were the most abundant. Spatial distribution of ECMs in the nursery plot was determined by their relative abundance: even in common ECMs and random in rare ones. Fungal isolation yielded 606 pure cultures, representing 71 distinct taxa. The most commonly isolated fungi were the ascomycetes Neonectria macrodidyma (20.3%), Phialocephala fortinii (13.5%), Neonectria radicicola (6.3%) and the ECM basidiomycete H. cavipes (4.5%). Intraspecific genetic diversity within 27 H. cavipes isolates was studied using two methods: restriction digestion of the amplified intergenic spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and genealogical concordance of five genetic markers. Five and eight genotypes were revealed by each respective method, but both of those were largely consistent, in particular, in determining the largest genotype (A) composed of 18 isolates. Mapping positions for each H. cavipes isolate and genotype in the field showed that isolates of the A genotype covered a large part of the nursery plot. This suggests that H. cavipes is largely disseminated by vegetative means of local genotypes and that nursery cultivation practices are likely to contribute to the dissemination of this species in the forest nursery soils.

  4. Transcription profiling of a recently colonised pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae strain from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides used to treat bednets threatens the sustainability of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. While the impact of target site insensitivity alleles is being widely discussed the implications of insecticide detoxification – though equally important – remains elusive. The successful development of new tools for malaria intervention and management requires a comprehensive understanding of insecticide resistance, including metabolic resistance mechanisms. Although three enzyme families (cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases have been widely associated with insecticide detoxification the role of individual enzymes is largely unknown. Results Here, constitutive expression patterns of genes putatively involved in conferring pyrethroid resistance was investigated in a recently colonised pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae strain from Odumasy, Southern Ghana. RNA from the resistant strain and a standard laboratory susceptible strain, of both sexes was extracted, reverse transcribed and labelled with either Cy3- or Cy5-dye. Labelled cDNA was co-hybridised to the detox chip, a custom-made microarray containing over 230 A. gambiae gene fragments predominantly from enzyme families associated with insecticide resistance. After hybridisation, Cy3- and Cy5-signal intensities were measured and compared gene by gene. In both females and males of the resistant strain the cytochrome P450s CYP6Z2 and CYP6M2 are highly over-expressed along with a member of the superoxide dismutase (SOD gene family. Conclusion These genes differ from those found up-regulated in East African strains of pyrethroid resistant A. gambiae and constitute a novel set of candidate genes implicated in insecticide detoxification. These data suggest that metabolic resistance may have multiple origins in A. gambiae, which has strong implications for the management of resistance.

  5. Targeted delivery of probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal stability and intestinal colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Cornelius C; Wang, Jie; Basit, Abdul W; Stapleton, Paul; Gaisford, Simon

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the viability of some commercial probiotics after exposure to gastric acid and the possibility of modifying these formulations for delivery into the distal parts of the intestines. Gastrointestinal tolerance testing was conducted for three commercial probiotics and an in-house freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus strain. The contents of the commercial products and the in-house freeze-dried strain were then loaded into capsules for site-specific delivery into the colon using the Phloral ® coating technology; the viability upon release was then ascertained. An assessment of the potential of these products to adhere to intestinal cells was also conducted. The results showed that all the commercial products contained the minimum number of probiotic strains as indicated on their respective packages. When gastric acid tolerance tests were performed on these products, all the commercial probiotics and the prepared freeze-dried strain demonstrated over 10 6 CFU reductions within 5min. When these were encapsulated for site-specific delivery into the distal parts of the gut, viabilities of approximately 90% were obtained after these capsules had been initially deposited in gastric acid for 2h. An evaluation of the ability of the probiotic formulations to adhere to intestinal cells demonstrated adhesion in the range 64-76% for the products evaluated. The need to target the delivery of probiotics into the intestines has been demonstrated here as this offers a greater potential for colonisation of the intestines once the harshness of the stomach has been overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous gut colonisation and infection by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asir, Johny; Nair, Shashikala; Devi, Sheela; Prashanth, Kenchappa; Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been recovered from the hospital environment. These drug-resistant organisms have also been found to be present in humans as commensals. The present investigation intended to isolate ESBL-producing E. coli from the gut of already infected patients; to date, only a few studies have shown evidence of the gut microflora as a major source of infection. This study aimed to detect the presence of ESBL genes in E.coli that are isolated from the gut of patients who have already been infected with the same organism. A total of 70 non-repetitive faecal samples were collected from in-patients of our hospital. These in-patients were clinically diagnosed and were culture-positive for ESBL-producing E. coli either from blood, urine, or pus. Standard microbiological methods were used to detect ESBL from clinical and gut isolates. Genes coding for major betalactamase enzymes such as bla CTX-M , bla TEM, and bla SHV were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 15 (21 per cent) faecal samples of the 70 samples that were cultured. PCR revealed that out of these 15 isolates, the bla CTX-M gene was found in 13 (86.6 per cent) isolates, the bla TEM was present in 11 (73.3 per cent) isolates, and bla SHV only in eight (53.3 per cent) isolates. All 15 clinical and gut isolates had similar phenotypic characters and eight of the 15 patients had similar pattern of genes (bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV) in their clinical and gut isolates. Strains with multiple betalactamase genes that colonise the gut of hospitalised patients are a potential threat and it may be a potential source of infection.

  7. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococcus (GBS, which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3% as compared to the rectum (5%. Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier.

  8. Prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of an Octenidine-based hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft wounds in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W, Eisenbeiß; F, Siemers; G, Amtsberg; P, Hinz; B, Hartmann; T, Kohlmann; A, Ekkernkamp; U, Albrecht; O, Assadian; A, Kramer

    2012-01-01

    Moist wound treatment improves healing of skin graft donor site wounds. Microbial colonised wounds represent an increased risk of wound infection; while antimicrobially active, topical antiseptics may impair epithelialization. The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to examine the influence of an Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) hydrogel on bacterial colonisation and epithelialization of skin graft donor sites. The study was designed as a randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. Skin graft donor sites from a total of 61 patients were covered either with 0.05% OCT (n=31) or an OCT-free placebo wound hydrogel (n=30). Potential interaction with wound healing was assessed by measuring the time until 100% re-epithelialization. In addition, microbial wound colonisation was quantitatively determined in all skin graft donor sites. There was no statistically significant difference in the time for complete epithelialization of skin graft donor sites in the OCT and the placebo group (7.3±0.2 vs. 6.9±0.2 days; p=0.236). Microbial wound colonisation was significantly lower in the OCT group than in the placebo group (p=0.014). The OCT-based hydrogel showed no delay in wound epithelialization and demonstrated a significantly lower bacterial colonisation of skin graft donor site wounds.

  9. Minimal short-term effect of dietary 2'-fucosyllactose on bacterial colonisation, intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Bering, Stine B.; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2016-01-01

    enriched with α1,2-fucosyllactose (2'-FL, the most abundant oligosaccharide in human milk) would benefit gut microbial colonisation and NEC resistance after preterm birth. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed formula (Controls, n 17) or formula with 5 g/l 2'-FL (2'-FL, n 16) for 5 d; eight 2'-FL pigs...... (50 %) and twelve Controls (71 %) developed NEC, with no difference in lesion scores (P=0·35); 2'-FL pigs tended to have less anaerobic bacteria in caecal contents (P=0·22), but no difference in gut microbiota between groups were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and 454 pyrosequencing...

  10. Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs under field-like conditions: emphasis on tonsillar colonisation and passively acquired colostral antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Angen, Øystein; Barfod, K.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate at which age tonsillar colonisation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae occurs in pigs and relate this occurrence to the presence of colostral antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae. The infection patterns were studied in an isolated cohort of pigs, which...... consisted of the offspring from five sows originating from a conventional pig herd. The sows were transferred to isolated research facilities before farrowing. A. pleuropneumoniae was detected on the tonsils of all sows. After a nursing period of 3 weeks, the pigs were weaned and reared isolated from other...

  11. Assessing the influence of surface roughness on the epilithic colonisation of limestones by non-contact techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, A. Z.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of stone colonisation by microorganisms has led to an extensive literature on mechanisms and rates of physicochemical degradation of stone surface, both in laboratory and field contexts. Biological colonisation of a stone surface depends on intrinsic stone parameters like mineral composition, texture, porosity, and permeability, as well as on environmental parameters. In the present study, quantification of stone surface roughness and its relationship to epilithic colonisation was demonstrated for three types of limestones throughout non-destructive techniques, namely optical surface roughness instrument and digital image analysis. According to the roughness average (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz determined for Ançã limestone, Lioz limestone and Lecce stone, it can be concluded that great surface roughness stones render them prone to microbial colonisation.La colonización de la piedra por microorganismos ha generado una extensa literatura sobre los mecanismos y tasas de degradación fisicoquímica de las superficies pétreas, tanto en laboratorio como en estudios de campo. La colonización biológica de piedra de construcción depende de parámetros intrínsecos como son su composición mineral, textura, porosidad y permeabilidad, así como de parámetros ambientales. Este estudio demuestra la relación entre la rugosidad superficial de la piedra y la colonización epilítica, cuantificada en tres tipos de caliza mediante técnicas no destructivas: medida de la rugosidad superficial usando un perfilómetro óptico y análisis digital de imágenes. De acuerdo con la rugosidad media aritmética (Ra y la amplitud media de rugosidad (Rz, determinadas para la caliza de Ançã, la caliza de Lioz y la piedra de Lecce, puede concluirse que las piedras con alta rugosidad superficial son más propensas a la colonización microbiana.

  12. Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Craig

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime. Methods One hundred and twenty-nine tubes were collected from two neonatal intensive care units (NICU. A questionnaire on feeding regime was completed with each sample. Enterobacteriaceae present in the tubes were identified using conventional and molecular methods, and their antibiograms determined. Results The neonates were fed breast milk (16%, fortified breast milk (28%, ready to feed formula (20%, reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, 6%, or a mixture of these (21%. Eight percent of tubes were received from neonates who were 'nil by mouth'. Organisms were isolated from 76% of enteral feeding tubes as a biofilm (up to 107 cfu/tube from neonates fed fortified breast milk and reconstituted PIF and in the residual lumen liquid (up to 107 Enterobacteriaceae cfu/ml, average volume 250 μl. The most common isolates were Enterobacter cancerogenus (41%, Serratia marcescens (36%, E. hormaechei (33%, Escherichia coli (29%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (25%, Raoultella terrigena (10%, and S. liquefaciens (12%. Other organisms isolated included C. sakazakii (2%,Yersinia enterocolitica (1%,Citrobacter freundii (1%, E. vulneris (1%, Pseudomonas fluorescens (1%, and P. luteola (1%. The enteral feeding tubes were in place between 48 h (13%. All the S. marcescens isolates from the enteral feeding tubes were resistant to amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav. Of additional importance was that a quarter of E. hormaechei isolates were resistant to the 3rd generation cephalosporins ceftazidime and cefotaxime. During the period of the study, K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens caused infections in the two NICUs. Conclusion This study shows that neonatal enteral feeding tubes

  13. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  14. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  15. Origin of British and Irish mammals: disparate post-glacial colonisation and species introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, W. Ian; Provan, Jim; McCabe, A. Marshal; Yalden, Derek W.

    2014-08-01

    ecological divergence in Ireland in comparison to Britain and continental Europe, were also those which arrived in Ireland very early in the Holocene either with or without the assistance of people. Cold tolerant mammal species recolonized quickly after LGM but disappeared, potentially as a result of a short period of rapid warming. Other early arrivals were less cold tolerant and succumbed to the colder conditions during the Younger Dryas or shortly after the start of the Holocene (11.5 kya), or the area of suitable habitat was insufficient to sustain a viable population especially in larger species. Late Pleistocene mammals in Ireland were restricted to those able to colonize up to ca 15 kya, probably originating from adjacent areas of unglaciated Britain and land now below sea level, to the south and west (of Ireland). These few, early colonizers retain genetic diversity which dates from before the LGM. Late Pleistocene Ireland, therefore, had a much depleted complement of mammal species in comparison to Britain. Mammal species, colonising predominantly from southeast and east Europe occupied west Europe only as far as Britain between ca 15 and 8 kya, were excluded from Ireland by the Irish and Celtic Seas. Smaller species in particular failed to colonise Ireland. Britain being isolated as an island from ca. 8 kya has similar species richness and composition to adjacent lowland areas of northwest continental Europe and its mammals almost all show strongest genetic affinity to populations in neighbouring continental Europe with a few retaining genotypes associated with earlier, western lineages. The role of people in the deliberate introduction of mammal species and distinct genotypes is much more significant with regards to Ireland than Britain reflecting the larger species richness of the latter and its more enduring land link with continental Europe. The prime motivation of early people in moving mammals was likely to be resource driven but also potentially cultural; as

  16. Silicification of wood adopted for barrel production using pure silicon alkoxides in gas phase to avoid microbial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Widmann, Giacomo; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nardin, Tiziana; Callone, Emanuela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a new approach, covering wood with silica-based material in order to protect it from spoilage due to microbial colonisation and avoiding the loss of the natural features of the wood. Wood specimens derived from wine barrels were treated with methyltriethoxysilane in gas phase, leading to the deposition of a silica nanofilm on the surface. (29)Si and (13)C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis observations showed the formation of a silica polymeric film on the wood samples, directly bonding with the wood constituents. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy quantification of Si showed a direct correlation between the treatment time and silica deposition on the surface of the wood. The silica-coated wood counteracted colonisation by the main wine spoilage microorganisms, without altering the migration from wood to wine of 21 simple phenols measured using a HPLC-Electrochemical Coulometric Detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two colonisation stages generate two different patterns of genetic diversity within native and invasive ranges of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, B; Atlan, A; Roussel, V; Buckley, Y M; Tarayre, M

    2013-11-01

    Genetic diversity and the way a species is introduced influence the capacity of populations of invasive species to persist in, and adapt to, their new environment. The diversity of introduced populations affects their evolutionary potential, which is particularly important for species that have invaded a wide range of habitats and climates, such as European gorse, Ulex europaeus. This species originated in the Iberian peninsula and colonised Europe in the Neolithic; over the course of the past two centuries it was introduced to, and has become invasive in, other continents. We characterised neutral genetic diversity and its structure in the native range and in invaded regions. By coupling these results with historical data, we have identified the way in which gorse populations were introduced and the consequences of introduction history on genetic diversity. Our study is based on the genotyping of individuals from 18 populations at six microsatellite loci. As U. europaeus is an allohexaploid species, we used recently developed tools that take into account genotypic ambiguity. Our results show that genetic diversity in gorse is very high and mainly contained within populations. We confirm that colonisation occurred in two stages. During the first stage, gorse spread out naturally from Spain towards northern Europe, losing some genetic diversity. During the second stage, gorse was introduced by humans into different regions of the world, from northern Europe. These introductions resulted in the loss of rare alleles but did not significantly reduce genetic diversity and thus the evolutionary potential of this invasive species.

