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Sample records for meeting espoo finland

  1. Dispersion model computations of urban air pollution in Espoo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkonen, E.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Rantakrans, E.; Jalkanen, L.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the numerical results of air quality studies of the city of Espoo in southern Finland. This city is one of the four cities in the Helsinki metropolitan area, having a total population of 850 000. A thorough emission inventory was made of both mobile and stationary sources in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The atmospheric dispersion was evaluated using an urban dispersion modelling system, including a Gaussian multiple-source plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The hourly time series of CO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations were predicted, using the emissions and meteorological data for the year 1990. The predicted results show a clear decrease in the yearly mean concentrations from southeast to northwest. This is due in part to the denser traffic in the southern parts of Espoo, and in part to pollution from the neighbouring cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, located east of Espoo. The statistical concentration parameters found for Espoo were lower than the old national air quality guidelines (1984); however, some occurrences of above-threshold values were found for NO{sub 2} in terms of the new guidelines (1996). The contribution of traffic to the total concentrations varies spatially from 30 to 90 % for NO{sub 2} from 1 to 65 % for SO{sub 2} while for CO it is nearly 100 %. The concentrations database will be further utilised to analyse the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children attending selected day nurseries in Espoo. The results of this study can also be applied in traffic and city planning. In future work the results will also be compared with data from the urban measurement network of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. (orig.) 19 refs.

  2. Irradiation embrittlement and mitigation. V. 1. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting held in Espoo, Finland 23-26 October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility experience on radiation damage and its surveillance, annealing and re-embrittlement of PWR, WWER and BWR reactor pressure vessel materials. The scope included: mechanism of radiation damage; effects of operating parameters (flux, temperature, time, etc.); results from surveillance programmes and their analysis; fracture mechanics testing and evaluation; annealing and optimization of the process; re-embrittlement after annealing. Presentations were aimed at better understanding of radiation damage, annealing and re-irradiation behaviour of reactor pressure vessels materials, at providing guidance and recommendations for optimization of annealing and surveillance programmes and directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Irradiation embrittlement and mitigation. V. 1. Working material. Proceedings of a specialists meeting held in Espoo, Finland 23-26 October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility experience on radiation damage and its surveillance, annealing and re-embrittlement of PWR, WWER and BWR reactor pressure vessel materials. The scope included: mechanism of radiation damage; effects of operating parameters (flux, temperature, time, etc.); results from surveillance programmes and their analysis; fracture mechanics testing and evaluation; annealing and optimization of the process; re-embrittlement after annealing; Presentations were aimed at better understanding of radiation damage, annealing and re-irradiation behaviour of reactor pressure vessels materials, at providing guidance and recommendations for optimization of annealing and surveillance programmes and directions for further investigations. Refs, figs and tabs.

  4. Assessment of CPR-D skills of nurses in Göteborg, Sweden and Espoo, Finland: teaching leadership makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, M; Aune, S; Niemi-Murola, L; Herlitz, J; Varpula, T; Nurmi, J; Axelsson, A B; Thorén, A-B; Castrén, M

    2007-02-01

    Construction of an effective in-hospital resuscitation programme is challenging. To document and analyse resuscitation skills assessment must provide reliable data. Benchmarking with a hospital having documented excellent results of in-hospital resuscitation is beneficial. The purpose of this study was to assess the resuscitation skills to facilitate construction of an educational programme. Nurses working in a university hospital Jorvi, Espoo (n=110), Finland and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg (n=40), Sweden were compared. The nurses were trained in the same way in both hospitals except for the defining and teaching of leadership applied in Sahlgrenska. Jorvi nurses are not trained to be, nor do they act as, leaders in a resuscitation situation. Their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills using an automated external defibrillator (AED) were assessed using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) which was build up as a case of cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF) as the initial rhythm. The subjects were tested in pairs, each pair alone. Group-working skills were registered. All Sahlgrenska nurses, but only 49% of Jorvi nurses, were able to defibrillate. Seventy percent of the nurses working in the Sahlgrenska hospital (mean score 35/49) and 27% of the nurses in Jorvi (mean score 26/49) would have passed the OSCE test. Statistically significant differences were found in activating the alarm (Pskills of Sahlgrenska nurses were also significantly better than those of Jorvi nurses. Assessment of CPR-D skills gave valuable information for further education in both hospitals. Defining and teaching leadership seems to improve resuscitation performance.

  5. IAEA Technical committee meeting on methods used in design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitikainen, E.; Silfverberg, P.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was held in Espoo, Finland and hosted by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), and was arranged to report and discuss design methods, licensing practise, operational experience as well as economic aspects connectied with spent fuel storage. This report contains session summaries by the session chairmen and the papers presented at the meeting

  6. Espoo valmistub elamumessiks ja avab uue kunstimuuseumi / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    14. juulist 13. augustini 2006 Espoos toimuva elamumessi ja kõigi eelnevate messide osast Soome elamuehituspoliitikas. Espoo uuest kunstimuuseumist EMMA (Espoo Museum of Modern Art) ja FMO Tapiola (Finnforesti peakorter) looduslikest materjalidest high-tech-hoonest

  7. Remote sensing of the earth's surface; Proceedings of the Symposium 2, Topical Meeting, and Workshop I of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Walter, L. S. (Editor); Maetzler, C. (Editor); Rott, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the spaceborne study of the earth's surface, crust, and lithosphere, recent results from SPOT and Landsat TM investigations, and microwave observations of snowpack and soil properties. Attention is given to airborne and satellite-borne gravimetry, stereoviewing from space, TM studies of volcanism and tectonism in central Mexico, remote sensing of volcanoes, the uses of SPOT in forest management, the tectonics of the central Andes, and the application of VLBI to crustal movement studies. Also discussed are Landsat TM band ratios for soil investigations, snow dielectric measurements, the microwave radiometry of snow, microwave signatures of bare soil, the estimation of Alpine snow properties from Landsat TM data, and an experimental study of vegetable canopy microwave emissions.

  8. IWGFPT/IAEA 13. plenary meeting 21-23 May 1997 country report: Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraesvirta, R [IVO Power Engineering LTd (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel performance in Finland is discussed, reviewing the following issues: nuclear energy situation in Finland; fuel performance and fuel design; water chemistry; main research and development programmes. 2 refs, 3 figs.

  9. IWGFPT/IAEA 13. plenary meeting 21-23 May 1997 country report: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraesvirta, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuel performance in Finland is discussed, reviewing the following issues: nuclear energy situation in Finland; fuel performance and fuel design; water chemistry; main research and development programmes. 2 refs, 3 figs

  10. Rintamaa, R. (VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (FI))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing management

    2005-01-01

    At present, a large number of nuclear reactors have been operating for longer time than 20 years. Therefore, safety of these plants is of increasing concern to the European policymakers and industry. All nuclear plant units are large investments for the owners. They need to be operated with excellent usage factors without any significant outages due to materials or structural integrity problems. The utilities are obviously very much interested to be able to continue safe and efficient operation long in the future. The fact that e.g. the Finnish nuclear reactors (four units) have performed so well, is a good proof of high technology and expertise in operation and preventive maintenance. They need to involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as better understanding and managing materials ageing phenomena, comparison of current safety standards, the socio-political climate and uncertainties relating to spent fuel management and decommissioning. More importantly, the optimisation of the operational conditions of aged reactors and the decision process about plan life management (PLIM) are becoming key issues for those in charge of plant safety and performance. Continuous improvement strategy has been adopted to the nuclear regulation principles in some countries, e.g. in Finland. Instead of getting a licence for 30 or 40 years in a time, the Finnish NPP's operate on shorter operation licences. Each renewal of operation licence is based on a periodic safety review (PSR) which is performed in a period of ten years. The regulatory body requires that the utilities follow the international state of the art and adopt all feasibly available means to maintain and improve the safety. On the other hand, continuous improvement is also needed for effective and long term utilisation of the primary capital investment to the plant, which is a major concern to the utility. The common interest to continuous improvements forms a good platform for co-operation between the

  11. Muusikamaailm : Heliloojafestival Stocholmis. Klaverinädal Espoos. Preemiaid ja aunimetusi. Sena Jurinac 80 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Stocholmis algas iga-aastane International Composer Festival. Espoos toimub klaverinädal. Erinevaid preemiaid ja aunimetusi, mida muusikategelased on hiljuti saanud. Kroaatia päritolu Austria sopran Sena Jurinac sai 80 aastaseks

  12. Traffic safety in reconstructed streets. Lecture presented at the Technical University, Espoo, Finland, May 14 1985.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    In 1977 the Dutch government decided to grant governmental contributions to municipalities for conducting experiments within built-up areas, aimed at improving the traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists. According to this 85% of the total costs involved in the implementation of experimental

  13. Impact of the ABCDE triage in primary care emergency department on the number of patient visits to different parts of the health care system in Espoo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantonen Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Finnish emergency departments (ED serve both primary and secondary health care patients and are therefore referred to as combined emergency departments. Primary care doctors are responsible for the initial assessment and treatment. They, thereby, also regulate referral and access to secondary care. Primary health care EDs are easy for the public to access, leading to non-acute patient visits to the emergency department. This has caused increased queues and unnecessary difficulties in providing immediate treatment for urgent patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the flow of patients was changed by implementing the ABCDE-triage system in the EDs of Espoo City, Finland. Methods The numbers of monthly visits to doctors were recorded before and after intervention in Espoo primary care EDs. To study if the implementation of the triage system redirects patients to other health services, the numbers of monthly visits to doctors were also scored in the private health care, the public sector health services of Espoo primary care during office hours and local secondary health care ED (Jorvi hospital. A face-to-face triage system was applied in the primary care EDs as an attempt to provide immediate treatment for the most acute patients. It is based on the letters A (patient sent directly to secondary care, B (to be examined within 10 min, C (to be examined within 1 h, D (to be examined within 2 h and E (no need for immediate treatment for assessing the urgency of patients' treatment needs. The first step was an initial patient assessment by a health care professional (triage nurse. The introduction of this triage system was combined with information to the public on the "correct" use of emergency services. Results After implementation of the ABCDE-triage system the number of patient visits to a primary care doctor decreased by up to 24% (962 visits/month as compared to the three previous years in the EDs

  14. Kilpailevien kokouspalveluiden vertailu Espoon Otaniemen lähi-alueella, Case: Radisson Blu Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoaho, Petteri

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kilpailijavertailun tekeminen jo toimivalle kokouspalvelulle. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Espoon Otaniemessä sijaitseva Radisson Blu Espoo –hotelli, jonka kokouspalvelulle vertailu tehtiin. Vertailun oli maantieteellisesti määrä kattaa Pohjoismaiden suurimman huipputeknologian keskittymän Otaniemen ja sen lähialueiden kokouspalvelut. Työn tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa kyseisen alueen kokouspalveluvaihtoehdot ja vertailla kokouspalveluiden ominaisuuksia. Vertailu...

  15. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.; Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  16. Hotellin vastaanotto toimivana ja tehokkaana työympäristönä, case: Radisson Blu Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Mirjami

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Otaniemessä sijaitseva Radisson Blu Espoo. Radisson Blu Espoo hotellissa on 209 huonetta ja suurin osa sen asiakkaista on business-matkailijoita, sen sijaitessa lähellä Keilarannan yrityskeskittymää. Radisson Blu kuuluu kansainväliseen Rezidor Hotel Group konserniin. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää erilaisia keinoja, joiden avulla hotellin vastaanotosta voidaan luoda toimivampi sekä kustannustehokkaampi. Toimivassa vastaanotossa työntekijät...

