WorldWideScience

Sample records for meeting threshold levels

  1. Estimating the Threshold Level of Inflation for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This paper analyzes the relationship between inflation and economic growth in Thailand using annual dataset during 1990 and 2015. The threshold model is estimated for different levels of threshold inflation rate. The results suggest that the threshold level of inflation above which inflation significantly slow growth is estimated at 3 percent. The negative relationship between inflation and growth is apparent above this threshold level of inflation. In other words, the inflation rat...

  2. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2008-01-01

    for the determination of reference hearing threshold levels. The results are given as peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (peETSPL). The results are in good agreement with other sparse results from literature and are part of the basis for the ISO 389-6 standard from 2007....

  3. (t, n) Threshold d-Level Quantum Secret Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiu-Li; Liu, Yan-Bing; Deng, Hong-Yao; Xiao, Yong-Gang

    2017-07-25

    Most of Quantum Secret Sharing(QSS) are (n, n) threshold 2-level schemes, in which the 2-level secret cannot be reconstructed until all n shares are collected. In this paper, we propose a (t, n) threshold d-level QSS scheme, in which the d-level secret can be reconstructed only if at least t shares are collected. Compared with (n, n) threshold 2-level QSS, the proposed QSS provides better universality, flexibility, and practicability. Moreover, in this scheme, any one of the participants does not know the other participants' shares, even the trusted reconstructor Bob 1 is no exception. The transformation of the particles includes some simple operations such as d-level CNOT, Quantum Fourier Transform(QFT), Inverse Quantum Fourier Transform(IQFT), and generalized Pauli operator. The transformed particles need not to be transmitted from one participant to another in the quantum channel. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can resist intercept-resend attack, entangle-measure attack, collusion attack, and forgery attack. Performance comparison shows that it has lower computation and communication costs than other similar schemes when 2 < t < n - 1.

  4. Hearing Threshold Level Inworkers of Meybod Tile Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nourani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to excessive noise is commonly encountered in a large number of industries in Iran. This study evaluated the hearing threshold and hearing loss in Meybod tile factory workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 371 tile factoryworkers during summer and autumn of 2005. Current noise exposure was estimated using sound level meter .A specially formatted questionnaire was used. Totoscophc examination and conductive air audiometery were used to assess the hearing loss in each subject .Finally data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Results: Occupational noise increased mean of hearing threshold at all frequencies which was significant at 3, 4 KHz in both ears (p<0.05.Prevalence of hearing impairment at high and low frequencies were 39.2% and 46.5%.Prevalence of occupational NIHL was 12.9% and the odds of NIHL significantly increased with noise exposure of more than 10 years. The hearing threshold was worse in both ears of workers with tinnitus. Conclusion: High prevalence of hearing loss and NIHL emphasizes on the necessity of hearing conservational programs in tile factory workers.

  5. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  6. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  7. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  8. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  9. Development of Thresholds and Exceedance Probabilities for Influent Water Quality to Meet Drinking Water Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, K. L.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.; Balaji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water treatment utilities (DWTU) are tasked with the challenge of meeting disinfection and disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations to provide safe, reliable drinking water under changing climate and land surface characteristics. DBPs form in drinking water when disinfectants, commonly chlorine, react with organic matter as measured by total organic carbon (TOC), and physical removal of pathogen microorganisms are achieved by filtration and monitored by turbidity removal. Turbidity and TOC in influent waters to DWTUs are expected to increase due to variable climate and more frequent fires and droughts. Traditional methods for forecasting turbidity and TOC require catchment specific data (i.e. streamflow) and have difficulties predicting them under non-stationary climate. A modelling framework was developed to assist DWTUs with assessing their risk for future compliance with disinfection and DBP regulations under changing climate. A local polynomial method was developed to predict surface water TOC using climate data collected from NOAA, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the IRI Data Library, and historical TOC data from three DWTUs in diverse geographic locations. Characteristics from the DWTUs were used in the EPA Water Treatment Plant model to determine thresholds for influent TOC that resulted in DBP concentrations within compliance. Lastly, extreme value theory was used to predict probabilities of threshold exceedances under the current climate. Results from the utilities were used to produce a generalized TOC threshold approach that only requires water temperature and bromide concentration. The threshold exceedance model will be used to estimate probabilities of exceedances under projected climate scenarios. Initial results show that TOC can be forecasted using widely available data via statistical methods, where temperature, precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and NDVI with various lags were shown to be important

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  14. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  15. Threshold levels for effects of insecticides in freshwater ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A literature review of freshwater (model) ecosystem studies with neurotoxic insecticides was performed to assess ecological threshold levels, to compare these levels with the first tier approach within European Union (EU) administration procedures, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of

  16. Levels of alarm thresholds of meningitis outbreaks in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadres, Mohammad; Karami, Manoochehr; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Esmailnasab, Nader; Pazhouhi, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on syndromic data to determine levels of alarm thresholds to detection of meningitis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. Data on both confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis (fever and neurological symptom) form 21 March 2010 to 20 March 2012 were used in Hamadan Province, Iran. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak were determined using four different methods including absolute values or standard method, relative increase, statistical cutoff points and upper control limit of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm. Among 723 reported cases, 41 were diagnosed to have meningitis. Standard level of alarm thresholds for meningitis outbreak was determined as incidence of 5/100000 persons. Increasing 1.5 to two times in reported cases of suspected meningitis per week was known as the threshold levels according to relative increase method. An occurrence four cases of suspected meningitis per week that equals to 90th percentile was chosen as alarm thresholds by statistical cut off point method. The corresponding value according to EWMA algorithm was 2.57 i.e. three cases. Policy makers and staff of syndromic surveillance systems are highly recommended to apply the above different methods to determine the levels of alarm threshold.

  17. Characteristics of Omega-Optimized Portfolios at Different Levels of Threshold Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Vilkancas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature considering effects that the loss-gain threshold used for dividing good and bad outcomes by all downside (upside risk measures has on portfolio optimization and performance. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of portfolios optimized with respect to the Omega function developed by Keating and Shadwick at different levels of the threshold returns. The most common choices of the threshold values used in various Omega studies cover the risk-free rate and the average market return or simply a zero return, even though the inventors of this measure for risk warn that “using the values of the Omega function at particular points can be critically misleading” and that “only the entire Omega function contains information on distribution”. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the selected values of the threshold return on portfolio performance – higher levels of the threshold lead to an increase in portfolio returns, albeit at the expense of a higher risk. In fact, within a certain threshold interval, Omega-optimized portfolios achieved the highest net return, compared with all other strategies for portfolio optimization using three different test datasets. However, beyond a certain limit, high threshold values will actually start hurting portfolio performance while meta-heuristic optimizers typically are able to produce a solution at any level of the threshold, and the obtained results would most likely be financially meaningless.

  18. Proposal of threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    With increasing amounts of radioactive wastes along with the advances of nuclear power generation and radioactive material utilizations, the needs for management cost reduction and resource saving have arisen. Under the situation, the threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive solid wastes are required. The problem has been studied by an ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Research Association, by the request of the Science and Technology Agency. The matters described are the procedures of deriving the threshold levels, the feasibility studies of the management of waste threshold-level with several enterprises, and future subjects of study. The threshold levels are grouped in two, i.e. the unconditional level and the conditional level. According to the unconditional threshold level, solid wastes are separated definitely into radioactive and non-radioactive ones. According to the conditional threshold level, under certain conditions, some radioactive solid wastes according to the unconditional level are regarded as non-radioactive ones. (J.P.N.)

  19. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure tone Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels for the Interacoustics DD45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD45 transducer resembles the classical Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure...... tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. The results show that the DD45 may be a good...

  20. Reference hearing threshold levels for chirp signals delivered by an ER-3A insert earphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtsche-Rasmussen, Kristian; Poulsen, Torben; Elberling, Claus

    2012-01-01

    back from a Tucker Davies Technologies System II, and a Matlab program controlled the test setup. The results are specified in dB peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (dB peETSPL). Study sample: The test group consisted of 25 otologically-normal young adults (age 18–25 years......Objective: To establish reference hearing threshold levels for chirps and frequency-specific chirps. Design: Hearing thresholds were determined monaurally for broad-band chirps and octave-band chirps using the Etymotic Research, ER-3A insert earphone. The chirps were presented using two repetition...

  1. Thresholds of sea-level rise rate and sea-level acceleration rate in a vulnerable coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Biber, P.; Bethel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Feedback among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold help address the key challenge in ecology - nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, and promote communication between ecologists and policy makers. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to the enhanced anthropogenic forces. We developed a mechanistic model to simulate wetland change and derived the SLR thresholds for Grand Bay, MS, a micro-tidal estuary with limited upland freshwater and sediment input in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The new SLR acceleration rate threshold complements the threshold of SLR rate and can help explain the temporal lag before the rapid decline of wetland area becomes evident after the SLR rate threshold is exceeded. Deriving these two thresholds depends on the temporal scale, the interaction of SLR with other environmental factors, and landscape metrics, which have not been fully accounted for before this study. The derived SLR rate thresholds range from 7.3 mm/yr to 11.9 mm/yr. The thresholds of SLR acceleration rate are 3.02×10-4 m/yr2 and 9.62×10-5 m/yr2 for 2050 and 2100 respectively. Based on the thresholds developed, predicted SLR that will adversely impact the coastal wetlands in Grand Bay by 2100 will fall within the likely range of SLR under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), and beyond the very likely range under a low warming scenario (RCP2.6 or 3), highlighting the need to avoid the high warming scenario in the future if these marshes are to be preserved.

  2. Automatic Multi-Level Thresholding Segmentation Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DJEROU,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multi-level image thresholding technique, called Automatic Threshold based on Multi-objective Optimization "ATMO" that combines the flexibility of multi-objective fitness functions with the power of a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm "BPSO", for searching the "optimum" number of the thresholds and simultaneously the optimal thresholds of three criteria: the between-class variances criterion, the minimum error criterion and the entropy criterion. Some examples of test images are presented to compare our segmentation method, based on the multi-objective optimization approach with Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods. Our experimental results show that the thresholding method based on multi-objective optimization is more efficient than the classical Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods.

  3. Thresholds of sea-level rise rate and sea-level rise acceleration rate in a vulnerable coastal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Biber, Patrick; Bethel, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces. Deriving these two thresholds depends on the temporal scale, the interaction of SLR with other environmental factors, and landscape metrics, which have not been fully accounted for before this study. We chose a representative marine-dominated estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Grand Bay in Mississippi, to test the concept of SLR thresholds. We developed a mechanistic model to simulate wetland change and then derived the SLR thresholds for Grand Bay. The model results show that the threshold of SLR rate in Grand Bay is 11.9 mm/year for 2050, and it drops to 8.4 mm/year for 2100 using total wetland area as a landscape metric. The corresponding SLR acceleration rate thresholds are 3.02 × 10 -4  m/year 2 and 9.62 × 10 -5  m/year 2 for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The newly developed SLR acceleration rate threshold can help quantify the temporal lag before the rapid decline in wetland area becomes evident after the SLR rate threshold is exceeded, and cumulative SLR a wetland can adapt to under the SLR acceleration scenarios. Based on the thresholds, SLR that will adversely impact the coastal wetlands in Grand Bay by 2100 will fall within the likely range of SLR under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), highlighting the need to avoid RCP8.5 to preserve these marshes.

  4. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  5. Bound energy levels at the n=2 dissociation threshold in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, T.G.P.; de Lange, A.; Brandi, F.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Level energies of g symmetry states lying just below the n = 2 dissociation threshold have been determined in a XUV + IR multi-step laser excitation experiment in HD, with an absolute accuracy of the excitation energy of 0.015 cm

  6. Low level radiation: how does the linear without threshold model provide the safety of Canadian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The linear without threshold model is a model of risk used worldwide by the most of health organisms of nuclear regulation in order to establish dose limits for workers and public. It is in the heart of the approach adopted by the Canadian commission of nuclear safety (C.C.S.N.) in matter of radiation protection. The linear without threshold model presumes reasonably it exists a direct link between radiation exposure and cancer rate. It does not exist scientific evidence that chronicle exposure to radiation doses under 100 milli sievert (mSv) leads harmful effects on health. Several scientific reports highlighted scientific evidences that seem indicate a low level of radiation is less harmful than the linear without threshold predicts. As the linear without threshold model presumes that any radiation exposure brings risks, the ALARA principle obliges the licensees to get the radiation exposure at the lowest reasonably achievable level, social and economical factors taken into account. ALARA principle constitutes a basic principle in the C.C.S.N. approach in matter of radiation protection; On the radiation protection plan, C.C.S.N. gets a careful approach that allows to provide health and safety of Canadian people and the protection of their environment. (N.C.)

  7. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  8. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  9. Prognostic threshold levels of NT-proBNP testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Schou, M.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Chronic heart failure (HF) is a common condition with a poor prognosis. As delayed diagnosis and treatment of HF patients in primary care can be detrimental, risk-stratified waiting lists for echocardiography might optimize resource utilization. We investigated whether a prognostic threshold...... level of the cardiac peptide, NT-proBNP, could be identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2003-2005, 5875 primary care patients with suspected HF (median age 73 years) had NT-proBNP analysed in the Copenhagen area. Eighteen percent died and 20% had a cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization (median follow....../mL) was associated with an 80% (95% CI: 20-190, P = 0.01) increased mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, previous hospitalization, CV diseases, and chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified prognostic threshold levels for mortality and CV hospitalization for NT-proBNP in primary care patients suspected...

  10. CVTresh: R Package for Level-Dependent Cross-Validation Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoh Kim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of the wavelet approach to nonparametric regression is thresholding of wavelet coefficients. This paper reviews a cross-validation method for the selection of the thresholding value in wavelet shrinkage of Oh, Kim, and Lee (2006, and introduces the R package CVThresh implementing details of the calculations for the procedures. This procedure is implemented by coupling a conventional cross-validation with a fast imputation method, so that it overcomes a limitation of data length, a power of 2. It can be easily applied to the classical leave-one-out cross-validation and K-fold cross-validation. Since the procedure is computationally fast, a level-dependent cross-validation can be developed for wavelet shrinkage of data with various sparseness according to levels.

  11. CVTresh: R Package for Level-Dependent Cross-Validation Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoh Kim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of the wavelet approach to nonparametric regression is thresholding of wavelet coefficients. This paper reviews a cross-validation method for the selection of the thresholding value in wavelet shrinkage of Oh, Kim, and Lee (2006, and introduces the R package CVThresh implementing details of the calculations for the procedures.This procedure is implemented by coupling a conventional cross-validation with a fast imputation method, so that it overcomes a limitation of data length, a power of 2. It can be easily applied to the classical leave-one-out cross-validation and K-fold cross-validation. Since the procedure is computationally fast, a level-dependent cross-validation can be developed for wavelet shrinkage of data with various sparseness according to levels.

  12. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Response-only modal identification using random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chang Sheng; Tseng, Tse Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Modal Identification from response data only is studied for structural systems under nonstationary ambient vibration. The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from nonstationary ambient vibration data by applying the random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level. In the conventional random decrement algorithm, the threshold level for evaluating random dec signatures is defined as the standard deviation value of response data of the reference channel. The distortion of random dec signatures may be, however, induced by the error involved in noise from the original response data in practice. To improve the accuracy of identification, a modification of the sampling procedure in random decrement algorithm is proposed for modal-parameter identification from the nonstationary ambient response data. The time-varying threshold level is presented for the acquisition of available sample time history to perform averaging analysis, and defined as the temporal root-mean-square function of structural response, which can appropriately describe a wide variety of nonstationary behaviors in reality, such as the time-varying amplitude (variance) of a nonstationary process in a seismic record. Numerical simulations confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed modal-identification method from nonstationary ambient response data under noisy conditions.

  14. Hearing Threshold and Equal Loudness Level Contours of 1/3-octave Noise Bands in a Diffuse Sound Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maja Kirstine E.; Poulsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    Hearing threshold levels and equal loudness level contours of 1/3-octave noise bands at 40 phons and 60 phon were measured for 27 normal hearing listeners in an approximately diffuse sound field. The threshold data in the frequency range 125 Hz to 1 kHz were 3-6 dB higher than the values given...

  15. Evolution of global contribution in multi-level threshold public goods games with insurance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Tang, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding voluntary contribution in threshold public goods games has important practical implications. To improve contributions and provision frequency, free-rider problem and assurance problem should be solved. Insurance could play a significant, but largely unrecognized, role in facilitating a contribution to provision of public goods through providing insurance compensation against the losses. In this paper, we study how insurance compensation mechanism affects individuals’ decision-making under risk environments. We propose a multi-level threshold public goods game model where two kinds of public goods games (local and global) are considered. Particularly, the global public goods game involves a threshold, which is related to the safety of all the players. We theoretically probe the evolution of contributions of different levels and free-riders, and focus on the influence of the insurance on the global contribution. We explore, in both the cases, the scenarios that only global contributors could buy insurance and all the players could. It is found that with greater insurance compensation, especially under high collective risks, players are more likely to contribute globally when only global contributors are insured. On the other hand, global contribution could be promoted if a premium discount is given to global contributors when everyone buys insurance.

  16. Development of threshold guidance: National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The current study has been conducted to provide DOE with a technical basis for the development of threshold guidance. The objective of the study was to develop the necessary background information and recommendations to assist the DOE in implementing the threshold limit concept for the disposal of DOE wastes at DOE facilities. The nature of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) varies greatly in both form and radionuclide content. While some low-level waste streams can contain substantial quantities of radioactive constituents, a potentially significant fraction of low-level waste is contaminated either very slightly or not at all. There is a strong likelihood that managing wastes with extremely low levels of radioactivity as nonradioactive waste would pose no significant safety problems and could result in substantial cost savings relative to its handling as LLW. Since all materials, including waste products, contain some radioactivity, it is necessary to distinguish between those wastes that would require disposal as LLW and those that have sufficiently low levels of radiological content to be managed according to their nonradiological properties. 131 refs., 9 figs., 24 tabs

  17. Proton therapy for prostate cancer treatment employing online image guidance and an action level threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; Falchook, Aaron; Indelicato, Daniel; Yeung, Anamaria; Henderson, Randall; Olivier, Kenneth; Keole, Sameer; Williams, Christopher; Li, Zuofeng; Palta, Jatinder

    2009-04-01

    The ability to determine the accuracy of the final prostate position within a determined action level threshold for image-guided proton therapy is unclear. Three thousand one hundred ten images for 20 consecutive patients treated in 1 of our 3 proton prostate protocols from February to May of 2007 were analyzed. Daily kV images and patient repositioning were performed employing an action-level threshold (ALT) of > or = 2.5 mm for each beam. Isocentric orthogonal x-rays were obtained, and prostate position was defined via 3 gold markers for each patient in the 3 axes. To achieve and confirm our action level threshold, an average of 2 x-rays sets (median 2; range, 0-4) was taken daily for each patient. Based on our ALT, we made no corrections in 8.7% (range, 0%-54%), 1 correction in 82% (41%-98%), and 2 to 3 corrections in 9% (0-27%). No patient needed 4 or more corrections. All patients were treated with a confirmed error of < 2.5 mm for every beam delivered. After all corrections, the mean and standard deviations were: anterior-posterior (z): 0.003 +/- 0.094 cm; superior-inferior (y): 0.028 +/- 0.073 cm; and right-left (x) -0.013 +/- 0.08 cm. It is feasible to limit all final prostate positions to less than 2.5 mm employing an action level image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) process. The residual errors after corrections were very small.

  18. Threshold Level and Traceability of Roundup Ready® Soybeans in Tofu Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Nikolić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification, and GMO quantity during tofu production. Soybean seeds were spiked with Roundup Ready® soybeans (RRS at 0.9, 2, 3 and 5 % (by mass, to assess the level of RSS that would be of practical interest for threshold labelling. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was more effective than conventional PCR in the analysis of raw soymilk, okara, boiled soymilk and tofu. The negative effect of grinding and mechanical manipulation was obvious in the okara sample prepared with 3 and 5 % RRS, where GMO content was reduced to (2.28±0.23 and (2.74±0.26 %, respectively. However, heating at 100 °C for 10 min did not cause significant degradation of DNA in all samples. The content of RRS in the final product, tofu, was reduced tenfold during processing, ranging from 0.07 to 0.46 %, which was below the labelling threshold level. The results are discussed in terms of global harmonization of GMO standards, which could have the positive effect on the trade of lightly processed foodstuffs such as tofu, especially regarding the labelling policies.

  19. Threshold Level and Traceability of Roundup Ready® Soybeans in Tofu Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Petrović, Gordana; Panković, Dejana; Ignjatov, Maja; Marinković, Dragana; Stojanović, Milan; Đorđević, Vuk

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification, and GMO quantity during tofu production. Soybean seeds were spiked with Roundup Ready ® soybeans (RRS) at 0.9, 2, 3 and 5% (by mass), to assess the level of RSS that would be of practical interest for threshold labelling. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was more effective than conventional PCR in the analysis of raw soymilk, okara, boiled soymilk and tofu. The negative effect of grinding and mechanical manipulation was obvious in the okara sample prepared with 3 and 5% RRS, where GMO content was reduced to (2.28±0.23) and (2.74±0.26) %, respectively. However, heating at 100 °C for 10 min did not cause significant degradation of DNA in all samples. The content of RRS in the final product, tofu, was reduced tenfold during processing, ranging from 0.07 to 0.46%, which was below the labelling threshold level. The results are discussed in terms of global harmonization of GMO standards, which could have the positive effect on the trade of lightly processed foodstuffs such as tofu, especially regarding the labelling policies.

  20. Appropriate threshold levels of cardiac beat-to-beat variation in semi-automatic analysis of equine ECG recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Flethøj; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pedersen, Philip Juul

    2016-01-01

    considerably with heart rate (HR), and an adaptable model consisting of three different HR ranges with separate threshold levels of maximum acceptable RR deviation was consequently defined. For resting HRs

  1. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  2. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  3. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  4. Entropy-Based Method of Choosing the Decomposition Level in Wavelet Threshold De-noising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Sang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the energy distributions of various noises following normal, log-normal and Pearson-III distributions are first described quantitatively using the wavelet energy entropy (WEE, and the results are compared and discussed. Then, on the basis of these analytic results, a method for use in choosing the decomposition level (DL in wavelet threshold de-noising (WTD is put forward. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified by analysis of both synthetic and observed series. Analytic results indicate that the proposed method is easy to operate and suitable for various signals. Moreover, contrary to traditional white noise testing which depends on “autocorrelations”, the proposed method uses energy distributions to distinguish real signals and noise in noisy series, therefore the chosen DL is reliable, and the WTD results of time series can be improved.

  5. Electricity intensity backstop level to meet sustainable backstop supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2006-01-01

    The concept of a backstop level of electricity intensity is introduced and illustrated for the highest income economies of the world. The backstop level corresponds with the intensity that would be triggered by applying end-use electricity prices equal to the cost price of a fully sustainable electricity supply. Section 1 of the paper discusses the issue of electricity (also energy) intensity of economies. It is argued that identifying a 'demand for electricity intensity' bridges the gap between the high willingness to pay for electricity services on the one hand and the disinterested attitude of consumers regarding the invisible and impalpable product electricity on the other hand. Assessment of the demand curve for electricity intensity in a cross section of high income OECD countries comes to a long-run price elasticity of almost -1. Section 2 revives Nordhaus' concept of backstop supply technologies for weighing three power sources (fossil, nuclear, and renewable sources) in meeting today's criteria of sustainable backstop technology. Only renewable sources meet the main sustainability criteria, but the economic cost of a fully sustainable electricity supply will be elevated. The closing question of Section 3, that is, whether the countries can afford the high cost of backstop electricity supplies, is answered by indicating what reductions in intensity are required to keep the electricity bills stable. The targeted intensity level is called the backstop level, and provides a fixed point for electricity efficiency policies. The analysis supports the call for comprehensive and enduring tax reform policies

  6. Seven benzimidazole pesticides combined at sub-threshold levels induce micronuclei in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermler, Sibylle; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazoles act by disrupting microtubule polymerisation and are capable of inducing the formation of micronuclei. Considering the similarities in their mechanisms of action (inhibition of microtubule assembly by binding to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin monomers), combination effects according to the principles of concentration addition might occur. If so, it is to be expected that several benzimidazoles contribute to micronucleus formation even when each single one is present at or below threshold levels. This would have profound implications for risk assessment, but the idea has never been tested rigorously. To fill this gap, we analysed micronucleus frequencies for seven benzimidazoles, including the fungicide benomyl, its metabolite carbendazim, the anthelmintics albendazole, albendazole oxide, flubendazole, mebendazole and oxibendazole. Thiabendazole was also tested but was inactive. We used the cytochalasin-blocked micronucleus assay with CHO-K1 cells according to OECD guidelines, and employed an automated micronucleus scoring system based on image analysis to establish quantitative concentration–response relationships for the seven active benzimidazoles. Based on this information, we predicted additive combination effects for a mixture of the seven benzimidazoles by using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. The observed effects of the mixture agreed very well with those predicted by concentration addition. Independent action underestimated the observed combined effects by a large margin. With a mixture that combined all benzimidazoles at their estimated threshold concentrations for micronucleus induction, micronucleus frequencies of ~15.5% were observed, correctly anticipated by concentration addition. On the basis of independent action, this mixture was expected to produce no effects. Our data provide convincing evidence that concentration addition is applicable to combinations of benzimidazoles that form micronuclei

  7. Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoka, Donald; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2015-08-22

    Maternal education is strongly associated with young child nutrition outcomes. However, the threshold of the level of maternal education that reduces the level of undernutrition in children is not well established. This paper investigates the level of threshold of maternal education that influences child nutrition outcomes using Demographic and Health Survey data from Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009-10) and Zimbabwe (2005-06). The total number of children (weighted sample) was 4,563 in Malawi; 4,821 children in Tanzania; and 3,473 children in Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys. Using three measures of child nutritional status: stunting, wasting and underweight, we employ a survey logistic regression to analyse the influence of various levels of maternal education on child nutrition outcomes. In Malawi, 45% of the children were stunted, 42% in Tanzania and 33% in Zimbabwe. There were 12% children underweight in Malawi and Zimbabwe and 16% in Tanzania.The level of wasting was 6% of children in Malawi, 5% in Tanzania and 4% in Zimbabwe. Stunting was significantly (p values educational level in all the three countries. Higher levels of maternal education reduced the odds of child stunting, underweight and wasting in the three countries. The maternal threshold for stunting is more than ten years of schooling. Wasting and underweight have lower threshold levels. These results imply that the free primary education in the three African countries may not be sufficient and policies to keep girls in school beyond primary school hold more promise of addressing child undernutrition.