  18. Genome wide expression profiling reveals suppression of host defence responses during colonisation by Neisseria meningitides but not N. lactamica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel En En Wong

    Full Text Available Both Neisseria meningitidis and the closely related bacterium Neisseria lactamica colonise human nasopharyngeal mucosal surface, but only N. meningitidis invades the bloodstream to cause potentially life-threatening meningitis and septicaemia. We have hypothesised that the two neisserial species differentially modulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression reflecting their disease potential. Confluent monolayers of 16HBE14 human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to live and/or dead N. meningitidis (including capsule and pili mutants and N. lactamica, and their transcriptomes were compared using whole genome microarrays. Changes in expression of selected genes were subsequently validated using Q-RT-PCR and ELISAs. Live N. meningitidis and N. lactamica induced genes involved in host energy production processes suggesting that both bacterial species utilise host resources. N. meningitidis infection was associated with down-regulation of host defence genes. N. lactamica, relative to N. meningitidis, initiates up-regulation of proinflammatory genes. Bacterial secreted proteins alone induced some of the changes observed. The results suggest N. meningitidis and N. lactamica differentially regulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression through colonisation and/or protein secretion, and that this may contribute to subsequent clinical outcomes associated with these bacteria.

  19. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  20. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Monceau

    Full Text Available Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA. Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados. Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  1. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatova, Vera; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In

  2. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Opatova

    Full Text Available Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source

  3. Spiders on a Hot Volcanic Roof: Colonisation Pathways and Phylogeography of the Canary Islands Endemic Trap-Door Spider Titanidiops canariensis (Araneae, Idiopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatova, Vera; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted on volcanic islands have greatly contributed to our current understanding of how organisms diversify. The Canary Islands archipelago, located northwest of the coast of northern Africa, harbours a large number of endemic taxa. Because of their low vagility, mygalomorph spiders are usually absent from oceanic islands. The spider Titanidiops canariensis, which inhabits the easternmost islands of the archipelago, constitutes an exception to this rule. Here, we use a multi-locus approach that combines three mitochondrial and four nuclear genes to investigate the origins and phylogeography of this remarkable trap-door spider. We provide a timeframe for the colonisation of the Canary Islands using two alternative approaches: concatenation and species tree inference in a Bayesian relaxed clock framework. Additionally, we investigate the existence of cryptic species on the islands by means of a Bayesian multi-locus species delimitation method. Our results indicate that T. canariensis colonised the Canary Islands once, most likely during the Miocene, although discrepancies between the timeframes from different approaches make the exact timing uncertain. A complex evolutionary history for the species in the archipelago is revealed, which involves two independent colonisations of Fuerteventura from the ancestral range of T. canariensis in northern Lanzarote and a possible back colonisation of southern Lanzarote. The data further corroborate a previously proposed volcanic refugium, highlighting the impact of the dynamic volcanic history of the island on the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic taxa. T. canariensis includes at least two different species, one inhabiting the Jandia peninsula and central Fuerteventura and one spanning from central Fuerteventura to Lanzarote. Our data suggest that the extant northern African Titanidiops lineages may have expanded to the region after the islands were colonised and, hence, are not the source of colonisation. In

  4. Rhizoplane colonisation of peas by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae and a deleterious Pseudomonas putida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berggren, I.; Alstrom, S.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.; Martensson, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain angstrom 313, a deleterious rhizosphere bacterium, reduced pea nitrogen content when inoculated alone or in combination with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae on plants in the presence of soil under greenhouse conditions. When plants were grown gnotobiotically in liquid

  5. Colonisation of poultry by Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 is reduced by combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alun; Adams, Martin; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis remains a significant issue within the poultry industry and one potential solution is to use probiotic bacteria to prevent Salmonella colonisation through competitive exclusion (CE). We demonstrate that combined administration of Lactobacillus salivarius 59 and Enterococcus faecium PXN33 were effective competitive excluders of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 in poultry. Two models were developed to evaluate the efficacy of probiotic where birds received Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 by a) oral gavage and b) sentinel bird to bird transmission. A statistically significant (p<0.001) 2 log reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation was observed in the ileum, caecum and colon at day 43 using combined administration of the two probiotic bacteria. However, no Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 colonisation reduction was observed when either probiotic was administered individually. In the sentinel bird model the combined probiotic administered at days 12 and 20 was more effective than one-off or double administrations at age 1 and 12days. In vitro cell free culture supernatant studies suggest the mechanism of Salmonella Enteritidis S1400 inhibition was due to a reduction in pH by the probiotic bacteria. Our current study provides further evidence that probiotics can significantly reduce pathogenic bacterial colonisation in poultry and that mixed preparation of probiotics provide superior performance when compared to individual bacterial preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The microbiota and the gut-brain axis: insights from the temporal and spatial mucosal alterations during colonisation of the germfree mouse intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.F.; Kunze, W.; Bienenstock, J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the gut microbiota on the nervous system, brain development and behaviour, in particular during microbial colonisation of the host, has recently been receiving profound interest. Our time-resolved mining of combined data analyses of the ex-germfree mouse intestine during a 30-day

  7. Bacteria of the genus Dyella can chronically colonise the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and elicit a pronounced antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Liv M; Høiby, Niels; Wang, Mikala

    2013-01-01

    A patient with cystic fibrosis became chronically colonised with an unusual non-fermenting Gram-negative rod that could be cultured on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar. Phenotypic characterisation by VITEK-2 suggested identification as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, however 16S rRNA gene sequ...

  8. “Wildness” as a metaphor for self-definition of the colonised subject in the Positivist period in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kołos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the question of the Polish nation's self-definition in the Positivist period both in belles-lettres and in journalism, which were dependent to a great extent on the colonial discourse. It is argued that crucial metaphors of “wildness,” “savageness” or “backwardness” stem from orientalising labels created by the colonisers. Examination of this issue requires some basic introduction to historical and anthropological ideas which date back to the Age of Enlightenment. The aim of this paper is to shed light – by analysing literature examples such as Ludwik Powidaj, Cyprian Kamil Norwid, Maria Konopnicka, Eliza Orzeszkowa and Henryk Sienkiewicz – on the so called “colonial trauma” that has condemned the Polish image to resentful ideology. Furthermore, the paper will provide arguments in favour of subscribing to the postcolonial studies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  9. Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Savel R

    2011-11-01

    The endemic, monotypic freshwater crab species Seychellum alluaudi was used as a template to examine the initial colonisation and evolutionary history among the major islands in the Seychelles Archipelago. Five of the "inner" islands in the Seychelles Archipelago including Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette, La Digue and Frégate were sampled. Two partial mtDNA fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced for 83 specimens of S. alluaudi. Evolutionary relationships between populations were inferred from the combined mtDNA dataset using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) were used to examine genetic variation among and within clades. A haplotype network was constructed using TCS while BEAST was employed to date the colonisation and divergence of lineages on the islands. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined mtDNA data set of 1103 base pairs retrieved a monophyletic S. alluaudi group comprised three statistically well-supported monophyletic clades. Clade one was exclusive to Silhouette; clade two included samples from Praslin sister to La Digue, while clade three comprised samples from Mahé sister to Frégate. The haplotype network corresponded to the three clades. Within Mahé, substantial phylogeographic substructure was evident. AMOVA results revealed limited genetic variation within localities with most variation occurring among localities. Divergence time estimations predated the Holocene sea level regressions and indicated a Pliocene/Pleistocene divergence between the three clades evident within S. alluaudi. The monophyly of each clade suggests that transoceanic dispersal is rare. The absence of shared haplotypes between the three clades, coupled with marked sequence divergence values suggests the presence of three allospecies within S. alluaudi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carnivore re-colonisation: Reality, possibility and a non-equilibrium century for grizzly bears in the southern Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyare, Sanjay; Cain, S.; Moody, D.; Schwartz, C.; Berger, J.

    2004-01-01

    Most large native carnivores have experienced range contractions due to conflicts with humans, although neither rates of spatial collapse nor expansion have been well characterised. In North America, the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) once ranged from Mexico northward to Alaska, however its range in the continental USA has been reduced by 95-98%. Under the U. S. Endangered Species Act, the Yellowstone grizzly bear population has re-colonised habitats outside Yellowstone National Park. We analysed historical and current records, including data on radio-collared bears, (1) to evaluate changes in grizzly bear distribution in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) over a 100-year period, (2) to utilise historical rates of re-colonisation to project future expansion trends and (3) to evaluate the reality of future expansion based on human limitations and land use. Analysis of distribution in 20-year increments reflects range reduction from south to north (1900-1940) and expansion to the south (1940-2000). Expansion was exponential and the area occupied by grizzly bears doubled approximately every 20 years. A complementary analysis of bear occurrence in Grand Teton National Park also suggests an unprecedented period of rapid expansion during the last 20-30 years. The grizzly bear population currently has re-occupied about 50% of the southern GYE. Based on assumptions of continued protection and ecological stasis, our model suggests total occupancy in 25 years. Alternatively, extrapolation of linear expansion rates from the period prior to protection suggests total occupancy could take > 100 years. Analyses of historical trends can be useful as a restoration tool because they enable a framework and timeline to be constructed to pre-emptively address the social challenges affecting future carnivore recovery. ?? 2004 The Zoological Society of London.

  11. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647

  12. Association between the porcine Escherichia coli F18 receptor genotype and phenotype and susceptibility to colonisation and postweaning diarrhoea caused by E-coli O138 : F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    Porcine postweaning Escherichia coli enteritis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pigs worldwide, and effective prevention remains an unsolved problem. This study examined the correlation between susceptibility of pigs to experimental infection with an E. coli F18 strain...... and the porcine intestinal F18 receptor genotypes. Thirty-one pigs classified as either belonging to the susceptible or the resistant genotype were inoculated with cultures of an E. coli 0138:F18 isolated from a pig with postweaning diarrhoea. Susceptibility to colonisation and diarrhoea was assessed by clinical...... and heterozygotic susceptible pigs. Faecal shedding of the challenge strain correlated with the genetic receptor profile. Twenty pigs examined immunohistochemically revealed focal to extensive small intestinal mucosal colonisation by E. coli O138:F18 in nine of 10 susceptible and three of 10 resistant pigs. Results...

  13. Colonisation of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis by malignant melanoma in situ in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise J. Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although malignant melanoma (MM and both basal cell carcinoma (BCC and actinic keratosis (AK are sun-induced lesions, the coexistence of these entities at the same anatomical site (collision tumour is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman with a known history of xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV who presented with 2 separate skin lesions over the middle and upper right forearm, respectively. The clinical impression was that of BCCs or squamous cell lesions. On histological examination, both specimens showed features of melanoma in situ (MIS. In the first lesion, MIS merged with and colonised a superficial and focally invasive BCC. In the second lesion, MIS merged with an AK. No separate invasive nests of malignant melanoma were seen in either specimen. The atypical melanocytes were highlighted by Melan-A and HMB-45 immunostaining, whereas the epithelial cells in both the BCC and AK stained with the pancytokeratin MNF-116. The patient had a previous history of multiple MMs and non-melanomatous skin cancers and finally developed widespread metastatic malignant melanoma, which proved fatal. The rare and interesting phenomenon of collision tumours may pose diagnostic difficulties. To our knowledge, this is the first reported simultaneous presentation of cytologically malignant collision tumours in a patient with XPV.

  14. Neonatal colonisation expands a specific intestinal antigen-presenting cell subset prior to CD4 T-cell expansion, without altering T-cell repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte F Inman

    Full Text Available Interactions between the early-life colonising intestinal microbiota and the developing immune system are critical in determining the nature of immune responses in later life. Studies in neonatal animals in which this interaction can be examined are central to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota impacts on immune development and to developing therapies based on manipulation of the microbiome. The inbred piglet model represents a system that is comparable to human neonates and allows for control of the impact of maternal factors. Here we show that colonisation with a defined microbiota produces expansion of mucosal plasma cells and of T-lymphocytes without altering the repertoire of alpha beta T-cells in the intestine. Importantly, this is preceded by microbially-induced expansion of a signal regulatory protein α-positive (SIRPα(+ antigen-presenting cell subset, whilst SIRPα(-CD11R1(+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs are unaffected by colonisation. The central role of intestinal APCs in the induction and maintenance of mucosal immunity implicates SIRPα(+ antigen-presenting cells as orchestrators of early-life mucosal immune development.

  15. Active surveillance for asymptomatic colonisation by multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients transferred to a tertiary care hospital in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Adham Abu; Daoud, Ayman; Zaid, Sawsan; Sammour, Sajida; Belleh, Maram; Daifi, Refqa

    2018-02-21

    Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs. Swabs were cultured and assessed for the presence of multi-drug resistant organisms (extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. Of the 822 screened patients, 265 (32%) had infections with multi-drug resistant organisms. 394 isolates of multi-drug resistant organisms were obtained: 131 (33%) isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, 119 (30%) isolates were P aeroginosae, 26 (9%) isolates were A baumannii, 94 (24%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S aureus, 13 (3%) isolates were vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and one (<1%) isolate was carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. We identified a high prevalence of asymptomatic colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria in transferred patients. These findings emphasise the need for a national strategy to combat the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms in the occupied Palestinian territory. An-Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  17. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  18. Staying cool: preadaptation to temperate climates required for colonising tropical alpine-like environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Gehrke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant species tend to retain their ancestral ecology, responding to temporal, geographic and climatic changes by tracking suitable habitats rather than adapting to novel conditions. Nevertheless, transitions into different environments or biomes still seem to be common. Especially intriguing are the tropical alpine-like areas found on only the highest mountainous regions surrounded by tropical environments. Tropical mountains are hotspots of biodiversity, often with striking degrees of endemism at higher elevations. On these mountains, steep environmental gradients and high habitat heterogeneity within small spaces coincide with astounding species diversity of great conservation value. The analysis presented here shows that the importance of in situ speciation in tropical alpine-like areas has been underestimated. Additionally and contrary to widely held opinion, the impact of dispersal from other regions with alpine-like environments is relatively minor compared to that of immigration from other biomes with a temperate (but not alpine-like climate. This suggests that establishment in tropical alpine-like regions is favoured by preadaptation to a temperate, especially aseasonal, freezing regime such as the cool temperate climate regions in the Tropics. Furthermore, emigration out of an alpine-like environment is generally rare, suggesting that alpine-like environments – at least tropical ones – are species sinks.