  17. Meeting summary of the second CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers - Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Second CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation was held in Espoo, Finland, from September 29 through October 2, 1997. It was organised by CSNI Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2), Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic Applications (TG-THA), in co-operation with Technical Research Centre of Finland. The meeting in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. The previous meeting held in Lappeenranta, Finland, in 1992 collected some 85 participants from 12 countries, presenting a total of 40 papers. The meeting was structured into 6 sessions covering the important aspects of development and use of simulators and plant analyzers: Session I: New objectives, Requirements and Concepts. This session covered the progress experienced since the 1. simulator meeting and tried to address the changing role of simulators based on the changes in users' needs and developing possibilities. Session II: Trends in Simulation Technology. This session was reserved for studying the current trends in the simulation technology: software environments, visualisation, simulator configuration tools, programming languages and computer systems. Session III: Training and human factor studies using simulators. This session was created for studying the status of different uses of simulators such as educational simulators, human factor studies and integrated safety assessment in addition to traditional training. Regarding to the severe accidents, a question was raised whether the simulator use should be for training or education. Session IV: Modelling techniques. The session on modelling techniques was included to cover recent developments in the modelling techniques applicable to training

  18. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems

  19. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  20. The high throughput biomedicine unit at the institute for molecular medicine Finland: high throughput screening meets precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiainen, Vilja; Saarela, Jani; von Schantz, Carina; Turunen, Laura; Ostling, Paivi; Wennerberg, Krister

    2014-05-01

    The High Throughput Biomedicine (HTB) unit at the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM was established in 2010 to serve as a national and international academic screening unit providing access to state of the art instrumentation for chemical and RNAi-based high throughput screening. The initial focus of the unit was multiwell plate based chemical screening and high content microarray-based siRNA screening. However, over the first four years of operation, the unit has moved to a more flexible service platform where both chemical and siRNA screening is performed at different scales primarily in multiwell plate-based assays with a wide range of readout possibilities with a focus on ultraminiaturization to allow for affordable screening for the academic users. In addition to high throughput screening, the equipment of the unit is also used to support miniaturized, multiplexed and high throughput applications for other types of research such as genomics, sequencing and biobanking operations. Importantly, with the translational research goals at FIMM, an increasing part of the operations at the HTB unit is being focused on high throughput systems biological platforms for functional profiling of patient cells in personalized and precision medicine projects.

  1. The application of the Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context to nuclear energy-related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context sets out the obligations to assess the environmental impact of certain activities at an early stage of decision making. It also lays down the general obligation for parties to notify and consult each other on all major projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse environmental impact across national borders. The Espoo Convention was adopted in 1991 and entered into force on 10 September 1997. There are currently 45 states party to the Espoo Convention, including 23 countries that are also members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It should be noted that the European Union (EU) is also a party to the Espoo Convention and has transposed the provisions related to the environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure in its legislation, thus imposing the Espoo Convention principles on all EU member states. The purpose of the Espoo Convention is to enhance international co-operation and allow environmentally sound decisions to be made, paying careful attention to minimising significant adverse impacts, particularly in a transboundary context. In order to do so, the Espoo Convention requires that an EIA be carried out for certain types of activities planned by a party, which are likely to have a significant environmental impact within an area under the jurisdiction of another party. The Espoo Convention specifies what must be considered at an early stage of the decision making and it lays down the obligation for countries to notify and consult each other and the public. It also requires that all comments received from the public and authorities, as well as the findings from the assessment, are taken into account when the final decision is made for the planned activity. In addition, the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment was adopted in Kiev in 2003. It entered into force in 2010 and currently

  2. Licensing process in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, Petteri

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, the use of nuclear energy constitutes operations subject to license. The licensing process and conditions for granting a license is defined in the legislation. The licenses are applied from and granted by the Government. This paper discusses briefly the licensing process in Finland and also the roles and responsibilities of main stakeholders in licensing. Licensing of a nuclear power plant in Finland has three steps. The first step is the Decision in Principle (DiP). Goal of DiP is to decide whether using nuclear power is for the overall good for the Finnish society. The second step is Construction License (CL) and the goal of CL phase is to determine whether the design of the proposed plant is safe and that the participating organisations are capable of constructing the plant to meet safety goals. The third step is the Operating License (OL) and the goal of the OL phase is to determine whether the plant operates safely and licensee is capable to operate the plant safely. Main stakeholders in the licensing process in Finland are the utility (licensee) interested in using nuclear power in Finland, Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Government, Parliament, STUK, the municipality siting the plant and the general public. Government grants all licenses, and Parliament has to ratify Government's Decision in Principle. STUK has to assess the safety of the license applications in each step and give statement to the Ministry. Municipality has to agree to site the plant. Both STUK and the municipality have a veto right in the licensing process

  3. Environmental assessment of Ammassuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, A.; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The Old Ammassuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management...... of the Old Ammassuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity......) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall...

  4. Energy - Finland`s new trump card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huopalahti, K. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    The energy sector in Finland is heavily constrained by the tough northern climate, meagre fuel reserves, an expensive infrastructure, the small domestic market and limited capital resources. However, Finland`s forest and metal industries have demanded low-cost energy, considering it vital for their existence and therefore for the prosperity of the whole country. Finland`s extensive foreign trade and open policies have also furthered this process; they have forced the industry on the one hand to face competition at home, and on the other to go abroad to compete there. The energy sector has risen to this ambitious challenge, at the same time developing into an independent industrial sector that can compete in the international market

  5. Management of ageing of motor operated isolating valve. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Consultants' meeting held from 7 to 10 December 1993, Helsinki/Espoo, Finland was to prepare a background and implementation plan for the CRP. National reports on research topics were also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Aarhus and Espoo Conventions: The role in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making. The role of the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Ms Yanush and Mr Jendroska highlighted the role and importance of the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention) and that of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention). These two conventions are open for global accession and, at present, have been ratified mainly by European and Central Asian countries within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) region. Those two conventions, which apply to a wide range of activities including nuclear, are the only two binding international instruments setting minimum standards for public access to environmental information and public participation in decision making. The Maastricht Recommendations on Promoting Effective Public Participation in Decision-Making in Environmental Matters under the Aarhus Convention and the Good Practice Recommendations on the Application of the Convention to Nuclear Energy-related Activities under the Espoo Convention are instrumental in advancing the implementation in this area. Public participation under the Aarhus Convention goes beyond information or consultation: the decision maker must take into account the views of the 'public concerned' (i.e. the members of the public affected or likely to be affected by the decision making or having an interest in it). As the 'public concerned' is assessed through the potential impact of the proposed activity, including in the case of an accident, the obligation to notify and provide opportunity for public participation is not limited to the territory of the country hosting the proposed activity. Mr Jendroska indicated a particular finding of the Espoo Convention Implementation Committee that decisions regarding modifications, upgrades or extensions to the lifetime/operation of a nuclear installation would be subject to these obligations even though the activity remains exactly

  7. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  8. Lead-210 and heavy metal contents in dated ombrotrophic peat hummocks from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.; Tolonen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two Sphagnum fuscum hummock cores, core 1, Kaerpaensuo bog and core F9, Kunonniemensuo bog. from Finland were used in this study. The peats are ombrotrophic and were dated using the moss-increment method. The mosses in both cores were carefully examined for their botanical composition, degree of humification, ash percentage and bulk density. The total accumulated dry peat-matter in the Kunonniemensuo core was almost double that in the Kaerpaensuo core. The total 210 Pb and the supported 210 Pb were measured by isotope dilution and the radon emanation technique. Materials in the same peat samples were analysed for their 210 Pb content at the Institute of Physics, Uppsala, Sweden and the Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland. The annual content of unsupported 210 Pb in the dated peat-layers shows that peat materials are effective traps which could yield information on atmospheric-fluxes both chronologically and regionally. Lead, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were also measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The total accumulated amounts over the past 150 y of the heavy metals investigated are almost identical for both cores apart from manganese which is considerably higher in the Kunonniemensuo core. However, the metal profiles studied exhibit discontinuity zones more pronounced in the Kunonniemensuo core. The 210 Pb data indicate that growth rate and bulk density variations in ombrotrophic peat bogs affects the accumulation of 210 Pb and similar trace metals. (orig.)

  9. Communication and cultural issues in providing reproductive health care to immigrant women: health care providers' experiences in meeting the needs of [corrected] Somali women living in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari; Essén, Birgitta; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-04-01

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  10. Muusikamaailm : Berliini Filharmoonikute omalaadne kontserdireis. Klaverinädal Espoos. shtshedrini Klaverikontsert Los Angeleses. Domingo ja Pavarotti kõrvuti Metropolitanis. Pendereckile preemia Duisburgist / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Berliini Filharmoonikute kontsertreisist II Maailmasõja võitnud riikide pealinnades tähistamaks Saksa Liitvabariigi moodustamise 50. aastapäeva. 12.-17. okt. Soomes Espoos toimunud 5. rahvusvahelisest pianistide festivalist. R.shtshedrini Viienda Klaverikontserdi maailmaesiettekandest Los Angeleses 21. okt. L. Pavarotti laulab ooperis "Tosca"ja P. Domingo ooperites "Talupoja au" ning "Pajatsid" New Yorgi Metropolitan Operas. Tänavune Duisburgi Muusikapreemia anti K. Pendereckile

  11. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  12. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  13. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  14. Gift from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    An instrument worth $19 000 for the analysis of nuclear radiation, donated by Finland to IAEA, was handed over by the Finnish Ambassador, Mr. Otso Wartiovaara, to the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, at the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf on 22 January. The instrument, a multi-channel analyzer with 512 channels, was constructed in Finland. It is being used in connection with all the major Agency projects under way at Seibersdorf, such as the standardization of radionuclides, agricultural research, and analytical work carried out at the request of Member States

  15. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  16. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  17. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  18. Keeping Finland warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Close to 80% of the district heat produced in Finland is generated in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. This is a very high figure, and compares favourably with the situation else here, even in neighbouring Sweden, where local CHP facilities only account for 20% of district heat generation, because of the major role played by hydropower and nuclear. District heat is well-established, and has a 48% market share in Finland. Sales are growing by between 1% and 1,5% a year in terms of temperature-corrected offtake volume. This compares to a 50% market share in Sweden. District heat contracts generally follow recommendations drawn up by Finnish Energy Industries in cooperation with the country's competition and consumer protection authorities. This has promoted a consistent level of best practice and prevented unnecessary disputes between suppliers and customers

  19. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  20. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1986-01-01

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  1. Preventing BEPS in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sourinthone, Aksone

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the focus on multinationals’ tax avoidance schemes or Base Erosion & Profit Shifting (BEPS) has been increasing constantly. The OECD and the European Commission are working on new tax rulings to counter those harmful practices. The report aims to analyse and assess the anti-BEPS package: what does it contain, how can it be effective on the European level and how is Finland implementing the new recommendations? The analysis was a desktop study: peer-reviewed articles, ...

  2. Energy attitudes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, A.T.; Jaervinen, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  4. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  5. Case study in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy act of Finland 1988 provides for the permits and licenses (decision in principle by the government on a new nuclear power plant-project, construction permit by the government, fuel permits by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, operating license by the government) for major nuclear installations. Political consideration from the point of view of the general interest of the society is made by the Government in the decision in Principle. If the decision in Principle is positive, it is subject to ratification by the parliament. In other words, democracy through representation, but not through referendum, is applied

  6. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  7. Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    July 1989 No.19 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of Sciences. 55th Annual. Meeting ... in the world, keeping alive atthe same time his research interests, abreast .... theory made a comeback with many new ideas and with the success of the ...

  8. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  9. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  10. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P; Koskela, T; Damski, J; Supperi, A [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1997-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  11. Current experience with nuclear power plant simulators and analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, A.

    1998-01-01

    Topics of a Specialist Meeting are presented on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation (Espoo, Finland). They dealt with the need for maintaining expertise, training and education, control rooms and operator support tools, simulators as tools for plant safety analysis. The major conclusions of the payers and the meeting are discussed. (R.P.)

  12. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  13. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  14. Air toxics research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahkala, M.

    1994-01-01

    Air toxics research in Finland has developed rapidly in recent years. Though they have no enormous environmental problems in Finland, the author feels that they have to increase their knowledge of more efficient energy production and control technology. Enormous emission sources are around them, but there are also huge markets for know-how and technology in the energy sector. Two Finnish national research programs will ensure the continuity of the development efforts concerning combustion technology and environmental aspects at both theoretical and practical levels

  15. Nuclear power prospects in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The basic circumstances which stimulated Finland's interest in nuclear power are summarized in the report as follows: 'In Finland the main power resource has been, and still is, water power. It is clear, however, that the hydro potential is insufficient to cover the increasing consumption over a long period of time. Already about one half of this potential has been exploited. Thus the country will necessarily have to consider the utilization of thermal power to an increasingly large extent. There is no indigenous coal or oil. For this reason it has become necessary to investigate realistically the possibilities offered by nuclear power'

  16. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  17. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  18. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO{sub 2}-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: {approx}80.