  8. CMT: a constrained multi-level thresholding approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rezaeian

    Full Text Available Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using ChIP-Seq has emerged as an alternative to ChIP-chip methods. ChIP-Seq technology offers many advantages over ChIP-chip arrays, including but not limited to less noise, higher resolution, and more coverage. Several algorithms have been developed to take advantage of these abilities and find enriched regions by analyzing ChIP-Seq data. However, the complexity of analyzing various patterns of ChIP-Seq signals still needs the development of new algorithms. Most current algorithms use various heuristics to detect regions accurately. However, despite how many formulations are available, it is still difficult to accurately determine individual peaks corresponding to each binding event. We developed Constrained Multi-level Thresholding (CMT, an algorithm used to detect enriched regions on ChIP-Seq data. CMT employs a constraint-based module that can target regions within a specific range. We show that CMT has higher accuracy in detecting enriched regions (peaks by objectively assessing its performance relative to other previously proposed peak finders. This is shown by testing three algorithms on the well-known FoxA1 Data set, four transcription factors (with a total of six antibodies for Drosophila melanogaster and the H3K4ac antibody dataset.

  9. Dynamic-thresholding level set: a novel computer-aided volumetry method for liver tumors in hepatic CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Harris, Gordon J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of the volume of focal liver tumors, called liver tumor volumetry, is indispensable for assessing the growth of tumors and for monitoring the response of tumors to oncology treatments. Traditional edge models, such as the maximum gradient and zero-crossing methods, often fail to detect the accurate boundary of a fuzzy object such as a liver tumor. As a result, the computerized volumetry based on these edge models tends to differ from manual segmentation results performed by physicians. In this study, we developed a novel computerized volumetry method for fuzzy objects, called dynamic-thresholding level set (DT level set). An optimal threshold value computed from a histogram tends to shift, relative to the theoretical threshold value obtained from a normal distribution model, toward a smaller region in the histogram. We thus designed a mobile shell structure, called a propagating shell, which is a thick region encompassing the level set front. The optimal threshold calculated from the histogram of the shell drives the level set front toward the boundary of a liver tumor. When the volume ratio between the object and the background in the shell approaches one, the optimal threshold value best fits the theoretical threshold value and the shell stops propagating. Application of the DT level set to 26 hepatic CT cases with 63 biopsy-confirmed hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and metastases showed that the computer measured volumes were highly correlated with those of tumors measured manually by physicians. Our preliminary results showed that DT level set was effective and accurate in estimating the volumes of liver tumors detected in hepatic CT images.

  10. An Analysis Of The Benefits And Application Of Earned Value Management (EVM) Project Management Techniques For Dod Programs That Do Not Meet Dod Policy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DOD PROGRAMS THAT DO NOT MEET DOD POLICY THRESHOLDS December 2017 By: Randy Schneider...Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFITS AND APPLICATION OF EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT ...performance reporting. The immediate objective of this research project was to examine the question: Can the application of EVM-Lite project management

  11. Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3:337–351

  12. [Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Czaja, Norman; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20-57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers' hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7-94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB) for a period of 3-14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers' HTLs at 3000-6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg) and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3):337-351. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  14. Which type of leader do I support in step-level public good dilemmas? The roles of level of threshold and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, David

    2007-02-01

    The present research examined the moderating effect of the level of threshold on people's preferences for different leader types in step-level public good dilemmas. It was assumed that the primary focus of people in step-level public good dilemmas is to make sure that the group surpasses the threshold. Consequently, when the level of threshold is difficult to reach people are expected to provide more support for and cooperate with a leader that monitors and controls the contributions made toward the public good. However, if the threshold is easy to surpass people will focus more on whether the obtained public good or bonus will be distributed according to agreements, suggesting that people will provide more support to and cooperate with a leader that monitors and controls the distribution of the bonus. These predictions were confirmed across two experiments using a step-level public good paradigm with a dichotomous (Study 1) and a continuous (Study 2) contribution choice. Moreover, the results also revealed that perceptions of trust accounted, in part, for the effect of level of threshold on people's leadership preferences.

  15. Network-level reproduction number and extinction threshold for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scoglio, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    The basic reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or not. Thresholds for disease extinction contribute crucial knowledge of disease control, elimination, and mitigation of infectious diseases. Relationships between basic reproduction numbers of two deterministic network-based ordinary differential equation vector-host models, and extinction thresholds of corresponding stochastic continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under some assumptions. Numerical simulation results for malaria and Rift Valley fever transmission on heterogeneous networks are in agreement with analytical results without any assumptions, reinforcing that the relationships may always exist and proposing a mathematical problem for proving existence of the relationships in general. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the basic reproduction number does not monotonically increase or decrease with the extinction threshold. Consistent trends of extinction probability observed through numerical simulations provide novel insights into mitigation strategies to increase the disease extinction probability. Research findings may improve understandings of thresholds for disease persistence in order to control vector-borne diseases.

  16. Thresholding: A Pixel-Level Image Processing Methodology Preprocessing Technique for an OCR System for the Brahmi Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Anasuya Devi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the methodology employed for preprocessing the archaeological images. We present the various algorithms used in the low-level processing stage of image analysis for Optical Character Recognition System for Brahmi Script. The image preprocessing technique covered in this paper is thresholding. We also try to analyze the results obtained by the pixel-level processing algorithms.

  17. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  18. Meeting Threshold Learning Standards through Self-Management in Group Oral Presentations: Observations on Accounting Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauki, Elvia R.; Benzie, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the development of student self-management skills through an oral presentation task. It is motivated by the challenge to maintain consistent quality in students' oral skills and to incorporate national accounting curriculum requirements for threshold learning standards into an accounting subject. The study has been conducted in…

  19. Resonant photoemission at core-level shake-up thresholds: Valence-band satellites in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerneholm, O.; Andersen, J.N.; Wigren, C.; Nilsson, A.; Nyholm, R.; Ma; Ortensson, N.

    1990-01-01

    Three-hole satellites (3d 7 final-state configuration) in the nickel valence-band photoelectron spectrum have been identified at 13 and 18 eV binding energy with use of synchrotron radiation from the MAX storage ring. The three-hole satellites show resonances at photon energies close to the threshold for excitation of 3p 5 3d 9 core-hole shake-up states. The 13-eV satellite also shows a resonance directly at the 3p threshold. This is interpreted as an interference between the direct three-hole ionization and a shake-up transition in the Auger decay of the 3p hole. This shake-up process is also identified directly in the M 2,3 M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger spectrum

  20. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  1. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  2. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  3. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  4. Data-Intensive Science meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Word, Andrea; Nair, Udasysankar

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. For example, challenges in the teaching and learning of atmospheric science can be traced to threshold concepts in fluid dynamics. In particular, Dynamic Meteorology is one of the most challenging courses for graduate students and undergraduates majoring in Atmospheric Science. Dynamic Meteorology introduces threshold concepts - those that prove troublesome for the majority of students but that are essential, associated with fundamental relationships between forces and motion in the atmosphere and requiring the application of basic classical statics, dynamics, and thermodynamic principles to the three dimensionally varying atmospheric structure. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of dataintensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow

  5. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Over the last one and a half decades the variety of radiosterilized articles has increased to such an extent that it is almost impossible to present a complete list. They include disposable surgical and medical instruments and devices, laboratory equipment, sutures and other temporary and permanent implants, medicaments and pharmaceutical starting materials, biological tissues for transplantation and other biological preparations. A large volume of radiation-sterilized hermetically sealed, ready-to-use medical supplies are imported by many non-producer countries to supplement their public health care services. During the recent years this trend is increasing and several developing countries are even planning to introduce this technology in the near future, while some have already done so through the provision of expertise and funding by the IAEA and UNDP. Unlike the technologically advanced countries, the medical care services in most of the developing countries are inadequate still today. Against the figure of one doctor per 500 people in the most highly advanced countries the corresponding figure in some developing countries stands as one doctor per 60,000 people. The available limited number of hospitals in many such countries are located only in the urban areas, while the preponderance of rural populations are served through non-equipped mobile dispensaries and camp health centres. Based upon these factors, many developing countries are opting to introduce the technology and practices of radiation sterilization of medical products even if the products cost slightly more. During the last ten years the Agency's programme has attached great importance to encouraging this development of peaceful application of atomic energy in the form of accumulation of relevant technical information through co-ordinated research and its early dissemination by holding international meetings. The Agency's second symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products

  6. Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et al.in "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…

  7. Automated detection of macular drusen using geometric background leveling and threshold selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Theodore; Chan, Jackie K; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Ahmad, Umer F; Barbazetto, Irene; Sparrow, Janet; Figueroa, Marta; Merriam, Joanna

    2005-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the most prevalent cause of visual loss in patients older than 60 years in the United States. Observation of drusen is the hallmark finding in the clinical evaluation of ARMD. To segment and quantify drusen found in patients with ARMD using image analysis and to compare the efficacy of image analysis segmentation with that of stereoscopic manual grading of drusen. Retrospective study. University referral center.Patients Photographs were randomly selected from an available database of patients with known ARMD in the ongoing Columbia University Macular Genetics Study. All patients were white and older than 60 years. Twenty images from 17 patients were selected as representative of common manifestations of drusen. Image preprocessing included automated color balancing and, where necessary, manual segmentation of confounding lesions such as geographic atrophy (3 images). The operator then chose among 3 automated processing options suggested by predominant drusen type. Automated processing consisted of elimination of background variability by a mathematical model and subsequent histogram-based threshold selection. A retinal specialist using a graphic tablet while viewing stereo pairs constructed digital drusen drawings for each image. The sensitivity and specificity of drusen segmentation using the automated method with respect to manual stereoscopic drusen drawings were calculated on a rigorous pixel-by-pixel basis. The median sensitivity and specificity of automated segmentation were 70% and 81%, respectively. After preprocessing and option choice, reproducibility of automated drusen segmentation was necessarily 100%. Automated drusen segmentation can be reliably performed on digital fundus photographs and result in successful quantification of drusen in a more precise manner than is traditionally possible with manual stereoscopic grading of drusen. With only minor preprocessing requirements, this automated detection

  8. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica é um fator de risco importante para

  9. Data-Intensive Science Meets Inquiry-Driven Pedagogy: Interactive Big Data Exploration, Threshold Concepts, and Liminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Nair, U. S.; Word, A.

    2014-12-01

    Threshold concepts in any discipline are the core concepts an individual must understand in order to master a discipline. By their very nature, these concepts are troublesome, irreversible, integrative, bounded, discursive, and reconstitutive. Although grasping threshold concepts can be extremely challenging for each learner as s/he moves through stages of cognitive development relative to a given discipline, the learner's grasp of these concepts determines the extent to which s/he is prepared to work competently and creatively within the field itself. The movement of individuals from a state of ignorance of these core concepts to one of mastery occurs not along a linear path but in iterative cycles of knowledge creation and adjustment in liminal spaces - conceptual spaces through which learners move from the vaguest awareness of concepts to mastery, accompanied by understanding of their relevance, connectivity, and usefulness relative to questions and constructs in a given discipline. With the explosive growth of data available in atmospheric science, driven largely by satellite Earth observations and high-resolution numerical simulations, paradigms such as that of data-intensive science have emerged. These paradigm shifts are based on the growing realization that current infrastructure, tools and processes will not allow us to analyze and fully utilize the complex and voluminous data that is being gathered. In this emerging paradigm, the scientific discovery process is driven by knowledge extracted from large volumes of data. In this presentation, we contend that this paradigm naturally lends to inquiry-driven pedagogy where knowledge is discovered through inductive engagement with large volumes of data rather than reached through traditional, deductive, hypothesis-driven analyses. In particular, data-intensive techniques married with an inductive methodology allow for exploration on a scale that is not possible in the traditional classroom with its typical

  10. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  11. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  12. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  13. Hearing Threshold, Loss, Noise Levels and Worker's Profiles of an Open Cast Chromite Mines in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerketta, Sunamani; Gartia, Rajendra; Bagh, Somanath

    2012-10-01

    The aims of the study were to describe the noise levels at an open cast chromite mine in Odisha, India, and the hearing threshold of its workers and to associate their hearing loss with their age, work station and length of employment at the mine. We performed a cross-sectional study of the hearing threshold of chromite mine workers. Audiometric data from 500 subjects was collected at the mines' hospital in the Sukinda Valley of Jajpur, Odisha, India. The latest audiometry data available for the period 2002 to 2008 was used in the analysis. Audiometric screening was performed using an audiometer (TRIVENI TAM-25 6025A) in a quiet environment by qualified technicians, audiologists or physicians. Tests were conducted on the subjects after they had completely rested for 16 hours or more after their day shift. A maximum of 262 subjects (52.4%) were employed in the work zone area and a minimum of 2 subjects (0.4%) had less than 5 years working experience. The age of the subjects ranged from 29 to 59 years and their working experience ranged from 4 to 37 years. The subjects' average mean hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz were 21.53 dBA, 23.40 dBA and 21.90 dBA, respectively. The maximum Leq and L90 levels exceeded the prescribed limits for commercial, residential and silence zones. The maximum Leq levels exceeded 95 dBA for large and medium heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs), both outside and at the operator's position. Hearing loss due to the subjects' work experience was found to be greater than that attributable to age and workstation. In our study population, the maximum noise levels for large and medium HEMMs and inside the cabins of HEMMs were found to be more than 95 dBA. This indicates that operators in this particular chromite mine at Odisha, India were exposed to noise levels exceeding 95 dBA for more than 10% of the monitoring time. The subjects' hearing loss was also found to increase for every 10-year age interval and that for every 5 years of work

  14. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  15. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  16. Research of Academic Motivation at the Stage of Forming a Threshold Level of Mastering Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremicheva, Oksana Y.; Yudin, Vladimir V.; Sheptukhina, Inna I.; Zyryanova, Natalia I.; Shevchenko, Valery Y.; Komarova, Yuliya G.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is caused by the society requirement to form and implement educational and creative potential of a student as a conductor of changes that set a high level of motivational behavior. The aim of this article is to develop a structural model of motivational behavior of students that allow carrying out modeling…

  17. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  18. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  19. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  20. Low-Level Waste Forum meeting report. Quarterly meeting, July 23--24, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.

  1. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Fall meeting, October 20--22, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  2. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Spring meeting, April 28--30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  3. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Summer meeting, July 21--23, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  4. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Winter meeting, January 26--28, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  5. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Winter meeting, January 26--28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes.

  6. Low-level Waste Forum meeting report. Quarterly meeting, July 25--26, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies. The Forum participants include representatives from regional compacts, designated host states, unaffiliated states, and states with currently-operating low-level radioactive waste facilities. This report contains information synthesizing the accomplishments of the Forum, as well as any new advances that have been made in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  7. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen...... as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic...

  8. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  9. Critical threshold levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 are required to maintain DNA methylation across the genome in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; Yen, Ray-Whay Chiu; Zhang, Yang W; Kong, Xiangqian; Wang, Wei; Xia, Limin; Baylin, Stephen B

    2017-04-01

    Reversing DNA methylation abnormalities and associated gene silencing, through inhibiting DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is an important potential cancer therapy paradigm. Maximizing this potential requires defining precisely how these enzymes maintain genome-wide, cancer-specific DNA methylation. To date, there is incomplete understanding of precisely how the three DNMTs, 1, 3A, and 3B, interact for maintaining DNA methylation abnormalities in cancer. By combining genetic and shRNA depletion strategies, we define not only a dominant role for DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) but also distinct roles of 3A and 3B in genome-wide DNA methylation maintenance. Lowering DNMT1 below a threshold level is required for maximal loss of DNA methylation at all genomic regions, including gene body and enhancer regions, and for maximally reversing abnormal promoter DNA hypermethylation and associated gene silencing to reexpress key genes. It is difficult to reach this threshold with patient-tolerable doses of current DNMT inhibitors (DNMTIs). We show that new approaches, like decreasing the DNMT targeting protein, UHRF1, can augment the DNA demethylation capacities of existing DNA methylation inhibitors for fully realizing their therapeutic potential. © 2017 Cai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Display of rotational levels near the fission threshold in 232Th(n,f) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blons, J.; Mazur, C.; Paya, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 232 Th(n,f) cross section has been measured relative to that of 235 U up to 5MeV, with a neutron energy resolution of 3keV at 1.6MeV. The angular anisotropy of fission fragments has also been measured in the same energy range with an energy resolution of 6keV at 1,6MeV. The broad vibrational levels located above 1MeV are resolved into sharp structures which are interpreted as rotational states. The rotational constants h 2 /2J of highly deformed 233 Th are found to be 2.45 and 2.65keV at 1.5 and 1.6MeV respectively. These results are interpreted by the possibility of a third minimum in the fission barrier [fr

  11. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.E.; Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  12. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  13. The Glacial-Interglacial summer monsoon recorded in southwest Sulawesi speleothems: Evidence for sea level thresholds driving tropical monsoon strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, A. K.; Gagan, M. K.; Dunbar, G. B.; Krause, C.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Shen, C. C.; Sun, H.; Cai, B.; Rifai, H.

    2016-12-01

    Southwest Sulawesi lies within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), at the center of atmospheric convection for two of the largest circulation cells on the planet, the meridional Hadley Cell and zonal Indo-Pacific Walker Circulation. Due to the geographic coincidence of these circulation cells, southwest Sulawesi serves as a hotspot for changes in tropical Pacific climate variability and Australian-Indonesian summer monsoon (AISM) strength over glacial-interglacial (G-I) timescales. The work presented here spans 386 - 127 ky BP, including glacial terminations IV ( 340 ky BP) and both phases of TIII (TIII 248 ky BP and TIIIa 217 ky BP). This record, along with previous work from southwest Sulawesi spanning the last 40 kyr, reveals coherent climatic features over three complete G-I cycles. The multi-stalagmite Sulawesi speleothem δ18O record demonstrates that on G-I timescales, the strength of the AISM is most sensitive to changes in sea level and its impact on the regional distribution of land and shallow ocean. Stalagmite δ18O and trace element (Mg/Ca) data indicate a rapid increase in rainfall at glacial terminations and wet interglacials. TIV, TIII, TIIIa, and TI are each characterized by an abrupt 3‰ decrease in δ18O that coincides with sea level rise and flooding of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Strong evidence for a sea level (flooding/exposure) threshold is found throughout the southwest Sulawesi record. This is most clearly demonstrated over the period 230 - 212 ky BP (MIS 7d-7c), when a sea level fall to only -80 to -60 m for 10 kyr results in a weakened AISM and glacial conditions, followed by a full termination. Taken together, both glaciations and glacial terminations imply a sea level threshold driving the AISM between two primary levels of intensity (`interglacial' & `glacial'). These massive, sea-level driven shifts in AISM strength are superimposed on precession-scale variability associated with boreal fall insolation at the equator, indicating

  14. Use of PSA Level 2 analysis for improving containment performance. Report of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    In order to discuss and exchange experience on different aspects of methods associated with Level 2 PSA and its applications for improving containment performance, the IAEA held a Technical Committee meeting in Vienna in December 1996. The meeting, which was attended by 26 participants from 20 Member States, provided a broad forum for discussion. The meeting addressed the issues related to the actual performance of Level 2 PSA studies as well as the insights gained from applications to improve containment performance. Particular attention was given to studies and applications for WWER type reactors, for which Level 2 work is still in its early stages, and for channel type reactors where modelling of accident progression is complex and significantly different from vessel type light water reactors. This TECDOC contains the papers presented at the meeting and the results of extensive discussions which were held in specific working groups

  15. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    July 1989 No.19 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 55th Annual. Meeting ... in the world, keeping alive atthe same time his research interests, abreast .... theory made a comeback with many new ideas and with the success of the ...

  16. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A., E-mail: ringel.5@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V{sub T} was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. Silvaco Atlas simulations of V{sub T} shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V{sub T} dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V{sub T} shifts. The proton irradiation induced V{sub T} shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  17. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (VT) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of VT was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 1014 cm-2. Silvaco Atlas simulations of VT shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different VT dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed VT shifts. The proton irradiation induced VT shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  18. Correlation of proton irradiation induced threshold voltage shifts to deep level traps in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Cardwell, D.; Sasikumar, A.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Speck, J. S.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the threshold voltage (V T ) of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures is systematically investigated to enhance the understanding of a primary component of the degradation of irradiated high electron mobility transistors. The value of V T was found to increase monotonically as a function of 1.8 MeV proton fluence in a sub-linear manner reaching 0.63 V at a fluence of 1 × 10 14  cm −2 . Silvaco Atlas simulations of V T shifts caused by GaN buffer traps using experimentally measured introduction rates, and energy levels closely match the experimental results. Different buffer designs lead to different V T dependences on proton irradiation, confirming that deep, acceptor-like defects in the GaN buffer are primarily responsible for the observed V T shifts. The proton irradiation induced V T shifts are found to depend on the barrier thickness in a linear fashion; thus, scaling the barrier thickness could be an effective way to reduce such degradation.

  19. Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern-guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Health-based guidance values, such as the ADI, use chemical-specific data to determine the highest intake that would be without significant adverse health effects. A threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a level of intake predicted to be without adverse effects based on the toxicity of structurally related compounds. The main advantage of the use of TTCs is that the risk of low exposures can be evaluated without the need for chemical-specific animal toxicity data. TTCs have been used for many years for screening the safety of packaging migrants by the FDA in the USA, and of flavoring substances, by the JECFA. A recent reassessment of the use of TTCs, organized by ILSI Europe, has developed a decision tree which allows a systematic approach to the evaluation of low levels of diverse chemicals in food. The decision tree incorporates a series of increasing TTC values into a step-wise approach. Potentially genotoxic carcinogens are considered first, based on the presence of known structural alerts. Aflatoxin-like, azoxy- and nitroso-compounds are removed from consideration because they are the most potent, and a practical TTC could not be established. Other compounds with structural alerts for genotoxicity are allocated a TTC of 0.15 μg/person per day. Compounds without structural alerts for genotoxicity are evaluated based on chemical structure and intake using a series of TTC values derived by the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the 5th percentile of the distribution of NOAELs from chronic studies on compounds sharing similar structural characteristics

  20. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life in Rural Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among rural adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between meeting recommended levels of PA and HRQOL in a rural adult population. This study analyzed data from 6,103 rural adults 18 years of age and older participating in a 2013 survey. Respondents reporting at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity (or moderate-vigorous combination) PA during the past month were categorized as meeting PA guidelines. Five health variables were used to assess HRQOL. A continuous HRQOL ability score was also created using item response theory (IRT). Rural adults who met recommended levels of PA were significantly more likely to report good HRQOL in adjusted models of physical health (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54-2.56), mental health (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.46-2.64), inactivity health (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.54-2.97), general health (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.13), and healthy days (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.58-2.47), compared to those who did not meet recommended levels. Furthermore, rural adults meeting recommended levels of PA also had a significantly greater HRQOL ability score (51.7 ± 0.23, Mean ± SE), compared to those not meeting recommended levels (48.4 ± 0.33, p meeting recommended levels of PA increases the likelihood of reporting good HRQOL in rural adults. These results should be used to promote the current PA guidelines for improved HRQOL in rural populations.

  1. Excitation-energy-dependent resonances in x-ray emissions under near-threshold electron excitation of the Ce 3d and 4d levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.B.; Baun, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Soft x-ray appearance potential spectra of the 3d and 4d levels of polycrystalline cerium metal are reported in this paper. Resonant x-ray emissions are observed when the electron-excitation energy sweeps through the ionization energies of the 3d and 4d levels. The resonant x rays excited at the 3d-level onsets are considerably more intense, and are excited at a lower electron-excitation energy than the 3d-series characteristic x rays. In the neighborhood of the 4d-electron thresholds, four line-like structures extend to approx.8 eV below the 4d-electron binding energies, while two broad and more intense structures occur above the 4d onsets, with the largest one reaching a peak intensity at 12 eV above the 4d thresholds. The resonant emissions apparently arise from the decay of threshold-excited states which are bound to the inner vacancy and have core configurations nd 9 4f 3 , (n=3,4). The exchange interaction between the three 4f electrons and the respective d-orbital vacancy spreads the 4d-threshold structures over a 20 eV range of excitation energies and the 3d-threshold structures over a much smaller range

  2. Proceedings of the seventh annual participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Seventh Annual Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) Participants' Information Meeting was held September 10-13, 1985 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste management activities, requirements, and plans. Attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, interim operations offices and their contractor operators; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of Great Britain, France, and Canada; representatives of utilities, private contractors, and parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for the exchange of information and the promotion of discussion on specific aspects of low-level waste management. Plenary sessions were held at the start and conclusion of the meeting while seven concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening day and a half. Session chairmen from each of these concurrent sessions presented a summary of the discussion and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions at the final plenary session

  3. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal-hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen as a substitute for the classical Telephonics TDH 39. The results are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level (ETSPL) measured in an acoustic coupler specified in IEC 60318-3. The results are in good agreement with an independent investigation from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany. From acoustic laboratory measurements ETSPL values are calculated for the ear simulator specified in IEC 60318-1. Fitting of earphone and coupler is discussed. The data may be used for a future update of the RETSPL standard for supra-aural audiometric earphones, ISO 389-1.