  19. Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Hawkey, Peter M; Murray, Aimee K; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gaze, William H

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users. 97 bathing water samples from England and Wales were analysed for the proportion of E. coli harbouring bla CTX-M . These data were used to estimate the likelihood of water users ingesting bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. Having identified surfers as being at risk of exposure to ARB, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Regular surfers and non-surfers were recruited to assess whether there is an association between surfing and gut colonisation by bla CTX-M- bearing E. coli. 11 of 97 bathing waters sampled were found to contain bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. While the percentage of bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli in bathing waters was low (0.07%), water users are at risk of ingesting these ARB. It is estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in 2015 resulting in the ingestion of at least one bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. In the epidemiological survey, 9/143 (6.3%) surfers were colonised by bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli, as compared to 2/130 (1.5%) of non-surfers (risk ratio=4.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 16.4, p=0.046). Surfers are at risk of exposure to and colonisation by clinically important antibiotic-resistant E. coli in coastal waters. Further research must be done on the role natural environments play in the transmission of ARB. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, David; Gladstone, Beryl Primrose; Burkert, Francesco; Carrara, Elena; Foschi, Federico; Döbele, Stefanie; Tacconelli, Evelina

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 1960, to May 31, 2016, that analysed the effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infections in hospital inpatients. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials and extracted data. Studies involving long-term care facilities were excluded. The main outcomes were incidence ratios (IRs) of target infections and colonisation per 1000 patient-days before and after implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Meta-analyses were done with random-effect models and heterogeneity was calculated with the I 2 method. We included 32 studies in the meta-analysis, comprising 9 056 241 patient-days and 159 estimates of IRs. Antibiotic stewardship programmes reduced the incidence of infections and colonisation with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (51% reduction; IR 0·49, 95% CI 0·35-0·68; pdifficile infections (32%; 0·68, 0·53-0·88; p=0·0029). Antibiotic stewardship programmes were more effective when implemented with infection control measures (IR 0·69, 0·54-0·88; p=0·0030), especially hand-hygiene interventions (0·34, 0·21-0·54; pinfections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and C difficile infections in hospital inpatients. These results provide stakeholders and policy makers with evidence for implementation of antibiotic stewardship interventions to reduce the burden of infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria. German Center for Infection Research

  1. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  2. Comprehensive clinical and epidemiological assessment of colonisation and infection due to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Baena, Zaira R; Oteo, Jesús; Conejo, Carmen; Larrosa, M Nieves; Bou, Germán; Fernández-Martínez, Marta; González-López, Juan José; Pintado, Vicente; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Merino, María; Pomar, Virginia; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Rivera, María Alba; Oliver, Antonio; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Zamorano, Laura; Bautista, Verónica; Ortega, Adriana; Morales, Isabel; Pascual, Álvaro; Campos, José; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Most available information on carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is usually associated with specific types of infection or patient or with descriptions of outbreaks. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyse the clinical epidemiology, clinical features and outcomes of colonisation and infections due to CPE in Spain. A multicentre prospective cohort study was carried out in 34 Spanish hospitals from February to May 2013. All new patients testing positive for CPE in clinical samples were included. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of mortality. Overall, 245 cases were included. The most frequent organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (74%) and the carbapenemases belonged to the OXA-48 (74%), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) (24%) and KPC (2%) groups. Acquisition was nosocomial in 145 cases (60%) and healthcare-associated (HCA) in 91 (37%); 42% of the latter were nursing home residents, in whom OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae ST405 predominated. MBLs and OXA-48 predominated in ICU and medical patients, respectively. Overall, 67% of patients had infections. The most frequent infections identified in this study were urinary tract (43%) and skin structure (21%) infections, and 10% of infections were bacteraemic. Crude mortality was 20%. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy was independently associated with an increased risk of death (OR = 3.30; 95% CI: 1.34-8.11). We found some differences in the epidemiology of CPE depending on the type of carbapenemase produced. Although a low proportion of CPE infections were bacteraemic, active antibiotic therapy was a protective factor for reducing mortality. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  4. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  5. Risk factors for infection and/or colonisation with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria in the neonatal intensive care unit: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Xianxian; Luo, Mei; Liu, Pin; Su, Kewen; Qing, Ying; Chen, Shuai; Qiu, Jingfu; Li, Yingli

    2017-11-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify risk factors associated with infection and/or colonisation with ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 July 2016. The literature was screened and data were extracted according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Z-test was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) of the risk factors. ORs and their 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the significance of the risk. A total of 14 studies, including 746 cases and 1257 controls, were identified. Thirteen risk factors were determined to be related to infection and/or colonisation with ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU: birthweight [standardised mean difference (SMD) = 1.17]; gestational age (SMD = 1.36); Caesarean delivery (OR = 1.76); parenteral nutrition (OR = 7.51); length of stay in the NICU (SMD = 0.72); mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.8); central venous catheter use (OR = 2.85); continuous positive airway pressure (OR = 5.0); endotracheal intubation (OR = 2.82); malformations (OR = 2.89); previous antibiotic use (OR = 6.72); ampicillin/gentamicin (OR = 2.31); and cephalosporins (OR = 6.0). This study identified risk factors for infection and/or colonisation with ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU, which may provide a theoretical basis for preventive measures and targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  7. Differences in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonisation or Clostridium difficile infection following frontline treatment with tigecycline vs. meropenem for intra-abdominal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Michele; Tedeschi, Sara; Pascale, Renato; Raumer, Luigi; Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Palmiero, Giulia; Tumietto, Fabio; Cristini, Francesco; Ambretti, Simone; Giannella, Maddalena; Lewis, Russell Edward; Viale, Pierluigi

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesised that treatment with a tigecycline-based antimicrobial regimen for intra-abdominal infection (IAI) could be associated with lower rates of subsequent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonisation or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) compared with a meropenem-based regimen. We performed a retrospective, single-centre, matched (1:1) cohort analysis of all patients who received at least 5 days of empirical or targeted tigecycline (TIG)- or meropenem (MER)-based treatment regimens for IAI over a 50-month period. Patients with previous CRE colonisation and CDI were excluded. Risk factors for CRE and CDI were assessed with a Cox regression model that included treatment duration as a time-dependent variable. Thirty-day mortality was assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves. We identified 168 TIG-treated and 168 MER-treated patients. The cumulative incidence rate ratio of CDI was 10-fold lower in TIG-treated vs. MER-treated patients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.10/1000 patient-days, 95%CI 0.002-0.72, P = 0.007), but similar incidence rates were found for CRE colonisation (IRR 1.39/1000 patient-days, 95%CI 0.68-2.78, P = 0.36). In a multivariate Cox regression model, the receipt of a TIG- vs. MER-based regimen was associated with significantly lower rates of CDI (HR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03-0.71, P = 0.02), but not CRE (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.45-2.83, P = 0.80). All-cause 30-day mortality was similar in the two groups (P = 0.46). TIG-based regimens for IAI were associated with a 10-fold lower incidence of CDI compared with MER-based regimens, but there was no difference in the incidence of CRE colonisation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from animals in New Zealand, 2012-2013, and subclinical colonisation in dogs and cats in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkaba, A; Benschop, J; Hill, K E; Grinberg, A

    2017-03-01

    To characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from infection sites in animals in New Zealand and assess the prevalence of subclinical MRSA colonisation in dogs and cats attending veterinary clinics in Auckland. MRSA isolates from clinical specimens obtained by the main New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories between June 2012 and June 2013, were genotypically characterised by DNA microarray hybridisation analysis and spa typing. In addition, nasal or perineal skin swabs collected from a cross-sectional sample of dogs (n=361) and cats (n=225) attending 29 veterinary clinics in Auckland during the same period were analysed for MRSA by culture. Eight MRSA clinical isolates were submitted for characterisation by the participating laboratories. The isolates originated from five dogs, including two isolates from the same dog, one foal, and one isolate had no identification of the source. The strain-types identified were AK3 (ST-5 SCCmecIV t045; n=1), USA500 (ST8 SCCmecIV t064; n=1), WSPP (ST30 SCCmecIV t019; n=1), Rhine Hesse (ST5 SCCmecII t002; n=2), and EMRSA-15 (ST22 SCCmecIV t032; n=3). No MRSA were isolated from 586 cultured swabs. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were detected in 9/257 (3.5%) swabs and non-aureus staphylococci in 22/257 (8.5%) swabs. The estimated true MRSA subclinical colonisation prevalence was 0%, with an upper 95% CI boundary of 1.9% for cats and 1.4% for dogs. The modest number of MRSA isolates submitted for this study by the participating laboratories suggests clinical MRSA infection in animals in New Zealand continues to be sporadic. The wide variety of strain-types found mirrored the evolving strain-type diversity observed in humans. We cannot rule out bias due to the non-random sampling of dogs and cats, but the apparent colonisation prevalence of 0% was consistent with the low prevalence of subclinical colonisation in humans in New Zealand. These similarities indicate the epidemiology of animal and

  9. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Pintelon, Isabel; Stevens, Vincent; Imperato, Valeria; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; González-Chávez, Carmen; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Thijs, Sofie

    2018-01-19

    Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  10. Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna S. Sánchez-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

  11. Serratia marcescens bacteraemia outbreak in haemodialysis patients with tunnelled catheters due to colonisation of antiseptic solution. Experience at 4 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José L; Bouarich, Hanane; Pita, Mª José; Martínez, Patricia; Bueno, Blanca; Caldés, Silvia; Corchete, Elena; Jaldo, Mª Teresa; Espejo, Beatriz; Paraíso, Vicente

    %) colonised by S. marcescens. Given the routine application of this antiseptic in handling catheters at these units, this was considered the source of contagion and new cases were not observed after the removal of the batches. The presence of bacteraemia due to unconventional germs should alert us to a potential outbreak. The application of a solution contaminated by S. marcescens in haemodialysis catheters was the source of bacteraemia. The intravenous antibiotic treatment and the catheter lock solution allowed an excellent survival of patients and catheters. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. De-colonising Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    . My paper shall focus on the representation of the Moroccan Jew in both Moroccan and “Jewish” cinemas in the last two decades in order to show how transnational Moroccan cinema and post-Zionist Mizrahi films actually engage Moroccans – Jews and Muslims – to tell their confiscated memories...

  13. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  14. Intensified colonisation screening according to the recommendations of the German Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infectious Diseases Prevention (KRINKO): identification and containment of a Serratia marcescens outbreak in the neonatal intensive care unit, Jena, Germany, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Kristin; Proquitté, Hans; Roedel, Jürgen; Edel, Brigit; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Hoyer, Heike; Dobermann, Helke; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, the German Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infectious Disease Prevention (KRINKO) stated that extending weekly colonisation screening from very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (Serratia marcescens. Strains were typed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Over 6 months, 19 out of 159 infants acquired S. marcescens. Twelve of the nineteen patients with S. marcescens were non-VLBW infants, and they were colonised significantly earlier than were VLBW infants (median 17 vs. 28 days; p marcescens.

  15. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Schöffmann, Christine

    2010-03-16

    . Hygienic measurements prove to be effective in combination with other measurements. But it cannot be said which of the single measurements (gloves, washing hands, wearing gowns or masks) has the strongest effect on the reduction of MRSA. It is irritating that there are high differences in the compliance concerning hand hygiene between different studies. A general decolonisation is questionable for different reasons: first because of the side-effects for patients, second because of the high rate of spontaneous remissions in the untreated control group, third because of the differentiated process from colonisation to infection. Severalfold Hawthorne effects have been reported. One of them is that the competition between hospitals to reduce MRSA-rates leads already to a reduction. It is evident that selective screening programs of risk patients considering the particular MRSA-prevalence are of use. The application of rapid tests seems to be only recommendable for risk patients and a high MRSA-prevalence. The improvement of the compliance of hand hygiene should be the basis of any prevention strategy. Training of staff members (with feedback mechanisms) is effective to improve compliance and to optimise the use of antibiotics. Antibiotic management programs are effective as well. Obviously multimodal approaches can lead to overadditive effects. Therefore the catalogue of preventive and control measurements has to be further evaluated. Good cost-efficacy studies are missing in Germany. The psychosocial effects of MRSA-infections are not researched in Germany. There is only punctual information on the risk management of hospitals.

  16. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    internal and external validity of the studies is too weak to evaluate single interventions. Hygienic measurements prove to be effective in combination with other measurements. But it cannot be said which of the single measurements (gloves, washing hands, wearing gowns or masks has the strongest effect on the reduction of MRSA. It is irritating that there are high differences in the compliance concerning hand hygiene between different studies. A general decolonisation is questionable for different reasons: first because of the side-effects for patients, second because of the high rate of spontaneous remissions in the untreated control group, third because of the differentiated process from colonisation to infection. Severalfold Hawthorne effects have been reported. One of them is that the competition between hospitals to reduce MRSA-rates leads already to a reduction. Conclusions: It is evident that selective screening programs of risk patients considering the particular MRSA-prevalence are of use. The application of rapid tests seems to be only recommendable for risk patients and a high MRSA-prevalence. The improvement of the compliance of hand hygiene should be the basis of any prevention strategy. Training of staff members (with feedback mechanisms is effective to improve compliance and to optimise the use of antibiotics. Antibiotic management programs are effective as well. Obviously multimodal approaches can lead to overadditive effects. Therefore the catalogue of preventive and control measurements has to be further evaluated. Good cost-efficacy studies are missing in Germany. The psychosocial effects of MRSA-infections are not researched in Germany. There is only punctual information on the risk management of hospitals.