  19. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  20. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K.

    1998-01-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L'Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  1. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  2. Superconducting magnet applications in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, P; Collan, H K; Lounasmaa, O V

    1983-01-01

    A short review of superconducting magnet applications in Finland is presented. The development work was done in areas that seem to offer potential for a significant break-through technology. So far our efforts have covered magnetic separation, electric DC machinery and medical NMR imaging, and it is now being extended to biological NMR on living tissue and to particle physics experiments. Our work has been facilitated by the recently started fabrication of domestic superconducting wire.

  3. Fuel cycle management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, H.; Mikkola, I.

    1987-01-01

    Both Finnish utilities producing nuclear power - Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Co. Ltd, TVO) - have created efficient fuel cycle management systems. The systems however differ in almost all respects. The reason is that the principal supplier for IVO is the Soviet Union and for TVO is Sweden. A common feature of both systems at the front end of the cycle is the building of stockpiles in order to provide for interruptions in fuel deliveries. Quality assurance supervision at the fuel factory for IVO is regulated by the Soviet Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a final control is made in Finland. The in-core fuel management is done by IVO using codes developed in Finland. The whole IVO fuel cycle is basically a leasing arrangement. The spent fuel is returned to the USSR after five years cooling. TVO carries out the in-core fuel management using a computer code system supplied by Asea-Atom. TVO is responsable for the back end of the cycle and makes preparations for the final disposal of the spent fuel in Finland. 6 refs., 2 figs

  4. Nuclear power situation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J K

    1976-01-01

    Finland plans to have its future energy policy as well-balanced and economical as possible. Dependence on oil has to be reduced and savings have to be achieved wherever possible. Some growth of energy demand will be inevitable, and most of this growth has to be nuclear. Practically all hydropower that can be reasonably exploited is being utilized already. Finland has an abundance of peat, but it can be economically used only as a regional source of energy. This leaves, as the only real alternatives for the coming decennia, coal and fission; of the two, fission is evidently the better choice. Although other forms of energy such as fusion, solar, tidal, and wind energy have to be studied as longer-range alternatives. Four nuclear power plants are presently under construction in Finland and at least a few additional ones will evidently be built before 1990. Several of them will probably be of the combined district heat and electricity-producing type. The planning of nuclear energy has recently become complicated due to financing difficulties, uncertainties regarding long-range fuel services, and public opposition. The latter is partly caused by lack of information, partly by fears of a change of life-style in communities near the planned power plant sites. (From Conclusions)

  5. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  6. Economics of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, Risto; Luostarinen, Kari

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power generation fits perfectly with the long duration load profile of the Finnish power system. The good performance of the Finnish nuclear power has yielded benefits also to the consumers through its contribution to decreasing the electricity price. Furthermore, the introduction of nuclear power has resulted in a clear drop in carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in the shift of 1970's and 1980's. In the year 2001 the four Finnish nuclear power units at Loviisa and Olkiluoto generated 22.8 TWh electricity, equivalent to 28 per cent of the total consumption. Loviisa power station has a net output capacity of 2 x 488 MW, and Olkiluoto 2 x 840 MW. The capacity factors of the four nuclear units have been above 90 per cent, which are among the highest in the world. The energy-intensive process industries in particular have strong belief in nuclear power. In November 2000, Teollisuuden Voima company (TVO) submitted to the Finnish Government an application for decision in principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. The arguments were among other things to guarantee for the Finnish industry the availability of cheap electric energy and to meet the future growth of electricity consumption in Finland. The carbon-free nuclear power also represents the most efficient means to meet the Greenhouse Gas abatement quota of Finland. Simultaneously, the energy policy of the Government includes intensive R and D and investment support for the renewable energy sources and energy conservation, and the objective is also to replace coal with natural gas as much as reasonably possible. The fifth nuclear unit would be located in one of the existing Finnish nuclear sites, i.e. Olkiluoto or Loviisa. The size of the new nuclear unit would be in the range of 1000 to 1600 MW electric. The ready infrastructure of the existing site could be utilised resulting in lower investment cost for the new unit. The Finnish Government accepted the

  7. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final disposal facility for

  8. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tossavainen, K. [ed.

    2000-06-01

    This report concerns the regulatory control of nuclear energy in Finland in 1999. Its submission to the Ministry of Trade and Industry by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is stipulated in section 121 of the Nuclear Energy Decree. STUK's regulatory work was focused on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants as well as on nuclear waste management and safeguards of nuclear materials. The operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants was in compliance with the conditions set out in their operating licences and with current regulations, with the exception of some inadvertent deviations from the Technical Specifications. No plant events endangering the safe use of nuclear energy occurred. The individual doses of all nuclear power plant workers remained below the dose threshold. The collective dose of the workers was low, compared internationally, and did not exceed STUK's guidelines at either nuclear power plant. The radioactive releases were minor and the dose calculated on their basis for the most exposed individual in the vicinity of the plant was well below the limit established in a decision of the Council of State at both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants. STUK issued statements to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the environmental impact assessment programme reports on the possible nuclear power plant projects at Olkiluoto and Loviisa and about the continued operation of the research reactor in Otaniemi, Espoo. A Y2k-related safety assessment of the Finnish nuclear power plants was completed in December. In nuclear waste management STUK's regulatory work was focused on spent fuel storage and final disposal plans as well as on the treatment, storage and final disposal of reactor waste. No events occurred in nuclear waste management that would have endangered safety. A statement was issued to the Ministry of Trade and Industry about an environmental impact assessment report on a proposed final

  9. decree no. 2001-1176 of the 5 december publishing the convention on the environmental impacts evaluation in a transfrontier context (seven appendix), signed at Espoo (Finland) the 25 february 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This decree concerns the transfrontier environmental impacts evaluation of all activities. The environment concerns the land, water and air and also consequences on the public health. It presents the cooperation, the research programs, the rules and the implementation of the evaluation and provides seven appendix which detail the concerned activities and a reference evaluation document contain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  11. Decree no. 2001-1176 of the 5 december publishing the convention on the environmental impacts evaluation in a transfrontier context (seven appendix), signed at Espoo (Finland) the 25 february 1991; Decret no. 2001-1176 du 5 decembre 2001 portant publication de la convention sur l'evaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement dans un contexte transfrontiere (ensemble sept appendices), signee a Espoo (Finlande) le 25 fevrier 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This decree concerns the transfrontier environmental impacts evaluation of all activities. The environment concerns the land, water and air and also consequences on the public health. It presents the cooperation, the research programs, the rules and the implementation of the evaluation and provides seven appendix which detail the concerned activities and a reference evaluation document contain. (A.L.B.)

  12. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries.......Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency......, with special responsibility in providing assessments to underpin national policies in screening. External evaluations enhanced the rapid growth. In the Finnish environment, decision making on health technologies is extremely decentralized, so Finohta has developed some practical tools for implementing HTA...

  13. Educating an Aging Society: The University of the Third Age in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenerall, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…

  14. Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverwijk, J.M.R.; Huisman, J.; Kaiser, F.

    2001-01-01

    With the introduction of the AMKs (Ammattikorkeakoulut) in 1990, the landscape of the Finnish higher education sector has changed immensely. The transformation of the vocational sector started in the 1980s when highly specialised study lines were combined into more comprehensive basic programmes.

  15. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  16. The biomass energy market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, it was estimated that the Finnish biomass market was in excess of 235 million dollars. The development of renewable energy, with special emphasis on biomass, was supported by the development of an energy strategy by the government of Finland. The installed capacity of biomass in Finland in 2002 was 1400 megawatt electrical (MWe). Extensive use of combined heat and power (CHP) is made in Finland, and district heating (DH) systems using biomass are gaining in popularity. Wood-based biomass technologies, retrofits to fluidized bed combustion, and wood procurement technologies were identified as the best opportunities for Canadian companies interested in operating in Finland. A country with high standards, Finland seems to look favorably on new innovative solutions. Joint ventures with Finnish companies might be an excellent way for Canadian companies to gain a foothold in Finland and expand into the European Union, the Nordic countries, the Baltic, Russia and the Central and Eastern European markets. It was further noted that Finland is one of the leading exporters of biomass technology in the world. The document provided quick facts, examined opportunities, and looked at key players. 19 refs., 4 tabs

  17. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  18. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) Fr...

  20. Nuclear analytical techniques for on-line elemental analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of an advisory group meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 1-5 June, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status and development of nuclear analytical techniques used for industrial process control. The report gives an overview of the different nuclear techniques used for process control and the most important applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Employee Motivation at IKEA Espoo

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Kumar; Adhikari, Devendra

    2013-01-01

    How to motivate employees and the factors affecting motivation have been subjects of concern for many researchers and practitioners for decades. Until recently employees were primarily regarded as a factor of production (i.e. labor), and not, as in the current view, as an integral part of all businesses. Therefore, motivating employees has become essential in order to achieve the strategic goals of any company. However, due to the current state of competition in the job markets it has increas...

  2. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  3. Environmental monitoring in Finland 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, J.

    2006-01-01

    This publication presents environmental monitoring carried out in Finland in 2006-2008. It is a summary of the environmental monitoring activities of the following national institutes: Geological Survey of Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute, National Public Health Institute, Plant Production Inspection Centre, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Institute of Marine Research, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Statistics Finland, Finnish Environment Institute, and Regional Environment Centres. Monitoring of natural resources, environmental pressures, state of the environment, water and health, land use and environmental policy are presented. The objective was to compile the information on national environmental monitoring and to activate information exchange and cooperation in this field. (orig.)

  4. The future of facility management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasible future of facility management in Finland in order to provide an overview of the future of facility management. This is intended to serve as a guideline for the educational sector, facility management service companies, and the Facility management association in Finland (FIFMA) for future development. Qualitative method, precisely semi-structured/unstructured interview was adopted to address the problems in this study. The study c...

  5. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting News from the CERN Management Matters arising The PH Department Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions/EP (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising EP Space management Cars Housing EDH from the User's point of view VRVS Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) France M. Déj...

  8. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer S. Laplace...

  9. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (7...

  10. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 June 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Open Access Publishing Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini ...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 160-1-009 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Purchasing procedures at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news CERN Clubs Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Las...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on Fellows and Associates Programme Overview of safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K....

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Dosimetry at CERN Status of collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office newss Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (7935...

  14. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. ...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. La...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiis...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskin...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 September 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Health Insurance Questionnaire Host States Relations Service Update on EP Space management Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (...

  20. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 March 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in the Council Chamber Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Follow-up on Space Management Users' Desktop needs PIE procedures Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer L. Serin (712...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha...

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha ...

  3. Otorhinolaryngological patient injuries in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtivuori, Tuuli; Palonen, Reima; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Holi, Tarja; Henriksson, Markus; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2013-10-01

    Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) is considered a specialty associated with few serious patient injuries. Research data that support this belief are, however, scarce. We analyzed claims associated with ORL to determine the number of Finnish cases and the possible common denominators. Register study of ORL cases in the Patient Insurance Centre (PIC), the Regional State Administrative Agencies (RSAA), and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Care (Valvira) during the years 2004 to 2008. These three agencies are the main actors in the field of patient injury in Finland. We analyzed compensated ORL patient injury cases from the PIC and cases associated with the ORL specialty for Valvira and RSAA from 2004 to 2008 and surveyed patient treatment files, statements from specialists, and compensation decisions. Injuries were usually associated with operations; three patients who experienced injuries during these procedures died. Common ORL operations such as tonsillectomy, septoplasty, and paranasal sinus surgery were most often associated with compensated injuries. Serious injuries were few, with a total of 110 out of 422 (26.1%) claims compensated by the PIC. Of the 110 compensated cases, 30 (27.3%) were related to tumor surgery. The most usual compensated case had iatrogenic nerve injury affecting the facial or trigeminal nerves. Of the compensated cases, 79 (71.8%) were treated by specialists, 15 (13.6%) by residents, and the rest by other medical professionals. Patient injuries in ORL are seldom severe and are strongly associated with surgery. A typical compensated injury was one that occurred in a central hospital during working hours. N/A. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  5. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  6. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  7. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  8. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  9. A Review of Telemedicine Services in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatri, Vikramajeet; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is gaining popularity due to the provision of ubiquitous health care services that is a fundamental need for every socialized society. In this paper, telemedicine services in Finland are discussed, as well as how they came into existence, how they are funded, evaluated, and what...... are their impacts on health care systems and society. Telemedicine services like teleradiology, telelaboratory, telepsychiatry and remote consultations, are being offered in all hospital districts. Primary health care centers in Finland are lacking telemedicine services, and are planning to have them. Electronic...