  4. High pain sensitivity is distinct from high susceptibility to non-painful sensory input at threshold level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Thomas; Springborn, Maria; Croy, Ilona; Kaiser, Jochen; Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-04-01

    Individuals may differ considerably in their sensitivity towards various painful stimuli supporting the notion of a person as stoical or complaining about pain. Molecular and functional imaging research provides support that this may extend also to other sensory qualities. Whether a person can be characterized as possessing a generally high or low sensory acuity is unknown. This was therefore assessed with thresholds to painful and non-painful stimuli, with a focus on chemical stimuli that besides pain may evoke clearly non-painful sensations such as taste or smell. In 36 healthy men and 78 women (ages 18 to 52 years), pain thresholds to chemo-somatosensory (intranasal gaseous CO(2)) and electrical stimuli (cutaneous stimulation) were significantly correlated (ρ(2)=0.2268, psensory qualities, i.e., for the rose-like odor phenyl ethyl alcohol and gustatory thresholds for sour (citric acid) and salty (NaCl). Similarly, pain clusters showed no differences in thresholds to other stimuli. Moreover, no clustering was obtained for thresholds to both painful and non-painful stimuli together. Thus, individuals could not be characterized as highly sensitive (or insensitive) to all chemical stimuli no matter of evoking pain. This suggests that pain is primarily a singular sensory perception distinct from others such as olfaction or taste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  6. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH 4 , B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia–Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH 4 and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  7. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  8. Food for Survival: Diagnosing Crop Patterns to Secure Lower Threshold Food Security Levels in Farm Households of Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragira, Sanctus; D'Haese, Marijke; D'Haese, Luc; Ndimubandi, Jean; Desiere, Sam; Buysse, Jeroen

    2015-06-01

    Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, coming last in the Global Food Index (2013). Yet, a large majority of its population depends on agriculture. Most smallholder families do not produce enough to support their own families. To estimate the optimal crop mix and resources needed to provide the family with food containing sufficient energy, fat, and protein. This study uses mathematical programming to obtain the optimal crop mix that could maximize output given the constraints on production factor endowments and the need to feed the household. The model is calibrated with household-level data collected in 2010 in Ngozi Province in northern Burundi. Four models are developed, each representing a different farm type. The typology is based on 2007 data. Model predictions are compared with data collected during a revisit of the area in 2012. By producing a smaller number of crops and concentrating on those in which they have a comparative advantage, and trading produce and input with other farms, large and medium-sized farms can improve their productivity and hire extra workers to supplement family labor. Predictions of crops to be planted coincided to a high degree with those that farmers planted 2 years after our survey on newly acquired plots. Despite land scarcity, it is still possible for households that own land to find optimal crop combinations that can meet their minimal food security requirements while generating a certain level of income. Nearly landless households would benefit from the increased off-farm employment opportunities. With only 0.05 ha of land per capita, the annotation Nearly Landless is used to highlight the limited access to land observed in this farm category. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  10. 20 CFR 641.740 - How will the Department determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine whether a grantee fails, meets, or exceeds the expected levels of performance for the core indicators and what will be the consequences of failing to meet expected levels of performance? (a) Aggregate... determine if a national grantee has met the expected levels of performance (including any adjustments to...

  11. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G. (comps.)

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  12. Proceedings of the Third Annual Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste-Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.E.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stratton, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The Third Annual Participants Information Meeting of the Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, November 4-6, 1981 The specific purpose was to bring together appropriate representatives of industry, USNRC, program management, participating field offices, and contractors to: (1) exchange information and analyze program needs, and (2) involve participants in planning, developing and implementing technology for low-level waste management. One hundred seven registrants participated in the meeting. Presentation and workshop findings are included in these proceedings under the following headings: low-level waste activities; waste treatment; shallow land burial; remedial action; greater confinement; ORNL reports; panel workshops; and summary. Forty-six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base

  13. Cold Pain Threshold Identifies a Subgroup of Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis That Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia and Elevated Pain Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Moss, Penny

    2017-09-01

    Cold hyperalgesia has been established as an important marker of pain severity in a number of conditions. This study aimed to establish the extent to which patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) demonstrate widespread cold, heat, and pressure hyperalgesia. OA participants with widespread cold hyperalgesia were compared with the remaining OA cohort to determine whether they could be distinguished in terms of hyperalgesia, pain report, pain quality, and physical function. A total of 80 participants with knee OA and 40 matched healthy, pain-free controls participated. OA participants completed a washout of their usual medication. Quantitative sensory testing was completed at 3 sites using standard methods. Cold pain threshold (CPT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) using a digital algometer. All participants completed the short-form health survey questionnaire and OA participants completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index of the Knee (WOMAC), and pain quality assessment scale questionnaires. OA participants demonstrated widespread cold hyperalgesia (Ppain, decreased function, and more features of neuropathic pain. This study identified a specific subgroup of patients with knee OA who exhibited widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, more pain, more features of neuropathic pain, and greater functional impairment. Identification of patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  14. "Now I see it, now I don't": Determining Threshold Levels of Facial Emotion Recognition for Use in Patient Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Isabelle; Gfrörer, Regina I; Piguet, Olivier; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2015-08-01

    The importance of including measures of emotion processing, such as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER), as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is being increasingly recognized. In clinical settings, FER tests need to be sensitive, short, and easy to administer, given the limited time available and patient limitations. Current tests, however, commonly use stimuli that either display prototypical emotions, bearing the risk of ceiling effects and unequal task difficulty, or are cognitively too demanding and time-consuming. To overcome these limitations in FER testing in patient populations, we aimed to define FER threshold levels for the six basic emotions in healthy individuals. Forty-nine healthy individuals between 52 and 79 years of age were asked to identify the six basic emotions at different intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and 125% of the prototypical emotion). Analyses uncovered differing threshold levels across emotions and sex of facial stimuli, ranging from 50% up to 100% intensities. Using these findings as "healthy population benchmarks", we propose to apply these threshold levels to clinical populations either as facial emotion recognition or intensity rating tasks. As part of any comprehensive social cognition test battery, this approach should allow for a rapid and sensitive assessment of potential FER deficits.

  15. Validation of a novel wearable, wireless technology to estimate oxygen levels and lactate threshold power in the exercising muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Starkweather, Zack; Franceschini, Maria A

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing interest in monitoring muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ), which is a localized measure of muscle oxidative metabolism and can be acquired continuously and noninvasively using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods. Most NIRS systems are cumbersome, expensive, fiber coupled devices, with use limited to lab settings. A novel, low cost, wireless, wearable has been developed for use in athletic training. In this study, we evaluate the advantages and limitations of this new simple continuous-wave (CW) NIRS device with respect to a benchtop, frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) system. Oxygen saturation and hemoglobin/myoglobin concentration in the exercising muscles of 17 athletic individuals were measured simultaneously with the two systems, while subjects performed an incremental test on a stationary cycle ergometer. In addition, blood lactate concentration was measured at the end of each increment with a lactate analyzer. During exercise, the correlation coefficients of the SmO 2 and hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations between the two systems were over 0.70. We also found both systems were insensitive to the presence of thin layers of varying absorption, mimicking different skin colors. Neither system was able to predict the athletes' lactate threshold power accurately by simply using SmO 2 thresholds. Instead, the proprietary software of the wearable device was able to predict the athletes' lactate threshold power within half of one power increment of the cycling test. These results indicate this novel wearable device may provide a physiological indicator of athlete's exertion. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing...... public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross...... effect of different types of public health emergencies in a timely manner as required by the International Health Regulations (2005)....

  17. LLW (Low-Level Waste) Forum meeting report, February 10-13, 1998, San Diego, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in San Diego, California, on February 10--13, 1998. Twenty-four Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 19 compacts, host states, and unaffiliated states participated. Additional information was provided by 19 resource people from, variously, the States of California, Colorado, and Utah; the National Governors' Association; the Department of the Army; EPA; DOE and DOE's National Low-Level Waste Management Program; NRC; the Electric Power Research Institute and the Nuclear Energy Institute; US Ecology, Chem-Nuclear Systems, Envirocare of Utah, and Waste Control Specialists (represented by Egan and Associates); and Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power. Also in attendance, as observers, were six other state and compact officials; a staff person from DOE's National Low-Level Waste Management Program; one NRC headquarters staff person; and seven representatives of other interested parties, including a regional generators' organization, two generators, one California anti-nuclear group, and two private companies

  18. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): revisiting the threshold values of follicle count on ultrasound and of the serum AMH level for the definition of polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, D; Gronier, H; Poncelet, E; Robin, G; Leroy, M; Pigny, P; Duhamel, A; Catteau-Jonard, S

    2011-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at ultrasound is currently used in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that the previously proposed threshold value of 12 as an excessive number of follicles per ovary (FN) is no longer appropriate because of current technological developments. In this study, we have revisited the thresholds for FN and for the serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level (a possible surrogate for FN) for the definition of PCOM. Clinical, hormonal and ultrasound data were consecutively recorded in 240 patients referred to our department between 2008 and 2010 for exploration of hyperandrogenism (HA), menstrual disorders and/or infertility. According to only their symptoms, patients were grouped as: non-PCOS without HA and with ovulatory cycles (group 1, n = 105), presumption of PCOS with only HA or only oligo-anovulation (group 2, n = 73) and PCOS with HA and oligo-anovulation (group 3, n = 62). By cluster analysis using androgens, LH, FSH, AMH, FN and ovarian volume, group 1 appeared to be constituted of two homogeneous clusters, most likely a non-PCOM non-PCOS subgroup (n = 66) and a PCOM, non-PCOS (i.e. asymptomatic) subgroup (n = 39). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to distinguish the non-PCOM non-PCO members of group 1 and to group 3. For FN and serum AMH respectively, the areas under the curve were 0.949 and 0.973 and the best compromise between sensitivity (81 and 92%) and specificity (92 and 97%) was obtained with a threshold values of 19 follicles and 35 pmol/l (5 ng/ml). For the definition of PCOM, the former threshold of >12 for FN is no longer valid. A serum AMH >35 pmol/l (or >5 ng/ml) appears to be more sensitive and specific than a FN >19 and should be therefore included in the current diagnostic classifications for PCOS.

  19. Proceedings of the fourth annual participants' information meeting, DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.E.: Mezga, L.J.; Stratton, L.E.; Rose, R.R. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    The Fourth Annual Participants' Information Meeting of the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program was held in Denver, Colorado, August 31 to September 2, 1982. The purpose of the meeting was to report and evaluate technology development funded by the program and to examine mechanisms for technology transfer. The meeting consisted of an introductory plenary session, followed by two concurrent overview sessions and then six concurrent technical sessions. There were two group meetings to review the findings of the technical sessions. The meeting concluded with a plenary summary session in which the major findings of the meeting were addressed. All papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  20. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  1. Estimating the threshold levels of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic lung edema resultant from accidents involving uranium hexafluoride release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasteva, G.N.; Antipin, E.B.; Bad'in, V.I.; Molokanov, A.A.; Mordasheva, V.V.; Mirkhajdarov, A.Kh.; Sorokin, A.V.; Savinova, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic edema of the lung with lethal outcome are estimated. The levels of UF 6 entry under emergency conditions are evaluated and bronchopulmonary disease is described in subjects involved in three accidents with UF 6 release which occurred in the seventies and eighties, as shown by records. The results deny the previous assumption on the leading role of uranium in a single exposure to uranium hexafluoride. Fluorine ion triggering the mechanism of reactions in systems which determine the disease outcome is vitally important [ru

  2. From individual to population level effects of toxicants in the tubicifid Branchiura sowerbyi using threshold effect models in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Billoir, Elise; Péry, Alexandre R R; Garric, Jeanne; Charles, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    Effects of zinc were studied in the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi using partial and full life-cycle tests. Only newborn and juveniles were sensitive to zinc, displaying effects on survival, growth, and age at first brood at environmentally relevant concentrations. Threshold effect models were proposed to assess toxic effects on individuals. They were fitted to life-cycle test data using Bayesian inference and adequately described life-history trait data in exposed organisms. The daily asymptotic growth rate of theoretical populations was then simulated with a matrix population model, based upon individual-level outputs. Population-level outputs were in accordance with existing literature for controls. Working in a Bayesian framework allowed incorporating parameter uncertainty in the simulation of the population-level response to zinc exposure, thus increasing the relevance of test results in the context of ecological risk assessment.

  3. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  4. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122 +/- 3dB (re 1uPa, rms).

  5. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, de D.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122±3 dB (re 1 ¿Pa, rms).

  6. Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Garza, J G; Giomataris, I; Irastorza, I G; Papaevangelou, T; Rodriguez, A; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Yildiz, S C

    2014-01-01

    Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ ...

  7. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  8. Winner's Curse Correction and Variable Thresholding Improve Performance of Polygenic Risk Modeling Based on Genome-Wide Association Study Summary-Level Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS, a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner's-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in PRS. Further, as a way to incorporate external functional/annotation knowledge that could identify subsets of SNPs highly enriched for associations, we propose variable thresholds for SNPs selection. We applied our methods to GWAS summary-level data of 14 complex diseases. Across all diseases, a simple winner's curse correction uniformly led to enhancement of performance of the models, whereas incorporation of functional SNPs was beneficial only for selected diseases. Compared to the standard PRS algorithm, the proposed methods in combination led to notable gain in efficiency (25-50% increase in the prediction R2 for 5 of 14 diseases. As an example, for GWAS of type 2 diabetes, winner's curse correction improved prediction R2 from 2.29% based on the standard PRS to 3.10% (P = 0.0017 and incorporating functional annotation data further improved R2 to 3.53% (P = 2×10-5. Our simulation studies illustrate why differential treatment of certain categories of functional SNPs, even when shown to be highly enriched for GWAS-heritability, does not lead to proportionate improvement in genetic risk-prediction because of non-uniform linkage disequilibrium structure.

  9. Investing today in energy for tomorrow. U.S. civilian nuclear industry: high-level oversight. Oil prices: getting close to the psychological threshold. The future of biofuels in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Investing today in energy for tomorrow: Whether to increase or to replace generating capacity, the amount of investment needed in energy infrastructure to meet rising demand has been identified, but many obstacles must be overcome before they become a reality. A status report and personal perspective from Pierre Gadonneix, CEO of EDF, in the 'Expert opinion' section. 2 - U.S. civilian nuclear industry - high-level oversight: The approaches are clearly different, but the licensing processes for nuclear reactor development and operation in France and the United States are both strictly regulated. Alternatives delves further. 3 - Oil prices - getting close to the psychological threshold: Are we going to stop using oil sooner rather than later if crude prices keep going up? European commodities expert Philippe Chalmin shares his opinion. 4 - The future of biofuels in question In many countries, biofuels are seen as an alternative to oil. Still, farmland is not expandable forever and the economics of biofuels deserve some scrutiny

  10. Sensitivity of on-resistance and threshold voltage to buffer-related deep level defects in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Andrew M; Allerman, Andrew A; Baca, Albert G; Sanchez, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of deep levels defects located in highly resistive GaN:C buffers on the on-resistance (R ON ) and threshold voltage (V th ) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) power devices was studied by a combined photocapacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (C-DLOS) and photoconductance deep level optical spectroscopy (G-DLOS) methodology as a function of electrical stress. Two carbon-related deep levels at 1.8 and 2.85 eV below the conduction band energy minimum were identified from C-DLOS measurements under the gate electrode. It was found that buffer-related defects under the gate shifted V th positively by approximately 10%, corresponding to a net areal density of occupied defects of 8 × 10 12 cm −2 . The effect of on-state drain stress and off-state gate stress on buffer deep level occupancy and R ON was also investigated via G-DLOS. It was found that the same carbon-related deep levels observed under the gate were also active in the access region. Off-state gate stress produced significantly more trapping and degradation of R ON (∼140%) compared to on-state drain stress (∼75%). Greater sensitivity of R ON to gate stress was explained by a more sharply peaked lateral distribution of occupied deep levels between the gate and drain compared to drain stress. The overall greater sensitivity of R ON compared to V th to buffer defects suggests that electron trapping is significantly greater in the access region compared to under the gate, likely due to the larger electric fields in the latter region. (invited paper)

  11. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear... the hotel for meeting attendees. To ensure receiving the meeting rate, reservations must be made by October 6, 2010. For directions to the hotel or to make reservations, go to http://www.marriott.com/hotels...

  12. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition but it must

  13. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  14. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  15. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Spitz,1 Marc Gittelman,2 Lawrence I Karsh,3 Sanja Dragnic,4 Ahmed M Soliman,5 Aditya Lele,6 Damian Gruca,7 Michael Norton4 1Orange County Urology Associates, Laguna Beach, CA, 221st Century Oncology/UroMedix-Aventura Division, Aventura, FL, 3The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, CO, 4US Medical Affairs, 5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 6Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA; 7Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA, a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels.Methods: In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49 or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151 depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks.Results: Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79% of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and

  16. Proceedings of the international symposium on safety related measurements in PWRs: Topic of the first meeting: 'Temperature and level measurements'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    Numerous teams of experts from several countries deal with theme of measurement important for safety operation of WWER reactors. These special teams have a need to meet at various opportunities to change their experience. As an example I can mention meeting of experts from Russia , Germany, France and Slovakia at completion and reconstruction of Slovak NPP, at modernisation of Russian and Bulgarian NPP. Mentioned meetings have invoked an idea of participants to organise a common action aimed at measurement important for safety operation of WWER, that participants can change their experience from mentioned area at welcome environment of symposium. Therefore, at meeting of experts from Siemens, INCOR and VUJE at the end of the year 2000 participants agreed on realisation of such common action. Participants have taken orientation at all safety measurements for very deep topic. Therefore, they have decided in respect of this first meeting of symposium to give consideration to only some special measurements in particular to temperature and surface. In case of interest there is possible to take focus at other type of measurements. Slovakia has been chosen for the first meeting place on basis of economic reasons and also because a number of improvements of standard reactor temperature measuring procedures have been implemented here that over passed its frontiers. In addition the first fail-safe level measuring in reactor pressure vessel has been effectuated in Slovakia

  17. 40 CFR 98.411 - Reporting threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.411 Reporting threshold. Any supplier of industrial greenhouse gases who meets the requirements of § 98.2(a)(4) must report GHG...

  18. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  19. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting: DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    The meeting consisted of the following six sessions: (1) plenary session I; (2) disposal technology; (3) characteristics and treatment of low-level waste; (4) environmental aspects and performance prediction; (5) overall summary sessions; and (6) plenary session II. Fifty two papers of the papers presented were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  20. Threshold oxygen levels in Na(I) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels from accurate thermodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, O. M.; Madan, B. S.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1983-12-01

    The compound NaCrO 2(s) is an important corrosion product in sodium-cooled LMFBRs. The standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) is required for the computation of threshold oxygen levels in Na(1) for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels. For this purpose the emf of the galvanic cell: Pt, NaCrO 2, Cr 2O 3, Na 2CrO 4/15 YSZ/O 2 ( P O 2 = 0.21 atm, air), Pt was measured over 784-1012 K to be: (E±4.4)(mV) = 483.67-0.34155 T(K). From this, the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) from the elements ( ΔG f,T0) and from the oxides ( ΔG f,OX,T0) was calculated to be: [ΔG f,T0(NaCrO 2, s)±1.86] (kJ/mol) =-869.98 + 0.18575 T(K) , [ΔG f,OX,T0(NaCr0 2, s)±4.8] (kJ/mol) = -104.25-0.00856 T(K) . The molar heat capacity, C P0, of NaCrO 2(s) was measured by DSC to be (350-600 K): C P0(NaCrO 2, s) (J/K mol) = 27.15 + 0.1247 T (K) , From these data, values of -99.3 kJ/mol and 91.6 J/K mol were computed for ΔH f,2980 and S 2980 of NaCrO 2(s). The internal consistency was checked with the use of enthalpy data on Na 2CrO 4(s). From the standard Gibbs energy of formation of NaCrO 2(s) the equation logC 0(wppm) = 3.9905-3147.6 T(K) was derived, where C 0 is the threshold oxygen level for the formation of NaCrO 2(s) on 18-8 stainless steels.

  1. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjoung Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs

  2. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Hounton, Sennen; Koroma, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods) and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries) have been recommended. The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 - more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5-10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. In order to achieve the component of the SDGs calling for universal access to sexual and reproductive health services

  3. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  4. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Neghab

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.

  5. Threshold levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone for impaired bone health in children with congenital ichthyosis and type IV and V skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, G; Sreenivas, V; Yenamandra, V K; Gupta, N; Sharma, V K; Marwaha, R K; Bhari, N; Irshad, M; Kabra, M; Thulkar, S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with congenital ichthyosis, especially those with darker skin types, are at increased risk of developing vitamin D deficiency and rickets. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone health have not been studied previously, in ichthyosis. To determine the threshold levels of 25(OH)D and PTH for impaired bone health in children with congenital ichthyosis. In this cross-sectional study, 119 children with ichthyosis and 168 controls were recruited. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Radiological screening for rickets was carried out only in children with ichthyosis. Forty-seven children with ichthyosis had either clinical or radiological evidence of rickets. The correlation between serum 25(OH)D and PTH showed that a serum level of 25(OH)D 8 ng mL(-1) was associated with a significant increase in PTH. The correlation between PTH and ALP showed that a serum PTH level of 75 pg mL(-1) was associated with a significant increase in ALP levels. Of the different clinical phenotypes of ichthyosis, both autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) and epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) were found to have significantly increased PTH, ALP and radiological rickets scores compared with common ichthyosis. Serum levels of 25(OH)D ≤ 8 ng mL(-1) and PTH ≥ 75 pg mL(-1) significantly increases the risk for development of rickets [odds ratio (OR) 2·8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05-7·40; P = 0·04] in ichthyosis. Among the different types, patients with ARCI (OR 4·83; 95% CI 1·74-13·45; P < 0·01) and EI (OR 5·71; 95% CI 1·74-18·79; P < 0·01) are at an increased risk of developing rickets. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Challenging Conventions of Bullying Thresholds: Exploring Differences between Low and High Levels of Bully-Only, Victim-Only, and Bully-Victim Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Sterzing, Paul R; Stuart, Marla J

    2018-03-01

    Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city. The study population consisted of 3,221 middle school (53.4%) and high school (45.6%) students, with 48.7% females, 44.6 males, and 6.7% youth identifying with another gender category. These youth were racially diverse, with the modal category being Black (36.0%). Based on student survey response, we report, (a) the frequency and intensity of bullying behaviors, (b) common patterns of involvement, and (c) demographic and individual-level risk factors associated with these patterns. Analyses resulted in nine bully types, with substantial differences in bullying-involvement intensity based on gender, race, school connectedness, and mental health. Perhaps most striking, the majority of youth (70.9%) were involved in some level of bullying perpetration, victimization, or both, when accounting for the accumulation of low frequency involvement (e.g., once, twice, or a few times) across multiple bullying behaviors. Implications for adolescent development and prevention are described.

  7. Limited predictive value of achieving beneficial plasma (Z)-endoxifen threshold level by CYP2D6 genotyping in tamoxifen-treated Polish women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Ewa E.; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Karczmarski, Jakub; Goryca, Krzysztof; Brewczynska, Elzbieta; Jazwiec, Radoslaw; Kluska, Anna; Omiotek, Robert; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Dadlez, Michal; Ostrowski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, the most frequently used drug for treating estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, must be converted into active metabolites to exert its therapeutic efficacy, mainly through CYP2D6 enzymes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on (Z)-endoxifen-directed tamoxifen metabolism and to assess the usefulness of CYP2D6 genotyping for identifying patients who are likely to have insufficient (Z)-endoxifen concentrations to benefit from standard therapy. Blood samples from 279 Polish women with breast cancer receiving tamoxifen 20 mg daily were analyzed for CYP2D6 genotype and drug metabolite concentration. Steady-state plasma levels of tamoxifen and its 14 metabolites were measured by using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. In nearly 60 % of patients, including over 30 % of patients with fully functional CYP2D6, (Z)-endoxifen concentration was below the predefined threshold of therapeutic efficacy. The most frequently observed CYP2D6 genotype was EM/PM (34.8 %), among which 83.5 % of patients had a combination of wild-type and *4 alleles. Plasma concentration of five metabolites was significantly correlated with CYP2D6 genotype. For the first time, we identified an association between decreased (E/Z)-4-OH-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen-β-D-glucuronide levels (r 2 = 0.23; p < 10 −16 ) and increased CYP2D6 functional impairment. The strongest correlation was observed for (Z)-endoxifen, whose concentration was significantly lower in groups of patients carrying at least one CYP2D6 null allele, compared with EM/EM patients. The CYP2D6 genotype accounted for plasma level variability of (Z)-endoxifen by 27 % (p < 10 −16 ) and for the variability of metabolic ratio indicating (Z)-endoxifen-directed metabolism of tamoxifen by 51 % (p < 10 −43 ). The majority of breast cancer patients in Poland may not achieve a therapeutic level of (Z)-endoxifen upon receiving a standard

  8. Polycystic ovarian morphology and the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: redefining threshold levels for follicle count and serum anti-Müllerian hormone using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie Fong, S; Laven, J S E; Duhamel, A; Dewailly, D

    2017-08-01

    Can cluster analysis be used to differentiate between normo-ovulatory women with normal ovaries and normo-ovulatory women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) in a non-subjective manner? Cluster analysis can be used to accurately and non-subjectively differentiate between normo-ovulatory women with normal ovaries and normo-ovulatory women with PCOM. Currently, PCOM is diagnosed using a fixed threshold level, i.e. 12 or more follicles per ovary, and is one of the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, PCOM is also encountered in normo-ovulatory women, suggesting that it could just represent a normal variant. On the other hand, recent studies have shown subtle endocrine abnormalities in women with isolated PCOM that resemble those found in women with PCOS. Because of the strong correlation between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle number, a high serum AMH level has been proposed as a surrogate marker for PCOM and could, therefore, be integrated in the diagnostic classifications for PCOS. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Original cohorts had been recruited for previous studies between 1998 and 2010. Two hundred ninety-seven regularly cycling women and 700 women with PCOS were eligible for inclusion. Cluster analysis was performed in 297 regularly cycling women. After exclusion of 'PCOM' clusters, each 'non-PCOM' cluster (young, n = 118 and old, n = 100) was included in the construction of a receiver operating characteristics curve to test the diagnostic performance of follicle number per ovary (FNPO) and serum AMH in discriminating similarly aged full-blown PCOS patients (n = 411 and 237, respectively) from normal regularly cycling non-PCOM women. The optimal number of clusters was four; age was the most important classifying variable, followed by the FNPO and serum AMH. Two distinct clusters of normo-ovulatory women with PCOM were isolated and differed solely by age, i.e. 'young' and 'old'. Both 'PCOM

  9. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  10. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  11. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Dubey

    Full Text Available Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover.We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011. Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover.India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women.For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  12. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic...