  17. The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8® on blood levels of triacylglycerol is independent of colonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig; Sørensen, M.B.; Krych, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis has been linked to obesity and its metabolic complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of developing CVD increases with elevated concentration of serum triacylglycerol (TAG). In a blinded, randomised two-arm parallel human intervention study we have...... study we analysed faecal samples obtained during the intervention study to investigate whether this effect was related to the ability of L. casei W8 to colonise the human gut after supplementation of L. casei W8 (1010 cfu daily) as determined by qPCR specific for L. paracasei and L. casei (L. casei...... and two weeks after the supplementation was ended, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks. Four weeks supplementation with L. casei W8 did not affect the overall composition of the GM; however, an increase in the relative abundance of the L. casei group from 8...

  18. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar.

  19. Holocene re-colonisation, central-marginal distribution and habitat specialisation shape population genetic patterns within an Atlantic European grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, D E V; Jentsch, A; Durka, W

    2015-05-01

    Corynephorus canescens (L.) P.Beauv. is an outbreeding, short-lived and wind-dispersed grass species, highly specialised on scattered and disturbance-dependent habitats of open sandy sites. Its distribution ranges from the Iberian Peninsula over Atlantic regions of Western and Central Europe, but excludes the two other classical European glacial refuge regions on the Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas. To investigate genetic patterns of this uncommon combination of ecological and biogeographic species characteristics, we analysed AFLP variation among 49 populations throughout the European distribution range, expecting (i) patterns of SW European glacial refugia and post-glacial expansion to the NE; (ii) decreasing genetic diversity from central to marginal populations; and (iii) interacting effects of high gene flow and disturbance-driven genetic drift. Decreasing genetic diversity from SW to NE and distinct gene pool clustering imply refugia on the Iberian Peninsula and in western France, from where range expansion originated towards the NE. High genetic diversity within and moderate genetic differentiation among populations, and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance indicate a gene flow drift equilibrium within C. canescens, probably due to its restriction to scattered and dynamic habitats and limited dispersal distances. These features, as well as the re-colonisation history, were found to affect genetic diversity gradients from central to marginal populations. Our study emphasises the need for including the specific ecology into analyses of species (re-)colonisation histories and range centre-margin analyses. To account for discontinuous distributions, new indices of marginality were tested for their suitability in studies of centre-periphery gradients. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Detection of Candida spp. in the vagina of a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women by culture and molecular methods: Is there an association between maternal vaginal and infant oral colonisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Cullinane, Meabh; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Donath, Susan M; Bennett, Catherine M; Amir, Lisa H

    2016-04-01

    Most studies describing vaginal Candida spp. in pregnancy focus on symptomatic vaginitis, rather than asymptomatic colonisation, and solely utilise microbiological culture. The extent to which asymptomatic vaginal carriage may represent a reservoir for infant oral colonisation has been highly debated. This study formed part of the Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission Longitudinal Evaluation (CASTLE) study, in Melbourne, Australia, from 2009 to 2011 and used culture and molecular methods to examine vaginal swabs collected late in the third trimester of pregnancy for Candida spp. Oral swabs from infants were also examined using culture methods. Overall, 80 of 356 (22%) women were positive for Candida spp; the majority being Candida albicans (83%). Candida glabrata and other Candida spp. were also identified, but in much lower numbers. Molecular analysis identified numerous positive samples not detected by culture, including 13 cases of C. albicans. In addition, some positive samples only recorded to genus level by culture were accurately identified as either C. albicans or C. glabrata following molecular analyses. Eighteen infants recorded positive Candida spp. cultures, predominantly C. albicans. However, there were only four (25%) mother/infant dyads where C. albicans was detected. This study provides valuable data on asymptomatic colonisation rates of Candida spp. within an asymptomatic population of women late in pregnancy. The utilisation of molecular methods improved the rate of detection and provided a more accurate means for identification of non-albicans Candida spp. The low mother/infant colonisation rate suggests that non-maternal sources are likely involved in determining infant oral colonisation status. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Whole-transcriptome analysis of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Sakai suggests plant-species-specific metabolic responses on exposure to spinach and lettuce extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Crozier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC can contaminate crop plants, potentially using them as secondary hosts, which can lead to food-borne infection. Currently, little is known about the influence of the specific plant species on the success of bacterial colonisation. As such, we compared the ability of the VTEC strain, E. coli O157:H7 ‘Sakai’, to colonise the roots and leaves of four leafy vegetables: spinach (Spinacia oleracea, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, vining green pea (Pisum sativum and prickly lettuce (L. serriola, a wild relative of domesticated lettuce. Also, to determine the drivers of the initial response on interaction with plant tissue, the whole transcriptome of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai was analysed following exposure to plant extracts of varying complexity (spinach leaf lysates or root exudates, and leaf cell wall polysaccharides from spinach or lettuce. Plant extracts were used to reduce heterogeneity inherent in plant-microbe interactions and remove the effect of plant immunity. This dual approach provided information on the initial adaptive response of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai to the plant environment together with the influence of the living plant during bacterial establishment and colonisation. Results showed that both the plant tissue type and the plant species strongly influence the short-term (1 hour transcriptional response to extracts as well as longer-term (10 days plant colonisation or persistence. We show that propagation temperature (37 versus 18 oC has a major impact on the expression profile and therefore pre-adaptation of bacteria to a plant-relevant temperature is necessary to avoid misleading temperature-dependent wholescale gene-expression changes in response to plant material. For each of the plant extracts tested, the largest group of (annotated differentially regulated genes were associated with metabolism. However, large-scale differences in the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways between treatment types

  2. Quantitative analysis of vascular colonisation and angio-conduction in porous silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite with various pore shapes in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaudeix, Amandine; Usseglio, Julie; Lasgorceix, Marie; Lalloue, Fabrice; Damia, Chantal; Brie, Joël; Pascaud-Mathieu, Patricia; Champion, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The development of scaffolds for bone filling of large defects requires an understanding of angiogenesis and vascular guidance, which are crucial processes for bone formation and healing. There are few investigations on the ability of a scaffold to support blood vessel guidance and it this is of great importance because it relates to the quality and dispersion of the blood vessel network. This work reports an analysis of vascularisation of porous silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) bioceramics and the effects of pore shape on vascular guidance using an expedient ex ovo model, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Image analysis of vascularised implants assessed the vascular density, fractal dimension and diameter of blood vessels at two different scales (the whole ceramic and pores alone) and was performed on model SiHA ceramics harbouring pores of various cross-sectional geometries (circles, square, rhombus, triangles and stars). SiHA is a biocompatible material which allows the conduction of blood vessels on its surface. The presence of pores did not influence angiogenesis related-parameters (arborisation, fractal dimension) but pore geometry affected the blood vessel guidance and angio-conductive potential (diameter and number of the blood vessels converging toward the pores). The measured angles of pore cross-section modulated the number and diameter of blood vessels converging to pores, with triangular pores appearing of particular interest. This result will be used for shaping ceramic scaffolds with specific porous architecture to promote vascular colonisation and osteointegration. An expedient and efficient method, using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, has been set up to characterise quantitatively the angiogenesis and the vascular conduction in scaffolds. This approach complements the usual cell culture assays and could replace to a certain extent in vivo experiments. It was applied to silicon

  3. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  4. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  5. Characterisation of bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas and their effects on root-fungus interactions and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Poole, Elizabeth J; Whipps, John M; Read, David J

    2002-03-01

    Bacteria from Pinus sylvestris-Suillus luteus mycorrhizas were isolated, characterised, and their effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions and plant growth investigated in vitro. The isolates formed five distinct phenotypic and physiological groups. Two of the groups, accounting for 34 of the 55 isolates, consisted of Bacillus spp., with three subgroups represented. The other groups contained Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Representatives from each bacterial group were used in microcosm experiments to investigate bacterial effects on P. sylvestris-S. luteus interactions. Most Bacillus isolates stimulated growth of S. luteus along the P. sylvestris root, while isolates of Pseudomonas and Serratia inhibited root colonisation by the fungus. Burkholderia and Serratia isolates inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation by 97 and 41% respectively, while a single Bacillus isolate doubled the formation of first order ectomycorrhizal roots. There were no clear relationships between effects of the bacteria on root colonisation by the fungus after 4 weeks, and chitinase production or subsequent ectomycorrhiza formation. However, isolates that inhibited ectomycorrhiza formation appeared to associate preferentially with ectomycorrhizal roots. Several isolates enhanced plant growth substantially, although these effects were unrelated to either root colonisation by the fungus or ectomycorrhiza formation.

  6. Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on aboveground-belowground systems: a case study with plants, their mutualistic bacteria and root / shoot herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael William Ryalls

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between above- and belowground herbivores have been prominent in the field of aboveground-belowground ecology from the outset, although little is known about how climate change affects these organisms when they share the same plant. Additionally, the interactive effects of multiple factors associated with climate change such as elevated temperature (eT and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2 are untested. We investigated how eT and eCO2 affected larval development of the lucerne weevil (Sitona discoideus and colonisation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum, on three cultivars of a common host plant, lucerne (Medicago sativa. Sitona discoideus larvae feed on root nodules housing N2-fixing rhizobial bacteria, allowing us to test the effects of eT and eCO2 on three trophic levels. Moreover, we assessed the influence of these factors on plant growth. eT increased plant growth rate initially (6, 8 and 10 weeks after sowing, with cultivar ‘Sequel’ achieving the greatest height. Inoculation with aphids, however, reduced plant growth at week 14. eT severely reduced root nodulation by 43%, whereas eCO2 promoted nodulation by 56%, but only at ambient temperatures. Weevil presence increased net root biomass and nodulation, by 31 and 45%, respectively, showing an overcompensatory plant growth response. Effects of eT and eCO2 on root nodulation were mirrored by weevil larval development; eT and eCO2 reduced and increased larval development, respectively. Contrary to expectations, aphid colonisation was unaffected by eT or eCO2, but there was a near-significant 10% reduction in colonisation rates on plants with weevils present belowground. The contrasting effects of eT and eCO2 on weevils potentially occurred through changes in root nodulation patterns.

  7. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus) by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) over Fifteen Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Rosana; Costa da Silva, Raquel; Pinto, Míriam Plaza

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda) in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus). Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  8. Invasion and Colonisation of a Tropical Stream by an Exotic Loricariid Fish: Indices of Gradual Displacement of the Native Common Pleco (Hypostomus punctatus by the Red Fin Dwarf Pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda over Fifteen Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mazzoni

    Full Text Available The introduction of invasive species represents a major threat to the integrity of stream-dwelling fish populations worldwide, and this issue is receiving increasing attention from scientists, in particular because of potential impact on biodiversity. In this study, we analysed the dispersal of an exotic loricariid fish the red fin dwarf pleco (Parotocinclus maculicauda in a stream of the Atlantic Forest biome in coastal south-eastern Brazil and evaluated the effects of this invasion on the native loricariid common pleco (Hypostomus punctatus. Specimens were collected at eight sites located along the course of the stream over a 15-year period. The distribution and density of the two species were determined by the Successive Removal Method. The introduction of P. maculicauda occurred in the medium sector of the stream, and during the course of the study, the species dispersed to new sites further upstream. By the end of the study, it was found at all points upstream from the original site. Hypostomus punctatus was registered at all sample sites both before and after the introduction of P. maculicauda, but its density decreased at all upstream sites after the arrival of the exotic species. Our analysis shows that colonisation by P. maculicauda seems to have a negative effect on H. punctatus densities. The maintenance of H. punctatus densities at the sites not colonised by P. maculicauda reinforces the conclusion that the colonisation of the stream by the exotic species had deleterious effects on the density of the resident H. punctatus populations, either by direct or indirect action.

  9. Effects of water stress, organic amendment and mycorrhizal inoculation on soil microbial community structure and activity during the establishment of two heavy metal-tolerant native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R; Caravaca, F; Bååth, E

    2012-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the effect of water stress on plant growth and development of two native plant species (Tetraclinis articulata and Crithmum maritimum) and on microbial community composition and activity in the rhizosphere soil, following the addition of an organic amendment, namely sugar beet residue (SBR), and/or the inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, namely Glomus mosseae, in a non-sterile heavy metal-polluted soil. The AM inoculation did not have any significant effect on plant growth of both species. In T. articulata, SBR increased shoot growth, foliar P, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), fungi-related PLFA, AM fungi-related neutral lipid fatty acid, bacterial gram-positive/gram-negative PLFA ratio and the β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities. SBR and AM inoculation increased phosphatase activity in T. articulata plants grown under drought conditions. In both plants, there was a synergistic effect between AM inoculation and SBR on mycorrhizal colonisation under drought conditions. In C. maritimum, the increase produced by the SBR on total amounts of PLFA, bacterial gram-positive-related PLFA and bacterial gram-negative-related PLFA was considerably higher under drought conditions. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of the amendment with regard to stimulating microbial communities and plant growth was largely limited by drought, particularly for plant species with a low degree of mycorrhizal colonisation.

  10. Improved quality of care for patients infected or colonised with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a French teaching hospital: impact of an interventional prospective study and development of specific tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondain, Véronique; Lieutier, Florence; Pulcini, Céline; Degand, Nicolas; Landraud, Luce; Ruimy, Raymond; Fosse, Thierry; Roger, Pierre Marie

    2018-05-01

    The increasing incidence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in France prompted the publication of national recommendations in 2010. Based on these, we developed a toolkit and a warning system to optimise management of ESBL-E infected or colonised patients in both community and hospital settings. The impact of this initiative on quality of care was assessed in a teaching hospital. The ESBL toolkit was developed in 2011 during multidisciplinary meetings involving a regional network of hospital, private clinic and laboratory staff in Southeastern France. It includes antibiotic treatment protocols, a check list, mail templates and a patient information sheet focusing on infection control. Upon identification of ESBL-E, the warning system involves alerting the attending physician and the infectious disease (ID) advisor, with immediate, advice-based implementation of the toolkit. The procedure and toolkit were tested in our teaching hospital. Patient management was compared before and after implementation of the toolkit over two 3-month periods (July-October 2010 and 2012). Implementation of the ESBL-E warning system and ESBL-E toolkit was tested for 87 patients in 2010 and 92 patients in 2012, resulting in improved patient management: expert advice sought and followed (16 vs 97%), information provided to the patient's general practitioner (18 vs 63%) and coding of the condition in the patient's medical file (17 vs 59%), respectively. Our multidisciplinary strategy improved quality of care for in-patients infected or colonised with ESBL-E, increasing compliance with national recommendations.