  10. Public Librarians as Partners in Problem-Based Learning in Secondary Schools: A Case Study in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietikäinen, Virpi; Kortelainen, Terttu; Siklander, Pirkko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Teachers in Finland are demanded to develop students' competencies in information literacy. However, they can meet this demand only by collaborating with public librarians. The aim in this case study was to explore the perspectives of teachers, librarians and students in a problem-based project and to analyse the advantages and…

  11. Audit Measurement of Crisis Communication Preparedness across Different Branches of Government : Sharing Experiences Gained in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Marita; Kekäle, Petri; Ruggiero, Aino; Palttala, Pauliina

    2018-01-01

    An audit measurement of crisis communication preparedness was conducted for 67 organizations, mainly on the national level, in Finland. This unique project was one of the ways to implement new crisis communication regulations getting into force a year earlier. Its purpose was to strengthen central government communication in incidents and emergencies. The audit consisted of a digital survey in the participating organizations and a reflection meeting on the level of each of the ...

  12. Objectively Measured School Day Physical Activity Among Elementary Students in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Kulmala, Janne Santeri; Jaakkola, Timo; Hakonen, Harto; Fish, Joseph Cole; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-04-01

    Schools are in a unique position to ensure that all students meet the current physical activity (PA) recommendations. This study aimed to examine 1st to 3rd grade elementary students' accelerometer measured school day PA in the United States (U.S.) and Finland. The sample consisted of 200 students (107 girls, 93 boys; ages 6 to 8) and their school day PA was monitored with hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers across a 5-day school week and the thresholds 100 and 2296 count per minute were used to separate sedentary time, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). On an average school day, students were engaged in MVPA for 20.0 min in the U.S. and 24.1 min in Finland. Students' school-day MVPA was 9 to 16 minutes higher during physical education (PE) days compared with non-PE days (U.S: 25.8 vs. 16.6 min/day; Finland: 36.3 vs. 20.1 min/day). Girls had less MVPA and more sedentary time compared with boys in both samples. This study highlights both the role of PE and other school day physical activities in meeting PA guidelines. Policy measures are needed to change the structure of the school day and enhance PA to ensure that students meet the PA recommendations.

  13. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  14. National climate strategy. Finland. Government report to Parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the session held in Kyoto in 1997, the Parties to the Climate Convention agreed on legally binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Under the so- called Kyoto Protocol, the Member States of the European Community and the European Union shall reduce their annual emissions by eight per cent annually during the years 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level. Within the Community, the targets have been allotted among the Member States so that Finland's annual greenhouse gas emissions may amount on average to no more than the 1990 level during the commitment period 2008-2012. This National Climate Strategy, submitted to Parliament in the form of a Government report, contains the principles, targets and measures that the Government finds necessary in order to meet our national target. The background material for the strategy consists of sector-specific reports made by the various ministries. The ministerial working group has coordinated the preparation of the strategy. For the strategy, the ministries have carried out and commissioned numerous separate analyses and studies, the reports of which have been published in the course of preparing the strategy. Based on these end the sector-specific reports, a background report to the National Climate Programme entitled 'The Need for and Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Finland' was compiled for the ministerial working group. The report was co-ordinated by the Kyoto contact network composed of civil servants from the various ministries. The report describes in more detail the factors influencing economic growth, energy consumption and production, and other elements affecting the development of greenhouse gases, which were used as underlying assumptions when determining the recommendations for action under the strategy. The economic and other effects of alternative courses of action were also analysed and described in the above-mentioned background study. It has been published in the Internet on

  15. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, Lasse [North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu (Finland); Suhonen, Niko [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Law, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts. (author)

  16. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurela, Jorma; Korteniemi, Virpi; Halme-Tapanainen, Kristina

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  17. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  18. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkonen, Lasse; Suhonen, Niko

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  19. Data Mining Thesis Topics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Rouvinen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    The Theseus open repository contains metadata about more than 100,000 thesis publications from the different universities of applied sciences in Finland. Different data mining techniques were applied to the Theseus dataset to build a web application to explore thesis topics and degree programmes using different libraries in Python and JavaScript. Thesis topics were extracted from manually annotated keywords by the authors and curated subjects by the librarians. During the project, the quality...

  20. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.; Oehberg, A.; Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  1. Special requirements of aquaponics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soppela, Olli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis brings together observations about special features that should be taken into consideration when designing the technical aspects of aquaponics practices and production units in Finland. Market demands, water purification and facility temperature control methods; sources of healthy feed and the needs for artificial lighting vary significantly around the globe. The unique combination of climate conditions, legislation and zoological conditions should be taken into consideration whe...

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  3. Role of biofuels in Finland; Utility viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of wood biomass in Finland to generate energy (4.3 Mtoe) is one of the largest in the western industrialized countries. It represents 14 % of the primary energy use, while the use of peat for energy generation (1.4 Mtoe), often included in the same group, makes up 4-5 %. Significant energy groups include bark and sawdust (0.95 Mtoe) and waste liquors (2.4 Mtoe) from the chemical forest industry. Peat has primarily been used in population centres and by industry for combined generation of heat and power. The utilization of own by-products and other back-pressure generation based on peat or on imported fuels (in southern Finland), is typical for the industrial power plants. Wood biomass utilization will also be competitive in the future if it is readily collected in sufficient quantities at a given place as waste wood for industry. These biomasses include bark, various sawdusts, industrial waste chips and screenings, and as a separate group black liquor in the process circulation of the wood processing industry. The development of fluidized bed boilers in particular has provided improvement prerequisites for the use of low grade fuel batches of varying quality in combined heat and power plants. Most of the combined heat and power plants now built in Finland exceed the limit set for the competitiveness. Consequently, the prospects for an economical increase of combined heat and power generation capacity in Finland based on present technology is relatively small. The size of a competitive power plant has been determined to be about 50 MWe

  4. DTP2 Laboratory Situation in Tampere, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Handling is very important technology in the ITER project. Even ITER is regarded as a fairly long project, for the remote handling methods, tools and systems there is not very much development time provided. The technology has to be developed and demonstrated a long before supplied to the site in Cadarache. This is a large challenge, because the complex operations and extremely high reliability requirements. In the end of 2004, the Remote Operation and Virtual Reality Centre (ROViR) was established in Tampere Finland. The start up for this facility creation was an agreement with EFDA to host the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) in Finland. During the year 2005 the ROViR Centre was put in action. The construction work for DTP2 is currently going on and the platform should be ready for hosting the remote handling development by the end of 2006. After that the laboratory will receive the robots, tools and employees for the DTP2 operation. This abstract will give an overview of the DTP 2 platform in Tampere Finland as well as describe some other projects started in 2005. Presentation describes some problems of the ITER remote handling and tells about the state-of-the-art solutions. It also highlights some of the next tasks after putting the DTP2 platform in action. There are a plenty of tasks in the development of the ITER remote handling, after DTP2 laboratory is established. (author)

  5. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  6. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carrie...

  7. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  8. Main messages for the new nuclear unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Anneli

    2001-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted last year, on 15th November, to the Council of State an application for a decision in principle concerning the construction of additional nuclear capacity. In this presentation, the main messages to decision makers for the new unit are discussed. Also the studies, which the messages are based on, are described. According to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act, a company considering a nuclear plant project must apply for a decision in principle from the Government beforehand. The Government then decides whether the project is in accordance with the overall good of the society. If the decision is positive, it needs ratification by the Parliament. Before the Government decision, various interested parties are heard, including the municipality of location and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. The phase of statements is underway and they all will be ready by the end of March 2001. The entire application process takes approximately 1-2 years. The main messages arguing for more nuclear power in Finland were as follows. The new nuclear power plant unit replaces old fossil power plants and satisfies the need for additional demand of electricity; makes possible to meet the requirements of the Kyoto agreement; reduces the dependence on the imported energy and assures a stable and predictable electricity price. Messaging concerning a new nuclear power plant unit is made in co-operation with several organisations. The most important of them, in addition to the company shareholders, are the companies which have shown interested in the new project as well as the Finnish Energy Industries Federation (Finergy) and the Confederation of Finnish Industry and Employers. A transparency folder 'Nuclear electricity 2000' was put together of the messages in collaboration with the organisations. The folder was distributed to about 400 opinion leaders in the energy field. To ensure the consistency of the messages, several interest group meetings

  9. 76 FR 29191 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands would likely lead...) from Finland and the Netherlands. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Orders: Purified...

  10. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  11. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  12. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  13. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  14. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  15. Area Handbook Series: Finland: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    franchise . The first national election, that of 1907, yielded Europe’s largest social democratic parliamentary faction. In a single step, Finland went from...place (see fig. 10). They were the first in Europe to gain the franchise , and by the 1980s they routinely constituted about one-third of the...52,498 Income from property and entrepreneurship ......... 1,936 2,228 2,649 2,986 2,812 Other domestic current transfers ............... 2,822 3,301 3,858

  16. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  17. Country policy profile - Finland. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  18. Incidence of Savant Syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, T; Ruusila, L; Ruusila, U

    2000-08-01

    The general incidence of Savant Syndrome was assessed in Finland. First, a survey was made of all 583 facilities which served people with mental retardation. Second, letters asking for information regarding people with Savant Syndrome were published in two key Finnish journals of the field. We received reports of 45 cases of Savant Syndrome. This makes an incidence rate of 1.4 per 1,000 people with mental retardation. The most common form of exceptional skills was calendar calculation, followed by feats of memory.

  19. Country policy profile - Finland. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Electricity biogas, biomass, and wind is supported through a premium tariff. Furthermore, Finland promotes RES through two subsidy schemes. A state grant for investment in RES supports sustainable energy research projects as well as renewable energy production facilities. A second subsidy scheme provides investment support to farmers investing in facilities producing heat from RES. A price-based mechanism, the so-called 'Heat bonus' that is a fixed payment per MWh, promotes cogeneration of heat and electricity from biogas and biomass (RES LEGAL Europe, 2014)

  20. An energy handbook for teachers in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavonen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook for teachers is to provide an introduction to the principles and practices of energy education. It is composed of three sections plus commercial materials from energy companies. Part 1 discusses important aspects of energy and teaching methods. Part 2 provides graphical information showing how energy is produced and consumed in Finland. Part 3 is an introduction to energy from various aspects. One focus in the handbook is nuclear energy. Workshops on energy are also proposed to teachers. 8 figs., 2 refs

  1. Finland – Russia Business cooperation 2014 - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kononova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    During the years of 2014 and 2015 a lot of changes have happened in Russia’s and Fin-land’s foreign policy. It could really affect the business cooperation between those two countries, so in my thesis I want to take a look into this situation, since this is a really hot topic to-day. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze changes in cooperation between Finland and Russia during embargo on products and to find out how companies keep their positions on Russian market. Another purpose was...