  13. State-level income inequality and meeting physical activity guidelines; differential associations among US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Fuller, Daniel; Lee, Eun Young; Horino, Masako; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-07-23

    Previous work has identified a relationship between income inequality and risk for obesity and heart attack. We investigated the relationship between state-level income inequality and physical activity among US adults. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cross-sectional data from a population based and representative sample of n = 428 828 US adults. Multilevel models were used to determine the association between state-level income inequality and participation in physical activity and strengthening exercises in the previous month. In comparison to males, females were significantly more likely to report being physically inactive (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11), and less likely to meet aerobic activity requirements (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.93), meet strengthening activities (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.74), and meet overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.88, 0.94). Cross-level Gini × sex interactions indicated that income inequality was associated with increased odds for participating in no physical activity (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.12), decreased odds in participating in strengthening physical activity (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89, 0.96), aerobic activity (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99), and in meeting overall physical activity recommendations (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91, 0.95) among women only. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms in which income inequality leads to physical activity behavior among US women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  15. Cardiovascular Diseases on the Global Agenda: The United Nations High Level Meeting, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Johanna; Reddy, K Srinath; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the United Nations (UN) organized the first ever meeting for heads of state to discuss the problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recognizing that these had emerged as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, including in many low- and middle-income countries, advocates from government and civil society had called for increased attention and a UN response. Earlier, NCD including CVD were absent from the global health agenda in part because of their omission from the Millennium Development Goals. The UN meeting and the global advocacy response offered a game-changing opportunity to redress this omission. The World Heart Federation (WHF) played an instrumental role in the UN meeting and follow up, including inclusion of CVD in the Sustainable Development Goals. The next phase of the global CVD movement is expected through national action, including CVD roadmaps and partnering with the World Health Organization. The WHF is heavily committed to these goals and the other nongovernmental organizations invested in the mission must help take this historical mandate forward. Instrumental to this will be the engagement of people affected by or at risk of developing CVD, to draw more attention and resources to NCD and to ensure that successes to date in global policy translate into action at the national level. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IAEA advisory group meeting on basic and applied problems of nuclear level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1983-06-01

    Separate entries were made in the data base for 17 of the 19 papers included. Two papers were previously included in the data base. Workshop reports are included on (1) nuclear level density theories and nuclear model reaction cross-section calculations and (2) extraction of nuclear level density information from experimental data

  17. Proceedings of the sixth annual Participants' Information Meeting DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Sessions were held on disposal technology, characteristics and treatment of low-level waste, environmental aspects and performance prediction, predicting source terms for low-level wastes (LLW), performance assessment for LLW disposal facilities, and approaches to LLW facility siting and characteristics. Fifty-six papers were indexed separately

  18. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  19. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  20. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  1. Estimating the Optimal Capacity for Reservoir Dam based on Reliability Level for Meeting Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Taghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the practical and classic problems in the water resource studies is estimation of the optimal reservoir capacity to satisfy demands. However, full supplying demands for total periods need a very high dam to supply demands during severe drought conditions. That means a major part of reservoir capacity and costs is only usable for a short period of the reservoir lifetime, which would be unjustified in economic analysis. Thus, in the proposed method and model, the full meeting demand is only possible for a percent time of the statistical period that is according to reliability constraint. In the general methods, although this concept apparently seems simple, there is a necessity to add binary variables for meeting or not meeting demands in the linear programming model structures. Thus, with many binary variables, solving the problem will be time consuming and difficult. Another way to solve the problem is the application of the yield model. This model includes some simpler assumptions and that is so difficult to consider details of the water resource system. The applicationof evolutionary algorithms, for the problems have many constraints, is also very complicated. Therefore, this study pursues another solution. Materials and Methods: In this study, for development and improvement the usual methods, instead of mix integer linear programming (MILP and the above methods, a simulation model including flow network linear programming is used coupled with an interface manual code in Matlab to account the reliability based on output file of the simulation model. The acre reservoir simulation program (ARSP has been utilized as a simulation model. A major advantage of the ARSP is its inherent flexibility in defining the operating policies through a penalty structure specified by the user. The ARSP utilizes network flow optimization techniques to handle a subset of general linear programming (LP problems for individual time intervals

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management in New York State: Meeting the milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 made the states responsible for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated within their borders. After extensive hearings and public participation, New York State enacted a Radioactive Waste Management Act (State LLRWMA) in July 1986. This paper describes New York's program and reviews the State's progress in complying with the milestone established by Public Law 99-240. A number of concerns about LLRW disposal and the schedule calling for a facility to be operational by January 1, 1993, are also discussed

  3. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  4. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  5. A measurement control program to meet desired levels of precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement control programs are usually designed to test for precision and accuracy. Many instruments, however, display non-random data patterns such as biases or seasonal variations which are statistically significant but are of no practical significance. Application of the usual statistical tests can cause these instruments to be removed from service unnecessarily. It is tempting to try to overcome this problem by frequently adjusting the instrument or by arbitrarily changing the parameters of the statistical tests so that failures occur less often. This, of course invalidates the statistical tests. In the author's opinion, the correct way to handle this problem is to identify the desired levels of precision and accuracy, and then to combine these levels with valid statistical techniques in the measurement control-program. This paper describes one way to accomplish this

  6. Identifying environmental, social, and psychological correlates of meeting the recommended physical activity levels for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When biomolecules meet graphene: from molecular level interactions to material design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Wensi; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zhenping; Su, Zhiqiang; Wei, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Graphene-based materials have attracted increasing attention due to their atomically-thick two-dimensional structures, high conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, and large specific surface areas. The combination of biomolecules with graphene-based materials offers a promising method to fabricate novel graphene-biomolecule hybrid nanomaterials with unique functions in biology, medicine, nanotechnology, and materials science. In this review, we focus on a summarization of the recent studies in functionalizing graphene-based materials using different biomolecules, such as DNA, peptides, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, and viruses. The different interactions between graphene and biomolecules at the molecular level are demonstrated and discussed in detail. In addition, the potential applications of the created graphene-biomolecule nanohybrids in drug delivery, cancer treatment, tissue engineering, biosensors, bioimaging, energy materials, and other nanotechnological applications are presented. This review will be helpful to know the modification of graphene with biomolecules, understand the interactions between graphene and biomolecules at the molecular level, and design functional graphene-based nanomaterials with unique properties for various applications.

  8. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.

    1979-01-01

    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  9. 49 CFR 80.13 - Threshold criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed $30 million); (4) Project financing shall be repayable, in whole or in part, from tolls, user fees... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS... project shall meet the following five threshold criteria: (1) The project shall be consistent with the...

  10. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  11. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  12. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  13. Identification of threshold prostate specific antigen levels to optimize the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer by magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Nabeel A; George, Arvin K; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Rothwax, Jason T; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Raskolnikov, Dima; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Simon, Richard; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen sensitivity increases with lower threshold values but with a corresponding decrease in specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy detects prostate cancer more efficiently and of higher grade than standard 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsy but the optimal population for its use is not well defined. We evaluated the performance of magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsy vs 12-core biopsy across a prostate specific antigen continuum. We reviewed the records of all patients enrolled in a prospective trial who underwent 12-core transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound targeted biopsies from August 2007 through February 2014. Patients were stratified by each of 4 prostate specific antigen cutoffs. The greatest Gleason score using either biopsy method was compared in and across groups as well as across the population prostate specific antigen range. Clinically significant prostate cancer was defined as Gleason 7 (4 + 3) or greater. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,003 targeted and 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsies were performed, of which 564 diagnosed prostate cancer for a 56.2% detection rate. Targeted biopsy led to significantly more upgrading to clinically significant disease compared to 12-core biopsy. This trend increased more with increasing prostate specific antigen, specifically in patients with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 and greater than 10 ng/ml. Prostate specific antigen 5.2 ng/ml or greater captured 90% of upgrading by targeted biopsy, corresponding to 64% of patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent fusion biopsy. Conversely a greater proportion of clinically insignificant disease was detected by 12-core vs targeted biopsy overall. These differences persisted when controlling for potential confounders on multivariate analysis. Prostate cancer upgrading with targeted biopsy increases

  14. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghab, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Kiamars; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2015-12-01

    Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m(-3), 1.4 mg m(-3), and 2.8 mg m(-3), respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.

  15. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  16. How useful are prescribing indicators based on the DU90% method to distinguish the quality of prescribing between pharmacotherapy audit meetings with different levels of functioning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, M.; Aalst, A. van der; Wit, H. de; Stroo, M.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the association between the quality of drug prescribing based on three indicator types derived from the DU90% method and different levels of functioning in pharmacotherapy audit meetings (PTAMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of functioning in

  17. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, β 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Inaba, Takeya; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants ≥50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of β 2 -MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 μg/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 μg/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China

  18. Validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis in setting radiation protection regulations for the inhabitants in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Atefi, M.; Razi, Z.; Mortazavi Gh

    2010-01-01

    Some areas in Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, have long been known as inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation. Despite the fact that the health effects of high doses of ionizing radiation are well documented, biological effects of above the background levels of natural radiation are still controversial and the validity of the LNT hypothesis in this area, has been criticized by many investigators around the world. The study of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation in areas such as Ramsar, help scientists to investigate the biological effects without the need for extrapolating the observations either from high doses of radiation to low dose region or from laboratory animals to humans. Considering the importance of these studies, National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority has started an integrative research project on the health effects of long-term exposure to high levels of natural radiation. This paper reviews findings of the studies conducted on the plants and humans living or laboratory animals kept in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar. In human studies, different end points such as DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, blood cells and immunological alterations are discussed. This review comes to the conclusion that no reproducible detrimental health effect has been reported so far. In this paper the validity of LNT hypothesis in the assessment of the health effects of high levels of natural radiation is discussed. (author)

  19. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  20. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  1. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  2. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição e a ocorrência de mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores de frigoríficos expostos a níveis de ruído abaixo das Normas e Regulamentações nacionais e internacionais e compará-los com trabalhadores expostos a níveis de ruído considerados excessivos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um banco de dados contendo informações longitudinais de 266 trabalhadores. Foram selecionados trabalhadores com um mínimo de três exames audiométricos e os que continham dados de exposição ao ruído. Foram mantidos 63 exames, classificados de acordo com sua exposição ao ruído em três níveis: 79 a 84,9 dB(A, 85 a 89,9 dB(A e 90 a 98,8 dB(A. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de perdas auditivas e de mudança significativa de limiar auditivo dos participantes de cada subgrupo. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferenças em todas as frequências nos testes de comparação entre a média dos limiares auditivos para cada frequência em função do nível de exposição ao ruído. A correlação entre a ocorrência de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Níveis de Pressão Sonora Elevados (PAINPSE e os anos de exposição ao ruído dentro da empresa atual foi significativa (R=0,373; p=0,079. Foram encontradas mudanças permanentes de limiar auditivo nos três níveis de exposição ao ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do presente estudo sugerem a existência de uma associação entre mudança significativa do limiar auditivo dos trabalhadores e os anos de exposição ao ruído considerado de baixo risco.PURPOSE: To assess the hearing status and signs of significant auditory threshold shifts in meat-processing facility workers who are exposed to noise levels below nationally and internationally recommended exposure limits, and to compare these results with data from workers exposed to excessive noise levels. METHODS: Longitudinal audiometric data from 266 workers were evaluated, and only workers with a minimum of three audiometric test results

  3. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  4. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  5. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  6. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  7. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  8. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  9. When Do Price Thresholds Matter in Retail Categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan; Philip Hans Franses

    2007-01-01

    Marketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is found for 76% ...

  10. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Koen; Srinivasan, Shuba; Franses, Philip Hans

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is fo...

  11. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  12. High-Level Colloquium on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt - Report of Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Breivik, Patricia; Byrne, Alex; Forest Horton, Woody; Ferreiro, Soledad; Boekhorst, Albert; Hassan, Helena; Ponjuan, Gloria; Lau, Jesús; Candy, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Report of a Meeting Sponsored by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) and the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). The report is organized according to four primary areas related to Information Literacy: Education and Learning, Health and Human Services, Business and Economic Development, and Governance and Citizenship. It highlights recommendations for empowering cit...

  13. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  14. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  15. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  17. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  18. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  19. Efficacy of long-term milnacipran treatment in patients meeting different thresholds of clinically relevant pain relief: subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mease PJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Philip J Mease,1 Daniel J Clauw,2 Joel M Trugman,3 Robert H Palmer,3 Yong Wang3 1Swedish Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, USA Background: Fibromyalgia patients from a long-term, open-label study of milnacipran (50–200 mg/day were eligible to participate in a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal study. The withdrawal study evaluated loss of therapeutic response in patients who achieved ≥50% pain improvements after receiving up to 3.25 years of milnacipran. This post-hoc analysis investigated whether patients who met lower thresholds of pain improvement also experienced worsening of fibromyalgia symptoms upon treatment withdrawal. Method: Among patients who received milnacipran ≥100 mg/day during the long-term study, three subgroups were identified based on percentage of pain reduction at randomization: ≥50% (protocol-defined "responders"; n=150; ≥30% to <50% (patients with clinically meaningful pain improvement; n=61; and <30% (n=110. Efficacy assessments included the visual analog scale (VAS for pain, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results: In the ≥30 to <50% subgroup, significant worsening in pain was detected after treatment withdrawal. The difference between placebo and milnacipran in mean VAS score changes for this subgroup (+9.0, P<0.05 was similar to the difference in protocol-defined responders (+9.4, P<0.05. In the <30% subgroup, no worsening in pain was observed in either treatment arm. However, patients in this subgroup experienced significant worsening in FIQR scores after treatment withdrawal (placebo, +6.9; milnacipran, -2.8; P<0.001, as well as worsening in SF-36 PCS and BDI scores. Conclusion: Patients who

  20. The 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases: the Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, G A; Mayosi, B M

    2012-11-08

    The High Level Meeting of the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly was held in September 2011. The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases) and their four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol) constitute the target of the '4-by-4' approach, which is also supported by national and international health organisations. We argue that while preventing these eight NCDs and risk factors is also important in Africa, it will not be enough. A '5-by-5' strategy is needed, addressing neuropsychiatric disorders as the fifth NCD; and transmissible agents that underlie the neglected tropical diseases and other NCDs as the fifth risk factor. These phenomena cause substantial preventable death and disability, and must therefore be prioritised.

  1. Quick-low-density parity check and dynamic threshold voltage optimization in 1X nm triple-level cell NAND flash memory with comprehensive analysis of endurance, retention-time, and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masafumi; Tokutomi, Tsukasa; Hachiya, Shogo; Kobayashi, Atsuro; Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Ning, Sheyang; Ogura Iwasaki, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-08-01

    NAND flash memory’s reliability degrades with increasing endurance, retention-time and/or temperature. After a comprehensive evaluation of 1X nm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash, two highly reliable techniques are proposed. The first proposal, quick low-density parity check (Quick-LDPC), requires only one cell read in order to accurately estimate a bit-error rate (BER) that includes the effects of temperature, write and erase (W/E) cycles and retention-time. As a result, 83% read latency reduction is achieved compared to conventional AEP-LDPC. Also, W/E cycling is extended by 100% compared with conventional Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) error-correcting code (ECC). The second proposal, dynamic threshold voltage optimization (DVO) has two parts, adaptive V Ref shift (AVS) and V TH space control (VSC). AVS reduces read error and latency by adaptively optimizing the reference voltage (V Ref) based on temperature, W/E cycles and retention-time. AVS stores the optimal V Ref’s in a table in order to enable one cell read. VSC further improves AVS by optimizing the voltage margins between V TH states. DVO reduces BER by 80%.

  2. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  3. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  4. The assessment of occupational protection conditions in workplaces with high levels of exposure to natural radiation. Report from a technical committee meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure from natural radiation is, in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, estimated to contribute to more than 80 percent of the world-wide annual collective dose from occupational exposure, uranium mining excluded. The Agency's Radiation Safety Standards Series, the Requirements, and the Safety Guides (jointly sponsored by the Agency and the International Labour Office), address the control of occupational exposures from natural sources of radiation. In addition, some Safety Reports on specific issues are in the process of being finalized. Following upon recommendations to the Agency from its Member States to provide further guidance on the control of occupational exposure to natural radiation, a Technical Committee Meeting on Assessment of Occupational Radiation Protection Conditions in Workplaces with High Levels of Exposure to Natural Radiation was held in Vienna from 7 to 11 May 2001. The objective of the meeting was to produce an inventory of problem areas, make an assessment of the problem and propose a draft work plan for the Agency, This IAEA Working Material includes the report from the meeting, including the presentations made. Based on the recommendations made by the Technical Committee, a work plan is being initiated, implying that more attention will be paid to occupational exposure from natural radiation sources in the Occupational Radiation Protection programme

  5. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  6. An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda; Faulkner, Guy; Giangregorio, Lora; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-09

    To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week). The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49.3% and 31.0% respectively. Modest between-school variability was identified (1.1% for 60 minutes MVPA and 0.8% for CSEP guideline). School-level characteristics significantly associated with the outcome measures included location, school size, quality of facilities, and accessibility of facilities. Significant student-level correlates included sex, grade, weekly income, binge drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index. Most youth in this large study reported inadequate physical activity levels. Students were more likely to achieve 60 minutes of MVPA if they attended a larger school or a school in an urban location, whereas students were less likely to meet the CSEP guideline if they attended a school in a small urban location. However, student-level factors, such as binge drinking and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, were more strongly associated with the outcomes examined.

  7. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  8. Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Dahl, B; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous...... oxygen tension during major spinal surgery....

  9. Handwriting Automaticity: The Search for Performance Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that handwriting has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper, we report on two…

  10. Multifunctional agriculture meets Health Care: applying the Multi-level Transition Sciences Perspective to Care Farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.

    2013-01-01

    Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture: it is an innovation at the crossroads of the agricultural and healthcare sectors. Our objective is to develop a framework for understanding the success of initiatives in this field. We link empirical data with the multi-level

  11. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...... correlations differed significantly. The finding was stable across distinct parts of the sample, providing support for the theory, although the correlations in all subsamples were small. The findings lend support to the existence of threshold effects using perceptual measures of behavior in real...

  12. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  13. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  14. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  15. A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Leonel E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance

  16. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  17. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  18. When do price thresholds matter in retail categories?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Pauwels (Koen); S. Srinivasan (Shuba); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMarketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This

  19. Load leveling air conditioning technology development by unused energy high-level utilization. Summary of lectures given at the achievement report meeting; Miriyo energy kodo katsuyo fuka heijunka reidanbo gijutsu kaihatsu. Seika hokokukai koen yoshishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes lectures given at the research and development achievement report meeting on load leveling air conditioning technologies utilizing unutilized energies at high levels. The lecture titled 'the current status and future problems in heat supply industries' given by the manager of the Heat Supply Industry Department at the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy explained the heat supply businesses in relation with global environment issues, electric power load leveling, and cogeneration. The lecture titled 'improvement of cities to energy saving type cities and district air conditioning systems' given by a construction official at the Ministry of Construction explained the guideline (draft) for introduction of district air conditioning systems as to their purpose, positioning, procedure for discussing the introduction, and procedure for its implementation as a business. The lecture titled 'the recent trend inside and outside the country around unutilized energies' given by Professor Tanazawa at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology described the intensification of energy problems, environment problems, and the near future measures to be taken against these problems. The lecture titled 'summarization of the achievements in development of load leveling air conditioning technologies utilizing unutilized energies at high levels' given by Professor Nakahara at the Kanagawa University explained the summary of the achievements in research and development by themes. (NEDO)

  20. Identifying thresholds for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameal F Samhouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-based management (EBM from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of human-induced pressure (e.g., pollution at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity and functional (e.g., resilience attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1 fishing and (2 nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.

  1. Nível de dano econômico como critério para controle de picão-preto em soja Threshold level as a criterion for beggartick control in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do conceito de nível de dano econômico (NDE no manejo de plantas daninhas avalia suas populações de modo que medidas de controle sejam implementadas somente quando as infestações superarem os NDEs. O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir o NDE para infestações mistas das espécies Bidens pilosa e Bidens subalternans na cultura da soja. Foram conduzidos experimentos em campo em dois locais: Passo Fundo e Eldorado do Sul, RS. Os tratamentos constaram de densidades mistas das espécies de picão-preto e semeadura da soja aos 3, 7 e 11 dias após dessecação da cobertura vegetal. Obtiveram-se valores para NDE variáveis de 0,4 a 33 plantas m-2. Foram verificadas respostas diferentes nas relações de interferência cultura-plantas daninhas entre os locais estudados. O atraso na semeadura da soja em relação à dessecação da cobertura vegetal incrementa o grau de interferência de picão-preto na cultura. Detectou-se que aumentos na perda de rendimento por unidade de planta daninha, no potencial de rendimento da cultura, no valor do produto colhido e na eficiência do herbicida diminuem os valores de NDE, tornando potencialmente mais econômico o controle; já aumento no custo do controle das plantas daninhas faz elevar os NDEs. Constatou-se que as sementes produzidas por plantas não-controladas, ocorrendo em densidades abaixo do NDE, comprometem a adoção da tomada de decisão de controle com base neste critério.Adoption of the threshold level (TL concept for weed management evaluates weed populations to implement control measures only when infestations overcome the TL. The objective of this research was to define TL for mixed infestations of Bidens pilosa and Bidens subalternans in the soybean crop. Field experiments were conducted in Passo Fundo and Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Treatments consisted of mixed densities of the beggartick species and soybean seeding at 3, 7, and 11 days after cover crop desiccation. TL variable

  2. Nível de dano econômico como critério para tomada de decisão no controle de guanxuma em soja Threshold level as a criteria for arrowleaf sida control decision in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O nível de dano econômico (NDE é um conceito simples que integra fatores biológicos e econômicos que se destina a tornar os resultados de uma tomada de decisão lucrativos para o controle das plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o NDE para infestações de guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia, calculado na base de um único ano, que justifiquem aplicação econômica de medidas para seu controle na cultura da soja. Foram conduzidos experimentos em campo em Passo Fundo e Eldorado do Sul-RS. Os tratamentos constaram de densidades de guanxuma e de épocas de semeadura da soja em relação à dessecação da cobertura vegetal (3, 7 e 11; e 20, 24 e 28 dias após. Os valores de NDE variaram de 2 a 50 plantas m-2, e os de NDE ótimo, de 1 a 6 plantas m-2. Verificaram-se respostas diferentes nas relações de interferência cultura-plantas daninhas entre os ambientes estudados. O atraso na semeadura da soja em relação à dessecação da cobertura vegetal incrementa o grau de interferência de guanxuma na cultura. Constatou-se que as sementes produzidas pelas plantas daninhas não-controladas, ocorrendo em densidades abaixo do NDE, comprometem a adoção da tomada de decisão de controle com base neste critério.Threshold level (TL is a simple concept that integrates biological and economical factors, which it is intended to make profitable the results of a decision process for weed control. The objective of this study was to determine TL for arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia infestations, calculated on the basis of a single year, that could justify economic application of control measure in soybeans. Field experiments were carried out in Passo Fundo and Eldorado do Sul, RS - Brazil. Treatments consisted of arrowleaf sida densities and soybean seeding times in relation to vegetation cover desiccation (3, 7, and 11; and 20, 24, and 28 days after. TL values varied from 2 to 50 plants m-2, whereas optimum TL ranged from 1 to 6 plants m-2

  3. Novel analyses of long-term data provide a scientific basis for chlorophyll-a thresholds in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Martha; Kudela, Raphael; Hagy, James D.; Harding, Lawrence W.; Senn, David; Cloern, James E.; Bricker, Suzanne; Berg, Gry Mine; Beck, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: significant increases of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and decreases of dissolved oxygen (DO), common occurrences of phytoplankton taxa that can form Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB), and algal toxins in water and mussels reaching levels of concern. As a result, managers now ask: what levels of chl-a in SFB constitute tipping points of phytoplankton biomass beyond which water quality will become degraded, requiring significant nutrient reductions to avoid impairments? We analyzed data for DO, phytoplankton species composition, chl-a, and algal toxins to derive quantitative relationships between three indicators (HAB abundance, toxin concentrations, DO) and chl-a. Quantile regressions relating HAB abundance and DO to chl-a were significant, indicating SFB is at increased risk of adverse HAB and low DO levels if chl-a continues to increase. Conditional probability analysis (CPA) showed chl-a of 13 mg m-3 as a "protective" threshold below which probabilities for exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance and toxins were reduced. This threshold was similar to chl-a of 13-16 mg m-3 that would meet a SFB-wide 80% saturation Water Quality Criterion (WQC) for DO. Higher "at risk" chl-a thresholds from 25 to 40 mg m-3 corresponded to 0.5 probability of exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance, and for DO below a WQC of 5.0 mg L-1 designated for lower South Bay (LSB) and South Bay (SB). We submit these thresholds as a basis to assess eutrophication status of SFB and to inform nutrient management actions. This approach is transferrable to other estuaries to derive chl-a thresholds protective against eutrophication.