  11. Colonisation humaine et développement sur une frontière écologique. Le Despoblado, le Sahel du Piura-Pérou Septentrional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Le despoblado de Piura est une formation végétale mixte arborée et herbacée, un sahel qui, malgré des précipitations très irrégulières, associe plusieurs ressources complémentaires. Elles ont été diversement utilisées au fur et à mesure de l’intervention de nouvelles techniques. - Cueillette des racines et fruits de la pampa d’interfluves. - Arboriculture sur huerta d’inférofluse à l’amont, et cultures saisonnières sur les lits intermittents et petit élevage caprin sur l’algarrobal des interfluves. - Cultures commerciales d’irrigation permanente par dérivation des eaux de la sierra et maintien d’un petit élevage de despoblado. Trois étapes de la colonisation du Piura. Mais la dernière, si elle permet de supporter une forte densité paysanne, ne peut éviter les conséquences des fortes pluies exceptionnelles. COLONIZACIÓN HUMANA Y DESARROLLO SOBRE FRONTERA ECOLÓGICA. EL DESPOBLADO, EL SAHEL DE PIURA, NORTE-PERÚ. El despoblado de Piura es una formación vegetal mixta, arboleda y savana ocasional, un sahel que, a pesar de lluvias muy irregulares, combina varios recursos complementarios. Ésos fueron aprovechados distintamente a medida de la intervención de nuevas técnicas. - Recolección de raíces y frutas en las pampas de las planicies secas - Arboricultura en las huertas de las cabezas de conos torrenciales y cultura estacional sobre los cauces inundables de las quebradas, aguas abajo, y cría de cabras y asnos en el algarrobal de las pampas - Cultivos comerciales de riego permanente por desvío de aguas de los grandes ríos de la sierra, y permanencia de la ganadería de caprinos sobre las pampas del despoblado. Son tres etapas del asentamiento humano. Pero la última, si tiene la ventaja de soportar grandes densidades campesinas, no puede arrastrar el peligro de las lluvias excepcionales. HUMAN SETTLING AND DEVELOPMENT ON AN ECOLOGIC FRONTIERS. THE DESPOBLADO, THE SAHEL OF SEPTENTRIONAL PIURA-PERU. A Piura

  12. Carbon transfer in soil - plant system. Molecular labelling utilization for determining rhizosphere compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguay, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing up of the bacteria developing in the rhizosphere of plants is dependent on the compounds exudation by plant roots. Even the bacterial genetics use has permitted to identify diverse functions involved in the process of the rhizosphere colonisation ( mobility, heterotrophic bacteria, growing rate, antibiotics production), there is a big delay in vegetal partners. To decrease this delay we tried to characterize the interactions between a plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana and the rhizosphere bacteria. An experimental device has been conceived for measuring the transfer of carbon issued from the photosynthesis to roots and soil. The exudation by roots has been studied. The analysis of rhizospheric compounds in situ pose some methodological problems, especially, the rhizospheric compounds must be extracted from the soil matrix. we suggest an analysis method of rhizospheric compound and of their dynamics. (F.M.)

  13. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  14. The nucleus of differentiated root plant cells: modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lingua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclei of plant cells show marked differences in chromatin organisation, related to their DNA content, which ranges from the type with large strands of condensed chromatin (reticulate or chromonematic nuclei to one with mostly decondensed chromatin (chromocentric or diffuse nuclei. A loosening of the chromatin structure generally occurs in actively metabolising cells, such as differentiating and secretory cells, in relation to their high transcriptional activity. Endoreduplication may occur, especially in plants with a small genome, which increases the availability of nuclear templates, the synthesis of DNA, and probably regulates gene expression. Here we describe structural and quantitative changes of the chromatin and their relationship with transcription that occur in differentiated cells following an increase of their metabolism. The nuclei of root cortical cells of three plants with different 2C DNA content (Allium porrum, Pisum sativum and Lycopersicon esculentm and their modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhization, which strongly increase the metabolic activity of colonised cells, are taken as examples.

  15. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  16. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  17. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Ruud A; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P B T B; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-04-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors.

  18. Plant and fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of the orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Nerva, Luca; Sillo, Fabiano; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known on the molecular bases of plant-fungal interactions in orchid mycorrhiza. We developed a model system to investigate gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of Serapias vomeracea colonised by Tulasnella calospora. Our recent results with a small panel of genes as indicators of plant response to mycorrhizal colonization indicate that genes related with plant defense were not significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues. Here, we used laser microdissection to investigate whether expression of some orchid genes was restricted to specific cell types. Results showed that SvNod1, a S. vomeracea nodulin-like protein containing a plastocyanin-like domain, is expressed only in protocorm cells containing intracellular fungal hyphae. In addition, we investigated a family of fungal zinc metallopeptidases (M36). This gene family has expanded in the T. calospora genome and RNA-Seq experiments indicate that some members of the M36 metallopeptidases family are differentially regulated in orchid mycorrhizal protocorms.

  19. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.

    2009-01-01

    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large...... zooplankton. However, recovery of macrophytes is often delayed and use of artificial plant beds (APB) has been suggested as a tool to enhance zooplankton refuges, thereby reinforcing the shift to a clear-water state and, eventually, colonisation of natural plants. 2. To further evaluate the potential of APB...... in lake restoration, we followed the day–night habitat choices of zooplankton throughout summer in a clear and a turbid lake. Observations were made in the pelagic and littoral zones and in APB in the littoral representing three different plant densities (coverage 0%, 40% and 80%). 3. In the clear lake...

  20. Alleviatory activities in mycorrhizal tobacco plants subjected to increasing chloride in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Safahani Langeroodi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of presence and absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM+ and AM- fungus (AMF Glomus intraradices on agronomic and chemical characteristics of field-grown tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Virginia type (cv. K-326 plants exposed to varying concentrations of chloride 10, 40, 70 and 100 mg Cl L–1 (C1-C4 were studied over two growing seasons (2012-2013. Mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher uptake of nutrients in shoots and number of leaves regardless of intensities of chloride stress. The cured leaves yields of AM+ plants under C2-C4 chloride stressed conditions were higher than AM- plants. Leaf chloride content increased in line with the increase of chloride level, while AMF colonised plants maintained low Cl content. AM+ plants produced tobacco leaves that contained significantly higher quantities of nicotine than AM- plants. AM inoculation ameliorated the chloride stress to some extent. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione also exhibited great variation with chloride treatment. Chloride stress caused great alterations in the endogenous levels of growth hormones with abscisic acid showing increment. AMF inoculated plants maintained higher levels of growth hormones and also allayed the negative impact of chloride. The level of 40 mg L–1 in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal can be considered as the acceptable threshold to avoid adverse effects on Virginia tobacco.

  1. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  2. The combined use of Pochonia chlamydosporia and plant defence activators - a potential sustainable control strategy for Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable strategies are required for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi to reduce dependence on toxic chemical pesticides. The efficacy of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in biocontrol could be enhanced by integration with control measures that reduce initial nematode infestations. The use of foliar sprays with plant defence activators can reduce the susceptibility of potato plants to M. chitwoodi. This study assessed effects of combined soil application of P. chlamydosporia with foliar sprays of benzothiadiazole (BTH or cis-jasmone on infection of potatoes by M. chitwoodi. Solanum tuberosum, cv. Désirée plants were grown in soil mixed with 5000 chlamydospores g-1 of soil, sprayed twice with BTH or cis-jasmone and inoculated with 300 M. chitwoodi second-stage juveniles. Forty-five days after inoculation, nematode reproduction, numbers of colony-forming units of the fungus g-1 of soil and g-1 of root, and egg parasitism were assessed by standard techniques. Foliar sprays of BTH or cis-jasmone combined with the fungus reduced nematode reproduction (P<0.05, LSD. The presence of the fungus slightly increased the efficacy of cis-jasmone, as the number of eggs per egg mass was less in plants treated both with cis-jasmone and the fungus than in the plants treated only with the defence activator. The proportion of parasitized eggs was greater in the cis-jasmone treatment where rhizosphere colonisation was less, suggesting that P. chlamydosporia became a poorer rhizosphere coloniser but a more efficient nematode parasite. The addition of P. chlamydosporia to soil in combination with application of inducers of plant defence could be an alternative control strategy to be used against M. chitwoodi in potato.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Monurelle® and reduction of bacterial colonisation of the urinary tract by the inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Monurelle® and reduction of bacterial colonisation of the urinary tract by the inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells. The food that is the subject of the health claim, Monurelle®, which is a combination of 120 mg...... cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract (including 36 mg proanthocyanidins) and 60 mg of ascorbic acid, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is reduction of E.coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. The Panel considers that reduction of bacterial colonisation...... of the urinary tract by inhibition of the adhesion of P-fimbriated E.coli to uroepithelial cells is a beneficial physiological effect. Several health claim applications on cranberry products standardised by their proanthocyanidin content have already been evaluated by EFSA with an unfavourable outcome. The Panel...

  4. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Impact of weather on dynamics of plant functional groups in an abandoned limestone grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined to what extend the rate and direction of changes in unmanaged grassland depend on fluctuations in climatic conditions. Vegetation data from permanent plots in a semi-natural grassland in southern Poland collected over 12 years were used. Relations between weather variables, time, and the cover of 41 more frequent species and 14 plant functional groups were analysed. The greatest effect on the dynamics of species and functional groups had precipitation in spring and/or early summer, particularly in the current year. The majority of plant groups were significantly affected also by the temperature in spring and early summer in one of the three previous years. During 12 years, the cover of annuals and biennials, short plants, and plants with small leaves decreased, while the cover of taller plants, plants with larger leaves, and with vegetative spread increased. The analyses suggest that these successional changes were not directly associated with climatic conditions but were affected by them indirectly through interspecific competition. The fluctuations in climatic conditions, chiefly precipitation, had a significant effect on both the composition and the rate of changes in abandoned grassland. The increase in the cover of tall perennial species with broad leaves hindered succession towards woodland despite of the presence of woods in the closed vicinity. It can be expected that during drier periods colonisation of grassland by later successional species could be easier.

  6. Evolutionary persistence in Gunnera and the contribution of southern plant groups to the tropical Andes biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Bacon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the contribution of northern immigrants to the flora of the tropical Andes—the world’s richest and most diverse biodiversity hotspot. However, much less is known about the biogeographic history and diversification of Andean groups with southern origins, although it has been suggested that northern and southern groups have contributed roughly equally to the high Andean (i.e., páramo flora. Here we infer the evolutionary history of the southern hemisphere plant genus Gunnera, a lineage with a rich fossil history and an important ecological role as an early colonising species characteristic of wet, montane environments. Our results show striking contrasts in species diversification, where some species may have persisted for some 90 million years, and whereas others date to less than 2 Ma since origination. The outstanding longevity of the group is likely linked to a high degree of niche conservatism across its highly disjunct range, whereby Gunnera tracks damp and boggy soils in cool habitats. Colonisation of the northern Andes is related to Quaternary climate change, with subsequent rapid diversification appearing to be driven by their ability to take advantage of environmental opportunities. This study demonstrates the composite origin of a mega-diverse biota.

  7. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  8. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis during colonisation of resistant and susceptible Medicago truncatula hosts identifies differential pathogenicity profiles and novel candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F; Williams, Angela H; Garg, Gagan; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Singh, Karam B

    2016-11-03

    Pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex are responsible for vascular wilt disease on many important crops including legumes, where they can be one of the most destructive disease causing necrotrophic fungi. We previously developed a model legume-infecting pathosystem based on the reference legume Medicago truncatula and a pathogenic F. oxysporum forma specialis (f. sp.) medicaginis (Fom). To dissect the molecular pathogenicity arsenal used by this root-infecting pathogen, we sequenced its transcriptome during infection of a susceptible and resistant host accession. High coverage RNA-Seq of Fom infected root samples harvested from susceptible (DZA315) or resistant (A17) M. truncatula seedlings at early or later stages of infection (2 or 7 days post infection (dpi)) and from vegetative (in vitro) samples facilitated the identification of unique and overlapping sets of in planta differentially expressed genes. This included enrichment, particularly in DZA315 in planta up-regulated datasets, for proteins associated with sugar, protein and plant cell wall metabolism, membrane transport, nutrient uptake and oxidative processes. Genes encoding effector-like proteins were identified, including homologues of the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Secreted In Xylem (SIX) proteins, and several novel candidate effectors based on predicted secretion, small protein size and high in-planta induced expression. The majority of the effector candidates contain no known protein domains but do share high similarity to predicted proteins predominantly from other F. oxysporum ff. spp. as well as other Fusaria (F. solani, F. fujikori, F. verticilloides, F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum), and from another wilt pathogen of the same class, a Verticillium species. Overall, this suggests these novel effector candidates may play important roles in Fusaria and wilt pathogen virulence. Combining high coverage in planta RNA-Seq with knowledge of fungal pathogenicity

  10. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  11. Plant embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sacco C.; Weijers, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Land plants are called ‘embryophytes’ and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos

  12. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  13. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  14. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  15. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  16. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  17. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  18. Physiological, structural and molecular traits activated in strawberry plants after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2015-05-01

    The plant growth-promoting strain REC3 of Azospirillum brasilense, isolated from strawberry roots, prompts growth promotion and systemic protection against anthracnose disease in this crop. Hence, we hypothesised that A. brasilense REC3 can induce different physiological, structural and molecular responses in strawberry plants. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study these traits activated in Azospirillum-colonised strawberry plants, which have not been assessed until now. Healthy, in vitro micropropagated plants were root-inoculated with REC3 under hydroponic conditions; root and leaf tissues were sampled at different times, and oxidative burst, phenolic compound content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, callose deposition, cell wall fortification and gene expression were evaluated. Azospirillum inoculation enhanced levels of soluble phenolic compounds after 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), while amounts of cell wall bound phenolics were similar in inoculated and control plants. Other early responses activated by REC3 (at 24 hpi) were a decline of lipid peroxidation and up-regulation of strawberry genes involved in defence (FaPR1), bacterial recognition (FaFLS2) and H₂O₂ depuration (FaCAT and FaAPXc). The last may explain the apparent absence of oxidative burst in leaves after bacterial inoculation. Also, REC3 inoculation induced delayed structural responses such as callose deposition and cell wall fortification (at 72 hpi). Results showed that A. brasilense REC3 is capable of exerting beneficial effects on strawberry plants, reinforcing their physiological and cellular characteristics, which in turns contribute to improve plant performance. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. An optimised method for the extraction of bacterial mRNA from plant roots infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh eHolmes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of microbial gene expression during host colonisation provides valuable information on the nature of interaction, beneficial or pathogenic, and the adaptive processes involved. Isolation of bacterial mRNA for in planta analysis can be challenging where host nucleic acid may dominate the preparation, or inhibitory compounds affect downstream analysis, e.g. qPCR, microarray or RNA-seq. The goal of this work was to optimise the isolation of bacterial mRNA of food-borne pathogens from living plants. Reported methods for recovery of phytopathogen-infected plant material, using hot phenol extraction and high concentration of bacterial inoculation or large amounts of infected tissues, were found to be inappropriate for plant roots inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The bacterial RNA yields were too low and increased plant material resulted in a dominance of plant RNA in the sample. To improve the yield of bacterial RNA and reduce the number of plants required, an optimised method was developed which combines bead beating with directed bacterial lysis using SDS and lysozyme. Inhibitory plant compounds, such as phenolics and polysaccharides, were counteracted with the addition of HMW-PEG and CTAB. The new method increased the total yield of bacterial mRNA substantially and allowed assessment of gene expression by qPCR. This method can be applied to other bacterial species associated with plant roots, and also in the wider context of food safety.

