Bothra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Nandita; Jain, Vandana
The treatment practices for vitamin D deficiency rickets are highly variable. Though a single intramuscular (IM) megadose of vitamin D is economical, and ensures good compliance, it poses the risk of hypervitaminosis D. This observational study was conducted to assess the duration of effect and safety of single IM megadose of cholecalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Children younger than 14 years with rickets were enrolled. Baseline investigations included radiograph of wrists and estimation of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels. All children received a single IM megadose of vitamin D3. Biochemical parameters were re-evaluated at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after the megadose and the values were compared to the baseline. We enrolled 21 children, out of which nine remained under active follow-up till 6 months. Radiological evidence of rickets was present in all 21 children, 14 had hypocalcemia at the time of presentation. After IM cholecalciferol megadose, median 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level remained significantly more than the baseline till 6 months after the megadose. At 1.5 months after the vitamin D megadose, three (30%) of the children were found to develop toxic levels of vitamin D (>150 ng/mL), although none had hypercalcemia or any clinical manifestation of vitamin D toxicity. At 3 months and 6 months after the megadose, 25(OH)D levels remained in the sufficient range (20-100 ng/mL) in seven out of the eight children who came for follow-up. A single IM megadose of vitamin D may be effective in significantly increasing the 25(OH)D levels for at least 6 months in children with rickets, but elevation of 25(OH)D to toxic range raises concern regarding its safety.
Accurate immunoassays measuring minute quantities of hormones are the cornerstone of the practice of endocrinology. Despite tremendous advances in this field, novel pitfalls in these tests emerge from time to time. Oral biotin can interfere with immunoassays of several hormones. The purpose of this report is to relate an extreme case of such interference. A patient with progressive multiple sclerosis was found to have extremely elevated free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and suppressed thyrotropin (TSH) levels. His TSH receptor binding inhibiting antibody level was also elevated. This constellation of laboratory findings suggested a diagnosis of severe Graves' disease. All of the assays yielding abnormal results employed the biotin-streptavidin affinity in their design. The patient had no symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and detailed review of his medications revealed intake of megadoses of biotin. Temporary discontinuation of biotin treatment resulted in complete resolution of the biochemical abnormalities. Non-physiologic biotin supplementation may interfere with several immunoassays, including thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin, and TSH receptor binding inhibiting antibody, leading to erroneous diagnoses. Questioning for biotin intake should be part of the evaluation for patients undergoing endocrine tests. Interruption of biotin supplementation for at least two days prior to biotin-sensitive tests should be sufficient to avoid major misdiagnoses.
Knudsen, Mikkel Malham; Jørgensen, S. P.; Lauridsen, A. L.
Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the effects of a single oral dose of 300 000 international units of either ergocalciferol (D2) or cholecalciferol (D3) on the plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Inclusion criteria for this stud...
One hundred children (4 to 15 years old) with hyperkinesis and cerebral dysfunction were given individual three-day trials of pharmacologic doses of thiamin, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, and placebo. The experience suggested that the hyperkinetic cerebral dysfunction syndrome is multifactoral. A significant number are caused by vitamin…
Grady, Denise; Siwolop, Sana
Presents seven dietary guidelines on ways to reduce the risk of contracting cancer, discussing scientific evidence supporting the guidelines. Includes a list of foods indicating possible role in cancer, sources, recommendations related to amount/frequency of intake, and hazards of megadoses. Foods cited include fats, vitamins, alcohol, caffeine,…
Hansen, Phyllis, Comp.
Vitamin C is an important vitamin. Since its discovery in 1937, it has been acclaimed as a possible preventive or cure for the common cold, the flu, and even cancer. Others believe vitamin C is harmful if taken in megadoses. As the controversy continues, facts and research results become increasingly important. This bibliography, which provides…
He quits CaiTech in 1964. In 1970, Pauling springs back to public prominence through his monograph Vitamin C and the. Common Cold Many prestigeous medical institutions dispute the benefits of megadoses of ascorbate and even cite possible harmful effects. Pauling answers with the book Vitamin C, the Common Cold.