  2. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  3. Gambling in Finland: problem gambling in the context of a national monopoly in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammi, Tuukka; Castrén, Sari; Lintonen, Tomi

    2015-05-01

    To describe and analyse the Finnish gambling market, regulatory system and the state of gambling research as well as the treatment system in operation for problem gamblers. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Finland, focusing primarily on the 1990s and 2000s. Only in recent years have gambling problems become a major issue for public debate in Finland. One reason for the increase in activity to address gambling problems is that, after Finland became a member of the European Union in 1995, the Finnish state gambling monopoly and its compatibility with European Union (EU) regulations have been questioned repeatedly. Since 2000, the Finnish government has put significant new resources into the research as well as the prevention and treatment of gambling problems. The resources grew from almost nothing to several million Euros in less than 10 years. This could be seen as an attempt to protect the national gambling monopoly system by showing that the Finnish monopoly system meets EU requirements. Since joining the European Union in 1995, the Finnish government has been able to maintain its gambling monopoly by providing substantial resources to signal a commitment to minimizing problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Payments for Improved Ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the Coexistence of Humans and Wolves in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiedanpää, Juha; Kalliolevo, Hanna; Salo, Matti; Pellikka, Jani; Luoma, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is a source of concern and a cause of damage to people's livelihoods. In Finland, as in most countries, actual damages are compensated according to the real lost value. However, often, the suffered damages are larger than what is compensated, and worries and fears are not accounted for at all. The purpose of our transdisciplinary action research is to contribute to the process of modifying the scientific, administrative, and everyday habits of mind in order to meet the practical prerequisites of living with the wolf. In 2014, we planned and participated in a process designed to update Finland's wolf population management plan. During our study, we applied e-deliberation, conducted a national wolf survey, and organized solution-oriented workshops in wolf territory areas around Finland. By applying abductive reasoning, we illustrate the basic features of an economic scheme that would help finance and coordinate practical modifications to the ecological, economic, and institutional circumstances and settings in wolf territory areas. The potential economic instrument is based on payments for improved ecostructures. In our paper, we describe the organization, functioning, and financing of this instrument in detail.

  5. Electronic waste recovery in Finland: Consumers' perceptions towards recycling and re-use of mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Mella, Jenni; Keiski, Riitta L; Pongrácz, Eva

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' awareness and perceptions towards mobile phone recycling and re-use. The results are based on a survey conducted in the city of Oulu, Finland, and analysed in the theoretical framework based on the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN). The findings indicate that consumers' awareness of the importance and existence of waste recovery system is high; however, awareness has not translated to recycling behaviour. The survey reveals that 55% of respondents have two or more unused mobile phones at homes. The more phones stored at homes, the more often reasons 'I don't know where to return' and/or 'have not got to do it yet' were mentioned. This indicates that proximity and the convenience of current waste management system are inadequate in promoting the return of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To facilitate re-use, and the highest level of recovery, consumers will need to be committed to return end-of-use electronics to WEEE collection centres without delays. Further, the supply and demand of refurbished mobile phones do not meet at this moment in Finland due to consumer's storing habits versus expectations of recent features under guarantee and unrealistic low prizes. The study also points out that, in order to change current storing habits of consumers, there is an explicit need for more information and awareness on mobile phone collection in Finland, especially on regarding retailers' take-back. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and Netherlands would be likely to lead [[Page 27664

  7. Circannual rhythm in the incidence of cryptorchidism in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E; Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

    2005-01-01

    Conflicting data on circannual variation in birth rates of urogenital malformations have been reported previously. To assess risk factors of cryptorchidism we studied the seasonal variation of cryptorchidism in Finland. We performed a prospective cryptorchidism study in Turku, Finland, from 1997 ...

  8. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  9. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  10. The nuclear power situation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    and's limited choice of energy sources makes nuclear power especially lly attractive and it is estimated that in 1985 14% of the energy consumed will be nuclear, which will then be the second most important source after oil (49%). Four power reactors, Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO 1 and 2, are at present under construction. The first two are Russian PWRs, the latter two Asea-Atom BWRs. Loviisa 3 and 4 are planned but not yet ordered, and plans for a 1000 MWe plant to the West of Helsinki exist. The nuclear controversy in Finland has mainly been repetitions of the US and Swedish debates since 1970. However, local opposition to the project W. of Helsinki, based on the sociological effects of the inflow of Finnish speaking workers into a rural Swedish speaking district has become apparent. In the long term 13 major nuclear power plants are envisaged by the year 2000. Finland is party to the NPT and the IAEA safeguard system. (JIW)

  11. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Saxen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 3 H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137 Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  12. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  13. Ore potential of basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, J.; Ekberg, M.; Heinonen, P.; Karppanen, T.; Hakapaeae, A.; Sandberg, E.

    1993-02-01

    The report is associated with a study programme on basic rocks, which has the aim to complement the preliminary site investigations on repository for TVO's (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) spent nuclear fuel. The report comprises a mining enterprise's view of the ore potential of basic plutonic rocks in Finland. The ores associated with basic plutonic rocks are globally known and constitute a significant share of the global mining industry. The ores comprise chromium, vanadium-titanium-iron, nickel-copper and platinum group element ores. The resources of the metals in question and their mining industry are examined globally. A review of the use of these metals in the industry is presented as well. General factors affecting the mining industry, such as metal prices, political conjunctures, transport facilities, environmental requirements and raw material sources for the Finnish smelters have been observed from the point of view of their future effect on exploration activity and industrial development in Finland. Information on ores and mineralizations associated with Finnish basic rocks have been compiled in the report. The file comprises 4 chromium occurrences, 8 vanadium-titanium-iron occurrences, 13 PGE occurrences and 38 nickel-copper occurrences

  14. A review of the seismotectonics of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    1992-12-01

    Recent major improvements in our knowledge about seismicity, crustal structure, primary stress field and tectonics together with other extensive geophysical and geological investigations have provided a good basis for a review of the seismotectonic setting of Finland. Correlations have been found to be present for the seismicity in Finland with the seismotectonic zones inside the Baltic Shield and with the seismicity of the North Atlantic Ridge. The current stress field in the Fennoscandian Shield seems to be dominated by ridge push forces. This conclusion is based on earthquake focal mechanisms, in-situ stress measurements and geodetic information. The report discusses the possible block movements induced by future glaciation. Location of the seismotectonic zones, duration of the glaciation and the presence of locally anomalous shear stresses seem to relate to the distribution of the discovered post-glacial faults in Fennoscandia. Special attention is paid to local seismotectonics. Potential direct or indirect effects on underground openings are possible due to local earthquakes or the creep. The importance of slow deformation processes in the bedrock is emphasized. (orig.)

  15. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H; Savolainen, T [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  16. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T; Tuomenvirta, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  17. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee; Melanen; Ekqvist; Verta

    2000-10-02

    This paper is part of the study of atmospheric emissions of heavy metals conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) under the umbrella of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. The scope of our study is limited solely to anthropogenic mercury that is emitted directly to the atmosphere. This article addresses emission factors and trends of atmospheric mercury emissions during the 1990s and is based mainly on the database of the Finnish Environmental Administration. In addition, data based on the measurements taken by the VTT regarding emission factors have been used to estimate emissions of mercury from the incineration of waste. The study indicates that the total emission of mercury has decreased from 1140 kg in 1990 to 620 kg in 1997, while industrial and energy production have been on the increase simultaneously. The 45% emission reduction is due to improved gas cleaning equipment, process changes, automation, the installation of flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants and strict pollution control laws. In the past, some authors have estimated a higher mercury emission in Finland. In this study, it is also observed that there are no big changes in the quality of raw materials. Estimated emission factors can be of great help to management for estimating mercury emissions and also its risk assessment.

  18. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  19. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  20. Highly clickable web banner ads for customers of Advertising Media Finland OY

    OpenAIRE

    Deresse, Filagot Gizaw

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to do a research and suggest ways how “Advertising Media Finland OY” can provide high click through rates for its customer ads. The background information was based on the meeting with the commissionaire, it was decided that I should focus on banner advertising, colors, sizes, timing, product decision, and price. At the last chapter, I was to give campaign ideas and suggested some points based up on desktop research, e-books, books and journals. The main results t...

  1. Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M

    2001-12-01

    Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.

  2. The introduction of nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafs, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of my research was to study the introduction of nuclear power in Finland with special focus on the domestic engineering works industry. I wanted to find out what really happened during this long process, which I consider to be unique. I also tried to clearfy the reasons why it came about at all, and why it developed in such a peculiar way. My basic research questions were: (a.) When and how was nuclear power introduced in Finland? (b.) Which were the reasons for this introduction and which were the results? (c.) Which was the role of the domestic engineering works industry? I started the investigation by exploring the original situation in Finland and also in the countries which came to be a primus motor for the development. I studied the relevant literature and interviewed quite a few of the persons who in a decisive way had an influence on the long and chaotic process which led to the introduction of nuclear power in Finland. When describing the different phases in the development I stayed in principle within the historic framework, although I diverged from a strict chronological order when necessary. Neither did I in my investigation take a neutral stance regarding the two large projects that had a central position in the introduction, namely the nuclear power plants in Lovisa and in Olkiluoto. The Lovisa project implied a greater challenge and it was also more important to the domestic industry than Olkiluoto. It therefore got more attention than Olkiluoto. Oy Finnatom Ab (managed by me 1975-2001), due to its role as a spokesman for the Finnish nuclear engineering works industry, occupied a central position in my investigation. The start of the introduction may psychologically be dated to the startup in 1958 of the Ydin Exponential pile, YXP, and in 1962 of Finland Reactor I, FiR I, and the end to the signing in 1982 by Industrins Kraft, ASEA and Asea-Atom of the acceptance protocol for Olkiluoto and the final permits for Lovisa, granted by the

  3. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  4. Uranium exploration, non-governmental organizations, and local communities. The origin, anatomy, and consequences of a new challenge in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eerola, Toni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of global warming has returned nuclear power to the agenda. Many countries, including Finland, have decided to construct more nuclear power plants. They will need uranium, and its price is rising in the international market. A new uranium exploration boom is going on. Finland is politically and economically stable, with good infrastructure and basic geodata, attracting foreign companies to explore the promising uranium showings of the country. However, this has triggered an extensive anti-uranium campaign in northern, eastern, and southern, but not in central Finland, which is related to anti-nuclear movement, green and leftist parties, and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs. The resistance, created mainly by lack of public awareness of geology and mining, surprised mining companies, the geological community, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, who found themselves in a completely new situation. Here we will examine the origin, anatomy, and consequences of this challenge and how to deal with it. The picture presented herewithin is based on author’s active participation in uranium exploration in Finland, discussions with other geologists and activists, following the issue in newspapers, web-pages, reviews, and participating in NGO meetings.

  5. Aging fatherhood in Finland - first-time fathers in Finland from 1987 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Miia; Bloigu, Aini; Hemminki, Elina; Gissler, Mika; Klemetti, Reija

    2016-06-01

    The increase in maternal age has been well documented in Western societies, but information on paternal age trends is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in age and other background characteristics of first-time fathers in Finland in the period 1987-2009. A random 60% sample of first-time fathers in each year from 1987 to 2009 was obtained from Statistics Finland (n=344,529). Five-year intervals were used (three years in 1987-1989). Sociodemographic characteristics of older first-time fathers (⩾40 years) were compared over time using logistic regression. In the logistic regression, immigrants were excluded from the study population as they may have had children before migrating to Finland. The mean age of first-time fathers increased from 28.7 to 30.4 years in 1987-2009. The change was greatest in the Capital Region and smallest in Northern and Eastern Finland. Fatherhood at the age of ⩾40 years doubled from 3.1% to 6.8%. From 2005 to 2009, men who lived in rural areas and the Capital Region, had a long education, were divorced or widowed, had been born in a rural area and were native Finnish speakers, were more likely than other men to be old when they became fathers. CONCLUSIONS DURING THE STUDY PERIOD, THE AVERAGE AGE OF FIRST-TIME FATHERS INCREASED BY TWO YEARS FURTHER STUDIES ARE NEEDED TO EXAMINE WHETHER DELAYS IN FIRST-TIME FATHERHOOD AFFECT FERTILITY, CHILD HEALTH AND THE USE OF SOCIAL AND HEALTH SERVICES. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Development of stump utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkkainen, M

    1975-01-01

    Presents a historical review of the utilization of stump- and rot-wood in Finland, based on Finnish literature from the mid 19th century until to-day. Pine stumps were used for tar production to a small extent during the 19th century, and on a much larger scale during the two World Wars. Other industrial uses of stumpwood have hitherto been of minor importance, but stumps are now beginning to be used in the pulp industry. The largest quantity of stumpwood used has always been that taken by the rural population for fuel; it amounted to >200 000 m/sup 3/ solid measure in the 1930's, and was still >100 000 m/sup 3/ in the 1960's.