  20. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  1. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  2. 1 ITALIAN COLONISATION & LIBYAN RESISTANCE THE AL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    ... was conquered and pacified by European arms, ensuring caravans could travel .... eventually attacked the Order (at Qiru) in 1902 (at which time al-Mahdi passed ... Ottoman rule was nominal, with real power in the hands of the local rulers ...

  3. 1 ITALIAN COLONISATION & LIBYAN RESISTANCE THE AL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    centre and Kufra the capital of the Sanusi, under his leadership the call extended to ... organisation from Libya to the rocky oasis of Gouro near the eastern edge of .... for legitimate sweeping social change (Parthajee 1, 7). Nationalism has ..... duty and shared in the sacrifices, in men or money - due to the wars with France ...

  4. The influence of the annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, on the sediment dynamics of inland watercourses in temperate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Shrutika; Greenwood, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Impatiens glandulifera (Common English Name - Himalayan Balsam) is a non native annual and highly invasive plant that was introduced into parts of Europe from the Himalaya during the nineteenth century as a colourful adornment to parks and gardens. This Plant colonises areas along the river banks, preferably wet, depositional sites, and displaces natural vegetation. The plant is killed by cold weather. The leaves area of riverbank previously occupied by the plant extremely vulnerable to soil erosion until new plant germinates in the following spring. Research work undertaken in the northwest Switzerland and the soutwestern United Kingdom established s link between accelerated soil erosion caused by Impatiens glandulifera and its detrimental impact on native biodiversity of riparian zone of river catchment area. This study focueses on the potential impact of such erosion on sediment quality. A priory reasoning suggests that the preference of Impatiens glandulifera on young depsotional sites near watercourses affects sediment quality. In this study, the results of a soil quality analysis along Impatiens glandulifera-contaminated river banks is presented. Soil physical and chemical properties are compared to non-affected sites to assess the potential impact of preferential erosion on water quality. In addtiion, soil surface profile (SSP) measuring based on by erosion pins, a micro profile bridge and a digital calliper at different selected locations along the riparian zone of river catchment area is used to determine erosion rates and determine sediment transfer from the riparian zone into the rivers.

  5. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  6. Effects of nutrient and lime additions in mine site rehabilitation strategies on the accumulation of antimony and arsenic by native Australian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Leech, Calvin D; Butler, Leo; Lisle, Leanne; Ashley, Paul M; Lockwood, Peter V

    2013-10-15

    The effects of nutrient and lime additions on antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) accumulation by native Australian and naturalised plants growing in two contaminated mine site soils (2,735 mg kg(-1) and 4,517 mg kg(-1) Sb; 826 mg kg(-1) and 1606 As mgkg(-1)) was investigated using a glasshouse pot experiment. The results indicated an increase in soil solution concentrations with nutrient addition in both soils and also with nutrient+lime addition for Sb in one soil. Metalloid concentrations in plant roots were significantly greater than concentrations in above ground plant parts. The metalloid transfer to above ground plant parts from the roots and from the soil was, however, low (ratio of leaf concentration/soil concentration≪1) for all species studied. Eucalyptus michaeliana was the most successful at colonisation with lowest metalloid transfer to above ground plant parts. Addition of nutrients and nutrients+lime to soils, in general, increased plant metalloid accumulation. Relative As accumulation was greater than that of Sb. All the plant species studied were suitable for consideration in the mine soil phytostabilisation strategies but lime additions should be limited and longer term trials also recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  8. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  9. Endophytic colonization of plant roots by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocking, Edward C.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are able to enter into roots from the rhizosphere, particularly at the base of emerging lateral roots, between epidermal cells and through root hairs. In the rhizosphere growing root hairs play an important role in symbiotic recognition in legume crops. Nodulated legumes in endosymbiosis with rhizobia are amongst the most prominent nitrogen-fixing systems in agriculture. The inoculation of non-legumes, especially cereals, with various non-rhizobial diazotrophic bacteria has been undertaken with the expectation that they would establish themselves intercellularly within the root system, fixing nitrogen endophytic ally and providing combined nitrogen for enhanced crop production. However, in most instances bacteria colonize only the surface of the roots and remain vulnerable to competition from other rhizosphere micro-organisms, even when the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are endophytic, benefits to the plant may result from better uptake of soil nutrients rather than from endophytic nitrogen fixation. Azorhizobium caulinodans is known to enter the root system of cereals, other nonlegume crops and Arabidopsis, by intercellular invasion between epidermal cells and to internally colonize the plant intercellularly, including the xylem. This raises the possibility that xylem colonization might provide a nonnodular niche for endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and other non-legume crops. A particularly interesting, naturally occurring, non-qodular xylem colonising endophytic diazotrophic interaction with evidence for endophytic nitrogen fixation is that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane. Could this beneficial endophytic colonization of sugarcane by G. diazotrophicus be extended to other members of the Gramineae, including the major cereals, and to other major non-legume crops of the World? (author)

  10. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  11. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. Microbe-Plant Interactions; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. Terrestrial Ecogenetics

    2012-04-15

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors. (orig.)

  12. Gujarati Asians in East Africa, 1880-2000: Colonisation, de-colonisation and complex citizenship issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Oonk (Gijsbert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary In this paper, I argue that despite the general belief to the contrary, there is a great deal of continuity in the history of the colonial and post-colonial practice of citizenship in the Indian Ocean region. This debate is usually described from the perspective of the

  13. Diagenetic processes in the plant-soil system and their implications for palaeo-reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Jia, G.; McClymont, E. L.; Bingham, E.; Väliranta, M.; Korhola, A.; Evershed, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived organic matter in soils and peats comprises mixtures of biomolecular components that can act as 'biomarkers' for their vegetative provenance. Different plant communities are adapted to specific environmental conditions, so this approach can be used to investigate a variety of questions about land-use and climate change over a range of timescales. For example, the abundance and distribution of long-chain aliphatic compounds, that are relatively hydrophobic and resistant to microbial decomposition, are widely used as evidence of colonisation by different groups of plants in either natural or managed contemporary environments [1]. Natural abundance or artificial 13C-labelling of plants is used to provide additional evidence for plant inputs, and to determine rates of turnover of soil C pools using compound-specific stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry [2]. However, the application of molecular approaches to palaeovegetation reconstruction is still relatively rare. Biomarkers for different vegetation types are particularly important when diagenetic processes result in the loss of plant macrofossils. Lipid biomarkers are the most commonly used [3], and their δ13C values can be used to determine shifts in palaeoclimate using changes in the contribution of C3 and C4 plant-derived compounds [4]. Carbohydrates are the major components of plant biomass, but their potential as biomarkers is usually disregarded due to their perceived rapid decomposition. However, recently, we showed that carbohydrate compositional parameters of modern bog-forming plants showed strong correspondence with fossil plant abundances in a peat core from Kontolanrahka Bog, Finland [5]. Subsequent application of the carbohydrate proxy to similar cores from Bissendorfer Moor, Germany, and Butterburn Flow, UK, has shown its potential to explore plant inputs in anaerobic terrestrial environments. [1] Dungait JAJ, Docherty G, Straker V, Evershed RP, 2010a. Phytochem 71:415. [2] Dungait JAJ

  14. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  15. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  16. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  18. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-11-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery.

  19. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  20. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  1. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...

  2. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  3. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  4. Secondary succession of nematodes in power plant ash dumps reclaimed by covering with turf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowska, E.; Ilieva-Makulec, K. [Polish Academy of Science, Lomianki (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of successive changes in nematode assemblages in reclaimed waste area offers information about the sensitivity of species or groups of nematodes to specific conditions and ability to colonise new habitats. The study was carried in ash dumps being a by-product of the combustion of hard coal and reclaimed by covering with mineral turf (light loam warp soil) or organic turf (alder peat). In the first 3 years of reclamation diversity of nematodes was low, especially in, the dump covered with mineral turf - Shannon diversity index below 3. Later on the value of Shannon index increased and did not differ from those recorded for meadows in Poland. In the ash dump, reclaimed for a longer time period (8-11 years), the contribution of K strategist species was higher than in the dumps reclaimed for a shorter time period (2-5 years). At the earlier stages of succession bacterivores Acrobeloides, and two fungivores Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus, predominated. In the ash dump reclaimed longer the dominance of these three genera decreased and some plant feeders achieved high contribution ({gt} 30%). The composition of nematode communities depended. significantly on the period of reclamation, but did not depend either on the soil moisture and pH or on season.

  5. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  6. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  7. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  8. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  9. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  10. Influence of conventional biochar and ageing biochar application to arable soil on soil fertility and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Záhora, Jaroslav; Elbl, Jakub; Kynický, Jindřich; Hladký, Jan; Brtnický, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Biochar represents very controversial material which is product of pyrolysis. According to many studies biochar has positive effect on physical and chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, aggregates stability etc. Unfortunately biochar is product of combustion, so it can content toxic substance as are aromatic compound. These substances may have a negative effect on yield and microbial activities in soil. Our aim was eliminated concentration of toxic compound but preserved positive effect of biochar on soil properties. We was ageing/ activating of biochar in water environment and for soil inoculum we used native soil from landscape. Moreover two types of biochar was tested by pot experiment with seven variants, where conventional biochar from residual biomass and ageing biochar were applied in different doses: 10 t/ha, 20t/ha and 50 t/ha. Pots were placed in green house for 90 days and after the end of experiment the following parameters of soil fertility, health and quality were evaluated: content of soil organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of Lactuca sativa L. roots, leaching of mineral nitrogen, changes in plant available nutrient content, EC and pH. Above all the total yield of indicator plant was observed. The significant (P plant yield and soil properties were found. The application of conventional biochar didn't have positive effect on plant yield in comparison with ageing biochar. The positive effect of ageing biochar addition on soil fertility was directly proportional to the dose which were applied - increasing in dose of ageing biochar resulted in increase of plant yield. Moreover the special experimental containers were used, where we was able to monitor the development of root in soil with and without addition of biochar (conventional or ageing). The positive influence of ageing biochar addition into soil on development of Lactuca sativa L. roots was observed.

  11. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  12. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  13. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  14. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  15. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  16. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  17. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  18. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  19. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  20. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  1. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attractiveness of Host Plant Volatile Extracts to the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is Reduced by Terpenoids from the Non-Host Cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raul A; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria C

    2018-04-01

    Diaphorina citri is a vector of the bacterial causative agent of Huanglongbing (HLB = Citrus greening), a severe disease affecting citrus crops. As there is no known control for HLB, manipulating insect behaviour through deployment of semiochemicals offers a promising opportunity for protecting citrus crops. The behavioural responses of D. citri to plant volatiles, and the identity of these plant volatiles were investigated. Volatiles were collected from host plants Murraya paniculata, Citrus sinensis, C. reshni, C. limettioides, Poncirus trifoliata, and from non-host plants Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale. In behavioural assays, female D. citri spent more time in the arms containing volatiles from either M. paniculata or C. sinensis compared to the control arms. When D. citri was exposed to volatiles collected from A. occidentale, they preferred the control arm. Volatiles emitted from the other studied plants did not influence the foraging behaviour of D. citri. Chemical analyses of volatile extracts from C. sinensis, M. paniculata, and A. occidentale revealed the presence of the terpenoids (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (DMNT) and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT) in higher amounts in A. occidentale. In further behavioural bioassays, female D. citri spent less time in arms containing a synthetic blend of DMNT and TMTT compared to the control arms. Female D. citri also spent less time in arms containing the synthetic blend in combination with volatile extracts from either M. paniculata or C. sinensis compared to the control arms. Results suggest that higher release of the two terpenoids by A. occidentale make this species unattractive to D. citri, and that the terpenoids could be used in reducing colonisation of citrus plants and therefore HLB infection.

  3. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  4. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  5. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  6. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  7. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  8. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  10. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  11. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  12. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  13. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  14. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  15. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  16. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  17. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  18. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  19. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  20. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  1. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  2. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  3. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  4. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  5. Asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci cryptic species MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Hu, Man; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    The two common whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. The effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined. Resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had mostly negative effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics. Red-eyed nymph and immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased when resource was preoccupied by conspecifics, irrespective of the previous occupation scenario. However, resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had only minor detrimental effects on the performance of later-arriving B. tabaci MEAM1. In the opposite colonisation sequence, previous occupation by B. tabaci MEAM1 had no significant effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics, but severe detrimental effects were observed on the performance of later-arriving T. vaporariorum. Total immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased in both weak and strong previous occupation situations by B. tabaci MEAM1. The interspecific interactions between B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum were asymmetric, with B. tabaci MEAM1 being the superior competitor. This superiority could partially explain the rapid spread of B. tabaci MEAM1 in China. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  7. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  8. Colony structure in a plant-ant: behavioural, chemical and genetic study of polydomy in Cataulacus mckeyi (Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Gabriel; Provost, Erick; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Schatz, Bertrand; McKey, Doyle

    2003-10-01

    Social organisation of colonies of obligate plant-ants can affect their interaction with myrmecophyte hosts and with other ants competing for the resources they offer. An important parameter of social organisation is whether nest sites of a colony include one or several host individuals. We determined colony boundaries in a plant-ant associated with the rainforest understorey tree Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana, found in coastal forests of Cameroon (Central Africa). This myrmecophyte is strictly associated with two ants, Petalomyrmex phylax and Cataulacus mckeyi. Plants provide food and nesting sites for P. phylax, which protects young leaves against insect herbivores. This mutualism is often parasitised by C. mckeyi, which uses but does not protect the host. The presence of C. mckeyi on a tree excludes the mutualistic ant. Because Petalomyrmex-occupied trees are better protected, their growth and survival are superior to those of Cataulacus-occupied trees, giving P. phylax an advantage in occupation of nest sites. C. mckeyi often colonises trees that have lost their initial associate P. phylax, as a result of injury to the tree caused by disturbance. Polydomy may allow C. mckeyi to occupy small clumps of trees, without the necessity of claustral colony foundation in each tree. Investigating both the proximate (behavioural repertoire, colony odour) and the ultimate factors (genetic structure) that may influence colony closure, we precisely defined colony boundaries. We show that colonies of C. mckeyi are monogynous and facultatively polydomous, i.e. a colony occupies one to several Leonardoxa trees. Workers do not produce males. Thus, the hypothesis that polydomy allows workers in queenless nests to evade queen control for their reproduction is not supported in this instance. This particular colony structure may confer on C. mckeyi an advantage in short-distance dispersal, and this could help explain its persistence within the dynamic Leonardoxa system.