  4. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  5. Schubert calculus and threshold polynomials of affine fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, S.E.; Walton, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We show how the threshold level of affine fusion, the fusion of Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) conformal field theories, fits into the Schubert calculus introduced by Gepner. The Pieri rule can be modified in a simple way to include the threshold level, so that calculations may be done for all (non-negative integer) levels at once. With the usual Giambelli formula, the modified Pieri formula deforms the tensor product coefficients (and the fusion coefficients) into what we call threshold polynomials. We compare them with the q-deformed tensor product coefficients and fusion coefficients that are related to q-deformed weight multiplicities. We also discuss the meaning of the threshold level in the context of paths on graphs

  6. Cost–effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost–effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost–effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost–effectiveness thresholds allow cost–effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost–effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country’s per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this – in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost–effectiveness ratios – can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost–effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations – e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations – in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost–effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair. PMID:27994285

  7. Wafer plane inspection with soft resist thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carl; Shi, Rui-fang; Wihl, Mark; Xiong, Yalin; Pang, Song

    2008-10-01

    Wafer Plane Inspection (WPI) is an inspection mode on the KLA-Tencor TeraScaTM platform that uses the high signalto- noise ratio images from the high numerical aperture microscope, and then models the entire lithographic process to enable defect detection on the wafer plane[1]. This technology meets the needs of some advanced mask manufacturers to identify the lithographically-significant defects while ignoring the other non-lithographically-significant defects. WPI accomplishes this goal by performing defect detection based on a modeled image of how the mask features would actually print in the photoresist. There are several advantages to this approach: (1) the high fidelity of the images provide a sensitivity advantage over competing approaches; (2) the ability to perform defect detection on the wafer plane allows one to only see those defects that have a printing impact on the wafer; (3) the use of modeling on the lithographic portion of the flow enables unprecedented flexibility to support arbitrary illumination profiles, process-window inspection in unit time, and combination modes to find both printing and non-printing defects. WPI is proving to be a valuable addition to the KLA-Tencor detection algorithm suite. The modeling portion of WPI uses a single resist threshold as the final step in the processing. This has been shown to be adequate on several advanced customer layers, but is not ideal for all layers. Actual resist chemistry has complicated processes including acid and base-diffusion and quench that are not consistently well-modeled with a single resist threshold. We have considered the use of an advanced resist model for WPI, but rejected it because the burdensome requirements for the calibration of the model were not practical for reticle inspection. This paper describes an alternative approach that allows for a "soft" resist threshold to be applied that provides a more robust solution for the most challenging processes. This approach is just

  8. Testing for a Debt-Threshold Effect on Output Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sokbae; Park, Hyunmin; Seo, Myung Hwan; Shin, Youngki

    2017-12-01

    Using the Reinhart-Rogoff dataset, we find a debt threshold not around 90 per cent but around 30 per cent, above which the median real gross domestic product (GDP) growth falls abruptly. Our work is the first to formally test for threshold effects in the relationship between public debt and median real GDP growth. The null hypothesis of no threshold effect is rejected at the 5 per cent significance level for most cases. While we find no evidence of a threshold around 90 per cent, our findings from the post-war sample suggest that the debt threshold for economic growth may exist around a relatively small debt-to-GDP ratio of 30 per cent. Furthermore, countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 30 per cent have GDP growth that is 1 percentage point lower at the median.

  9. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  10. Predicting visual acuity from detection thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newacheck, J S; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G; Adams, A J

    1990-03-01

    Visual performance based exclusively on high luminance and high contrast letter acuity measures often fails to predict individual performance at low contrast and low luminance. Here we measured visual acuity over a wide range of contrasts and luminances (low mesopic to photopic) for 17 young normal observers. Acuity vs. contrast functions appear to fit a single template which can be displaced laterally along the log contrast axis. The magnitude of this lateral displacement for different luminances was well predicted by the contrast threshold difference for a 4 min arc spot. The acuity vs. contrast template, taken from the mean of all 17 subjects, was used in conjunction with individual spot contrast threshold measures to predict an individual's visual acuity over a wide range of luminance and contrast levels. The accuracy of the visual acuity predictions from this simple procedure closely approximates test-retest accuracy for both positive (projected Landolt rings) and negative contrast (Bailey-Lovie charts).

  11. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  12. Meeting Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-01

    Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.

  13. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  14. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  15. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  16. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  17. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  18. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    I should like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 25th June 2003 at 11.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 to give a report on the outcome of the June Meetings of Council and its Committees. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the AB Auditorium (Meyrin - bldg. 6), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Luciano Maiani Director General

  19. Review and Analysis of Cryptographic Schemes Implementing Threshold Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the study of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, ellipt ic curves and bilinear pairings were investigated. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, e.g. used in a mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency. The significance of the work is determined by the reduction of the level of counterfeit electronic documents, signed by certain group of users.

  20. 76 FR 64071 - Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... APPALACHIAN STATES LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMMISSION Annual Meeting Time and Date: 10 a.m.-12..., PA 17101. Status: The meeting will be open to the public. Matters to be Considered: Portions Open to the Public: The primary purpose of this meeting is to (1) Review the independent auditors' report of...

  1. 75 FR 65297 - Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... APPALACHIAN STATES LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMMISSION Annual Meeting Time And Date: 10 a.m.-12..., PA 17101. Status: The meeting will be open to the public. Matters To Be Considered Portions Open to the Public: The primary purpose of this meeting is to (1) Review the independent auditors' report of...

  2. 78 FR 64472 - Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... APPALACHIAN STATES LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMMISSION Annual Meeting Time and Date: 10 a.m.-12... 17101. Status: The meeting will be open to the public. Matters To Be Considered: Portions Open To The Public: The primary purpose of this meeting is to (1) Review the independent auditors' report of...

  3. 77 FR 61737 - Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... APPALACHIAN STATES LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE COMMISSION Annual Meeting Time and Date: 10 a.m.-12... 17101. Status: The meeting will be open to the public. Matters To Be Considered Portions Open to the Public: The primary purpose of this meeting is to (1) Review the independent auditors' report of...

  4. Is the diagnostic threshold for bulimia nervosa clinically meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Danielle A N; Bohrer, Brittany K; Forbush, Kelsie T

    2018-01-01

    The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment. Participants completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment and participated in semi-structured clinical interviews of ED- and non-ED psychopathology. Differences between the sub- and full-threshold BN groups were assessed using MANOVA and Chi-square analyses. ED illness duration, age-of-onset, body mass index (BMI), alcohol and drug misuse, and the presence of current and lifetime mood or anxiety disorders did not differ between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN. Participants with full-threshold BN had higher levels of clinical impairment and weight concern than those with sub-threshold BN. However, minimal clinically important difference analyses suggested that statistically significant differences between participants with sub- and full-threshold BN on clinical impairment and weight concern were not clinically significant. In conclusion, sub-threshold BN did not differ from full-threshold BN in clinically meaningful ways. Future studies are needed to identify an improved frequency criterion for BN that better distinguishes individuals in ways that will more validly inform prognosis and effective treatment planning for BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  6. Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation

  7. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  8. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  9. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  10. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  11. High-frequency (8 to 16 kHz) reference thresholds and intrasubject threshold variability relative to ototoxicity criteria using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T

    2001-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine high-frequency (8 to 16 kHz) thresholds for standardizing reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (RETSPLs) for a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone. The second and perhaps more important purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated high-frequency thresholds using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone had a lower intrasubject threshold variability than the ASHA 1994 significant threshold shift criteria for ototoxicity. High-frequency thresholds (8 to 16 kHz) were obtained for 100 (50 male, 50 female) normally hearing (0.25 to 8 kHz) young adults (mean age of 21.2 yr) in four separate test sessions using a Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone. The mean and median high-frequency thresholds were similar for each test session and increased as frequency increased. At each frequency, the high-frequency thresholds were not significantly (p > 0.05) different for gender, test ear, or test session. The median thresholds at each frequency were similar to the 1998 interim ISO RETSPLs; however, large standard deviations and wide threshold distributions indicated very high intersubject threshold variability, especially at 14 and 16 kHz. Threshold repeatability was determined by finding the threshold differences between each possible test session comparison (N = 6). About 98% of all of the threshold differences were within a clinically acceptable range of +/-10 dB from 8 to 14 kHz. The threshold differences between each subject's second, third, and fourth minus their first test session were also found to determine whether intrasubject threshold variability was less than the ASHA 1994 criteria for determining a significant threshold shift due to ototoxicity. The results indicated a false-positive rate of 0% for a threshold shift > or = 20 dB at any frequency and a false-positive rate of 2% for a threshold shift >10 dB at two consecutive frequencies. This study verified that the output of high-frequency audiometers at 0 dB HL using

  12. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  13. Thresholds of Toxicological Concern - Setting a threshold for testing below which there is little concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e.g., 100. In doing so, TTC aims to compare exposure information (dose) with a threshold below which any hazard manifestation is very unlikely to occur. The history and current developments of this concept are reviewed and the application of TTC for different regulated products and their hazards is discussed. TTC lends itself as a pragmatic filter to deprioritize testing needs whenever real-life exposures are much lower than levels where hazard manifestation would be expected, a situation that is called "negligible exposure" in the REACH legislation, though the TTC concept has not been fully incorporated in its implementation (yet). Other areas and regulations - especially in the food sector and for pharmaceutical impurities - are more proactive. Large, curated databases on toxic effects of chemicals provide us with the opportunity to set TTC for many hazards and substance classes and thus offer a precautionary second tier for risk assessments if hazard cannot be excluded. This allows focusing testing efforts better on relevant exposures to chemicals.

  14. Superstring threshold corrections to Yukawa couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1992-12-01

    A general method of computing string corrections to the Kaehler metric and Yukawa couplings is developed at the one-loop level for a general compactification of the heterotic superstring theory. It also provides a direct determination of the so-called Green-Schwarz term. The matter metric has an infrared divergent part which reproduces the field-theoretical anomalous dimensions, and a moduli-dependent part which gives rise to threshold corrections in the physical Yukawa couplings. Explicit expressions are derived for symmetric orbifold compactifications. (author). 20 refs

  15. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  16. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  17. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  18. Climate change and critical thresholds in China's food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Lin, Erda; Ju, Hui; Xu, Yinlong

    2007-01-01

    Identification of 'critical thresholds' of temperature increase is an essential task for inform policy decisions on establishing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. We use the A2 (medium-high GHG emission pathway) and B2 (medium-low) climate change scenarios produced by the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, the crop model - CERES, and socio-economic scenarios described by IPCC SRES, to simulate the average yield changes per hectare of three main grain crops (rice, wheat, and maize) at 50 km x 50 km scale. The threshold of food production to temperature increases was analyzed based on the relationship between yield changes and temperature rise, and then food security was discussed corresponding to each IPCC SRES scenario. The results show that without the CO2 fertilization effect in the analysis, the yield per hectare for the three crops would fall consistently as temperature rises beyond 2.5C; when the CO2 fertilization effect was included in the simulation, there were no adverse impacts on China's food production under the projected range of temperature rise (0.9-3.9C). A critical threshold of temperature increase was not found for food production. When the socio-economic scenarios, agricultural technology development and international trade were incorporated in the analysis, China's internal food production would meet a critical threshold of basic demand (300 kg/capita) while it would not under A2 (no CO2 fertilization); whereas basic food demand would be satisfied under both A2 and B2, and would even meet a higher food demand threshold required to sustain economic growth (400 kg/capita) under B2, when CO2 fertilization was considered

  19. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  20. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  1. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  2. Midline Shift Threshold Value for Hemiparesis in Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juković, Mirela F; Stojanović, Dejan B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has a variety of clinical presentations, with numerous neurological symptoms and signs. Hemiparesis is one of the leading signs that potentially indicates CSDH. Purpose of this study was to determine the threshold (cut-off) value of midsagittal line (MSL) shift after which hemiparesis is likely to appear. The study evaluated 83 patients with 53 unilateral and 30 bilateral CSDHs in period of three years. Evaluated computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with CSDH were diameter of the hematoma and midsagittal line shift, measured on non-contrast CT scan in relation with occurrence of hemiparesis. Threshold values of MSL shift for both types of CSDHs were obtained as maximal (equal) sensitivity and specificity (intersection of the curves). MSL is a good predictor for hemiparesis occurrence (total sample, AUROC 0.75, p=0.0001). Unilateral and bilateral CSDHs had different threshold values of the MSL for hemiparesis development. Results suggested that in unilateral CSDH the threshold values of MSL could be at 10 mm (AUROC=0.65; p=0.07). For bilateral CSDH the threshold level of MSL shift was 4.5 mm (AUROC=0.77; p=0.01). Our study pointed on the phenomenon that midsagittal line shift can predict hemiparesis occurrence. Hemiparesis in patients with bilateral CSDH was more related to midsagittal line shift compared with unilateral CSDH. When value of midsagittal line shift exceed the threshold level, hemiparesis occurs with certain probability.

  3. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  4. August Meeting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... rural hometowns, where they unite with their rural-based colleagues for ... extent have they empowered the women-folk in the public sphere? ...... It would be safe, therefore, for one to conceptualise the 'August Meeting'.

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    You were hundreds of persons to participate in our information meetings of October 3 and 6 2014, and we thank you for your participation! The full presentation is available here. A summary of the topics is available here (in french).

  6. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  7. Identifying a motor proficiency barrier for meeting physical activity guidelines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Goodway, Jacqueline; True, Larissa; Brian, Ali; Ferkel, Rick; Haerens, Leen

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the existence of a threshold level (proficiency barrier) of actual motor competence (MC) below which a child is not likely to attain 60min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. A cross-sectional study. Actual MC was assessed in 326 children (48.5% boys; age=9.50±1.24years) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2; MVPA was measured with ActiGraph GT3X+accelerometers. Perceived MC, included as a potential mediating variable, was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Binary logistic (mediation) regression analyses controlling for sex and a chi-squared test were used to gain insight into the relationship between (the levels of) actual MC and the percentage of children meeting the MVPA guideline. Actual MC significantly predicted the percentage of children meeting the guideline (B=.03, SE=.01, p<.001), even when controlling for sex. Perceived MC did not mediate this relationship. Children with high actual MC (65-100 percentile) were 2.46 (p=.003) times more likely to meet the guideline than children with low actual MC (0-27 percentile). The present study demonstrates the potential impact of low MC on children's MVPA levels and suggests evidence for the existence of a proficiency barrier for meeting MVPA guidelines. Almost 90% of the children whose actual MC is below the 'average' threshold do not meet the MVPA guideline. As more children with higher levels of actual MC meet the guideline than their less competent peers, it is crucial to provide opportunities to sufficiently develop children's actual MC. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synchronization of low- and high-threshold motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Stock, Matt S

    2014-04-01

    We examined the degree of synchronization for both low- and high-threshold motor unit (MU) pairs at high force levels. MU spike trains were recorded from the quadriceps during high-force isometric leg extensions. Short-term synchronization (between -6 and 6 ms) was calculated for every unique MU pair for each contraction. At high force levels, earlier recruited motor unit pairs (low-threshold) demonstrated relatively low levels of short-term synchronization (approximately 7.3% extra firings than would have been expected by chance). However, the magnitude of synchronization increased significantly and linearly with mean recruitment threshold (reaching 22.1% extra firings for motor unit pairs recruited above 70% MVC). Three potential mechanisms that could explain the observed differences in synchronization across motor unit types are proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Both at the worldwide level and in Slovenia, precipitation and related phenomena represent one of the most important triggering factors for the occurrence of slope mass movements. In the past decade, extreme rainfall events with a very high amount of precipitation occurs in a relatively short rainfall period have become increasingly important and more frequent, that causing numerous undesirable consequences. Intense rainstorms cause flash floods and mostly trigger shallow landslides and soil slips. On the other hand, the damage of long lasting rainstorms depends on the region's adaptation and its capacity to store or infiltrate excessive water from the rain. The amount and, consequently, the intensity of daily precipitation that can cause floods in the eastern part of Slovenia is a rather common event for the north-western part of the country. Likewise, the effect of rainfall is very dependent on the prior soil moisture, periods of full soil saturation and the creation of drifts in groundwater levels due to the slow melting of snow, growing period, etc. Landslides could be identified and to some extent also prevent with better knowledge of the relation between landslides and rainfall. In this paper the definition of rainfall thresholds for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia is presented. The thresholds have been calculated by collecting approximately 900 landslide data and the relative rainfall amounts, which have been collected from 41 rain gauges all over the country. The thresholds have been defined by the (1) use of an existing procedure, characterized by a high degree of objectiveness and (2) software that was developed for a test site with very different geological and climatic characteristics (Tuscany, central Italy). Firstly, a single national threshold has been defined, later the country was divided into four zones, on the basis of major the river basins and a single threshold has been calculated for each of them. Validation of the calculated

  10. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  11. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit or debit card, including one made over the Internet, the candidate shall provide sufficient... section shall not count toward the threshold amount. (c) Threshold certification by Commission. (1) After...

  12. Meeting Mid-Year Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of ScienCE. 57th Annual. Meeting ... Srinivas, Institute for Social and Economic. Change ... "Quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics of anyons" .... Special Issue on Geomagnetic Methods and.

  13. Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small ( 26 J/cm 2 at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm 2 area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO 2 with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented

  14. Salicylate-induced changes in auditory thresholds of adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J F; Brown, C A; Jastreboff, P J

    1996-01-01

    Shifts in auditory intensity thresholds after salicylate administration were examined in postweanling and adult pigmented rats at frequencies ranging from 1 to 35 kHz. A total of 132 subjects from both age levels were tested under two-way active avoidance or one-way active avoidance paradigms. Estimated thresholds were inferred from behavioral responses to presentations of descending and ascending series of intensities for each test frequency value. Reliable threshold estimates were found under both avoidance conditioning methods, and compared to controls, subjects at both age levels showed threshold shifts at selective higher frequency values after salicylate injection, and the extent of shifts was related to salicylate dose level.

  15. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region

  16. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  17. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  18. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  19. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  20. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  1. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  2. A threshold model of investor psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod; Grinfeld, Michael; Lamba, Harbir; Seaman, Tim

    2005-08-01

    We introduce a class of agent-based market models founded upon simple descriptions of investor psychology. Agents are subject to various psychological tensions induced by market conditions and endowed with a minimal ‘personality’. This personality consists of a threshold level for each of the tensions being modeled, and the agent reacts whenever a tension threshold is reached. This paper considers an elementary model including just two such tensions. The first is ‘cowardice’, which is the stress caused by remaining in a minority position with respect to overall market sentiment and leads to herding-type behavior. The second is ‘inaction’, which is the increasing desire to act or re-evaluate one's investment position. There is no inductive learning by agents and they are only coupled via the global market price and overall market sentiment. Even incorporating just these two psychological tensions, important stylized facts of real market data, including fat-tails, excess kurtosis, uncorrelated price returns and clustered volatility over the timescale of a few days are reproduced. By then introducing an additional parameter that amplifies the effect of externally generated market noise during times of extreme market sentiment, long-time volatility correlations can also be recovered.

  3. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  4. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department The CERN Ombuds The new account management system Crèche progress + Restaurants Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch   Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  5. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN The new account management system Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting   Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium ...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS Department An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Summer Student program Bringing Library services to users Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  7. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department CERN Global Network An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) ...

  8. Staff meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Thursday 18 January 2007 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg.. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN's activities during 2006 and to present the perspectives for this special year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg.. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg.. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  9. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  10. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Robert Aymar

    2005-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Thursday 12 January 2006 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN's activities during 2005 and to present the perspectives for this coming year. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season Robert AYMAR

  11. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Tuesday 13 January 2004 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year and to present a perspective of CERN's future activities. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  12. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout is insensitive to target copy number but is dependent on guide RNA potency and Cas9/sgRNA threshold expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Garmen; Khan, Fehad J; Gao, Shaojian; Stommel, Jayne M; Batchelor, Eric; Wu, Xiaolin; Luo, Ji

    2017-11-16

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful gene editing tool for gene knockout studies and functional genomic screens. Successful implementation of CRISPR often requires Cas9 to elicit efficient target knockout in a population of cells. In this study, we investigated the role of several key factors, including variation in target copy number, inherent potency of sgRNA guides, and expression level of Cas9 and sgRNA, in determining CRISPR knockout efficiency. Using isogenic, clonal cell lines with variable copy numbers of an EGFP transgene, we discovered that CRISPR knockout is relatively insensitive to target copy number, but is highly dependent on the potency of the sgRNA guide sequence. Kinetic analysis revealed that most target mutation occurs between 5 and 10 days following Cas9/sgRNA transduction, while sgRNAs with different potencies differ by their knockout time course and by their terminal-phase knockout efficiency. We showed that prolonged, low level expression of Cas9 and sgRNA often fails to elicit target mutation, particularly if the potency of the sgRNA is also low. Our findings provide new insights into the behavior of CRISPR/Cas9 in mammalian cells that could be used for future improvement of this platform. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  14. A practical threshold concept for simple and reasonable radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Masahito

    2002-01-01

    A half century ago it was assumed for the purpose of protection that radiation risks are linearly proportional at all levels of dose. Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis has greatly contributed to the minimization of doses received by workers and members of the public, while it has brought about 'radiophobia' and unnecessary over-regulation. Now that the existence of bio-defensive mechanisms such as DNA repair, apoptosis and adaptive response are well recognized, the linearity assumption can be said 'unscientific'. Evidences increasingly imply that there are threshold effects in risk of radiation. A concept of 'practical' thresholds is proposed and the classification of 'stochastic' and 'deterministic' radiation effects should be abandoned. 'Practical' thresholds are dose levels below which induction of detectable radiogenic cancers or hereditary effects are not expected. There seems to be no evidence of deleterious health effects from radiation exposures at the current dose limits (50 mSv/y for workers and 5 mSv/y for members of the public), which have been adopted worldwide in the latter half of the 20th century. Those limits are assumed to have been set below certain 'practical' thresholds. As any workers and members of the public do not gain benefits from being exposed, excepting intentional irradiation for medical purposes, their radiation exposures should be kept below 'practical' thresholds. There is no use of 'justification' and 'optimization' (ALARA) principles, because there are no 'radiation detriments' as far as exposures are maintained below 'practical' thresholds. Accordingly the ethical issue of 'justification' to allow benefit to society to offset radiation detriments to individuals can be resolved. And also the ethical issue of 'optimization' to exchange health or safety for economical gain can be resolved. The ALARA principle should be applied to the probability (risk) of exceeding relevant dose limits instead of applying to normal exposures

  15. The meeting goer's lament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H

    1980-10-22

    Executives spend about 69% of their time in meeting with at least two other people, according to a recent study out of McGill University. In spite of this, participants do not consider this to be time used wisely and, according to the respondents, the problem seems to be growing worse. Despite the claims of some executives that government regulations or increased corporate complexity underlies the problem, society at large is viewed as the source of the change. Meyer asserts that all institutions have become less authoritarian and the trend away from command has left persuasion and consensus as the basis for corporate level decision-making. Although executives seem to agree that most time is wasted because participants fail to be succinct, the author argues that leaders could improve meetings by choosing the right participants, guiding them briskly through the agenda, and closing the meeting before it degenerates into a shouting match. The article suggests that chief executives are concluding that meeting skills can be learned. Most of the FORTUNE 500 companies have hired outside experts to teach these skills and some companies are building inhouse units for the same purpose. Since meetings have become an integral part of the business day, Meyer concluded that the goal of the executive should be to use the meeting time well.

  16. Optimization of Second Fault Detection Thresholds to Maximize Mission POS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan

    2018-01-01

    both magnitude and time. As such, the Navigation team is taking advantage of the INS's capability to schedule and change fault detection thresholds in flight. These values are optimized along a nominal trajectory in order to maximize probability of mission success, and reducing the probability of false positives (defined as when the INS would report a second fault condition resulting in loss of mission, but the vehicle would still meet insertion requirements within system-level margins). This paper will describe an optimization approach using Genetic Algorithms to tune the threshold parameters to maximize vehicle resilience to second fault events as a function of potential fault magnitude and time of fault over an ascent mission profile. The analysis approach, and performance assessment of the results will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this process to second fault detection to maximize mission probability of success.

  17. Thresholds for Coral Bleaching: Are Synergistic Factors and Shifting Thresholds Changing the Landscape for Management? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, C.; Donner, S. D.; Logan, C. A.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Heron, S. F.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Skirving, W. J.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    As carbon dioxide rises in the atmosphere, climate change and ocean acidification are modifying important physical and chemical parameters in the oceans with resulting impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Rising CO2 is warming the world’s oceans and causing corals to bleach, with both alarming frequency and severity. The frequent return of stressful temperatures has already resulted in major damage to many of the world’s coral reefs and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Warmer oceans also have contributed to a rise in coral infectious diseases. Both bleaching and infectious disease can result in coral mortality and threaten one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and the important ecosystem services they provide. Additionally, ocean acidification from rising CO2 is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by corals to build their skeletons and perhaps depressing the threshold for bleaching. While thresholds vary among species and locations, it is clear that corals around the world are already experiencing anomalous temperatures that are too high, too often, and that warming is exceeding the rate at which corals can adapt. This is despite a complex adaptive capacity that involves both the coral host and the zooxanthellae, including changes in the relative abundance of the latter in their coral hosts. The safe upper limit for atmospheric CO2 is probably somewhere below 350ppm, a level we passed decades ago, and for temperature is a sustained global temperature increase of less than 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. How much can corals acclimate and/or adapt to the unprecedented fast changing environmental conditions? Any change in the threshold for coral bleaching as the result of acclimation and/or adaption may help corals to survive in the future but adaptation to one stress may be maladaptive to another. There also is evidence that ocean acidification and nutrient enrichment modify this threshold. What do shifting thresholds mean

  18. Hemispheric lateralization of motor thresholds in relation to stuttering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A Alm

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15 and in controls (n = 15. In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026, with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049. The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

  19. Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930

  20. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  1. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 4 December 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Fellows, Associates and Summer Student Programmes Particle Data Book distribution Revoking Computer accounts Equipment insurance on site Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Dates for meetings in 2003 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (74837...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria  W. Adam  (71661) Belgium  G. Wilquet  (74664) Bulgaria  R. Tzenov  (77958) Czech Republic  P. Závada&am...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) Fr...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :   Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Re...

  7. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 15 June 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other Committees a. Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) b. IT Service Review Meeting (ITSRM) c. GS User Commission Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in bra...

  8. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  9. Does more energy consumption bolster economic growth? An application of the nonlinear threshold regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.-N.; Hwang, M.J.; Yang, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper separates data extending from 1971 to 2002 into the energy crisis period (1971-1980) and the post-energy crisis period (1981-2000) for 82 countries. The cross-sectional data (yearly averages) in these two periods are used to investigate the nonlinear relationships between energy consumption growth and economic growth when threshold variables are used. If threshold variables are higher than certain optimal threshold levels, there is either no significant relationship or else a significant negative relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. However, when these threshold variables are lower than certain optimal levels, there is a significant positive relationship between the two. In 48 out of the 82 countries studied, none of the four threshold variables is found to be higher than the optimal levels. It is inferred that these 48 countries should adopt a more aggressive energy policy. As for the other 34 countries, at least one threshold variable is higher than the optimal threshold level and thus these countries should adopt energy policies with varying degrees of conservation based on the number of threshold variables that are higher than the optimal threshold levels

  10. Proceedings of the GEM Collaboration Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, J.; Ilieva, I.; Klimala, W.; Machner, H.; Razen, B.; Kliczewski, S.; Magiera, A.; Smyrski, J.; Roy, B.J.; Urban, J.