In a double-blind study, 24 Down syndrome children (6 to 17 years old) were given a megadose multivitamin/mineral supplement for four months. A matched group of 23 children received a placebo in identical form. No differences were found on any measures of IQ, vision, and visual-motor integration. (Author/CL)
implemented worldwide , and in Zambia all children. In this review I endeavour to draw a picture of under 5 years are supposed to receive a mega-dose vitamin A biology which may be relevant to the way oral supplement every 6 months. There have been we use it in adults and children with HIV/AIDS. I many studies which ...
Burkhard, C; Choi, M; Wilhelm, H
The preventive value of vaccinations is generally accepted. Public recommended vaccinations are administered frequently and therefore even rare complications may occur. We report on a 56-year-old patient who suffered from an acute unilateral optic neuritis, following ten days after vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis. A complete remission occurred within six weeks after intravenous megadose prednisolone. Neurological and ophthalmological complications following vaccinations are rare, and in most cases reversible.
Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André
Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...
Rall, L C; Meydani, S N
Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin B6 deficiency affects both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Lymphocyte differentiation and maturation are altered by deficiency, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced, and antibody production may be indirectly impaired. Although repletion of the vitamin restores these functions, megadoses do not produce benefits beyond those observed with moderate supplementation. Additional human studies indicate that vitamin B6 status may influence tumor growth and disease processes. Deficiency of the vitamin has been associated with immunological changes observed in the elderly, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and those with uremia or rheumatoid arthritis. Future research efforts should focus on establishing the mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin B6 on immunity and should attempt to establish safe intake levels that optimize immune response.
Evans, N A
To identify unsupervised anabolic steroid regimens used by athletes. 100 athletes attending four gymnasia were surveyed using an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Anabolic steroid doses ranged from 250 to 3200 mg per week and users combined different drugs to achieve these doses. Injectable and oral preparations were used in cycles lasting four to 12 weeks. Eighty six per cent of users admitted to the regular use of drugs other than steroids for various reasons, including additional anabolic effects, the minimisation of steroid related side effects, and withdrawal symptoms. Acne, striae, and gynaecomastia were the most commonly reported subjective side effects. Multiple steroids are combined in megadoses and self administered in a cyclical fashion. Polypharmacy is practised by over 80% of steroid users. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy along with acne, striae, and gynaecomastia are frequent physical signs associated with steroid use.
Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mega-doses of vitamin C (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of diet) as a dietary supplement for rats on selected indices of the antioxidative/oxidative state in 40 growing Wistar rats (4x10). It was found that L-ascorbic acid and Total Antioxidative State...... (TAS) in plasma did not increase with increasing vitamin C supply. The results indicate that high doses of L-ascorbic acid (0.3 and 0.9 but not 0.6%) increased the concentration of this antioxidant in plasma. Supplementation of vitamin C above 0.3% to the diets had pro-oxidative effects on lipid...
Full Text Available Interest in mismatched transplantation arises from the fact that a suitable one-haplotype mismatched donor is immediately available for virtually all patients, particularly for those who urgently need an allogenic transplant. Work on one haplotype-mismatched transplants has been proceeding for over 20 years all over the world and novel transplant techniques have been developed. Some centres have focused on the conditioning regimens and post transplant immune suppression; others have concentrated on manipulating the graft which may be a megadose of extensively T celldepleted or unmanipulated progenitor cells. Excellent engraftment rates are associated with a very low incidence of acute and chronic GVHD and regimen-related mortality even in patients who are over 50 years old. Overall, event-free survival and transplant-related mortality compare favourably with reports on transplants from sources of stem cells other than the matched sibling.