  7. Future probabilities of coastal floods in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Havu; Leijala, Ulpu; Johansson, Milla M.; Leinonen, Katri; Kahma, Kimmo K.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal planning requires detailed knowledge of future flooding risks, and effective planning must consider both short-term sea level variations and the long-term trend. We calculate distributions that combine short- and long-term effects to provide estimates of flood probabilities in 2050 and 2100 on the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Our distributions of short-term sea level variations are based on 46 years (1971-2016) of observations from the 13 Finnish tide gauges. The long-term scenarios of mean sea level combine postglacial land uplift, regionally adjusted scenarios of global sea level rise, and the effect of changes in the wind climate. The results predict that flooding risks will clearly increase by 2100 in the Gulf of Finland and the Bothnian Sea, while only a small increase or no change compared to present-day conditions is expected in the Bothnian Bay, where the land uplift is stronger.

  8. Aquifer thermal energy storage in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iihola, H; Ala-Peijari, T; Seppaenen, H

    1988-01-01

    The rapid changes and crises in the field of energy during the 1970s and 1980s have forced us to examine the use of energy more critically and to look for new ideas. Seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (T < 100/sup 0/C) on a large scale is one of the grey areas which have not yet been extensively explored. However, projects are currently underway in a dozen countries. In Finland there have been three demonstration projects from 1974 to 1987. International co-operation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, Annex VI, 'Environmental and Chemical Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers and Research and Development of Water Treatment Methods' started in 1987. The research being undertaken in 8 countries includes several elements fundamental to hydrochemistry and biochemistry.

  9. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in Finland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, H.

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy has been made by STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland. In 1997 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 51 700 and that of the therapeutic treatments was 2 240. In 1994 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 50 900 and that of therapeutic treatments was 2 150. The collective effective dose to the patients was 207 manSv and the mean effective dose to the population was 0.04 mSv per person. In 1994 the collective effective dose was 220 manSv. The numbers of nuclear medicine examinations and of therapeutic treatments have not changed much when compared to those in 1994. The collective effective dose has decreased. The main reason for that is the decreased use of the radionuclide 131 I. (orig.)

  10. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  11. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  12. Raising the temperature of the UK heat pump market: Learning lessons from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat pumps play a central role in decarbonising the UK's buildings sector as part of the Committee on Climate Change's (CCC) updated abatement scenario for meeting the UK's fourth carbon budget. However, the UK has one of the least developed heat pump markets in Europe and renewable heat output from heat pumps will need to increase by a factor of 50 over the next 15 years to be in line with the scenario. Therefore, this paper explores what lessons the UK might learn from Finland to achieve this aim considering that its current level of heat pump penetration is comparable with that outlined in the CCC scenario for 2030. Despite the two countries’ characteristic differences we argue they share sufficient similarities for the UK to usefully draw some policy-based lessons from Finland including: stimulating new-build construction and renovation of existing stock; incorporating renewable heat solutions in building energy performance standards; and bringing the cost of heat pumps in-line with gas fired heating via a combination of subsidies, taxes and energy RD&D. Finally, preliminary efforts to grow the heat pump market could usefully focus on properties unconnected to the gas-grid, considering these are typically heated by relatively expensive oil or electric heating technologies. -- Highlights: •Heat pumps are expected to play a key role in meeting the UK's 4th carbon budget. •Today, heat pump deployment per capita in the UK is one of the lowest in Europe. •Finland offers some policy lessons given its high level of heat pump deployment. •Policies: raising build rates, building standards and heat pump cost-effectiveness. •Deployment efforts should focus on buildings not heated by relatively low-cost gas

  13. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  14. Possibilities and future of wind power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Tammelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  15. The Identities of Young Interrnational Adoptees in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Virkki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 30,000 children adopted yearly all over the world, about 200-300 come to Finland. A former adoption donor country, Finland started receiving international adoptees in the 1970s. Nowadays, there are about 3,000 internationally adopted persons in Finland. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of young Finnish international adoptees, who were interviewed during summer and autumn 2005. Altogether three group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out. The main aim was to study cultural identity and experiences of difference. The primary objective of this study is to give a voice to young international adoptees in Finland and present results as examples of how the dominant population adapts to difference.

  16. Amateur observations of exoplanets in Finland: History and recent activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Kehusmaa, P.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2017-09-01

    Exoplanet have been observed by Finnish amateur astronomers already 17 years. Recently there are two active observers, but the interest to photometric observations on exoplanet transits is increasing in Finland.

  17. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeck, K.; Purcell, A.

    2003-11-01

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  18. Finland: Scandinavia's top gas user sees demand rising rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The rising demand for natural gas in Finland which already uses more gas than any other Nordic country is noted. The natural gas market which is based on sales to large industries and for heating is compared to the market in Denmark which is geared to small private heating customers. Imports of Norwegian gas allowing increased sales for power generation in Finland, and the influence of the impending Finnish application for membership of the EC on the gas market are considered. (UK)

  19. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  20. Additional nuclear power in Finland; Challenge for economics and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raumolin, H.I.

    1989-01-01

    The overview of energy situation in Finland is presented. Additional base-load power is needed in the second half of the 1990's. The experience of nuclear power including the price of electricity as well as construction and operation of power plants is presented. Challenges for new nuclear power are described. The challenges can be met by utilizing the good experience gained in Finland, as well as the competitive situation on the international market

  1. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  2. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2002-01-01

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  3. The role of national ethics commissions in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    There are six national ethics commissions in Finland. The National Advisory Board on Research Ethics was first established in 1991, followed by the National Advisory Board on Biotechnology and the Board on Gene Technology in 1995. The National Advisory Board on Health Care Ethics was established in 1998, followed by its Sub-Committee on Medical Research Ethics in 1999. The Co-operation Group for Laboratory Animal Sciences was established in 2001. Only the Board on Gene Technology works as a national authority and gives binding opinions and recommendations about the use of genetically modified organisms. The Sub-Committee on Medical Research Ethics acts a national research ethics committee and gives opinions about research projects. Other advisory boards do not make legally binding decisions, but their expertise gives a lot of power to their opinions and statements. The commissions work in close collaboration with each other, having regular meetings. They arrange seminars and conferences, and share information with each other. The commissions also share duties and information in international collaboration. How the voice and opinions of these commissions is heard in society lies in the wide, multi-professional expertise of their members. Large commissions and wide expertise may make it difficult to find consensus in their opinions and statements, although wide expertise may, more than discussion in a small expert group, help to further process difficult ethical issues. Collaboration between different bodies is important in order to share duties, and also to add more emphasis to the statements and opinions where different bodies share interests. In our country, the interest that national commissions share is research ethics, where the advisory boards and their members have discharged collaborative activities for years.

  4. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  5. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  6. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  7. Sustainable recycling service- IKEA Espoo/Vantaa

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahakis, Lindell; Sapkota, Bishnu

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability has been an essential element in business operations over a decade due to the fact of rising concern for the environment; climate change, pollution, wildlife and forest, and social causes. Economic, social and environmental growth needed to be endeavored in order to achieve sustainable development. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) tends to enforce strategies of the company towards social and environmental responsibility. However, CSR is customarily limited to good governan...

  8. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  9. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  10. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  11. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1989-08-01

    The atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in the 1950s, '60s and '70s caused global radioactive fallout. After the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, radioactive fallout was carried by by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1987 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via different foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Ten different groups of people were measured during 1987. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and four groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 2000 Bq at the end of 1987, the minimum body burden being 200 Bq and the maximum 10000 Bq. The measurement results showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in the summer 1987. The groups with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered in 1987 to people in Finland, estimated by using the measurement results of the population group, was 0.08 mSv, the corresponding dose equivalent in 1986 bein 0.06 mSv

  12. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Pusa, S.

    1991-03-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl radioactive fallout was carried by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1988 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chemobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Nine different groups of people were measured during 1988. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and three groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 1300 Bq at the end of 1988, the minimum body burden being 50 Bq and the maximum 7700 Bq. The measurement data showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in summer 1987. The group with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered to people in Finland in 1988, estimated by using the measurement data on the population goup, was 0.05 mSv the corresponding dose equivalent in 1987 being 0.08 mSv

  13. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  14. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, R.; Koutaniemi, P.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper, such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  15. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  16. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  17. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  18. Proceedings of the 2nd CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiihonen, O.

    1999-01-01

    The safe utilisation of nuclear power plants requires the availability of different computerised tools for analysing the plant behaviour and training the plant personnel. These can be grouped into three categories: accident analysis codes, plant analysers and training simulators. The safety analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been limited to the worst accident cases expected for the specific plant design. Many accident analysis codes have been developed for different plant types. The scope of the analyses has continuously expanded. The plant analysers are now emerging tools intended for extensive analysis of the plant behaviour using a best estimate model for the whole plant including the reactor and full thermodynamic process, both combined with automation and electrical systems. The comprehensive model is also supported by good visualisation tools. Training simulators with real time plant model are tools for training the plant operators to run the plant. Modern training simulators have also features supporting visualisation of the important phenomena occurring in the plant during transients. The 2nd CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analysers in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. (orig.)

  19. Present situation of heating enterpreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmio, H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating entrepreneurs are farmers, who usually have a wood-lot of their own, or entrepreneurs, who have undertaken to look after the supply of fuel to real estates and their heating. The TTS- Institute conducted an analysis of the scope of heating enterpreneurship in connection with the project belonging to the national Bioenergy Research Programme. According to the responses obtained in a mail questionnaire study conducted in autumns 1996, and other data obtained on the subject, there were 36 active heating entrepreneur sites in Finland in December 1996. Heating enterpreneurship, usually involving the supply of chipped wood, has become more common during the past few years. In 1994, it was started at ten places, in 1995 at eight places, and in 1996 at twelve places. The majority, nearly three quarters, of the heating enterpreneurship sites at the end of 1996 were school buildings and one fifth were district heating plants. The solid fuel boiler capacity of all the plants in the study was 11.5 MW. The district heating plants were 0.3-2.5 MW in capacity, the school buildings were in the 60-500 kW range, old peoples'' homes had capacities of 300-370 kW. Except for one school building using sod peat as primary fuel, wood chips was the primary fuel used by institutional buildings. The enterprise form was that of an entrepreneur or a pool formed by entrepreneurs in the case of 27 entrepreneurs, a company in the case of 6, and a co-operative society in the case of three. There were 56 heating-enterpreneurship sites at the implementation or planning stage. Four fifths of them involved heat generation capacity of less than 500 kW and one fifth a capacity of 0.5-2.0 Mw Tyoetehoseuran Metsaetiedote. 13 refs., 3 figs

  20. Living arrangements and mental health in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Martelin, Tuija; Martikainen, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami; Koskinen, Seppo

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐married persons are known to have poor mental health compared with married persons. Health differences between marital status groups may largely arise from corresponding differences in interpersonal social bonds. However, official marital status mirrors the social reality of persons to a decreasing extent, and living arrangements may be a better measure of social bonds. Little is known about mental health in different living arrangement groups. This study aims to establish the extent and determinants of mental health differences by living arrangement in terms of psychological distress (GHQ) and DSM‐IV psychiatric disorders (CIDI). Methods Data were used from the nationally representative cross sectional health 2000 survey, conducted in 2000–1 in Finland. Altogether 4685 participants (80%) aged 30–64 years were included in these analyses; comprehensive information was available on measures of mental health and living arrangements. Living arrangements were measured as follows: married, cohabiting, living with other(s) than a partner, and living alone. Results Compared with the married, persons living alone and those living with other(s) than a partner were approximately twice as likely to have anxiety or depressive disorders. Cohabiters did not differ from the married. In men, psychological distress was similarly associated with living arrangements. Unemployment, lack of social support, and alcohol consumption attenuated the excess psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity of persons living alone and of those living with other(s) than a partner by about 10%–50% each. Conclusions Living arrangements are strongly associated with mental health, particularly among men. Information on living arrangements, social support, unemployment, and alcohol use may facilitate early stage recognition of poor mental health in primary health care. PMID:16698975

  1. Nationwide survey of resuscitation education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Silfvast, T; Turpeinen, A; Paakkonen, H; Uusaro, A

    2009-09-01

    Good-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is highlighted in the International Resuscitation Guidelines, but clinically the quality of CPR is often poor. Education of CPR has a major role in the primary skills imparted to students. Different methods can be used to teach CPR quality. We evaluated the current status of their usage in Finland institutes teaching students of emergency medicine at different levels. The following institutes were included in an anonymous survey: medical schools (teaching future physicians), universities of applied sciences (paramedics), colleges (emergency medical technicians) and emergency services college (fire-fighters). Hours of teaching theory lessons of CPR and hours of small group training were evaluated. In particular, we focussed on the teaching methods for adequate chest compression rate and depth. Twenty-one of 30 institutes responded to the questionnaire. The median for hours of theory lessons of CPR was 8h (range: 2-28 h). The median for hours of small group training was 10 (range: 3-40 h). The methods of teaching adequate chest compression rate were instructors' visual estimation in 28.5% of the institutions, watch in 33.3%, metronome in 9.5% and manikins' graphic in 28.5% of institutions. The methods of teaching adequate chest compression depth were instructors' visual estimation in 33.3%, in manikins light indicators in 23.8% and manikins' graphics in 52.3% of institutions. The hours of theoretic lessons and small group training vary widely among different institutes. In one-third of institutions, the instructor's visual estimation was a sole method used to teach adequate chest compression rate and depth. Different technical methods were surprisingly seldom used.