  9. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  10. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  11. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  13. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  14. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  15. Late Palaeozoic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo

    2017-09-11

    Land plants are one of the major constituents of terrestrial ecosystems on Earth, and play an irreplaceable role in human activities today. If we are to understand the extant plants, it is imperative that we have some understanding of the fossil plants from the deep geological past, particularly those that occurred during their early evolutionary history, in the late Palaeozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  17. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  18. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  19. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  1. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  2. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  3. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  4. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  6. Plant species diversity as a driver of early succession in abandoned fields: a multi-site approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, W H; Mortimer, S R; Hedlund, K; Van Dijk, C; Brown, V K; Lepä, J; Rodriguez-Barrueco, C; Roy, J; Diaz Len, T A; Gormsen, D; Korthals, G W; Lavorel, S; Regina, I Santa; Smilauer, P

    2000-07-01

    Succession is one of the most studied processes in ecology and succession theory provides strong predictability. However, few attempts have been made to influence the course of succession thereby testing the hypothesis that passing through one stage is essential before entering the next one. At each stage of succession ecosystem processes may be affected by the diversity of species present, but there is little empirical evidence showing that plant species diversity may affect succession. On ex-arable land, a major constraint of vegetation succession is the dominance of perennial early-successional (arable weed) species. Our aim was to change the initial vegetation succession by the direct sowing of later-successional plant species. The hypothesis was tested that a diverse plant species mixture would be more successful in weed suppression than species-poor mixtures. In order to provide a robust test including a wide range of environmental conditions and plant species, experiments were carried out at five sites across Europe. At each site, an identical experiment was set up, albeit that the plant species composition of the sown mixtures differed from site to site. Results of the 2-year study showed that diverse plant species mixtures were more effective at reducing the number of natural colonisers (mainly weeds from the seed bank) than the average low-diversity treatment. However, the effect of the low-diversity treatment depended on the composition of the species mixture. Thus, the effect of enhanced species diversity strongly depended on the species composition of the low-diversity treatments used for comparison. The effects of high-diversity plant species mixtures on weed suppression differed between sites. Low-productivity sites gave the weakest response to the diversity treatments. These differences among sites did not change the general pattern. The present results have implications for understanding biological invasions. It has been hypothesised that alien

  7. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  8. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  9. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  10. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  11. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  12. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  13. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  14. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  15. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  16. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  17. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Every plant requires mineral elements for growth. A mnemonic ... lar coils. More commonly, the hypha forms highly branched, .... stamps on the edible and poisonous mushrooms (Figure 2). One of the ... but these days dogs are used for truffle. 'hunting' . .... example is a non-chlorophyllous plant known as Indian pipe or.

  18. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  19. Slavery in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2017-01-01

    The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of

  20. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  1. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  2. Methylome evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  4. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  6. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a ... to Expect at the Emergency Room Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ...

  7. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  8. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  9. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  10. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  11. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  12. Plants and fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    A report is given about the contents of fluorine in soil and different plants. It is stated that spinach and several spice herbages are rich in fluorine (0.98 - 21.8 ppm) while in other plants are not more than 5 ppm maximum. An exception is found in Thea sinensis with 178 ppm and more. Tea is, therefore, a source of fluorine for contamination of the human body. An increase of the fluorine contents of plants by manuring with F-salts or mineral manure is possible but of long duration. Damage to plants by uptake of fluorine from soil as well as in a gaseous condition from the atmosphere are described. The rate of damage is related to the type of soil in which the plant is grown.

  13. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  14. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  15. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  16. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  17. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  18. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  19. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  20. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  1. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  2. Migration of vascular plant species to a recent wood adjoining ancient woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland communities can be restored by natural succession in sites adjoining ancient woodlands which can act as seed sources for trees, shrubs and woodland herbs. The influence of dominant tree species and the distance from an adjacent ancient oak-hornbeam woodland upon the floristic composition of species in a recent pine wood planted on dry rendzina soil were studied. It was found that, in spite of a 52-year long succession, the border between woods was sharp and the composition of species in the recent wood were significantly different than in the adjacent ancient woodland. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the distance to the ancient woodland had a significant influence on species distributions in the recent wood. The numbers of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, vegetatively reproducing species and myrmecochores decreased with this distance, whereas the numbers of anemochores increased. The migration rate of many woodland species, calculated on occurrence of the farthest individuals was very slow, varying from 0.0 m year-1 to 0.38 m year-1. The restoration of the field layer vegetation in the studied pine wood was much slower than in recent deciduous woods on rich and moist soils where the migration rate of some species exceeded 1.50 m year-1. Recent woods adjacent to ancient woodlands can be more effectively colonised by woodland species only when they are dominated by broad-leaved trees with quickly decomposing litter, and the spatial continuity of these woods persists for a long period.

  3. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  4. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  5. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conger, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  7. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  8. Colonisation and community structure of benthic diatoms on artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was undertaken using tiles as artificial substrates so that we could study how the communities developed after the flood disturbance. The diatom community structure was assessed over a 28-day period following a flood event in October 2012. The Mann Whitney test indicated that there was a statistically significant ...

  9. Bee Hive management and colonisation: a practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The managerial issues include the method of approaching the bees and hives, feeding of the bees and prevention of predators. Exploitation of the colony for bee products is usually done with special tools that ensure no disturbance of the inhabitants while also protecting the harvester. The market for bee products varies ...

  10. Patterns of Meiofaunal Colonisation as an Indicator of Reforested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental. Conservation 29: 331-349. Alongi DM (1987a) Intertidal zonation and seasonality of meiobenthos in tropical mangrove estuaries. Marine Biology 95: 447-458. Alongi DM (1987b) Inter-estuary variation and intertidal zonation of free-living nematode communities in tropical mangrove systems. Marine Ecology.

  11. Rural Gentrification and the Processes of Class Colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 109 households in 4 villages in Gower, South Wales, examined social-class changes associated with rural gentrification, the contention that gentrifiers are embodiments of capital, child-rearing concerns as a motive for gentrification, the influence of gender inequalities, and comparisons with urban examples of gentrification. Contains…

  12. Late style as exile: De/colonising the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Heike

    2016-12-01

    In the collection of essays On Late Style, Edward Said reflects on the new idiom achieved by great artists in their work near the end of their lives as "late style." Drawing on Adorno's essay on Beethoven's late style, Said also focuses on the aesthetic aspects of lateness. Defining the late works of artists as "a form of exile," however, Said moves beyond Adorno's aesthetic conception of late style. Highlighting the artist's abandonment of communication with the established social order, who achieves a contradictory, alienated relationship with it instead, Said compares artistic lateness with the experience of the subject in exile. Drawing on the analogy provided by Said, this article argues that the relationship between "self" and "other" in the different theoretical contexts of Postcolonial Studies and Age Studies can be usefully combined in the composite concept of "late style as exile." In order to explore how the concept of lateness correlates with that of exile, this contribution turns to theoretical and autobiographical texts by Edward Said. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. La colonisation de l’expérience politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Ledun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available En prenant pour objet les projets expérimentaux publics ou industriels en matière de TIC, dans ou à la marge de la sphère politique française, dès la fin des années soixante, cette recherche analyse, du point de vue des Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication, les enjeux liés à l’extension du dispositif des TIC dans les activités politiques et à la redéfinition de la place du sujet politique dans les procédures démocratiques.

  14. strategic military colonisation: the cape eastern frontier 1806 – 1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linda

    for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where .... reality, these expeditions were capturing people for service on settler farms. Official .... distances from the coast of 2 500 yards (2 286 m) and 6 000 yards (5 486 m). It ..... Corps pensioner assumed command and with augmented forces led an attack on Fort.

  15. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  16. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  17. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  18. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  19. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  1. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  2. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  3. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  4. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  5. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  7. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  8. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  9. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  10. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  11. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  12. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  13. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  14. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  16. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  17. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  19. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  20. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  1. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  2. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  3. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  4. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  5. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  6. Photomorphogenesis in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendrick, Richard E; Kronenberg, G. H. M

    1994-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... VII VIII XXXI Part 1 Introduction 1. Introduction by Lars Olof Bjorn 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 A developing research field ... Plant vision...

  7. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  8. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).

  9. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  10. Janata biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, S; Singh, K K

    1980-03-01

    The Janata biogas plant is based on the use of local materials and locally available skills only. It is a proven technology at low cost and easy maintenance which should facilitate its extension at a much faster pace especially among the low income groups. This technology is important at this time because of the current crisis in the availability of firewood and mineral fuels. This handbook explains in non-technical language the basic features, design, and construction of this biogas plant. (DC)

  11. The plant mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... context to be defined for them. There are indications that some of these proteins add novel activities to mitochondrial protein complexes in plants....

  12. NMR, water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  13. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  14. Detergent zeolite filtration plant

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite filtration plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE), Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. The main goal was to increase the detergent zeoli...

  15. Assessment and prediction of the invasiveness of some alien plants in conditions of climate change in the steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Lykholat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the steppe Dnieper region is characterized by an abundance of naturalized alien species, some of which colonised over the last decade. Climate change, associated primarily with increasing temperature, became clearly manifested in this period. We tested the hypothesis that there is an association between climate change and the initiation of invasiveness of some alien plant species in the steppe Dnieper region. For this purpose, comparative studies of the distribution boundaries of naturalized alien trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants were conducted. Along the research route numerous 5–10-year-old broadleaf linden trees (Tilia platyphyllos Scop. were found in the man-made plantation communities of Dnipro city in areas with moist soil; seeded undergrowth was located at a significant distance from the adult linden plants. Numerous groups of young 7–10-year-old plants of the smoke trees (Cotinus coggygria Scop., which had a seed origin, were found in the shelterbelt and urban recreational plantations. Young 10–12-year-old virginal and generative plants of the black cherry (Padus serotina Ehrh. were found in large numbers in both the semi-natural and artificial plant communities at great distances from the adult trees. The alien plant species common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. showed the ability to form fairly sparse seminal seedlings, which was presented by the plants at the age of 4–7 years in both the natural and urban plant communities. The perennial herbaceous plant common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. was found in the course of the research in ruderal habitats, urban plant communities, and also in the agrocoenoses. The common milkweed reached its greatest abundance in fields of winter crops, where the spread of this species was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the number of other species of segetal plants. Our study results confirm that the extension of the distribution boundaries of alien species over the last

  16. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Medicinal plants of Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla ahmadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collection and determination of medicinal plants in Lorestan province have been carried out for 6 years in the agriculture and natural resources research of center of Lorestan. The aims of this study were collection and identification the medicinal plans that grow in Loretta province, their distribution, habitat, traditional uses, utilized organ, manner of usage, botany specification, local name, Persian name and scientific name. Material and methods: Medicinal plants were collected from different regions by using field and library study for these goals we prepared a list of recorded medicinal plants from Lorestan, identified the local herbal experts. Results: Finally we collected 151 medicinal plant identified that related to 63 families and 90 genuses. The Lamiaceae, Compositae, Legominosae , Liliaceae, Umbelliferae and . Rosaceae are the greatest family in the Lorestan province. Diction: According to the literature 96 medicinal plans were recorded from Lorestan, but during this study we collected and identified 151 medicinal plants in Lorestan province. Comparing with those that recorded from Bushehr 70 sp.(9, Hormozgan 113 sp.(10, Markazi 144 sp. And Kordestan 144 sp(11. We have more diversity but comparing with Zanjan 163 sp.(13, Hamedan 315 sp.(14 And Qazvin 250 sp.(15 We have less diversity in medicinal plants.

  18. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  20. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  1. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a data collecting section for periodically collecting processed data sent from plant equipments, a top node induction and processing section for an important plant function model for inducing the plant function to be noted particularly by an operator from important plant function models by using process data and a window screen selection section for selecting a window screen to be displayed based on the result of the evaluation for each of function nodes based on the processing described above and determining the layout and automatically forming the display screen. It is constituted so that the kind and the layout of the window under display are checked if they are the same as those one cycle before or not and, if they are different, the screen is automatically switched to a new screen display. Then, operator's psychological burdens such as selection of information and judgement for the operation upon occurrence of plant abnormality and accident can be mitigated, to provide a safe operation circumstance having reinforced monitoring of the function of the whole plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  2. Uranium speciation in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, A.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Reich, T.; Rossberg, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the nature of uranium complexes formed after the uptake by plants is an essential prerequisite to describe the migration behavior of uranium in the environment. This study focuses on the determination of uranium speciation after uptake of uranium by lupine plants. For the first time, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical speciation of uranium in plants. Differences were detected between the uranium speciation in the initial solution (hydroponic solution and pore water of soil) and inside the lupine plants. The oxidation state of uranium did not change and remained hexavalent after it was taken up by the lupine plants. The chemical speciation of uranium was identical in the roots, shoot axis, and leaves and was independent of the uranium speciation in the uptake solution. The results indicate that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl(VI) phosphate to the phosphoryl groups. Dandelions and lamb's lettuce showed uranium speciation identical to lupine plants. (orig.)

  3. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

  4. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  5. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kunio.