Gupta, Piyush; Dewan, Pooja; Shah, Dheeraj; Sharma, Nisha; Bedi, Nidhi; Kaur, Iqbal R; Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Madhu, S V
To evaluate the efficacy of single oral mega-dose of Vitamin D3 for treatment and prevention of pneumonia in under-five children. Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Tertiary-care hospital. 324 children (of 980 assessed) between 6 mo-5 y age (median (IQR): 12 (7,19.8) mo) with WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Of these, 126 (39%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D pneumonia and proportion of children having recurrence of pneumonia in next 6 months; Secondary: Change in serum levels of 25(OH)D; immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM, and cathelicidin 2 weeks following supplementation; and time taken for overall resolution of illness. Primary: Time to resolution of severe pneumonia and proportion of children having recurrence of pneumonia in next 6 months; Secondary: Change in serum levels of 25(OH)D; immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM, and cathelicidin 2 weeks following supplementation; and time taken for overall resolution of illness. Median (95% CI) time for resolution of severe pneumonia was 30 (29, 31) h in the vitamin D group as compared to 31 (29,33) h in the placebo group [adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI): 1.39 (1.11, 1.76); P = 0.005]. The risk of recurrence of pneumonia in next 6 months was comparable in the two groups [placebo: 36/158 (22.8%); vitamin D: 39/156 (25%); RR (95% CI): 1.13 (0.67,1.90); P 0.69]. Proportion of vitamin D deficient children declined from 38% to 4% in the supplementation group, and from 41% to 33% in the placebo group, two weeks after supplementation. There was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum levels of cathelicidin, IgA and IgG. The time taken for complete recovery from pneumonia, duration of hospitalization, and fever clearance time were comparable for the two groups. No adverse event was noted related to the intervention. There is no robust evidence of a definite biological benefit, either for therapy or prevention, to suggest a routine megadose supplement of vitamin D3 for under-five children with
Abdul Majeed Chowdry
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic in the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Clinicians frequently treat patients with Vitamin D for diverse clinical symptoms to improve the general health and to reduce the frailty of elderly and these doses may at times be inappropriately high. Vitamin D toxicity-induced acute kidney injury (AKI, often considered rare, can be life-threatening and associated with substantial morbidity if not identified promptly. We aimed to describe clinical and biochemical features, risk factors, and management of AKI patients with Vitamin D toxicity seen at a single tertiary care centre in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India, between January 2014 and January 2016. Evaluation included detailed clinical history and biochemical tests including serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Nineteen patients with Vitamin D toxicity-induced AKI could be identified. Clinical manifestations included nausea, vomiting, altered sensorium, constipation, pancreatitis, AKI, acute on chronic kidney disease, and weight loss. Median (range age was 64 (45–89 years. Median (range serum 25(OHD level and median (range total serum calcium level were 99 (190–988 ng/mL and 139 (119–152 mg/dL, respectively. Overdose of Vitamin D caused by prescription of megadoses of Vitamin D was the cause of AKI in all cases. Median (range cumulative Vitamin D dose was 6,000,000 (3,600,000–9,000,000 IU. On three- and six-month follow-up, the creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate normalized and returned to baseline in all patients except three cases who had underlying chronic kidney disease. Three patients needed rehospitalization for another episode of AKI. Our data demonstrate an emergence of Vitamin D toxicity as a cause of AKI in this part of the world. Irrational use of Vitamin D in megadoses resulted in AKI in all cases. Persistence of Vitamin D in
Relapse is the "return of a disease after partial recovery", and is a major feature of schizophrenia disorder. It can be defined in terms of need for change in treatment, including rehospitalization or crisis intervention, the re-emergence of florid psychotic features, or gross social decompensation. Relapse is best viewed as continuum of severity rather than as discrete "attacks". Factors influencing relapse include major life events and the family constellation. Antipsychotic drugs protect against the latter but not the former, and relapse may be mediated by non-specific arousal mechanisms. The efficacy of drug treatment in postponing rather than preventing relapse is well established. The interval between relapses is prolonged at least two-fold, but in the long run most patients relapse. Unwanted effects of antipsychotic drugs can be a burden to patients, impairing quality of life. In particular, movement disorders and subjective dysphoria may be marked, as may compliance. Of these EPS, tardive dyskinesia is the most serious on long term use. Non-EPS long term effects include weight gain and endocrine changes. Depot medication has advantages over oral medication in the more ill, less compliant patients. Side effects may, however, be more marked. The greatest pain is in improved compliance but the regular supervision of the patient is also helpful. Pharmacokinetic issues are poorly understood. High and mega-dose strategies have been advocated. High doses may be needed in some patients, but megadoses are rarely justified and may be hazardous. Low dose and intermittent therapy have been evaluated but are not as successful as hoped. Some less ill patients may benefit. These schedules depend on the identification of prodromata of relapse which is not always easy, nor are relapses necessarily preceded by prodromata. Newer drugs are being developed rapidly in the search for a safer clozapine, the only antipsychotic with definitely enhanced efficacy. Other drugs which
Mohammad Faizan Zahid
Full Text Available Despite the advent of targeted therapies and novel agents, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative modality in the management of hematologic disorders. The necessity to find an HLA-matched related donor is a major obstacle that compromises the widespread application and development of this field. Matched unrelated donors and umbilical cord blood have emerged as alternative sources of donor stem cells; however, the cost of maintaining donor registries and cord blood banks is very high and even impractical in developing countries. Almost every patient has an HLA haploidentical relative in the family, meaning that haploidentical donors are potential sources of stem cells, especially in situations where cord blood or matched unrelated donors are not easily available. Due to the high rates of graft failure and graft-versus-host disease, haploidentical transplant was not considered a feasible option up until the late 20th century, when strategies such as “megadose stem cell infusions” and posttransplantation immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide showed the ability to overcome the HLA disparity barrier and significantly improve the rates of engraftment and reduce the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease. Newer technologies of graft manipulation have also yielded the same effects in addition to preserving the antileukemic cells in the donor graft.