  2. New NPP Construction Experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm-Lytz, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the experiences of the new nuclear power plant construction projects. The topics include the licensing and regulatory oversight process, completion of the design prior to construction, experience and know-how of the participating organisations, quality management in a nuclear construction project, safety culture aspects in a nuclear construction project, and the role and importance of regulator’s oversight. Finland has recent experience of new nuclear power plant construction, one plant unit being under construction close to commissioning phase and one plant unit in construction license phase. Each nation is solely responsible for the safety of its nuclear installations. Therefore, there are also national practices how nuclear power plants are licensed and how the safety and quality of these plants are verified during construction and operation. Differences in licensing, regulations and regulatory practices may have an impact on the design of the plant. There may be differences in how the detailed design has to be documented and how and when it needs to be submitted for approval to the regulator. To avoid surprises due to differences, it is beneficial for the owner and plant vendor to familiarize themselves early enough on the national practices and regulations to ensure that regulatory expectations and processes can be taken into account in the project implementation. In addition, the owner and the plant vendor have to understand what are the national safety goals and safety requirements that the plant has to fulfil, and what they mean to the detailed design of the plant. These have to be clarified and explicitly defined by the owner in terms of design criteria in the bidding documentation to avoid difficulties in the future steps of the project.

  3. The 2005 energy year in Finland: Electricity consumption down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Electricity consumption declined by 2.5% in 2005, largely as a result of a six-week labour dispute in the paper indusry and mild weather conditions, according to a report on energy industry develop rents in 2005 published by Finnish Energy Industries. Over the longer term, energy consumption is forecast to grow by close to 2% a year. Water levels in waterways and water systems across the Nordic countries returned to normal in 2005 after a long period of reduced resources, stabilising hydropower output generally Following high levels of electricity exports westwards in 2004, electricity imports from the West reached almost record levels in Finland in 2005. Together with imports from Russia, Finland imported more electricity last year than ever before - and a full fifth of Finland's energy needs were covered by net electricity imports in 2005. Two thirds of imports came from Russia, with imports reaching almost the maximum capacity of the countries' interconnectors

  4. Description of the electric power and energy trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komulainen, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Finnish State has traditionally controlled the import of electricity, larger related investments and pricing. Lately, a market orientated economic policy has influenced energy policy and the amount of state control has gradually decreased. Decisions have yet to be made with regard to the fifth nuclear power reactor. The paper deals briefly with the subjects of the electric power, natural gas and oil markets. Finland's transmission network has connections to the former Russia and the Baltic countries. According to agreements within the European Community, Finland must now make changes in its electric power supply structure. Competition will be encouraged and monopolies discouraged. Pricing shall be transparent, and power plants must present written documentation for their management system, price regulations etc. A law must be passed to legitimate trade across the country's borders. Emphasis will be laid on energy conservation and energy research and consultant services. It is claimed that Finland's level of technology in this area lives up to international standards. (AB)

  5. Air Pollution Mortality in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Lehmijoki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse health consequences of air pollution are of concern currently and there is a fear that these consequences escalate along with economic growth. The effect of economic growth on air pollution deaths is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden by applying the Environmental Kuznets Curve approach, according to which economic growth has competing effects on air pollution and related deaths. On the one hand, emissions tend to increase as the scale of economic activity increases, but on the other hand, consumers and firms in richer countries use cleaner goods and adopt cleaner technologies. In Denmark and Finland, the latter effects are stronger, while in Sweden the opposite is true. Therefore, air pollution deaths will decrease in Denmark and Finland but increase in Sweden. Since country's own emissions do not determine air pollution completely, the paper briefly analyzes emissions from the Baltic countries and Russia.

  6. The chopped firewood trade in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, A.; Kaerhae, K.

    2003-01-01

    The TTS Institute studied the operations of chopped firewood merchants and described the cost structure of commercial chopped firewood production. The research material was collected via postal questionnaire in 2002 after being sent to those firewood merchants assumed to be selling chopped firewood. Acceptable responses were received from 244 firewood merchants. In addition, ten firewood merchants were interviewed. In 2001, the firewood merchants sold an average of 151 m 3 of chopped firewood. Half of the firewood merchants sold less than 51 m 3 of chopped firewood. The main source of income for the majority of chopped firewood merchants was agriculture and forestry. If approximately 300,000 m 3 of chopped firewood is sold annually, according to the research there are about 2,000 chopped firewood merchants in Finland. However, only a very few entrepreneurs get their main income from the chopped firewood trade. The majority of raw material for chopped firewood came from the merchant's own forest. Birch was the most commonly used species. 54% of the chopped firewood was made from pulpwood, 19% from pole size trees and 18% from split firewood. The drying methods for chopped firewood were most often natural drying outside in covered stocks or cages, natural drying in stacks or natural drying of mechanically debarked or debarked timber in stacks. Less than a tenth of the merchants dried their chopped, firewood using artificial cold air-drying. The share of packaged chopped firewood was 14% i.e. approximately 42,000 m 3 . Chopped firewood was packed mostly into small packages (about 10 kg). The chopped firewood trade is a local business: the average transport distance from the merchant's store to the customer was 25 km. The chopped firewood merchants delivered 73% of lie chopped firewood themselves. An agricultural tractor and a trailer were the most common transport method. The most important customer group is detached houses. The average production costs amongst the

  7. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  8. How do Locals in Finland Identify Resident Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Säävälä

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the identi? cation by Finns of foreign residents in Finland by analyzing data from a representative sample survey carried out in 2002. When people were asked to name a group of foreigners residing in Finland, the majority ?rst mentioned Somalis, despite the fact that only 4 percent of foreign residents are Somali and 6 percent of foreign-language speakers speak Somali. The general tendency when identifying resident foreigners is to refer primarily to ethnic or national groups; references to status (e.g. refugee, return migrant, guest worker or religion (e.g. Muslim are rare in the survey. In terms of ethnicity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is inconsistent, particularly as Russians and Estonians, the two largest groups, are not readily seen as foreign residents. The prevalence of answering Somalis could be considered an outcome of the maximally visible difference between Finns and Somalis. A logistic regression analysis is used to examine whether identifying resident foreigners differs according to socio-economic and educational characteristics, age, gender, region, and attitude towards the number of resident foreigners in Finland. The variables that signi? cantly in? uence the probability of answering Somalis and Russians are the respondents region, age, attitude towards the number of foreign residents in Finland, and to some extent, gender and higher education. Respondents occupational status, vocational education or income does not have a signi? cant impact on the answers. Regional differences appear to be a major factor affecting how foreigners are identi? ed, which shows that although the need to consider resident foreigners as visibly, culturally and linguistically maximally different may be a nearly universal base line for creating difference and identity, identifying foreign residents in Finland is not entirely independent of demographic realities.

  9. CONSIDERATION REGARDING THE TAXATION IN FINLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LUCIA CROITORU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows through comparison, in the first phase, the main features of the tax system focusing on direct and indirect taxes, in Finland and Romania, and then presents an analysis of the evolution of the structure and level of taxes in both countries. Last but not least, is presented an analysis of the level of tax burden and also the factors that influenced the pressure in these two countries. The diversity of the fiscality in Finland and Romania reflecting the political choice of a given moment and is the result of the economic and social structure of each country.

  10. Finland: construction of the first geological storage of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Neri, E.

    2015-01-01

    Finland has become the first country in the world granting a construction license for a store deep geological (AGP) for radioactive waste, as reported last November 12 Posiva, the agency management of these materials in the Baltic country. After more than 40 years of research, Posiva begin construction of this facility in Olkiluoto, which will house so end spent fuel generated in power stations Olkiluoto and Loviisa and could start operating in 2023. As noted Janne Mokka, president of Posiva, this pioneering project is not only important for Finland, but for everyone because it is the first AGP enters under construction in the world. (Author)

  11. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  12. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  13. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO 2 ), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  14. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.; Giese, U.

    2005-01-01

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  15. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  16. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  17. Teaching Russian as a Heritage Language in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protassova, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Originating from many different sources, Russian as a heritage language in Finland displays a spectrum of developmental tendencies: both attrition and maintenance can be observed in various degrees. The Finnish educational system allows for the organization of bilingual pre-schools and schools when there are sufficient numbers of potential pupils.…

  18. Learning Practices of Femininity through Gendered Craft Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the processes and practices that link crafts and gender in the upbringing and education of girls. The paper is based on a study conducted among female primary school trainee teachers in Finland. The data are comprised of their experiences with crafts as schoolgirls. The methods of the study were memory work and writing of…

  19. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  20. A preliminary examination of adaption to climate change in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.R.; Kankaanpaeae, S.

    2003-01-01

    The global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.6 ± 0.2 deg C during the 20th century and by about 0.7 deg C in Finland over the same period. Most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is thought to be attributable to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. There is also widespread evidence (including some from Finland) that this warming has already had discernible impacts on many physical and biological systems. Projected future climate changes are expected to have significant adverse effects on natural ecosystems, biodiversity, human health, and flood risk in Finland, while beneficial effects include increased crop yields and timber production and reduced winter energy demand. Worldwide, adverse impacts are expected to fall disproportionately on poorer countries and populations. Regardless of any foreseeable reductions in emissions, some future climate change appears to be unavoidable, so society must be prepared to adapt to the inevitable consequences of climate change. Adaptation is thus a necessary complement to mitigation as a policy response to climate change, and has the potential to reduce many of the adverse impacts of climate change and to enhance beneficial impacts. However, understanding of adaptive capacity is relatively poor across all sectors in Finland, and lags behind comparable work in some other countries. In this report a number of research recommendations are suggested to redress this imbalance. (orig.)