    1997-11-01

    The main subject of the GEM meeting were: meson production near threshold, mesic atoms, nuclear resonances, symmetry violation, light ions structure and interactions. Additionally some apparatus problems like electronic equipment and charged particle detector have been discussed. The volume contains copies of transparencies supplied by the authors which are not normal full texts of papers

  11. Sub-threshold Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Karam, Elie G.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Hill, Eric D.; Petukhova, Maria; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Mladenova, Maya; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although only a minority of people exposed to a traumatic event (TE) develops PTSD, symptoms not meeting full PTSD criteria are common and often clinically significant. Individuals with these symptoms have sometimes been characterized as having sub-threshold PTSD, but no consensus exists on the optimal definition of this term. Data from a large cross-national epidemiological survey are used to provide a principled basis for such a definition. Methods The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys administered fully-structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews to community samples in 13 countries containing assessments of PTSD associated with randomly selected TEs. Focusing on the 23,936 respondents reporting lifetime TE exposure, associations of approximated DSM-5 PTSD symptom profiles with six outcomes (distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbid fear-distress disorders, PTSD symptom duration) were examined to investigate implications of different sub-threshold definitions. Results Although consistently highest distress-impairment, suicidality, comorbidity, and symptom duration were observed among the 3.0% of respondents with DSM-5 PTSD than other symptom profiles, the additional 3.6% of respondents meeting two or three of DSM-5 Criteria BE also had significantly elevated scores for most outcomes. The proportion of cases with threshold versus sub-threshold PTSD varied depending on TE type, with threshold PTSD more common following interpersonal violence and sub-threshold PTSD more common following events happening to loved ones. Conclusions Sub-threshold DSM-5 PTSD is most usefully defined as meeting two or three of the DSM-5 Criteria B-E. Use of a consistent definition is critical to advance understanding of the prevalence, predictors, and clinical significance of sub-threshold PTSD. PMID:24842116

  12. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  13. 24 CFR 902.25 - Physical condition scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development(s) in question with supporting census data showing the level of poverty. Properties that fall into... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical condition scoring and thresholds. 902.25 Section 902.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  14. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  15. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: methods for setting and examples from around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André Soares; Guerra-Junior, Augusto Afonso; Godman, Brian; Morton, Alec; Ruas, Cristina Mariano

    2018-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) are used to judge if an intervention represents sufficient value for money to merit adoption in healthcare systems. The study was motivated by the Brazilian context of HTA, where meetings are being conducted to decide on the definition of a threshold. Areas covered: An electronic search was conducted on Medline (via PubMed), Lilacs (via BVS) and ScienceDirect followed by a complementary search of references of included studies, Google Scholar and conference abstracts. Cost-effectiveness thresholds are usually calculated through three different approaches: the willingness-to-pay, representative of welfare economics; the precedent method, based on the value of an already funded technology; and the opportunity cost method, which links the threshold to the volume of health displaced. An explicit threshold has never been formally adopted in most places. Some countries have defined thresholds, with some flexibility to consider other factors. An implicit threshold could be determined by research of funded cases. Expert commentary: CETs have had an important role as a 'bridging concept' between the world of academic research and the 'real world' of healthcare prioritization. The definition of a cost-effectiveness threshold is paramount for the construction of a transparent and efficient Health Technology Assessment system.

  16. Quantifying the Arousal Threshold Using Polysomnography in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Terrill, Philip I; Edwards, Bradley A; Taranto Montemurro, Luigi; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; de Melo, Camila M; Loring, Stephen H; Butler, James P; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) requires noninvasive estimates of each patient's pathophysiological "traits." Here, we provide the first automated technique to quantify the respiratory arousal threshold-defined as the level of ventilatory drive triggering arousal from sleep-using diagnostic polysomnographic signals in patients with OSA. Ventilatory drive preceding clinically scored arousals was estimated from polysomnographic studies by fitting a respiratory control model (Terrill et al.) to the pattern of ventilation during spontaneous respiratory events. Conceptually, the magnitude of the airflow signal immediately after arousal onset reveals information on the underlying ventilatory drive that triggered the arousal. Polysomnographic arousal threshold measures were compared with gold standard values taken from esophageal pressure and intraoesophageal diaphragm electromyography recorded simultaneously (N = 29). Comparisons were also made to arousal threshold measures using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) dial-downs (N = 28). The validity of using (linearized) nasal pressure rather than pneumotachograph ventilation was also assessed (N = 11). Polysomnographic arousal threshold values were correlated with those measured using esophageal pressure and diaphragm EMG (R = 0.79, p < .0001; R = 0.73, p = .0001), as well as CPAP manipulation (R = 0.73, p < .0001). Arousal threshold estimates were similar using nasal pressure and pneumotachograph ventilation (R = 0.96, p < .0001). The arousal threshold in patients with OSA can be estimated using polysomnographic signals and may enable more personalized therapeutic interventions for patients with a low arousal threshold. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Stochastic Calculus: Application to Dynamic Bifurcations and Threshold Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansons, Kalvis M.; Lythe, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    For the dynamic pitchfork bifurcation in the presence of white noise, the statistics of the last time at zero are calculated as a function of the noise level ∈ and the rate of change of the parameter μ. The threshold crossing problem used, for example, to model the firing of a single cortical neuron is considered, concentrating on quantities that may be experimentally measurable but have so far received little attention. Expressions for the statistics of pre-threshold excursions, occupation density, and last crossing time of zero are compared with results from numerical generation of paths.

  18. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  19. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  20. The impact of threshold language assistance programming on the accessibility of mental health services for persons with limited English proficiency in the Medi-Cal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2012-06-01

    Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.

  1. Meeting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  2. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 6. The PH Department 2. Adoption of the agenda 7. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. News from the CERN Management 9. Any Other Business 5. Matters arising 10. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic P. Závada ...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting News from the CERN Management Matters arising The PH Department Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions/EP (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising EP Space management Cars Housing EDH from the User's point of view VRVS Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) France M. Déj...

  5. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising10.\tUsers’ Office news 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 6. LHC 2008 start-up events 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Aust...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tAn update on safety at CERN 7.\tChildcare initiative 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.\tUsers’ Office news 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75...

  8. ACCU meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tLHC 2008 start-up events 7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilq...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941...

  10. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer S. Laplace...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (7...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.     Chairman's remarks 2.     Adoption of the agenda 3.     Minutes of the previous meeting 4.     Matters arising 5.     News from the CERN Management 6.     Report on Fellows and Associates programme 7.     Overview of safety at CERN 8.     Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.     Users' Office news 10.  Any Other Business 11.  Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets):Austria W. Adam  (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria ...

  13. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 December 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Closure of computer accounts upon CERN contract expiry Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Election of ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets). Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  14. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 June 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Open Access Publishing Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini ...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agendafor the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Fin...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 160-1-009 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Purchasing procedures at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news CERN Clubs Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Las...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tCar sharing pilot project 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tUsers’ Office newss 4.\tMatters arising10.\tAny Other Business 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tAgenda for the next meeting 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  20. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (7594...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on Fellows and Associates Programme Overview of safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K....

  2. ACCU meeting

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria, W. Adam (71661) Belgium, C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic, P. Závada (75877) Denmark, J.B. Hansen (...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Dosimetry at CERN Status of collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office newss Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (7935...

  5. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. ...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 6.\tDosimetry at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 7.\tStatus of collaborative tools at CERN 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising 9.\tUsers’ Office newss 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway G. Løvhøiden (73176) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland M. Witek (78967) Bulgaria Portugal...

  7. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (...

  8. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  9. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - W. Adam (71661) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (75877) Denmark - J.B. Hansen...

  10. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finlan...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. ...

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t7.\tCar sharing pilot project3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees4.\tMatters arising9.\tUsers’ Office newss5.\tNews from the CERN Management10.\tAny Other Business11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)Bulgaria\tPortugalP...

  14. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. La...

  15. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiis...

  16. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskin...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Video-conferencing/recording Fellows programme Operational Circular No. 6 EP Space management Update on Computing Issues Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary)  ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic...

  18. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equal Opportunities Commission 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. Registration plans for portables 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgar...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda,8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management11. Any Other Business 6. CHIS news and follow-up of survey12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661)NorwayH. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (7591...

  20. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 September 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Health Insurance Questionnaire Host States Relations Service Update on EP Space management Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Ada...

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. Health Insurance news and follow-up of survey 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wil...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Reports from ACCU representatives 2. Adoption of the agenda on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. Matters arising 9. Any Other Business 5. News from the CERN Management 10. Agenda for the next meeting 6. Property Protection at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (74837) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic ...

  4. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Registration plans for portables 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Reports from ACCU representatives 3. Minutes of the previous meeting on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting 7. Equal Opportunities Commission Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): AustriaW. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgari...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (716...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 March 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in the Council Chamber Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Follow-up on Space Management Users' Desktop needs PIE procedures Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer L. Serin (712...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. News from the CERN Management 4. Minutes of the previous meeting 5. Matters arising 6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board 7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office 8. Update on Computing Issues 9. Users' Office News 10. Any Other Business 11. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Bryan Pattison (Secretary). ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Z vada (75...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Bryan Pattison

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building1. Chairman's remarks2. Adoption of the agenda3. News from the CERN Management4. Minutes of the previous meeting5. Matters arising6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office8. Update on Computing Issues9. Users' Office News10. Any Other Business11. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail toBryan Pattison(Secretary).ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :Austria G. Neuhofer (74094)Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)Czech Republic P. Závada (75877)Den...

  10. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha ...

  11. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The CERN Press Office An update on Safety at CERN The Burotel project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson) (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic S. Nemecek (71144) ...

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2011 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda      Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising       News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Report on new CHIS rules Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria M. Jeitler (76307) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson)...

  14. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tOther business 13.\tAgenda of the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Re...

  15. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 June 2009At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management CERN Social Services User services in GS Department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - G. Walzel (76592) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (7587...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 December 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Restaurant No. 1 extension An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Election of the ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Záv...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of Conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Cze...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tThe CERN Press Office 7.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 8.\tThe Burotel project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria C...

  19. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (7...

  20. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users'Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) ...

  1. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  2. What Is the Optimal Threshold at Which to Recommend Breast Biopsy?

    OpenAIRE

    Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Alagoz, Oguzhan

    2012-01-01

    Background A 2% threshold, traditionally used as a level above which breast biopsy recommended, has been generalized to all patients from several specific situations analyzed in the literature. We use a sequential decision analytic model considering clinical and mammography features to determine the optimal general threshold for image guided breast biopsy and the sensitivity of this threshold to variation of these features. Methodology/Principal Findings We built a decision analytical model c...

  3. Raison d’être of insulin resistance: the adjustable threshold hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guanyu

    2014-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and diabetes demand a deeper understanding of insulin resistance, for which the adjustable threshold hypothesis is formed in this paper. To test the hypothesis, mathematical modelling was used to analyse clinical data and to simulate biological processes at both molecular and organismal levels. I found that insulin resistance roots in the thresholds of the cell's bistable response. By assuming heterogeneity of the thresholds, single cells' all-or-none response can col...

  4. Baryon-antibaryon threshold and ω-baryonium mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavai, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in any dual-topological-unitarization model of ω-baryonium (B) mixing at the cylinder level, in which the production of baryon-antibaryon (bb-bar) pairs can take place only above a certain threshold energy, the phenomenologically relevant ω and B trajectories do not mix below bb-bar threshold. However, their couplings to external particles do get modified. The ω-B mixing angle theta/sub omegahyphenB/, which characterizes these coupling modification effects below bb-bar threshold at t = 0, is estimated in some models. These estimates are found to agree reasonably well with the existing phenomenological bound on theta/sub omegahyphenB/

  5. Thresholds of a bunched beam longitudinal instability in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.I.; Ivanov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The formulas and graphs for calculating instability thresholds arising during the interaction of a bunched proton beam with narrow-band resonator are given. The instabilities of three types with oscillations of a definite multipolarity, oscillations of some bound multipoles and with microwave oscillations arising as a result of addition of a great number of multipoles. The analysis of the above data shows that the increase of oscillations nonlinearity is accompanied by the growth of instability threshold only in the zone of separated and weakly bound multipoles. The increase of spread of synchrotron frequencies reduces the zone separated multipoles owing to which the microwave bunch instability can be caused by more and more low-frequency resonators. In the microwave zone practically there is no stabilizing effect of synchrotron frequencies spread. The instability threshold of the bunched beam now - where exceeds the microwave level

  6. Reversible audiometric threshold changes in children with uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, George O; Goka, Bamenla Q; Kitcher, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as well as certain antimalarial drugs, is associated with hearing impairment in adults. There is little information, however, on the extent, if any, of this effect in children, and the evidence linking artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with hearing...... is inconclusive. Methods. Audiometry was conducted in children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 37), artemether-lumefantrine (n = 35), or amodiaquine (n = 8) in Accra, Ghana. Audiometry was repeated 3, 7, and 28 days later and after 9 months. Audiometric thresholds were compared...... evident between treated children and controls after 9 months. The hearing thresholds of children treated with the two ACT regimens were comparable but lower than those of amodiaquine-treated children during acute illness. Interpretation. Malaria is the likely cause of the elevated hearing threshold levels...

  7. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis Alihodzic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed.

  8. LLW Forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) meeting on May 29 through May 31, 1996.The LLW Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  9. LLW Forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) meeting on May 29 through May 31, 1996.The LLW Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  10. Handling of BLM abort thresholds in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Holzer, EB; Zamantzas, C; Kruk, G; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Nemcic, M; Orecka, A; Jackson, S; Roderick, C; Skaugen, A

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM) for the LHC consists of about 3600 Ionization Chambers (IC) located around the ring. Its main purpose is to request a beam abort when the measured losses exceed a certain threshold. The BLM detectors integrate the measured signals in 12 different time intervals (running from 40us to 83.8s) enabling for a different set of abort thresholds depending on the duration of the beam loss. Furthermore, 32 energy levels running from 450GeV to 7TeV account for the fact that the energy density of a particle shower increases with the energy of the primary particle, i.e. the beam energy. Thus, a set of ! 3600 × 12 × 32 = 1.3 · 106 thresholds must be handled. These thresholds are highly critical for the safety of the machine and depend to a large part on human judgment, which cannot be replaced by automatic test procedures. The BLM team has defined well established procedures to compute, set and check new BLM thresholds, in order to avoid and/or find non-conformities due to manipulat...

  11. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  12. Dynamical thresholds for complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is our purpose here to study the effect of nuclear dissipation and shape parametrization on dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. This is done by solving numerically classical equations of motion for head-on collisions to determine whether the dynamical trajectory in a multidimensional deformation space passes inside the fission saddle point and forms a compound nucleus, or whether it passes outside the fission saddle point and reseparates in a fast-fission or deep-inelastic reaction. Specifying the nuclear shape in terms of smoothly joined portions of three quadratic surfaces of revolution, we take into account three symmetric deformation coordinates. However, in some cases we reduce the number of coordinates to two by requiring the ends of the fusing system to be spherical in shape. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is determined in terms of a Coulomb energy and a double volume energy of a Yukawa-plus-exponential folding function. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by means of the Werner-Wheeler approximation. Four possibilities are studied for the transfer of collective kinetic energy into internal single-particle excitation energy: zero dissipation, ordinary two body viscosity, one-body wall-formula dissipation, and one-body wall-and-window dissipation

  13. 38 CFR 61.12 - Threshold requirements for capital grant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for capital grant applications. 61.12 Section 61.12 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.12 Threshold requirements for capital grant applications. To be eligible for a capital grant, an applicant must meet the...

  14. Threshold Games and Cooperation on Multiplayer Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare B Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect on cooperation in multiplayer games, when the population from which all individuals are drawn is structured-i.e. when a given individual is only competing with a small subset of the entire population.To optimize the focus on multiplayer effects, a class of games were chosen for which the payoff depends nonlinearly on the number of cooperators-this ensures that the game cannot be represented as a sum of pair-wise interactions, and increases the likelihood of observing behaviour different from that seen in two-player games. The chosen class of games are named "threshold games", and are defined by a threshold, M > 0, which describes the minimal number of cooperators in a given match required for all the participants to receive a benefit. The model was studied primarily through numerical simulations of large populations of individuals, each with interaction neighbourhoods described by various classes of networks.When comparing the level of cooperation in a structured population to the mean-field model, we find that most types of structure lead to a decrease in cooperation. This is both interesting and novel, simply due to the generality and breadth of relevance of the model-it is likely that any model with similar payoff structure exhibits related behaviour. More importantly, we find that the details of the behaviour depends to a large extent on the size of the immediate neighbourhoods of the individuals, as dictated by the network structure. In effect, the players behave as if they are part of a much smaller, fully mixed, population, which we suggest an expression for.

  15. Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

  16. Perspectives on what we formerly called threshold limit values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    From the point of view of an epidemiologist with experience in community air quality standards, occupational health standards, radiation standards, and water quality standards, reasons are given for discarding the assumption that occupational health protection should be based on threshold concepts. The weakness of worker health protection based on prescription of maximal exposure levels is noted, regardless of whose judgement is used for such levels. 37 references

  17. The asymmetry of U.S. monetary policy: Evidence from a threshold Taylor rule with time-varying threshold values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanli; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue whether U.S. monetary policy is asymmetric by estimating a forward-looking threshold Taylor rule with quarterly data from 1955 to 2015. In order to capture the potential heterogeneity for regime shift mechanism under different economic conditions, we modify the threshold model by assuming the threshold value as a latent variable following an autoregressive (AR) dynamic process. We use the unemployment rate as the threshold variable and separate the sample into two periods: expansion periods and recession periods. Our findings support that the U.S. monetary policy operations are asymmetric in these two regimes. More precisely, the monetary authority tends to implement an active Taylor rule with a weaker response to the inflation gap (the deviation of inflation from its target) and a stronger response to the output gap (the deviation of output from its potential level) in recession periods. The threshold value, interpreted as the targeted unemployment rate of monetary authorities, exhibits significant time-varying properties, confirming the conjecture that policy makers may adjust their reference point for the unemployment rate accordingly to reflect their attitude on the health of general economy.

  18. Stroboscopic effect : Contrast threshold function and dependence on illumination level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perz, M.; Sekulovski, D.; Vogels, I.; Heynderickx, I.

    2018-01-01

    The stroboscopic visibility measure (SVM) is a method used to quantify the stroboscopic effect visibility in general illumination application. SVM has been defined previously based on a limited number of frequencies and participants. To validate and extend SVM, five perception experiments are

  19. Topical Session on Liabilities identification and long-term management at national level - Topical Session held during the 36. Meeting of the RWMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings cover a topical session that was held at the March 2003 meeting of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee. The topical session focused on liability assessment and management for decommissioning of all types of nuclear installations, including decontamination of historic sites and waste management, as applicable. The presentations covered the current, national situations. The first oral presentation, from Switzerland, set the scene by providing a broad coverage of the relevant issues. The subsequent presentations - five from Member countries and one from the EC - described additional national positions and the evolving EC proposed directives. Each oral presentation was followed by a brief period of Q and As for clarification only. A plenary discussion took place on the ensemble of presentations and a Rapporteur provided a report on points made and lessons learnt. Additionally, written contributions were provided by RWMC delegates from several other countries. These are included in the proceedings as are the papers from the oral sessions, and the Rapporteur's report. These papers are not intended to be exhaustive, but to give an informed glimpse of NEA countries' approaches to liability identification and management in the context of nuclear facilities decommissioning and dismantling

  20. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, 2007 is a very special year for CERN. I would like to review the status of our activities with you, and I invite you to a presentation on Wednesday 27 June 2007 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  1. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  2. MOS Current Mode Logic Near Threshold Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Near threshold circuits (NTC are an attractive and promising technology that provides significant power savings with some delay penalty. The combination of NTC technology with MOS current mode logic (MCML is examined in this work. By combining MCML with NTC, the constant power consumption of MCML is reduced to leakage power levels that can be tolerated in certain modern applications. Additionally, the speed of NTC is improved due to the high speed nature of MCML technology. A 14 nm Fin field effect transistor (FinFET technology is used to evaluate these combined circuit techniques. A 32-bit Kogge Stone adder is chosen as a demonstration vehicle for feasibility analysis. MCML with NTC is shown to yield enhanced power efficiency when operated above 1 GHz with a 100% activity factor as compared to standard CMOS. MCML with NTC is more power efficient than standard CMOS beyond 9 GHz over a wide range of activity factors. MCML with NTC also exhibits significantly lower noise levels as compared to standard CMOS. The results of the analysis demonstrate that pairing NTC and MCML is efficient when operating at high frequencies and activity factors.

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meetingto be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m.in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Va...

  4. Carbon monoxide, industry, and performance. Third joint meeting of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, the Ergonomics Research Society, and the Society of Occupational Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-01

    This meeting, held at Swansea in September 1974, covered the following aspects: arterial disease among blast furnace workers; threshold limit values (TLVs) under conditions of continuous exposure (closed environment of nuclear submarines); discussion of TLV for CO; methods of CO determination in air (Harrison N.); the infrared gas analysis; electrochemical CO sensors based on the metallised membrane electrode; solid state detectors; measurement of CO in blood (comparative review of methods); warning levels and alarm instrumentation; also: ergonomics of aircrew respiratory apparatus.

  5. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  6. Time-efficient multidimensional threshold tracking method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Kowalewski, Borys; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive methods have been used to reduce the time it takes to estimate psychoacoustic thresholds. However, even with adaptive methods, there are many cases where the testing time is too long to be clinically feasible, particularly when estimating thresholds as a function of anothe...

  7. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity... portion of the process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance in the...

  8. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  9. Ultrafuzziness Optimization Based on Type II Fuzzy Sets for Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudan Studiawan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image thresholding is one of the processing techniques to provide high quality preprocessed image. Image vagueness and bad illumination are common obstacles yielding in a poor image thresholding output. By assuming image as fuzzy sets, several different fuzzy thresholding techniques have been proposed to remove these obstacles during threshold selection. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for thresholding image using ultrafuzziness optimization to decrease uncertainty in fuzzy system by common fuzzy sets like type II fuzzy sets. Optimization was conducted by involving ultrafuzziness measurement for background and object fuzzy sets separately. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image thresholding method had good performances for images with high vagueness, low level contrast, and grayscale ambiguity.

  10. Rational expectations, psychology and inductive learning via moving thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, H.; Seaman, T.

    2008-06-01

    This paper modifies a previously introduced class of heterogeneous agent models in a way that allows for the inclusion of different types of agent motivations and behaviours in a consistent manner. The agents operate within a highly simplified environment where they are only able to be long or short one unit of the asset. The price of the asset is influenced by both an external information stream and the demand of the agents. The current strategy of each agent is defined by a pair of moving thresholds straddling the current price. When the price crosses either of the thresholds for a particular agent, that agent switches position and a new pair of thresholds is generated. The threshold dynamics can mimic different sources of investor motivation, running the gamut from purely rational information-processing, through rational (but often undesirable) behaviour induced by perverse incentives and moral hazards, to purely psychological effects. The simplest model of this kind precisely conforms to the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) and this allows causal relationships to be established between actions at the agent level and violations of EMH price statistics at the global level. In particular, the effects of herding behaviour and perverse incentives are examined.

  11. Rate modulation detection thresholds for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Tim; McKay, Colette; McDermott, Hugh

    2018-02-01

    The perception of temporal amplitude modulations is critical for speech understanding by cochlear implant (CI) users. The present study compared the ability of CI users to detect sinusoidal modulations of the electrical stimulation rate and current level, at different presentation levels (80% and 40% of the dynamic range) and modulation frequencies (10 and 100 Hz). Rate modulation detection thresholds (RMDTs) and amplitude modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured and compared to assess whether there was a perceptual advantage to either modulation method. Both RMDTs and AMDTs improved with increasing presentation level and decreasing modulation frequency. RMDTs and AMDTs were correlated, indicating that a common processing mechanism may underlie the perception of rate modulation and amplitude modulation, or that some subject-dependent factors affect both types of modulation detection.

  12. Extracting dynamics from threshold-crossing interspike intervals: Possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Sosnovtseva, O. V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate dynamical characteristics of chaotic attractors from sequences of threshold-crossing interspike intervals, and study how the choice of the threshold level (which sets the equation of a secant plane) influences the results of the numerical computations. Under quite genera...

  13. A Threshold Model of Social Support, Adjustment, and Distress after Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Armer, Jane M.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a threshold model that proposes that social support exhibits a curvilinear association with adjustment and distress, such that support in excess of a critical threshold level has decreasing incremental benefits. Women diagnosed with a first occurrence of breast cancer (N = 154) completed survey measures of perceived support…

  14. Optimizing edge detectors for robust automatic threshold selection : Coping with edge curvature and noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.

    The Robust Automatic Threshold Selection algorithm was introduced as a threshold selection based on a simple image statistic. The statistic is an average of the grey levels of the pixels in an image weighted by the response at each pixel of a specific edge detector. Other authors have suggested that

  15. Extracting dynamics from threshold-crossing interspike intervals: possibilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A N; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate dynamical characteristics of chaotic attractors from sequences of threshold-crossing interspike intervals, and study how the choice of the threshold level (which sets the equation of a secant plane) influences the results of the numerical computations. Under quite genera...

  16. The Mission Imperative for Sending Federal Scientists to Major Meetings: Making the Case (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.; Kimball, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2012, new guidelines from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) made travel for government scientists to meetings suddenly much more difficult in the wake of a major scandal involving excessive spending for a Las Vegas conference by a certain government agency. Deputy-Secretary-level permission was instituted for meetings involving more than 15 government staff members, with detailed documentation on the purpose of the gathering, the costs, the rationale for the choice of venue, and the role of each participant. Any ancillary events such a field trips, social gatherings, or leisure activities, were discouraged even if paid for with personal funds as they were being supported on government travel at taxpayer's expense. Furthermore, Secretarial-level waivers were required if the total meeting expense exceeded $500,000, an easy threshold to reach for large meetings that attract more than 200 participants from any one Department. An additional challenge in addressing the new OMB requirements is that many Departments and their constitutive agencies prior to the new guidelines had no centralized system for tracking conference attendance from their numerous centers and offices across the landscape. I will review how the USGS rose to the challenge in 2012 of obtaining a Secretarial waiver in order to meet its mission objectives of communicating its science results to stakeholders, maintaining the quality of its working through conferring with colleagues, providing opportunities for professional growth for junior scientists, nucleating new projects, and other important needs.