Sultan, Sulaiman; Murarka, Shishir; Jahangir, Ahad; Mookadam, Farouk; Tajik, A Jamil; Jahangir, Arshad
Despite the knowledge that a well-balanced diet provides most of the nutritional requirements, the use of supplemental vitamins is widespread among adults in the United States. Evidence from large randomized controlled trials over the last 2 decades does not support vitamin supplementation for the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors or clinical outcomes. Many of the vitamins used in common practice likely are safe when consumed in small doses, but long-term consumption of megadoses is not only expensive but has the potential to cause adverse effects. Therefore, a need exists to revisit this issue, reminding the public and healthcare providers about the data supporting the use of vitamins for cardiovascular disease, and the potential for harm and the expense associated with their unnecessary use. In this review, we highlight the scientific evidence from randomized controlled studies regarding the efficacy and safety of vitamin supplementation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and outcomes. We also draw attention to issues related to widespread and indiscriminate use of vitamin supplements and the need to educate the public to curtail unnecessary consumption and expense by limiting their use based on strong scientific evidence.
Maria de Fátima Costa Caminha
Full Text Available Realizou-se revisão sistemática de estudos avaliativos da aplicação de megadoses de vitamina A nas concentrações de retinol no sangue e no leite maternos como medida de curto prazo para a prevenção de hipovitaminose A. Com base na estratégia do Centro Cochrane do Brasil para ensaios clínicos aleatórios foram identificadas 115 publicações no PubMed, entre as quais, por um conjunto de critérios de inclusão/exclusão, foram selecionados 14 artigos publicados entre 1993 a 2007. O efeito das intervenções com três esquemas posológicos (200.000, 300.000 e 400.000 UI de vitamina A foram analisados. Dos 11 experimentos realizados em leite materno, nove apresentaram elevação dos níveis de retinol em comparação com o grupo controle; dos nove que avaliaram sangue materno, quatro mostraram elevação após tempos variados de aplicação de megadoses de vitamina A. Conclui-se que a administração de vitamina A em elevadas doses foi positiva em 82% dos ensaios com leite materno, mas menos notáveis em comparação ao sangue materno. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas quanto à posologia aplicada.Se realizó revisión sistemática de estudios evaluativos de la aplicación de megadosis de vitamina A en las concentraciones de retinol en la sangre y en la leche maternos como medida de corto plazo para la prevención de hipovitaminosis A. Con base en la estratégia del Centro Cochrane de Brasil para ensayos clínicos aleatorios fueron identificadas 115 publicaciones en el PubMed, entre las cuales, por un conjunto de criterios de inclusión/exclusión, fueron seleccionados 14 artículos publicados entre 1993 a 2007. El efecto de las intervenciones con tres esquemas posológicos (200.000. 300.000 y 400.000 UI de vitamina A fueron analizados. De los 11 experimentos realizados en leche materna, nueve presentaron elevación de los niveles de retinol en comparación con el grupo control; de los nueve que evaluaron sangre materna
Fahey, P J; Boltri, J M; Monk, J S
Certain dietary practices are valid methods of lowering the risk of disease. Others, while popular, have unproven benefits or may even be associated with risks of their own. Careful evaluation of hypercholesterolemia is necessary. Persons with a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol need diet therapy, because they are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Weight reduction and fat restriction can lower blood pressure, help control hyperglycemia, and improve the LDL cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio. Some evidence indicates a protective role of beta carotene against cancer in animals. However, hypervitaminosis A is dangerous and relatively easy to accomplish, so supplementation beyond a multivitamin tablet is discouraged. Data about inhibition of cancer in humans through use of high doses of vitamin E or C or selenium are inconclusive, and studies of effects of long-term ingestion are not available. In general, megadoses of even healthy substances are thought to be dangerous. Decreased consumption of fat, increased consumption of foods high in fiber, and elimination of alcohol and tobacco are sensible recommendations. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has not been proven to reduce the incidence of cancer, but a moderate amount of them in the diet would seem reasonable.