    1991-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

  6. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  7. Conservation law of plants' energy value dependence of plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants differences in biochemical composition are analyzed, and the conservation law of energy value in plants is obtained. The link between the need for the nutrients and the plants biochemical composition is examined, Liebig's law is specified. Keywords: plant's biochemical composition, biochemistry, energy value in ...

  8. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  9. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  10. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  11. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  12. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  13. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  14. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  15. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant

  16. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  17. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  18. Plant arginyltransferases (ATEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Domitrovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of protein stability and/or degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are essential cellular processes. A part of this regulation is mediated by the so-called N-end rule proteolytic pathway, which, in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, drives protein degradation depending on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. One important enzyme involved in this process is arginyl-t-RNA transferase, known as ATE. This enzyme acts post-translationally by introducing an arginine residue at the N-terminus of specific protein targets to signal degradation via the UPS. However, the function of ATEs has only recently begun to be revealed. Nonetheless, the few studies to date investigating ATE activity in plants points to the great importance of the ATE/N-end rule pathway in regulating plant signaling. Plant development, seed germination, leaf morphology and responses to gas signaling in plants are among the processes affected by the ATE/N-end rule pathway. In this review, we present some of the known biological functions of plant ATE proteins, highlighting the need for more in-depth studies on this intriguing pathway.

  19. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  20. AECL's plant Information Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Lupton, L.; Didsbury, R.; Judd, R.

    1998-01-01

    The competitiveness of the world-wide energy market is a continual driving force for improvements to CANDU performance and lower operating, maintenance, and administration costs. As in other industries, advanced Information Technologies (IT) are changing the way we work and conduct business. The nuclear industry is no different and there exists strong incentives to improve work processes and provide faster and more flexible access to the information needed to effectively manage and maintain nuclear plant assets. AECL has responded to these forces through the development of a vision of integrated IT systems addressing all phases of nuclear plant development and operations. This includes the initial engineering, design, and construction processes as well as support to the long-term operations and maintenance. Integral to the AECL vision is the need for cost-effective engineering and operational configuration management systems, proactive maintenance processes and systems, and advanced plant surveillance and diagnostics. This paper presents the vision and describes the integrated information systems needed to manage both the design basis and operating plant data systems to ensure the cost-effective, long-term viability of CANDU plants. (author)

  1. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  2. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  3. Pinellas Plant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  4. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  5. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  6. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  7. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  8. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs......In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  9. Collective biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers contributed to the European seminar on collective biogas plants held at Herning, Denmark on October 22-23 under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy (DG XVII) are presented. Within the framework of the THERMIE programme, a network of OPETs (Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies) was set up in order to disseminate information on new energy technologies throughout the European communities. The potential for further implementation of centralized capacity for the conversion of animal manures and other organic wastes to bio-fuels, not only in central and eastern Europe but also in the developing countries, is discussed in addition to the relevant technologies. Actual biomass conversion plants are described and details are given on operational experience and plant management. Agricultural, economic and policy aspects are also dealt with. (AB)

  10. Town gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastos, G.J.; Johnson, G.M.; Schapot, R.M.; Velez, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Town gas plant sites are receiving increasing attention from the utility industry and regulatory communities. This attention has been prompted by greater environmental awareness of impacts due to past disposal practices and the understanding that gas plant wastes contain a wide range of chemical constituents that have persisted in the environment. This paper discusses the history of the town gas plant industry, the various processes utilized and the resultant by-products and wastes. Potential problem areas relating to these sites as well as potential approaches to site characterization are addressed. Included are recommendations for the phasing of site investigations and the use of relatively inexpensive and rapid field screening techniques to identify contamination

  11. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  12. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  13. Individual plant examination: Submittal guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    Based on a Policy Statement on Severe Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants, the performance of a plant examination is requested from the licensee of each nuclear power plant. The plant examination looks for vulnerabilities to severe accidents and cost-effective safety improvements that reduce or eliminate the important vulnerabilities. This document delineates guidance for reporting the results of that plant examination. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  16. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  17. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  18. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  19. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  20. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  1. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  2. PLANTS, SOURCE FOR BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most affordable alternative energy sources to fossil plants with hydropower are some oils that accumulate in different organs other accumulating carbohydrates with high energy value. They are known worldwide and cultivated a number of plant species entering the oilseeds, which provides significant production of edible oil (soybean, sunflower, etc. Vegetable oils or their product derived biodiesel fuels are potential diesel engines, representing an alternative to fuels. The most promising suitable for the production of oil crops "with short circuit "or biodiesel are fruits and seeds, both herbaceous and tree.

  3. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  5. Plant engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.J.; Goossen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Plant Engineering Network (PEN) is a utility-vendor relationship focussed on reducing O and M costs, while maintaining the safe and reliable operation of partner plants through sharing resources, using telecommunications systems for collaborative engineering, coordinating and streamlining work processes, and sharing financial risk and reward. This paper examines how Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) established a PEN organization and realized over =0.5 million U.S. in 1994, the first year of implementation, and approximately =2 million U.S. savings in 1995. (author)

  6. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  7. Methylome evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-12-20

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over long timescales is largely a byproduct of genomic changes. By contrast, methylome evolution over short timescales appears to be driven mainly by spontaneous epimutational events. We argue that novel methods based on analyses of the methylation site frequency spectrum (mSFS) of natural populations can provide deeper insights into the evolutionary forces that act at each timescale.

  8. Power plants 2009. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2009 of the VGB PowerTech e.V. (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) from 23rd to 25th May, 2009, in Lyon (France) the following lectures were held: (1) Electricity demand, consequences of the financial and economic crisis - Current overview 2020 for the EU-27 (Hans ten Berge); (2) Status and perspectives of the electricity generation mix in France (Bernard Dupraz); (3) European electricity grid - status and perspective (Dominique Maillard); (4) Technologies and acceptance in the European energy market (Gordon MacKerran); (5) EPR construction in Finland, China, France, (Claude Jaouen); (6) EPR Flamanville 3: A project on the path towards nuclear revival (Jacques Alary); (7) Worldwide nuclear Revival and acceptance (Luc Geraets); (8) An overview on the status of final disposal of radioactive wastes worldwide (Piet Zuidema); (9) Who needs pumped storage plants? PSP are partner to grid stability and renewable energies (Hans-Christoph Funke); (10) Sustainable use of water resources to generate electricity safely and efficiently (Patrick Tourasse); (11) The growth strategy of RWE Innogy - Role of RES in RWE strategy (Fritz Vahrenholt); (12) Solar technologies towards grid parity - key factors and timeframe (G. Gigliucci); (13) Overview on CCS technologies and results of Vattenfalls oxyfuel pilot plant (Philippe Paelinck); (14) Development perspectives of lignite-based IGCC-plants with CCS (Dietmar Keller); (15) Post combustion capture plants - concept and plant integration (Wolfgang Schreier); (16) CCS fossil power generation in a carbon constraint world (Daniel Hofmann); (17) CEZ group strategy in Central and South Eastern Europe (Jan Zizka); (18) Strategy and projects of DONG Energy (Jens Erik Pedersen); (19) E.ON coal-based power generation of the future - The highly efficient power plant and downstream separation of carbon dioxide (Gerhard Seibel); (20) Final sage of first supercritical 460 MW e l. CFB Boiler construction - firs

  9. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, A

    1977-01-13

    The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

  10. Conceptualizing Pharmaceutical Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. In this design process configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  11. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  13. Monitoring wood heating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The overall aim of the project is to support the increased use of biomass heating plant in the UK by improving the quality and quantity of information available to suppliers and users. This aim will be achieved by: providing a qualitative assessment of the operational performance of a representative range of biomass heating installations including summaries of technical information; providing good case studies for a range of installations addressing the varied market demands; collating performance data of existing installations so as to improve the performance and/or reduce capital and operating costs of existing and future installations; and providing basic operator training and recommending methods optimising/improving plant performance. (author)

  14. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako eMitsumasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root-parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones (SLs, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  15. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  16. Regeneration and growth rates of allofragments in four common stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Madsen, Tom Vindbæk; Sennels, R. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    perfoliatus L. and Ranunculus baudotii x pseudofluitans. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if shoots with an apical tip have higher regeneration (growth of new shoots and rhizomes from allofragments) and colonisation (root attachment in sediment) abilities and higher relative growth rates...

  17. B Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  18. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  19. Plant research '76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Overall objective remains unchanged: to contribute to the knowledge, with strong emphasis on fundamental problems, of how plants function, the roles they play in the environment and energy relations of the world, and how these roles may be optimized for the benefit of mankind. (PCS)

  20. Drought Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depending upon the source and nature of signaling: (i) hormone signal, (ii) .... plants to regulate the rate of transpiration through minor structural .... cell has to keep spending energy (in the form of A TP) to maintain a .... enzymes and proteins in the regulation of cellular metabolism can be determined by either inactivating.

  1. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  2. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552 ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  3. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  4. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  5. Plant monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.; Manazir, R.; Rescori, R.; Harmon, D.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the main machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  6. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  7. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  8. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  9. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  10. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  11. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  12. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  13. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  14. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  15. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  16. Radiosensitivity in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauman, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations

  17. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  19. Plant cell culture initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The use of cultured plant cells in either organized or unorganized form has increased vey considerably in the last 10-15 yr. Many new technologies have been developed and applications in both fundamental and applied research have led to the development of some powerful tools for improving our

  20. Screening for Plant Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Polder, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, an overview of different plant features is given, from (sub)cellular to canopy level. A myriad of methods is available to measure these features using image analysis, and often, multiple methods can be used to measure the same feature. Several criteria are listed for choosing a

  1. The plant exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    exocyst is an octameric vesicle tethering complex that functions upstream of SNARE mediated exocytotic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. All proteins in the complex have been conserved during evolution, and genes that encode the exocyst subunits are present in the genomes of all plants

  2. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  3. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  4. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  5. Peru, People and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  6. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  7. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  8. Steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to power plant forced flow boilers operating with water letdown. The letdown water is arranged to deliver heat to partly expanded steam passing through a steam reheater connected between two stages of the prime mover. (U.K.)

  9. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  10. Evolution of plant senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mike

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic

  11. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  12. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  13. Photooxidative stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foyer, C.H.; Lelandais, M.; Kunert, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The light-dependent generation of active oxygen species is termed photooxidative stress. This can occur in two ways: (1) the donation of energy or electrons directly to oxygen as a result of photosynthetic activity; (2) exposure of tissues to ultraviolet irradiation. The light-dependent destruction of catalase compounds the problem. Although generally detrimental to metabolism, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide may serve useful functions if rigorously controlled and compartmentalised. During photosynthesis the formation of active oxygen species is minimised by a number of complex and refined regulatory mechanisms. When produced, active oxygen species are eliminated rapidly by efficient antioxidative systems. The chloroplast is able to use the production and destruction of hydrogen peroxide to regulate the thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy. This is an intrinsic feature of the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Photoinhibition and photooxidation only usually occur when plants are exposed to stress. Active oxygen species are part of the alarm-signalling processes in plants. These serve to modify metabolism and gene expression so that the plant can respond to adverse environmental conditions, invading organisms and ultraviolet irradiation. The capacity of the antioxidative defense system is often increased at such times but if the response is not sufficient, radical production will exceed scavenging and ultimately lead to the disruption of metabolism. Oxidative damage arises in high light principally when the latter is in synergy with additional stress factors such as chilling temperatures or pollution. Environmental stress can modify the photooxidative processes in various ways ranging from direct involvement in light-induced free radical formation to the inhibition of metabolism that renders previously optimal light levels excessive. It is in just such situations that the capacity for the production of active oxygen species can exceed that

  14. Heating plant privatization stagnates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector

  15. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  16. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  17. Remediation Using Plants and Plant Enzymes: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In every case, the sources are plants growing near the sediment. The use of plants for remediation of hazardous materials such as TNT or other munitions like RDX and HMX has led to a new approach to remediation-- phytoremediation...

  18. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  19. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant.

  20. Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion

  1. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  2. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  3. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  4. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  5. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  6. Mathematical Modelling Plant Signalling Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.; Byrne, H.M.; King, J.R.; Bennett, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    methods for modelling gene and signalling networks and their application in plants. We then describe specific models of hormonal perception and cross-talk in plants. This mathematical analysis of sub-cellular molecular mechanisms paves the way for more

  7. Table showing nutritional plant list

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... To consider food as medicine is part of a culture and a millennial human ... propagation, and introduction of nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the .... some respondents also mentioned that these plants were being ...

  8. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  9. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  10. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  11. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  12. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  13. Power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacking, D [Marconi Simulation (United Kingdom)

    1992-09-01

    Over many years in the field of simulation Marconi has developed and adopted a number of procedures and methodologies for the management, design and development of an extensive range of training equipment. This equipment encompasses desktop computer-based training systems, generic training devices. The procurement of a training simulator is clearly dictated by the perceived training requirement or problem. Also, it should preferably involve or follow a detailed training needs analysis. Although the cost benefits of training are often difficult to quantify, a simulator is frequently easier to justify if plant familiarisation and training can be provided in advance of on-the-job experience. This is particularly true if the target operators have little hands-on experience of similar plant either in terms of processes or the operator interface. (author).

  14. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  15. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  16. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R

    1979-10-05

    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  17. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  18. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  19. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  20. The intelligent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Firth [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The current advances in electronics and smart sensors, coupled with the large amount of information that modern distributed control systems can create, provide opportunities but posses some significant problems. The potential suite of data measurements could provide plant operators, maintenance staff and supervisors with a comprehensive understanding of the current health of a coal preparation plant. Analysis of this issue would also provide a tool for the recognition of where important data is not or poorly (timeframe and/or quality) currently available. A suitable system for categorisation of the information associated with the description of the 'Health of a Plant' has been developed. A relational data base model for these categories was derived. The process and performance information relationships were established via the use of models derived from the wide body of literature available. Given the availability of the above model relationships and measurements, the best way to utilise this information in a simple intelligent manner was addressed. It involved the construction of a high level fuzzy set diagnosis chart and an underlying set of unit operation diagnostic charts. These charts provided the basis for the implementation of a generic diagnosis system. This was deliberately developed in EXCEL so that it can be used and/or modified to suit a particular plant. A sensing system which combines a limited set of measurements with an algorithm or logic system for optimisation of a process can be termed a smart sensor. These are vey useful in the optimisation of difficult process situations, and can be used to supplement expert systems. It is believed that the models developed in this project can also provide the basis for appropriate smart sensors when access to appropriate measurements is available.