  17. A threshold auto-adjustment algorithm of feature points extraction based on grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zili; Li, Jun; Dong, Gaojie

    2018-02-01

    When dealing with high-resolution digital images, detection of feature points is usually the very first important step. Valid feature points depend on the threshold. If the threshold is too low, plenty of feature points will be detected, and they may be aggregated in the rich texture regions, which consequently not only affects the speed of feature description, but also aggravates the burden of following processing; if the threshold is set high, the feature points in poor texture area will lack. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a threshold auto-adjustment method of feature extraction based on grid. By dividing the image into numbers of grid, threshold is set in every local grid for extracting the feature points. When the number of feature points does not meet the threshold requirement, the threshold will be adjusted automatically to change the final number of feature points The experimental results show that feature points produced by our method is more uniform and representative, which avoids the aggregation of feature points and greatly reduces the complexity of following work.

  18. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  19. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

  20. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity.

  1. Financial Development and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria: A Threshold Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olusola Ayinde

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between financial development and inclusive growth in Nigeria for the period 1980 – 2013. The technique of analysis is the quantile regression; which is to obtain a threshold for which the former impacts on the latter. The result shows a threshold level of 90th percentile. Interestingly, the study also found that the impact of financial development on inclusive growth depends on the measure of the former up to the threshold level and not beyond. Through a granger causality test, the direction of causality is through the inclusive growth rather than through financial development; through the financial deepening measure. While the study found that either a low level or high level of openness on trade and capital investment are desirable for inclusive growth in Nigeria, the results also reveal that government involvement in the workings of the Nigeria economy and financial openness are sensitive to the pattern of financial development. With financial deepening, both are negatively related to inclusive growth but positively related to inclusive growth when financial widening is considered. This suggests that government intervention in the activities of the private sector is detrimental when the latter are to drive financial development process. However, the involvement of government in ensuring the appropriate level of financial widening, through the central bank operations, produces a positive impact on growth.

  2. Financial Development and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria: A Threshold Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olusola Ayinde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between financial development and inclusive growth in Nigeria for the period 1980 – 2013. The technique of analysis is the quantile regression; which is to obtain a threshold for which the former impacts on the latter. The result shows a threshold level of 90th percentile. Interestingly, the study also found that the impact of financial development on inclusive growth depends on the measure of the former up to the threshold level and not beyond. Through a granger causality test, the direction of causality is through the inclusive growth rather than through financial development; through the financial deepening measure. While the study found that either a low level or high level of openness on trade and capital investment are desirable for inclusive growth in Nigeria, the results also reveal that government involvement in the workings of the Nigeria economy and financial openness are sensitive to the pattern of financial development. With financial deepening, both are negatively related to inclusive growth but positively related to inclusive growth when financial widening is considered. This suggests that government intervention in the activities of the private sector is detrimental when the latter are to drive financial development process. However, the involvement of government in ensuring the appropriate level of financial widening, through the central bank operations, produces a positive impact on growth.

  3. Meeting Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  4. Alpha-fetoprotein level > 1000 ng/mL as an exclusion criterion for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma meeting the Milan criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Bilal; Mehta, Neil; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Roberts, John P; Yao, Francis Y

    2014-08-01

    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been increasingly recognized as a marker for a poor prognosis after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many published reports, however, have included a large proportion of patients with HCC beyond the Milan criteria, and the effects of incorporating AFP as an exclusion criterion for LT remain unclear. We studied 211 consecutive patients undergoing LT for HCC within the Milan criteria according to imaging under the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease organ allocation system between June 2002 and January 2009. The majority (93.4%) had locoregional therapy before LT. The median follow-up was 4.5 years (minimum = 2 years). The Kaplan-Meier 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 94.3% and 83.4%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, significant predictors of HCC recurrence included vascular invasion [hazard ratio (HR) = 10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9-26, P 1000 ng/mL (HR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.3-15.3, P = 0.02), and an AFP level > 500 ng/mL (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.04-9.4, P = 0.04). In a multivariate analysis, vascular invasion was the only significant predictor of tumor recurrence (HR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.9-19, P = 0.02). An AFP level > 1000 ng/mL was the strongest pretransplant variable predicting vascular invasion (odds ratio = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.6-19.1, P = 0.006). The 1- and 5-year rates of survival without recurrence were 90% and 52.7%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL and 95% and 80.3%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level ≤ 1000 ng/mL (P = 0.026). Applying an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL as a cutoff would have resulted in the exclusion of 4.7% of the patients fr m LT and a 20% reduction in HCC recurrence. In conclusion, an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL may be a surrogate for vascular invasion and may be used to predict posttransplant HCC recurrence. Incorporating an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL as an exclusion criterion for LT within the Milan criteria may further improve posttransplant

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  6. Meetings and Meeting Modeling in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real time or off-line. The research reported here forms part of the European 5th and 6th framework programme projects multi-modal meeting

  7. Meetings and meeting modeling in smart surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nishida, T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real-time or off-line. Intelligent real-time and off-line generation requires understanding of what is going on during a meeting. The

  8. When global rule reversal meets local task switching: The neural mechanisms of coordinated behavioral adaptation to instructed multi-level demand changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yiquan; Wolfensteller, Uta; Schubert, Torsten; Ruge, Hannes

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive flexibility is essential to cope with changing task demands and often it is necessary to adapt to combined changes in a coordinated manner. The present fMRI study examined how the brain implements such multi-level adaptation processes. Specifically, on a "local," hierarchically lower level, switching between two tasks was required across trials while the rules of each task remained unchanged for blocks of trials. On a "global" level regarding blocks of twelve trials, the task rules could reverse or remain the same. The current task was cued at the start of each trial while the current task rules were instructed before the start of a new block. We found that partly overlapping and partly segregated neural networks play different roles when coping with the combination of global rule reversal and local task switching. The fronto-parietal control network (FPN) supported the encoding of reversed rules at the time of explicit rule instruction. The same regions subsequently supported local task switching processes during actual implementation trials, irrespective of rule reversal condition. By contrast, a cortico-striatal network (CSN) including supplementary motor area and putamen was increasingly engaged across implementation trials and more so for rule reversal than for nonreversal blocks, irrespective of task switching condition. Together, these findings suggest that the brain accomplishes the coordinated adaptation to multi-level demand changes by distributing processing resources either across time (FPN for reversed rule encoding and later for task switching) or across regions (CSN for reversed rule implementation and FPN for concurrent task switching). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hexavalent chrome: threshold concept for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R E

    1990-03-01

    Certain hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds when administered via inhalation at high doses have the potential to induce lung tumors in humans and experimental animals. Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential human and animal nutrient at levels of 50 to 200 micrograms/day. Recent data have shown that the human body is able to reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+. This reduction occurs in bodily fluids such as gastric juice, epithelial lining fluid of the respiratory tract, blood, and other fluids. Secondary reduction occurs at the cellular level by the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes. Thus, at low levels of exposure hexavalent chromium ions are reduced before the 6+ ions can interact with DNA unless the dose is sufficient to overwhelm the body's reduction capacity. This paper summarizes the available data concerning the reducing ability of the body and formulates the steps in the mechanism of cancer induction. These steps include: (1) only certain Cr6+ compounds have the capacity to interact with cellular components; (2) Cr6+ is reduced by body fluids and excess Cr6+ enters the cell (Cr3+ is poorly absorbed across membranes); (3) cellular organelles and the cytoplasm reduce Cr6+ to Cr3+; (4) excess Cr6+ can enter the nucleus; (5) Cr6+ reduction through 5+ and 4+ to 3+ has a potential to interact with the DNA molecule; and (6) if unrepaired, this DNA damage can lead to cancer induction. On the basis of current evidence Cr6+ has a threshold for carcinogenic potential in humans that is greater than the current TLV.

  10. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  11. Threshold responses of Amazonian stream fishes to timing and extent of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejão, Gabriel L; Hoeinghaus, David J; Pérez-Mayorga, María Angélica; Ferraz, Silvio F B; Casatti, Lilian

    2017-12-06

    Deforestation is a primary driver of biodiversity change through habitat loss and fragmentation. Stream biodiversity may not respond to deforestation in a simple linear relationship. Rather, threshold responses to extent and timing of deforestation may occur. Identification of critical deforestation thresholds is needed for effective conservation and management. We tested for threshold responses of fish species and functional groups to degree of watershed and riparian zone deforestation and time since impact in 75 streams in the western Brazilian Amazon. We used remote sensing to assess deforestation from 1984 to 2011. Fish assemblages were sampled with seines and dip nets in a standardized manner. Fish species (n = 84) were classified into 20 functional groups based on ecomorphological traits associated with habitat use, feeding, and locomotion. Threshold responses were quantified using threshold indicator taxa analysis. Negative threshold responses to deforestation were common and consistently occurred at very low levels of deforestation (70% deforestation and >10 years after impact. Findings were similar at the community level for both taxonomic and functional analyses. Because most negative threshold responses occurred at low levels of deforestation and soon after impact, even minimal change is expected to negatively affect biodiversity. Delayed positive threshold responses to extreme deforestation by a few species do not offset the loss of sensitive taxa and likely contribute to biotic homogenization. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Reaction thresholds in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, Daniel; Major, Seth; Hinteleitner, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Two theories of special relativity with an additional invariant scale, 'doubly special relativity', are tested with calculations of particle process kinematics. Using the Judes-Visser modified conservation laws, thresholds are studied in both theories. In contrast with some linear approximations, which allow for particle processes forbidden in special relativity, both the Amelino-Camelia and Magueijo-Smolin frameworks allow no additional processes. To first order, the Amelino-Camelia framework thresholds are lowered and the Magueijo-Smolin framework thresholds may be raised or lowered

  13. Threshold nonlinear absorption in Zeeman transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Andal; Hazra, Abheera; Sandhya, S N

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study the absorption spectroscopy from a collection of gaseous 87 Rb atoms at room temperature irradiated with three fields. Two of these fields are in a pump-probe saturation absorption configuration. The third field co-propagates with the pump field. The three fields address Zeeman degenerate transitions between hyperfine levels 5S 1/2 , F = 1 and 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 around the D2 line. We find a sub-natural absorption resonance in the counter-propagating probe field for equal detunings of all three fields. This absorption arises in conjunction with the appearance of increased transmission due to electro-magnetically induced transparency in the co-propagating fields. The novel feature of this absorption is its onset only for the blue of 5P 3/2 , F = 0, as the laser frequency is scanned through the excited states 5P 3/2 , F = 0, F = 1 and F = 2. The absorption rapidly rises to near maximum values within a narrow band of frequency near 5P 3/2 , F = 0. Our experimental results are compared with a dressed atom model. We find the threshold absorption to be a result of coherent interaction between the dressed states of our system.

  14. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  15. Threshold disorder as a source of diverse and complex behavior in random nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, P.C.; Bohr, Henrik; Clark, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We study the diversity of complex spatio-temporal patterns in the behavior of random synchronous asymmetric neural networks (RSANNs). Special attention is given to the impact of disordered threshold values on limit-cycle diversity and limit-cycle complexity in RSANNs which have 'normal' thresholds...... systems. In order to reach beyond this seemingly disabling 'stable and small' aspect of the limit-cycle repertoire of RSANNs, we have found that if an RSANN has threshold disorder above a critical level, then there is a rapid increase of the size of the repertoire of patterns. The repertoire size...... initially follows a power-law function of the magnitude of the threshold disorder. As the disorder increases further, the limit-cycle patterns themselves become simpler until at a second critical level most of the limit cycles become simple fixed points. Nonetheless, for moderate changes in the threshold...

  16. A Framework for Optimizing Phytosanitary Thresholds in Seed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Robin Alan; Garrett, Karen A; Klosterman, Steven J; Subbarao, Krishna V; McRoberts, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Seedborne pathogens and pests limit production in many agricultural systems. Quarantine programs help prevent the introduction of exotic pathogens into a country, but few regulations directly apply to reducing the reintroduction and spread of endemic pathogens. Use of phytosanitary thresholds helps limit the movement of pathogen inoculum through seed, but the costs associated with rejected seed lots can be prohibitive for voluntary implementation of phytosanitary thresholds. In this paper, we outline a framework to optimize thresholds for seedborne pathogens, balancing the cost of rejected seed lots and benefit of reduced inoculum levels. The method requires relatively small amounts of data, and the accuracy and robustness of the analysis improves over time as data accumulate from seed testing. We demonstrate the method first and illustrate it with a case study of seedborne oospores of Peronospora effusa, the causal agent of spinach downy mildew. A seed lot threshold of 0.23 oospores per seed could reduce the overall number of oospores entering the production system by 90% while removing 8% of seed lots destined for distribution. Alternative mitigation strategies may result in lower economic losses to seed producers, but have uncertain efficacy. We discuss future challenges and prospects for implementing this approach.

  17. Study of the Hearing Threshold of Dance Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehring, Cristiane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High sound pressure levels can cause hearing loss, beginning at high frequencies. Objective To analyze the hearing thresholds of dance teachers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional, observational, prospective, and descriptive design. Conventional and high-frequency hearing evaluations were performed with dance teachers and subjects in the control group. Results In all, 64 individuals were assessed, 32 in the research group and 32 in the control group. Results showed that individuals in the research group had hearing loss at frequencies between 4 and 8 kHz, but no significant difference was found between groups. Frequency analysis showed that individuals in the control group had higher thresholds than individuals in the research group at the frequency of 0.25 kHz. In the control group, men showed higher thresholds than women at the frequency of 9 kHz. Conclusion A low prevalence of hearing loss was found, with no difference between teachers and subjects from the control group. No difference was found for hearing thresholds at high frequencies between groups. Results have been partially affected by sex.

  18. Genotoxic thresholds, DNA repair, and susceptibility in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gareth J.S.; Zair, Zoulikha; Johnson, George E.; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    It has been long assumed that DNA damage is induced in a linear manner with respect to the dose of a direct acting genotoxin. Thus, it is implied that direct acting genotoxic agents induce DNA damage at even the lowest of concentrations and that no 'safe' dose range exists. The linear (non-threshold) paradigm has led to the one-hit model being developed. This 'one hit' scenario can be interpreted such that a single DNA damaging event in a cell has the capability to induce a single point mutation in that cell which could (if positioned in a key growth controlling gene) lead to increased proliferation, leading ultimately to the formation of a tumour. There are many groups (including our own) who, for a decade or more, have argued, that low dose exposures to direct acting genotoxins may be tolerated by cells through homeostatic mechanisms such as DNA repair. This argument stems from the existence of evolutionary adaptive mechanisms that allow organisms to adapt to low levels of exogenous sources of genotoxins. We have been particularly interested in the genotoxic effects of known mutagens at low dose exposures in human cells and have identified for the first time, in vitro genotoxic thresholds for several mutagenic alkylating agents (Doak et al., 2007). Our working hypothesis is that DNA repair is primarily responsible for these thresholded effects at low doses by removing low levels of DNA damage but becoming saturated at higher doses. We are currently assessing the roles of base excision repair (BER) and methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) for roles in the identified thresholds (Doak et al., 2008). This research area is currently important as it assesses whether 'safe' exposure levels to mutagenic chemicals can exist and allows risk assessment using appropriate safety factors to define such exposure levels. Given human variation, the mechanistic basis for genotoxic thresholds (e.g. DNA repair) has to be well defined in order that susceptible individuals are

  19. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  20. Fruitful meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont

    2010-01-01

    The annual meeting for the LHC Performance Workshop was held in Chamonix from 25 to 29 January 2010 in the Centre de Congrès Le Majestic. The Workshop focused on how to reach the maximum operating energy.   The LHC Performance Workshop took place between 25 and 29 January 2010 in a rather chilly Chamonix. Following the successful start of beam commissioning last year, there remain a number of important questions about the near future of the machine. Topics discussed included the maximum operational energy that will be possible in 2010 and the steps need to go above the planned 2010 start-up energy of 3.5 TeV. Of particular importance were the required splice and magnet consolidation measures that would be demanded by an increase above this energy.  The energy in the magnets and beams will always represent a considerable threat, and the possible impact of an incident and the potential measures required to speed up a recovery were put on the table. Safety is critical and there were...

  1. Meeting the Standards for Foreign Language Leaming through an Internet-Based Newspaper Project: Case Studies of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Fukai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1996, the Standards far Foreign Language Learning (Standards, define knowledge and abilities that foreign language learners should acquire in the U.S. The Internet is believed to facilitate standards-based instruction because of its capabilities as a communication medium, information provider, and publication tool. This paper presents one part of a study that investigated this claim through examining an Internet-based newspaper project in an advanced-level college Japanese course in light of the Japanese Standards. Six students were selected to serve as case studies, with their experiences in relation to this project analyzed in depth. The results show that the students found using the Internet to read authentic materials with the help of an online dictionary to be a positive experience. This then resulted in their actively using Japanese for personal enjoyment outside the classroom. These results suggest that the project was particularly successful in two goal areas: Communication and Communities.

  2. Pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.; Jeong, M.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electric dipole amplitudes of pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold have been calculated in the framework of the chiral bag model. Our results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data

  3. Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierk, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs

  4. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  5. Recent progress in understanding climate thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, Peter; Bamber, Jonathan; Halladay, Kate; Harper, Anna B.; Jackson, Laura C.; Kay, Gillian; Kruijt, Bart; Lowe, Jason A.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Ridley, Jeff; Srokosz, Meric; Turley, Carol; Williamson, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the

  6. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  7. Thresholding projection estimators in functional linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Cardot, Hervé; Johannes, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the regression function in functional linear regression models by proposing a new type of projection estimators which combine dimension reduction and thresholding. The introduction of a threshold rule allows to get consistency under broad assumptions as well as minimax rates of convergence under additional regularity hypotheses. We also consider the particular case of Sobolev spaces generated by the trigonometric basis which permits to get easily mean squ...

  8. Noise thresholds for optical quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Christopher M; Haselgrove, Henry L; Nielsen, Michael A

    2006-01-20

    In this Letter we numerically investigate the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computing. We allow both photon loss noise and depolarizing noise (as a general proxy for all local noise), and obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible for photon loss probabilities <3 x 10(-3), and for depolarization probabilities <10(-4).

  9. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...... of using a threshold controller as a nonlinear element, can be extended to obtain autonomous and multiscroll chaotic attractor circuits as well....

  10. A New Wavelet Threshold Function and Denoising Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effects of denoising, this paper introduces the basic principles of wavelet threshold denoising and traditional structures threshold functions. Meanwhile, it proposes wavelet threshold function and fixed threshold formula which are both improved here. First, this paper studies the problems existing in the traditional wavelet threshold functions and introduces the adjustment factors to construct the new threshold function basis on soft threshold function. Then, it studies the fixed threshold and introduces the logarithmic function of layer number of wavelet decomposition to design the new fixed threshold formula. Finally, this paper uses hard threshold, soft threshold, Garrote threshold, and improved threshold function to denoise different signals. And the paper also calculates signal-to-noise (SNR and mean square errors (MSE of the hard threshold functions, soft thresholding functions, Garrote threshold functions, and the improved threshold function after denoising. Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the proposed approach could improve soft threshold functions with constant deviation and hard threshold with discontinuous function problems. The proposed approach could improve the different decomposition scales that adopt the same threshold value to deal with the noise problems, also effectively filter the noise in the signals, and improve the SNR and reduce the MSE of output signals.

  11. Modelling the regulatory system for diabetes mellitus with a threshold window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2015-05-01

    Piecewise (or non-smooth) glucose-insulin models with threshold windows for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are proposed and analyzed with a view to improving understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. For glucose-insulin models with a single threshold, the existence and stability of regular, virtual, pseudo-equilibria and tangent points are addressed. Then the relations between regular equilibria and a pseudo-equilibrium are studied. Furthermore, the sufficient and necessary conditions for the global stability of regular equilibria and the pseudo-equilibrium are provided by using qualitative analysis techniques of non-smooth Filippov dynamic systems. Sliding bifurcations related to boundary node bifurcations were investigated with theoretical and numerical techniques, and insulin clinical therapies are discussed. For glucose-insulin models with a threshold window, the effects of glucose thresholds or the widths of threshold windows on the durations of insulin therapy and glucose infusion were addressed. The duration of the effects of an insulin injection is sensitive to the variation of thresholds. Our results indicate that blood glucose level can be maintained within a normal range using piecewise glucose-insulin models with a single threshold or a threshold window. Moreover, our findings suggest that it is critical to individualise insulin therapy for each patient separately, based on initial blood glucose levels.

  12. Combined threshold and transverse momentum resummation for inclusive observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muselli, Claudio; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined resummation for the transverse momentum distribution of a colorless final state in perturbative QCD, expressed as a function of transverse momentum p T and the scaling variable x. Its expression satisfies three requirements: it reduces to standard transverse momentum resummation to any desired logarithmic order in the limit p T →0 for fixed x, up to power suppressed corrections in p T ; it reduces to threshold resummation to any desired logarithmic order in the limit x→1 for fixed p T , up to power suppressed correction in 1−x; upon integration over transverse momentum it reproduces the resummation of the total cross cross at any given logarithmic order in the threshold x→1 limit, up to power suppressed correction in 1−x. Its main ingredient, and our main new result, is a modified form of transverse momentum resummation, which leads to threshold resummation upon integration over p T , and for which we provide a simple closed-form analytic expression in Fourier-Mellin (b,N) space. We give explicit coefficients up to NNLL order for the specific case of Higgs production in gluon fusion in the effective field theory limit. Our result allows for a systematic improvement of the transverse momentum distribution through threshold resummation which holds for all p T , and elucidates the relation between transverse momentum resummation and threshold resummation at the inclusive level, specifically by providing within perturbative QCD a simple derivation of the main consequence of the so-called collinear anomaly of SCET.

  13. Combined threshold and transverse momentum resummation for inclusive observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muselli, Claudio; Forte, Stefano [Tif Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova,Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2017-03-21

    We present a combined resummation for the transverse momentum distribution of a colorless final state in perturbative QCD, expressed as a function of transverse momentum p{sub T} and the scaling variable x. Its expression satisfies three requirements: it reduces to standard transverse momentum resummation to any desired logarithmic order in the limit p{sub T}→0 for fixed x, up to power suppressed corrections in p{sub T}; it reduces to threshold resummation to any desired logarithmic order in the limit x→1 for fixed p{sub T}, up to power suppressed correction in 1−x; upon integration over transverse momentum it reproduces the resummation of the total cross cross at any given logarithmic order in the threshold x→1 limit, up to power suppressed correction in 1−x. Its main ingredient, and our main new result, is a modified form of transverse momentum resummation, which leads to threshold resummation upon integration over p{sub T}, and for which we provide a simple closed-form analytic expression in Fourier-Mellin (b,N) space. We give explicit coefficients up to NNLL order for the specific case of Higgs production in gluon fusion in the effective field theory limit. Our result allows for a systematic improvement of the transverse momentum distribution through threshold resummation which holds for all p{sub T}, and elucidates the relation between transverse momentum resummation and threshold resummation at the inclusive level, specifically by providing within perturbative QCD a simple derivation of the main consequence of the so-called collinear anomaly of SCET.

  14. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  15. Systematic variation of threshold reaction rates in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; Combs, B.L.; Davis, A.I.

    1976-01-01

    Characterization of neutron flux, fluence, and spectra in fast reactor irradiation environments is presently being carried out at HEDL utilizing the multiple foil technique. These fluences and spectra are then used to correlate damage effects data to produce damage functions or equations to predict materials effects under future irradiation conditions. The neutron flux and spectrum, then, act as a transfer function to relate present observations to future effects in the same or different environments and thus consistent fluence evaluations are of utmost importance. As part of a continuing program to establish the data base to meet consistency requirements, a systematic correlation of data from a recent dosimetry test in EBR-II is being made. The paper presents preliminary results of some of these correlations involving threshold reactions

  16. An experimental test of the linear no-threshold theory of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    There is a substantial body of quantitative information on radiation-induced cancer at high dose, but there are no data at low dose. The usual method for estimating effects of low-level radiation is to assume a linear no-threshold dependence. if this linear no-threshold assumption were not used, essentially all fears about radiation would disappear. Since these fears are costing tens of billions of dollars, it is most important that the linear no-threshold theory be tested at low dose. An opportunity for possibly testing the linear no-threshold concept is now available at low dose due to radon in homes. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to use this data to test the linear no-threshold theory

  17. EbayesThresh: R Programs for Empirical Bayes Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Johnstone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppose that a sequence of unknown parameters is observed sub ject to independent Gaussian noise. The EbayesThresh package in the S language implements a class of Empirical Bayes thresholding methods that can take advantage of possible sparsity in the sequence, to improve the quality of estimation. The prior for each parameter in the sequence is a mixture of an atom of probability at zero and a heavy-tailed density. Within the package, this can be either a Laplace (double exponential density or else a mixture of normal distributions with tail behavior similar to the Cauchy distribution. The mixing weight, or sparsity parameter, is chosen automatically by marginal maximum likelihood. If estimation is carried out using the posterior median, this is a random thresholding procedure; the estimation can also be carried out using other thresholding rules with the same threshold, and the package provides the posterior mean, and hard and soft thresholding, as additional options. This paper reviews the method, and gives details (far beyond those previously published of the calculations needed for implementing the procedures. It explains and motivates both the general methodology, and the use of the EbayesThresh package, through simulated and real data examples. When estimating the wavelet transform of an unknown function, it is appropriate to apply the method level by level to the transform of the observed data. The package can carry out these calculations for wavelet transforms obtained using various packages in R and S-PLUS. Details, including a motivating example, are presented, and the application of the method to image estimation is also explored. The final topic considered is the estimation of a single sequence that may become progressively sparser along the sequence. An iterated least squares isotone regression method allows for the choice of a threshold that depends monotonically on the order in which the observations are made. An alternative

  18. Objective threshold for distinguishing complicated tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the likelihood of human error in a reliable manner is really important for enhancing the safety of a large process control system such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this regard, from the point of view of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods have been used for several decades in order to systematically evaluate the effect of human error on the safety of NPPs. However, one of the recurrence issues is to determine the level of an important Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) by using a clear and objective manner with respect to the context of a given task. Unfortunately, there is no such criterion for a certain PSF such as the complexity of a task. For this reason, in this study, an objective criterion that is helpful for identifying a complicated task is suggested based on the Task Complexity (TACOM) measure. To this end, subjective difficulty scores rated by high speed train drivers are collected. After that, subjective difficulty scores are compared with the associated TACOM scores being quantified based on tasks to be conducted by high speed train drivers. As a result, it is expected that high speed train drivers feel a significant difficulty when they are faced with tasks of which the TACOM scores are greater than 4.2. Since TACOM measure is a kind of general tool to quantify the complexity of tasks to be done by human operators, it is promising to conclude that this value can be regarded as a common threshold representing what a complicated task is.