Full Text Available Background: There is an increase in the incidence of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON due to increasing urbanization and rapid spurt in the number of motor vehicles on the road. Despite early presentation and ease of diagnosis the visual outcomes in TON are still limited. There is also significant confusion about the timing, dose and efficacy of steroid treatment in its management. Purpose: To provide a clinical update of the pros and cons of steroid therapy for TON. Design: The paper is a retrospective review of the currently available literature in the English language indexed in PubMed. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted by the authors using the following terms: Traumatic optic neuropathy, megadose, steroids, methylprednisolone. Relevant original articles, review articles, and case reports related to the topic of discussion were evaluated and discussed in the paper. Results: There is no prospective randomized control trial evaluating the effect of steroids in TON. There are varying reports on the effect of steroid therapy from significant improvement to no difference compared to observation. Conclusion: The decision to give steroids to patients with TON has to be on an individual case to case basis and must involve informed consent from the patient. There are documented advantages and disadvantages of steroid therapy and a prospective, randomized, controlled trial is necessary comparing steroids, surgery and observation before definitive management can be evolved.
Good nutrition is essential to good health during all phases of living with HIV. Good nutrition helps the body fight infections, enables HIV-fighting drugs to work properly, and in some cases may ease drug-related side effects. The author suggests fifteen things people should know to get the most out of their daily diet. These include: eat foods from the five basic food groups; increase calorie intake; eat a combination of foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, and moderate amounts of fat; consume small frequent meals; avoid junk foods; drink plenty of liquids; maintain usual body weight; take a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement, but beware of megadosing; take charge when dining out; have regular dental checkups; establish a regular exercise program; and consult a registered dietitian specializing in HIV. Weight loss is of special concern for those living with HIV. The author suggests taking a short walk before eating and exploring the variety of nutritional supplements to increase calorie intake.
Ana Marlúcia O. Assis
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma síntese de dois estudos previamente publicados e que avaliaram diferentes aspectos dos efeitos da suplementação com mega-doses (100.000 ou 200.000 UI de vitamina A em crianças pré-escolares. O primeiro é um ensaio comunitário, aleatório, duplo cego e placebo controlado, que demonstrou o efeito positivo da suplementação na redução da severidade dos episódios de diarréia. O segundo investigou os potenciais efeitos adversos da suplementação com mega-doses de vitamina A, oferecida conjuntamente com a vacinação em massa, utilizando um desenho de intervenção controlado e não randomizado. Seus resultados indicaram que a suplementação associada com as vacinas rotineiramente utilizadas na infância não elevou as taxas de efeitos adversos (diarréia, febre e vômito. São ainda discutidas as implicações dos resultados destes estudos, que contribuíram não somente para o avanço do conhecimento científico do campo em questão, como também têm fornecido evidências para justificar a implementação de políticas e ações específicas no campo da saúde e da nutrição, que por sua vez têm contribuído para gerar condições mais auspiciosas de sobrevivência na infância. Discute-se também a pertinência e a utilidade de desenhos de estudo com diferentes níveis de rigor metodológico na avaliação de intervenção em saúde.This paper is a synthesis of two previously published studies, which evaluated different aspects of the effects of massive doses of vitamin A (100,000 or 200,000 IU in pre-school children. The first consisted of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial, which demonstrated the effect of supplementation on the reduction of the severity of episodes of diarrhea. The second investigated the potential adverse effects of supplementation with massive doses of vitamin A when given during mass vaccination, using a controlled but not randomized intervention design