  19. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  20. Higher vs. lower haemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Holst, L B; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    . a lower haemoglobin threshold. METHODS: In post-hoc analyses of the full trial population of 998 patients from the Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial, we investigated the intervention effect on 90-day mortality in patients with severe comorbidity (chronic lung disease, haematological......BACKGROUND: Using a restrictive transfusion strategy appears to be safe in sepsis, but there may be subgroups of patients who benefit from transfusion at a higher haemoglobin level. We explored if subgroups of patients with septic shock and anaemia had better outcome when transfused at a higher vs.......51), in those who had undergone surgery (P = 0.99) or in patients with septic shock by the new definition (P = 0.20). CONCLUSION: In exploratory analyses of a randomized trial in patients with septic shock and anaemia, we observed no survival benefit in any subgroups of transfusion at a haemoglobin threshold...

  1. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  2. Temporary threshold shift after exposure to pop music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A; Lindgren, F

    1978-01-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was studied in pop musicians as well as in listeners. It appears that TTS is less pronounced in pop musicians than in listeners. This can only in part be explained by slightly inferior hearing threshold levels than in the audience before exposure. Further, male listeners showed more TTS than female listeners. After 2 hours of exposure to live pop music a TTS2 appears in pop musicians after an exposure to 98 dB(A) as opposed to listeners where TTS2 appears at 92 dB(A). When the present results are related to the CHABA risk criteria it seems that exposure to live pop music at 100 dB(A) for 2 hours is a limit which should not be exceeded if the risk of permanent hearing loss is to be avoided.

  3. Otsu Based Optimal Multilevel Image Thresholding Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sri Madhava Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histogram based multilevel thresholding approach is proposed using Brownian distribution (BD guided firefly algorithm (FA. A bounded search technique is also presented to improve the optimization accuracy with lesser search iterations. Otsu’s between-class variance function is maximized to obtain optimal threshold level for gray scale images. The performances of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by considering twelve benchmark images and are compared with the existing FA algorithms such as Lévy flight (LF guided FA and random operator guided FA. The performance assessment comparison between the proposed and existing firefly algorithms is carried using prevailing parameters such as objective function, standard deviation, peak-to-signal ratio (PSNR, structural similarity (SSIM index, and search time of CPU. The results show that BD guided FA provides better objective function, PSNR, and SSIM, whereas LF based FA provides faster convergence with relatively lower CPU time.

  4. QRS Detection Based on Improved Adaptive Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of death around the world. In accomplishing quick and accurate diagnosis, automatic electrocardiogram (ECG analysis algorithm plays an important role, whose first step is QRS detection. The threshold algorithm of QRS complex detection is known for its high-speed computation and minimized memory storage. In this mobile era, threshold algorithm can be easily transported into portable, wearable, and wireless ECG systems. However, the detection rate of the threshold algorithm still calls for improvement. An improved adaptive threshold algorithm for QRS detection is reported in this paper. The main steps of this algorithm are preprocessing, peak finding, and adaptive threshold QRS detecting. The detection rate is 99.41%, the sensitivity (Se is 99.72%, and the specificity (Sp is 99.69% on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made with two other algorithms, to prove our superiority. The suspicious abnormal area is shown at the end of the algorithm and RR-Lorenz plot drawn for doctors and cardiologists to use as aid for diagnosis.

  5. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  6. Threshold concepts in finance: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-10-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by finance academics. In addition, we investigate the potential of a framework of different types of knowledge to differentiate the delivery of the finance curriculum and the role of modelling in finance. Our purpose is to identify ways to improve curriculum design and delivery, leading to better student outcomes. Whilst we find that there is significant overlap between what students identify as important in finance and the threshold concepts identified by academics, much of this overlap is expressed by indirect reference to the concepts. Further, whilst different types of knowledge are apparent in the student data, there is evidence that students do not necessarily distinguish conceptual from other types of knowledge. As well as investigating the finance curriculum, the research demonstrates the use of threshold concepts to compare and contrast student and academic perceptions of a discipline and, as such, is of interest to researchers in education and other disciplines.

  7. Comparisons between detection threshold and loudness perception for individual cochlear implant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Nye, Amberly D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study, performed in cochlear implant listeners, was to examine how the level of current required to detect single-channel electrical pulse trains relates to loudness perception on the same channel. The working hypothesis was that channels with relatively high thresholds, when measured with a focused current pattern, interface poorly to the auditory nerve. For such channels a smaller dynamic range between perceptual threshold and the most comfortable loudness would result, in part, from a greater sensitivity to changes in electrical field spread compared to low-threshold channels. The narrower range of comfortable listening levels may have important implications for speech perception. Design Data were collected from eight, adult cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics Corp.). The partial tripolar (pTP) electrode configuration, consisting of one intracochlear active electrode, two flanking electrodes carrying a fraction (σ) of the return current, and an extracochlear ground, was used for stimulation. Single-channel detection thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were acquired using the most focused pTP configuration possible (σ ≥ 0.8) to identify three channels for further testing – those with the highest, median, and lowest thresholds – for each subject. Threshold, equal-loudness contours (at 50% of the monopolar dynamic range), and loudness growth functions were measured for each of these three test channels using various partial tripolar fractions. Results For all test channels, thresholds increased as the electrode configuration became more focused. The rate of increase with the focusing parameter σ was greatest for the high-threshold channel compared to the median- and low-threshold channels. The 50% equal-loudness contours exhibited similar rates of increase in level across test channels and subjects. Additionally, test channels with the highest

  8. Holes in the Bathtub: Water Table Dependent Services and Threshold Behavior in an Economic Model of Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-lawlor, N. E.; Edwards, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    In many groundwater systems, the height of the water table must be above certain thresholds for some types of surface flow to exist. Examples of flows that depend on water table elevation include groundwater baseflow to river systems, groundwater flow to wetland systems, and flow to springs. Meeting many of the goals of sustainable water resource management requires maintaining these flows at certain rates. Water resource management decisions invariably involve weighing tradeoffs between different possible usage regimes and the economic consequences of potential management choices are an important factor in these tradeoffs. Policies based on sustainability may have a social cost from forgoing present income. This loss of income may be worth bearing, but should be well understood and carefully considered. Traditionally, the economic theory of groundwater exploitation has relied on the assumption of a single-cell or "bathtub" aquifer model, which offers a simple means to examine complex interactions between water user and hydrologic system behavior. However, such a model assumes a closed system and does not allow for the simulation of groundwater outflows that depend on water table elevation (e.g. baseflow, springs, wetlands), even though those outflows have value. We modify the traditional single-cell aquifer model by allowing for outflows when the water table is above certain threshold elevations. These thresholds behave similarly to holes in a bathtub, where the outflow is a positive function of the height of the water table above the threshold and the outflow is lost when the water table drops below the threshold. We find important economic consequences to this representation of the groundwater system. The economic value of services provided by threshold-dependent outflows (including non-market value), such as ecosystem services, can be incorporated. The value of services provided by these flows may warrant maintaining the water table at higher levels than would

  9. Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Widen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. Materials and Methods: The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume. Results: The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes. Discussion: Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping. Conclusion: Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10% that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

  10. Optimal Policies for Random and Periodic Garbage Collections with Tenuring Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Nakamura, Syouji; Nakagawa, Toshio

    It is an important problem to determine the tenuring threshold to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on the working schemes of a generational garbage collector: One is random collection which occurs at a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the other is periodic collection which occurs at periodic times. Since the cost suffered for minor collection increases, as the amount of surviving objects accumulates, tenuring minor collection should be made at some tenuring threshold. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates with tenuring threshold are obtained, and optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.

  11. Report on the workshop on new directions in soft x-ray near-threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The ''Workshop on New Directions in Soft X-Ray Near-Threshold Phenomena'' was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, CA on March 1--4, 1987. It was attended by 59 scientists from 8 countries, representing 27 institutions. Major funding for the meeting was donated by L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who hosted and organized two previous workshops on photoabsorption and scattering in the soft x-ray energy range. Additional funding was provided by the User's Group of the Advanced Light Source. The Workshop, as its name suggests, emphasized physical phenomena in atoms, molecules, and solids near inner-shell thresholds. Of particular interest were threshold ionization, post-collisional interaction, resonant photoemission and fluorescence, and multi-electron effects such as shake-up and shake-off. In these areas and others, special consideration was given to presenting recent discoveries and potential ''new directions'' for future work

  12. Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential...... looking method in conjunction with masking and brief presentations (300 ms and below) to establish the temporal thresholds of visibility at different stages of development. We found that 5 and 10 month-old infants have remarkably similar visibility thresholds about three times higher than those of adults....... By contrast, 15 month-olds not only revealed adult-like thresholds, but also improved their performance through memory-based strategies. Our results imply that the development of face visibility follows a non-linear course and is determined by a radical improvement occurring between 10 and 15 months....

  13. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  14. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  15. Thresholds of ion turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Mourgues, F.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.L.

    1991-01-01

    The linear thresholds of ionic turbulence are numerically calculated for the Tokamaks JET and TORE SUPRA. It is proved that the stability domain at η i >0 is determined by trapped ion modes and is characterized by η i ≥1 and a threshold L Ti /R of order (0.2/0.3)/(1+T i /T e ). The latter value is significantly smaller than what has been previously predicted. Experimental temperature profiles in heated discharges are usually marginal with respect to this criterium. It is also shown that the eigenmodes are low frequency, low wavenumber ballooned modes, which may produce a very large transport once the threshold ion temperature gradient is reached

  16. THRESHOLD PARAMETER OF THE EXPECTED LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of extreme value analysis is to quantify the probabilistic behavior of unusually large losses using only extreme values above some high threshold rather than using all of the data which gives better fit to tail distribution in comparison to traditional methods with assumption of normality. In our case we estimate market risk using daily returns of the CROBEX index at the Zagreb Stock Exchange. Therefore, it’s necessary to define the excess distribution above some threshold, i.e. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD is used as much more reliable than the normal distribution due to the fact that gives the accent on the extreme values. Parameters of GPD distribution will be estimated using maximum likelihood method (MLE. The contribution of this paper is to specify threshold which is large enough so that GPD approximation valid but low enough so that a sufficient number of observations are available for a precise fit.

  17. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  18. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus...... on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  19. Self-Tuning Threshold Method for Real-Time Gait Phase Detection Based on Ground Contact Forces Using FSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for detecting the gait phase of human walking on level ground. The previous threshold method (TM sets a threshold to divide the ground contact forces (GCFs into on-ground and off-ground states. However, the previous methods for gait phase detection demonstrate no adaptability to different people and different walking speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a self-tuning triple threshold algorithm (STTTA that calculates adjustable thresholds to adapt to human walking. Two force sensitive resistors (FSRs were placed on the ball and heel to measure GCFs. Three thresholds (i.e., high-threshold, middle-threshold andlow-threshold were used to search out the maximum and minimum GCFs for the self-adjustments of thresholds. The high-threshold was the main threshold used to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. Then, the gait phases were obtained through the gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA, which provides the rules that determine calculations for STTTA. Finally, the STTTA reliability is determined by comparing the results between STTTA and Mariani method referenced as the timing analysis module (TAM and Lopez–Meyer methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used to detect gait phases in real time and obtain high reliability when compared with the previous methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method exhibits strong adaptability to different wearers walking at different walking speeds.

  20. LLW Forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reports the details of the Quarterly Meeting of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Forum held in San Diego, California during January 23-25, 1991. Topics discussed include: State and Compact Progress Reports; Legal Updates; Update on Technical Assistance; Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Surcharge Rebates; Update on TCC Activities; NRC Update; Disposal of Commercial Mixed Waste; Update on EPA Activities; ACNW Working Group on Mixed Waste; National Profile on Mixed Waste; Commercial Perspective on Mixed Waste; Update on DOT Activities; Source Terms; Materials and Waste; Storage: and Waste Acceptance Criteria and Packaging

  1. Shifts in the relationship between motor unit recruitment thresholds versus derecruitment thresholds during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol. On average, 15 motor units were studied per contraction. For the initial contraction, three subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for all motor units. Five subjects showed greater recruitment thresholds than derecruitment thresholds for only low-threshold motor units at the beginning, with a mean cross-over of 31.6% MVC. As the muscle fatigued, many motor units were derecruited at progressively higher forces. In turn, decreased slopes and increased y-intercepts were observed. These shifts were complemented by increased firing rates at derecruitment relative to recruitment. As the vastus lateralis fatigued, the central nervous system's compensatory adjustments resulted in a shift of the regression line of the recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalizing a complex model for gully threshold identification in the Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, D.; Borselli, L.; Iaquinta, P.; Iovine, G.; Poesen, J.; Terranova, O.

    2012-04-01

    Among the physical processes leading to land degradation, soil erosion by water is the most important and gully erosion may contribute, at places, to 70% of the total soil loss. Nevertheless, gully erosion has often been neglected in water soil erosion modeling, whilst more prominence has been given to rill and interrill erosion. Both to facilitate the processing by agricultural machinery and to take advantage of all the arable land, gullies are commonly removed at each crop cycle, with significant soil losses due to the repeated excavation of the channel by the successive rainstorm. When the erosive forces of overland flow exceed the strength of the soil particles to detachment and displacement, water erosion occurs and usually a channel is formed. As runoff is proportional to the local catchment area, a relationship between local slope, S, and contributing area, A, is supposed to exists. A "geomorphologic threshold" scheme is therefore suitable to interpret the physical process of gully initiation: accordingly, a gully is formed when a hydraulic threshold for incision exceeds the resistance of the soil particles to detachment and transport. Similarly, it appears reasonable that a gully ends when there is a reduction of slope, or the concentrated flow meets more resistant soil-vegetation complexes. This study aims to predict the location of the beginning of gullies in the Mediterranean environment, based on an evaluation of S and A by means of a mathematical model. For the identification of the areas prone to gully erosion, the model employs two empirical thresholds relevant to the head (Thead) and to the end (Tend) of the gullies (of the type SA^ b>Thead, SA^ bsituations (usually after abandonment), and c) databases for cropland have been merged. Selected data have been examined and interpreted mathematically to assess a value to be taken as a constant for the exponent "b" of the above equation. Literature data on the problem of topological thresholds Tend are

  3. Low-threshold amplitude discriminator circuit with tunnel diode and two transistors in differential connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba, J.; Volny, J.

    1973-01-01

    The connection is designed of a low-threshold amplitude discriminator and a tunnel diode with two transistors in differential connection. The discriminator is by its simple connection, its low consumption and high temperature stability suitable especially for portable radiation detectors. The tunnel diode is connected by one pole to a collector clamp and by the other to the supply voltage. A suitable resistor is connected in parallel with the tunnel diode to meet demands for higher sensitivity. (Z.S.)

  4. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, H; Dawber, G; Gulley, N; King, G C; Bowring, N; Ward, R

    2013-01-01

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of mercury has been recorded over the energy range (10–40 eV) which covers the region from the lowest state of the singly charged ion, 5d 10 6s( 2 S 1/2 ), to the double charged ionic state, 5d 9 ( 2 D 3/2 )6s( 1 D 2 ). Synchrotron radiation has been used in conjunction with the penetrating-field threshold-electron technique to obtain the spectrum with high resolution. The spectrum shows many more features than observed in previous photoemission measurements with many of these assigned to satellite states converging to the double ionization limit. (paper)

  5. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  6. Thresholds in Xeric Hydrology and Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Simpson, S. C.; Soto, C. D.; Yuan, F.; Turner, D.; Richter, H.

    2011-12-01

    Due to water limitation, thresholds in hydrologic and biogeochemical processes are common in arid and semi-arid systems. Some of these thresholds such as those focused on rainfall runoff relationships have been well studied. However to gain a full picture of the role that thresholds play in driving the hydrology and biogeochemistry of xeric systems a full view of the entire array of processes at work is needed. Here a walk through the landscape of xeric systems will be conducted illustrating the powerful role of hydrologic thresholds on xeric system biogeochemistry. To understand xeric hydro-biogeochemistry two key ideas need to be focused on. First, it is important to start from a framework of reaction and transport. Second an understanding of the temporal and spatial components of thresholds that have a large impact on hydrologic and biogeochemical fluxes needs to be offered. In the uplands themselves episodic rewetting and drying of soils permits accelerated biogeochemical processing but also more gradual drainage of water through the subsurface than expected in simple conceptions of biogeochemical processes. Hydrologic thresholds (water content above hygroscopic) results in a stop start nutrient spiral of material across the landscape since runoff connecting uplands to xeric perennial riparian is episodic and often only transports materials a short distance (100's of m). This episodic movement results in important and counter-intuitive nutrient inputs to riparian zones but also significant processing and uptake of nutrients. The floods that transport these biogeochemicals also result in significant input to riparian groundwater and may be key to sustaining these critical ecosystems. Importantly the flood driven recharge process itself is a threshold process dependent on flood characteristics (floods greater than 100 cubic meters per second) and antecedent conditions (losing to near neutral gradients). Floods also appear to influence where arid and semi

  7. Double photoionization of helium near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Armen, G.B.; Sellin, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    There has been substantial recent experimental interest in the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He near threshold following several theoretical observations that earlier measurements appear to overestimate the ratio, perhaps by as much as 25%, in the first several hundred eV above threshold. The authors recent measurements are 10%-15% below these earlier results and more recent results of Doerner et al. and Samson et al. are yet another 10% lower. The authors will compare these measurement with new data, not yet analyzed, and available theory

  8. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  9. Derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Domenico; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the primary trigger of shallow landslides that can cause fatalities, damage to properties and economic losses in many areas of the world. For this reason, determining the rainfall amount/intensity responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to mitigate the related risk and save lives. Efforts have been made in different countries to investigate triggering conditions in order to define landslide-triggering rainfall thresholds. The rainfall thresholds are generally described by a functional relationship of power in terms of cumulated or intensity event rainfall-duration, whose parameters are estimated empirically from the analysis of historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. The aim of this paper is the derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Sicily, southern Italy, by focusing particularly on the role of the antecedent wet conditions. The creation of the appropriate landslide-rainfall database likely represents one of main efforts in this type of analysis. For this work, historical landslide events occurred in Sicily from 1919 to 2001 were selected from the archive of the Sistema Informativo sulle Catastrofi Idrogeologiche, developed under the project Aree Vulnerabili Italiane. The corresponding triggering precipitations were screened from the raingauges network in Sicily, maintained by the Osservatorio delle Acque - Agenzia Regionale per i Rifiuti e le Acque. In particular, a detailed analysis was carried out to identify and reconstruct the hourly rainfall events that caused the selected landslides. A bootstrapping statistical technique has been used to determine the uncertainties associated with the threshold parameters. The rainfall thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 10%, were defined in terms of cumulated event rainfall, E, and rainfall duration, D. The role of rainfall prior to the damaging events was taken into account by including in the analysis

  10. Threshold selection for classification of MR brain images by clustering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldovanu, Simona [Faculty of Sciences and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Dunărea de Jos University of Galaţi, 47 Domnească St., 800008, Romania, Phone: +40 236 460 780 (Romania); Dumitru Moţoc High School, 15 Milcov St., 800509, Galaţi (Romania); Obreja, Cristian; Moraru, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.moraru@ugal.ro [Faculty of Sciences and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Dunărea de Jos University of Galaţi, 47 Domnească St., 800008, Romania, Phone: +40 236 460 780 (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    Given a grey-intensity image, our method detects the optimal threshold for a suitable binarization of MR brain images. In MR brain image processing, the grey levels of pixels belonging to the object are not substantially different from the grey levels belonging to the background. Threshold optimization is an effective tool to separate objects from the background and further, in classification applications. This paper gives a detailed investigation on the selection of thresholds. Our method does not use the well-known method for binarization. Instead, we perform a simple threshold optimization which, in turn, will allow the best classification of the analyzed images into healthy and multiple sclerosis disease. The dissimilarity (or the distance between classes) has been established using the clustering method based on dendrograms. We tested our method using two classes of images: the first consists of 20 T2-weighted and 20 proton density PD-weighted scans from two healthy subjects and from two patients with multiple sclerosis. For each image and for each threshold, the number of the white pixels (or the area of white objects in binary image) has been determined. These pixel numbers represent the objects in clustering operation. The following optimum threshold values are obtained, T = 80 for PD images and T = 30 for T2w images. Each mentioned threshold separate clearly the clusters that belonging of the studied groups, healthy patient and multiple sclerosis disease.

  11. A factorization approach to next-to-leading-power threshold logarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonocore, D. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laenen, E. [Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITFA, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands); ITF, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht (Netherlands); Magnea, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino (Italy); Melville, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Vernazza, L. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); White, C.D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-03

    Threshold logarithms become dominant in partonic cross sections when the selected final state forces gluon radiation to be soft or collinear. Such radiation factorizes at the level of scattering amplitudes, and this leads to the resummation of threshold logarithms which appear at leading power in the threshold variable. In this paper, we consider the extension of this factorization to include effects suppressed by a single power of the threshold variable. Building upon the Low-Burnett-Kroll-Del Duca (LBKD) theorem, we propose a decomposition of radiative amplitudes into universal building blocks, which contain all effects ultimately responsible for next-to-leading-power (NLP) threshold logarithms in hadronic cross sections for electroweak annihilation processes. In particular, we provide a NLO evaluation of the radiative jet function, responsible for the interference of next-to-soft and collinear effects in these cross sections. As a test, using our expression for the amplitude, we reproduce all abelian-like NLP threshold logarithms in the NNLO Drell-Yan cross section, including the interplay of real and virtual emissions. Our results are a significant step towards developing a generally applicable resummation formalism for NLP threshold effects, and illustrate the breakdown of next-to-soft theorems for gauge theory amplitudes at loop level.

  12. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  13. Effects of programming threshold and maplaw settings on acoustic thresholds and speech discrimination with the MED-EL COMBI 40+ cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    The principal task in the programming of a cochlear implant (CI) speech processor is the setting of the electrical dynamic range (output) for each electrode, to ensure that a comfortable loudness percept is obtained for a range of input levels. This typically involves separate psychophysical measurement of electrical threshold ([theta] e) and upper tolerance levels using short current bursts generated by the fitting software. Anecdotal clinical experience and some experimental studies suggest that the measurement of [theta]e is relatively unimportant and that the setting of upper tolerance limits is more critical for processor programming. The present study aims to test this hypothesis and examines in detail how acoustic thresholds and speech recognition are affected by setting of the lower limit of the output ("Programming threshold" or "PT") to understand better the influence of this parameter and how it interacts with certain other programming parameters. Test programs (maps) were generated with PT set to artificially high and low values and tested on users of the MED-EL COMBI 40+ CI system. Acoustic thresholds and speech recognition scores (sentence tests) were measured for each of the test maps. Acoustic thresholds were also measured using maps with a range of output compression functions ("maplaws"). In addition, subjective reports were recorded regarding the presence of "background threshold stimulation" which is occasionally reported by CI users if PT is set to relatively high values when using the CIS strategy. Manipulation of PT was found to have very little effect. Setting PT to minimum produced a mean 5 dB (S.D. = 6.25) increase in acoustic thresholds, relative to thresholds with PT set normally, and had no statistically significant effect on speech recognition scores on a sentence test. On the other hand, maplaw setting was found to have a significant effect on acoustic thresholds (raised as maplaw is made more linear), which provides some theoretical

  14. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  15. Preferential access to emotion under attentional blink: evidence for threshold phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepanowski Remigiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides evidence that the activation strength produced by emotional stimuli must pass a threshold level in order to be consciously perceived, contrary to the assumption of continuous quality of representation. An analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC for attentional blink performance was used to distinguish between two (continuous vs. threshold models of emotion perception by inspecting two different ROC’s shapes. Across all conditions, the results showed that performance in the attentional blink task was better described by the two-limbs ROC predicted by the Krantz threshold model than by the curvilinear ROC implied by the signal-detection theory.

  16. Permitted and forbidden sets in symmetric threshold-linear networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnloser, Richard H R; Seung, H Sebastian; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2003-03-01

    The richness and complexity of recurrent cortical circuits is an inexhaustible source of inspiration for thinking about high-level biological computation. In past theoretical studies, constraints on the synaptic connection patterns of threshold-linear networks were found that guaranteed bounded network dynamics, convergence to attractive fixed points, and multistability, all fundamental aspects of cortical information processing. However, these conditions were only sufficient, and it remained unclear which were the minimal (necessary) conditions for convergence and multistability. We show that symmetric threshold-linear networks converge to a set of attractive fixed points if and only if the network matrix is copositive. Furthermore, the set of attractive fixed points is nonconnected (the network is multiattractive) if and only if the network matrix is not positive semidefinite. There are permitted sets of neurons that can be coactive at a stable steady state and forbidden sets that cannot. Permitted sets are clustered in the sense that subsets of permitted sets are permitted and supersets of forbidden sets are forbidden. By viewing permitted sets as memories stored in the synaptic connections, we provide a formulation of long-term memory that is more general than the traditional perspective of fixed-point attractor networks. There is a close correspondence between threshold-linear networks and networks defined by the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations.

  17. Heritability estimates derived from threshold analyses for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    reproductive traits in a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using a threshold model. A GFCAT set of ..... pressure for longevity include low heritabilities, the increased generation interval necessary to obtain survival information, and automatic selection because long-lived cows contribute more offspring to subsequent ...

  18. Regression Discontinuity Designs Based on Population Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, Andrew C.; Freier, Ronny; Grembi, Veronica

    In many countries, important features of municipal government (such as the electoral system, mayors' salaries, and the number of councillors) depend on whether the municipality is above or below arbitrary population thresholds. Several papers have used a regression discontinuity design (RDD...

  19. Thresholding methods for PET imaging: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Betrouni, N.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; Dewalle-Vignion, A.S.; Hossein-Foucher, C.; Huglo, D.; Vermandel, M.; El Abiad, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with positron emission tomography segmentation methods for tumor volume determination. We propose a state of art techniques based on fixed or adaptive threshold. Methods found in literature are analysed with an objective point of view on their methodology, advantages and limitations. Finally, a comparative study is presented. (authors)

  20. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…