Full Text Available The advantage of using a Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-mismatched related donor is that almost every patient who does not have a HLA-identical donor or who urgently needs hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT has at least one family member with whom shares one haplotype (haploidentical and who is promptly available as a donor. The major challenge of haplo-HSCT is intense bi-directional alloreactivity leading to high incidences of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Advances in graft processing and in pharmacologic prophylaxis of GVHD have reduced these risks and have made haplo-HSCT a viable alternative for patients lacking a matched donor. Indeed, the haplo-HSCT has spread to centers worldwide even though some centers have preferred an approach based on T cell depletion of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs, others have focused on new strategies for GvHD prevention, such as G-CSF priming of bone marrow and robust post-transplant immune suppression or post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY. Today, the graft can be a megadose of T-cell depleted PBPCs or standard dose of unmanipulated bone marrow and/or PBPCs. Although haplo-HSCT modalities are based mainly on high intensity conditioning regimens, recently introduced reduced intensity regimens (RIC showed promise in decreasing early transplant-related mortality (TRM, and extending the opportunity of HSCT to an elderly population with more comorbidities. Infections are still mostly responsible for toxicity and non-relapse mortality due to prolonged immunosuppression related, or not, to GVHD. Future challenges lie in determining the safest preparative conditioning regimen, minimizing GvHD and promoting rapid and more robust immune reconstitution.
Avaliação participativa do Programa Nacional de Suplementação de Vitamina A em um município da Região Nordeste do Brasil Participatory evaluation of the National Program for Vitamin A Supplementation in a municipality in Northeast Brazil
Erika Rodrigues de Almeida
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o propósito de avaliar o Programa Nacional de Suplementação de Vitamina A em um município da Região Nordeste do Brasil, com a participação de responsáveis por crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, com abordagens qualitativa e quantitativa. Foram realizadas 657 entrevistas estruturadas e análise do registro das doses de vitamina A nos cartões de vacinação das crianças. Observou-se que a população tem acesso às megadoses de vitamina A. No entanto, percebeu-se uma fragilidade no conhecimento acerca do programa e da vitamina A, especialmente entre a população de menor escolaridade. Observou-se ainda que a cobertura do programa está aquém da meta recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, sobretudo a partir dos 18 meses de idade. Diante do exposto, é necessário intensificar as ações educativas relacionadas ao programa, no intuito de orientar e sensibilizar os responsáveis quanto à importância da vitamina A, de sua suplementação e da ingestão de alimentos-fonte deste nutriente para a saúde da criança.This study aimed to evaluate the National Program for Vitamin A Supplementation in a municipality (county in Northeast Brazil, with participation by the parents or guardians of children under five years of age. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A total of 657 interviews were performed, and the vitamin A doses recorded on the children's immunization cards were analyzed. The population has access to high doses of vitamin A. However, knowledge of the vitamin A supplementation program was limited, especially among parents with less schooling. The program's coverage fell short of the Ministry of Health's target, especially after 18 months of age. It is thus necessary to intensify the program's educational activities in order to raise awareness among families of under-five children on
McCarty, Mark F
A wealth of research data points to increased oxidative stress as a key driver of the cardiac remodeling triggered by chronic pressure overload, loss of functional myocardial tissue, or atrial fibrillation. Oxidative stress is a mediator of the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis, the cardiac fibrosis, and the deficits in cardiac function which typify this syndrome, and may play a role in initiating and sustaining atrial fibrillation. Nox2- and Nox4-dependent NADPH oxidase activity appears to be a major source of this oxidative stress, and oxidants can induce conformational changes in xanthine dehydrogenase, nitric oxide synthase, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain which increase their capacity to generate superoxide as well. Consistent with these insights, various synthetic antioxidants have been shown to suppress cardiac remodeling in rodents subjected to myocardial infarction, aortic constriction, or rapid atrial pacing. It may prove feasible to achieve comparable benefits in humans through use of a "full-spectrum antioxidant therapy" (FSAT) that features a complementary array of natural antioxidants. Spirulina is a rich source of phycocyanobilin, a derivative and homolog of biliverdin that appears to mimic the potent inhibitory impact of biliverdin and free bilirubin on NADPH oxidase activity. Mega-doses of folate can markedly increase intracellular levels of tetrahydrofolates which have potent and versatile radical-scavenging activities - including efficient quenching of peroxynitrite-derived radicals Supplemental coenzyme Q10, already shown to improve heart function in clinical congestive failure, can provide important antioxidant protection to mitochondria. Phase 2 inducer nutraceuticals such as lipoic acid, administered in conjunction with N-acetylcysteine, have the potential to blunt the impact of oxidative stress by boosting myocardial levels of glutathione. While taurine can function as an antioxidant for myeloperoxidase-derived radicals, its
Maisa Cruz Martins
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho propõe-se a descrever a trajetória da implantação das ações de controle da deficiência de vitamina A no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo baseado em dados secundários, obtidos nos registros, documentos técnicos e relatórios oficiais do Instituto Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição, autarquia do Ministério da Saúde extinta em 1997, da Coordenação Geral da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição do Ministério da Saúde, e informações obtidas com informantes-chaves, empregando a abordagem multidimensional alicerçada na tríade: estrutura-processo-resultado. RESULTADOS: O Brasil foi pioneiro na iniciativa de introduzir a distribuição de vitamina A nas campanhas nacionais de imunização, estratégia posteriormente preconizada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e pelo Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância. Desde 1983, o Ministério da Saúde utiliza megadoses de vitamina A, como uma das ações para combater a deficiência deste micronutriente. O percentual de cobertura da população alvo (crianças de 6 a 59 meses tem aumentado, alcançando 72% e 68%, nos anos de 2002 e 2003, respectivamente. Essas coberturas são semelhantes às registradas nos 40 países que adotam esta estratégia. Desde 2001 o programa foi ampliado para beneficiar puérperas, no pós-parto imediato. CONCLUSÃO: Foram modestos os avanços obtidos até o ano de 1992, fato que pode ser explicado pela falta de regularidade na distribuição das cápsulas de vitamina A. A partir de 1994, o programa manteve certa constância, porém persiste a necessidade de promover ações mais consolidadas nos serviços de saúde com maior alcance social, para além da distribuição rotineira dessas cápsulas.OBJECTIVE: This manuscript aims to describe the implementation of actions to control vitamin A deficiency in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on secondary data obtained from official reports and technical documents from
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as novas recomendações da American Heart Association (AHA, baseado em evidências científicas organizadas pelo Comitê Internacional de Reanimação, endossado e disseminado por entidades norte-americanas e européias. FONTES DOS DADOS: Os guias para suporte básico e avançado de vida em pediatria publicados nas revistas Circulation em novembro de 2005 foram revisados, bem como as subseqüentes publicações sobre o mesmo tópico usando as palavras-chave cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support, cardiopulmonary resuscitation e pediatric resuscitation, através dos métodos de busca PubMed e MEDLINE. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As maiores alterações foram na área de suporte básico de vida. O novo guia enfatiza a relação compressão torácica/ventilação para os profissionais da saúde treinados, que passa a ser 15:2 em todas as idades, exceto neonatos. É ressaltada a importância das compressões torácicas fortes e rápidas e a necessidade de se evitar a hiperventilação durante e após a parada cardiorrespiratória. O uso de megadoses de adrenalina foi retirado, bem como outras orientações. CONCLUSÃO: O guia mais recente de reanimação em pediatria da AHA tem como foco principal o atendimento básico pré-hospitalar. Está baseado na melhor evidência científica disponível, porém futuras pesquisas são necessárias para corroborar essas mudanças e trazer novas evidências para os futuros protocolos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the new American Heart Association (AHA guidelines for pediatric life support, based on the scientific evidence evaluated by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and endorsed and disseminated by North American resuscitation councils. SOURCES: The guidelines for basic and advanced life support published in Circulation in November 2005 were reviewed together with subsequent publications on the same topics, identified in PubMed and MEDLINE using the keywords