  1. National Evaluation of Bologna Implementation in Finland: Procedures and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Finland has performed, as one of the first Bologna countries, a national evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of the Bologna process. The evaluation was organized by the Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council and performed by an independent expert group during 2010. In general, the reform was conceived as a significant development…

  2. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  3. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  4. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. RUSSIA’S SECURITY... RELATIONS WITH FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Rory J. Hayden September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mikhail Tsypkin Co-Advisor: David S. Yost...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  5. Geographical differences in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, Martti Olavi; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Juhani Tammela, Teuvo Leo; Auvinen, Anssi-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies but the etiology is not fully understood. There seem to be genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors involved. Great geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported both between and within countries. We studied the determinants of geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland. All patients treated for hypospadias in 1970-1996 before the age of 9 years among boys born in 1970-1986 were identified in the national hospital discharge registry. Prevalence of hypospadias was calculated for each of the 355 municipalities in Finland. Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Association of the explanatory factors with prevalence of hypospadias was assessed using Poisson regression methods. The prevalence of operated hypospadias varied between provinces and between university hospital districts, from a ratio of 0.65 to a ratio of 1.01. An association between the prevalence of hypospadias and the remoteness from the closest city was observed. There was no association with level of education, social class, or occupation. The observed differences in the prevalence of operated hypospadias in Finland may have several explanations. Different levels of ascertainment and both genetic and environmental factors can not be ruled out

  6. Visions on energy production technologies for Finland up to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Mikko

    2003-01-01

    The energy sector will face major challenges in the coming decades. Global demand for primary energy is continuously increasing, as are its related environmental effects. On the other hand, the limited resources of especially oil and gas will lead to increasing price instability. Deregulation of energy markets is a challenge for the infrastructure. This deregulation is leading to restructuring of the energy market. States and owners of energy companies and energy policy decision-makers will find it difficult to play this double role. At European level and in Finland the biggest challenge is the attainment of the Kyoto target and then further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Renewables, nuclear power and growing imports of natural gas from Russia will play a crucial role in Finland. This presentation focuses on the development of the energy production technologies that are most important for Finland's energy supply and energy technology exports. In order to analyse the possible role of various emerging and evolving technologies in the future energy system of Finland, three scenarios has been created for a comprehensive energy system model. The model is based on a bottom-up, technology oriented representation of the energy system, including both the supply and end-use sector. Mathematically, the model is a quasi-dynamic linear optimisation model that stimulates the behaviour of energy-economic decision-making by minimising the total present value of all costs and other expenditures in the energy system during the entire time horizon under consideration. (BA)

  7. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  8. Biodiversity Hotspots and Visitor Flows in Oulanka National Park, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, K.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamaki, P.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oulanka National Park, Finland aims to ensure nature conservation while providing high quality visitor experiences. The growth of outdoor recreation and nature tourism, however, has fueled concern about consequent pressures on the natural resources of the park. This analysis assessed the spatial

  9. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L

    1982-01-01

    Stool weight and transit time through the gut were measured in 4 groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, randomly selected from populations in urban (Copenhagen) and rural (Them) Denmark and urban (Helsinki) and rural (Parikkala) Finland. These populations exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in risk for ...... of gastrointestinal illness, but neither of these variables related to bowel habit....

  10. Problematizing Finland's Pursuit of Intercultural (Kindergarten) Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Heidi; Dervin, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The argument that teachers should become ethical intercultural teachers is increasingly recognized as legitimate. This article presents a case study in kindergarten teacher education in Finland, a country that has been at the center of global discussions about quality education. The authors question the agenda for studying and teaching in an…

  11. School Autonomy, Leadership and Student Achievement: Reflections from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…

  12. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  14. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore; Varho, Vilja; Rikkonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. - Highlights: • We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. • Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. • Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. • Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition.

  15. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland. Annex I [Example of TSOs and their Interaction with Key Stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland was established January 16, 1942. In January 1, 2015 VTT was transformed into a limited liability company by the Act on the Limited Liability Company Called VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (8761/2014). VTT is a non-profit research and technology organisation. The Ministry of Employment and the Economy is responsible for state ownership steering. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd is a Finnish state-owned limited liability company. The liabilities and obligations of the company’s governing bodies are as defined in applicable Finnish law. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd as the parent company together with its subsidiary companies forms the VTT Group of companies. The tasks carried out by VTT to the Finnish Regulatory Body Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) or any other Regulatory Body as support to their licensing or any other regulatory function are 100 % funded by the Regulatory Body as a customer to VTT.

  16. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  17. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  18. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  19. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence

  20. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  1. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    , water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. Research and Environmental Surveillance Department (TKO) at STUK is a testing laboratory accredited by FINAS (Finnish Accreditation Service) under the registration number T167. The laboratory meets the requirements laid down in standard EN ISO / IEC 17025:2005. Almost all analyses in the radiation surveillance programme are made according to the accreditation requirements. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting.

  2. Nurses' perceptions of workplace culture in primary health care in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, N; Paavilainen, E; McCormack, B; Helminen, M; Slater, P; Suominen, T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture, especially in regard to stress levels, job satisfaction and the practice environment in primary health care. Health care is facing many challenges related to its attractiveness as a place of employment and the maintenance of a sufficient workforce supply. Previous studies report increasing rates of nurse job dissatisfaction and intentions to leave their current positions both in Finland and also globally. Improving workplace culture is thus vital in meeting the challenges related to recruitment and retention. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to describe nurses' perceptions of workplace culture. Data were collected by questionnaire from 22 units in nine primary healthcare organizations in Finland, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most of the respondents indicated that they were not certain whether their workplace culture was either positive or negative. Profession, age and work shift characteristics had an effect on the respondents' perceptions of workplace culture. Younger licensed practical and registered nurses assessed their workplace culture more positively, whereas older registered nurses and those working rotating rosters viewed workplace culture more negatively. The findings suggest that both unit and demographic characteristics affect workplace culture. This survey highlights that a positive workplace culture is one of the key factors in retaining and recruiting nurses, and provides an essential evidence that may be considered by other healthcare organizations. Nurse managers and healthcare leaders need to address workload management and take into account the related variables that affect a unit's workplace culture. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Finland covers an area of 337,000 skm. One third of the country lies north of the northern polar circle. 31,613 skm are covered by lakes. 71% of the landscape are covered by coniferous -wood. Climatlcal conditions are continental. The topography of the country is gently rolling with highest elevations of 300 m in the northern part. The most interesting geological units for uranium are Karelian, marginal meta-sediments, mainly quarzites and conglomerates but also schists. These schists are intruded by orogenlc plutonic rocks which are 1800-My-old. Potassium granites are common adjacent to the contact of the Pre-karelian basement (2500 My). In addition to these geological environment uranium and thorium minerals have been found in a large carbonatite in northern Finland, which is explored now

  4. When Finland was lost. Background, Course of Events and Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Edgren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1809 the loss of Finland has been discussed in different ways in Swedish history research. In the early 20th century the burst of the state was seen in a nationalistic perspective. It was said that the people in Sweden, or the “public opinion”, with despair and in a “nationalistic trauma” received the news bulletins from the peace agreement in Fredrikshamn 1809, which was interpreted the worst defeat ever in Swedish history. Nowadays researchers argue whether the loss of Finland really was seen as a nationalistic trauma in the early 19th century. The article first summarises the background of the war and the most important war episodes and then discusses the apprehension of a Sweden in national chock after the burst of the state.

  5. Economic hardship and suicide mortality in Finland, 1875-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Marko; Puhakka, Mikko; Viren, Matti

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the determinants of suicide in Finland using annual data for consumption and suicides from 1860 to 2010. Instead of using some ad hoc measures of cyclical movements of the economy, we build our analysis on a more solid economic theory. A key feature is the habit persistence in preferences, which provides a way to measure individual well-being and predict suicide. We estimate time series of habit levels and develop an indicator (the hardship index) to describe the economic hardship of consumers. The higher the level of the index, the worse off consumers are. As a rational response to such a bad situation, some consumers might commit suicide. We employ the autoregressive distributed lags cointegration method and find that our index works well in explaining the long-term behavior of people committing suicide in Finland.

  6. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  7. A new nuclear safety programme for areas adjacent to Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The projects aimed at improving nuclear and radiation safety in areas adjacent to Finland have been compiled into one programme. The purpose of the programme is to promote activities that minimise accident risks at nuclear power plants and that improve preparedness for situations involving a risk. Nuclear materials are also to be kept under strict control. In the last few years, nuclear and radiation safety has clearly improved in areas adjacent to Finland. But work is still needed to reduce the remaining risks. The Finnish support programme comprises two very definite functions. On one hand, the programme acts as a catalyst for projects launched by the Russians themselves or by the Western partners together, and strives to pave the way for international financing projects. On the other hand, assistance is given as direct support for certain hand-picked projects. (orig.)

  8. Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

  9. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    Finland has achieved some remarkable achievements in nuclear power production. Existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Although public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and no decisions for new nuclear plants can be made before next elections in 1991, the nuclear option is still open. Utility companies are maintaining readiness to start new construction immediately after a positive political decision is made. One important component of the good operation history of the Finnish nuclear power plants is connected to the continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work, which is proceeding in Finland. In the following a short description is given on recent activities related to the I and C-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 2 tabs

  11. Fear of AIDS and suicide in Finland: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Henriksson, M; Leinikki, P

    1995-01-01

    health care contacts than the others. Suicidal fear and underlying depression were not being properly identified and treated. Despite recent improvement in media reporting, health education and identification of depression, clinical experience, help line calls and population surveys indicate that AIDS......This review presents data on HIV epidemiology and suicide mortality, and summarizes studies on fear of AIDS in completed suicides in Finland. Finland has a low prevalence of HIV and a high suicide mortality. A 12-month nationwide suicide population, 1987-88 (n = 1397, all HIV negative) at the time...... of a sensational media campaign against HIV included 28 (2%) cases with fear of AIDS as a contributing factor. Triggers of fear could be classified in 20 cases: persistent symptoms in 10, casual sex contacts in eight, and a TV programme in two. The AIDS fear cases were younger, had more major depression and more...

  12. Knowledge and Life-Experiences: Finland Seen through Its Libraries and Information Services = Kunskap och Upplevelser: Finland som BDI-land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksovirta, Tuula H.; Haavisto, Tuula

    This illustrated publication, printed in both English and Finnish, describes Finland's libraries and information services. Topics covered include: (1) library users; (2) the conceptual role of the library; (3) the growth and development of the library system through Finland's agrarian, industrial, and budding infotech social phases; (4) the…

  13. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  14. Radioactivity of foodstuffs in Finland in 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1991-06-01

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium in foodstuffs of agricultural origin were surveyed in Finland in 1987 - 1988. The nationwide survey was a continuation to an earlier foodstuff monitoring programme, which was extended both areally and by the types of foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of the programme was to give information for dose assessment and on temporal changes and regional differences in the contents of fallout radionuclides in foodstuffs

  15. Evaluating private security sector market perceptions in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Santonen, Teemu; Paasonen, Jyri

    2015-01-01

    The role and signifi cance of private security services have grown in many countries, since traditional tasks of security authorities are being outsourced. The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the perceptions of the private security market in Finland. As a result, we identifi ed three different future scenarios for the Finnish private security market, including(1) international success via innovations, (2) success via domestic markets, and (3) pessimistic success vision. It appea...

  16. Power engineers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    The Estonian delegation had been invited by Helsinki Energy to participate in the Nordic-Baltic District Heating Symposium. Distance heating enjoys a wide popularity in the Nordic countries. For heating purposes the use of biofuels, incl. peat, is highly recommended. Biofuels have found wide use in the Nordic countries, the share of peat being more considerable in Finland. The Estonians attended also the MODIS Workshop and made a visit to heat enterprises. (author)

  17. Crisis Management in the Hotel Industry in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Object of this thesis is Crisis Management in the Hotel Industry in Finland and is prepared in order to present the situation and the acting of hotel managers nowadays to guarantee guests a safe and secur stay and to rise the awareness among hoteliers towards crises as well as amongst employees, investors, stakeholders, authorities, and students from hospitality related fields. Main topic of this research is crisis management and concerns the process of developing a crisis management plan...

  18. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  19. Ethnic and gender discrimination in recruitment: experimental evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Liebkind, Karmela; Larja, Lisa; Brylka, Asteria Anna

    2016-01-01

    We ask (1) how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority) group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2) whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1), 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on ...

  20. Racialization, Othering, and Coping Among Adult International Adoptees in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koskinen, Maarit

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative interview study examined experiences of racialization and coping among 14 adult international adoptees in Finland. The results show that adoptees encounter a range of racializations by which they are made ‘other’ and excluded from Finnishness. Racialization mostly occurs indirectly and subtly, and often by significant others, and consequently is more difficult to cope with. The findings suggest that the Finnish adoption community and adoption research should pa...

  1. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  2. E-sport organization and professional gamers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...

  3. Are we assessing correctly our students? Spain versus Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Miñano, María del Mar; Del Campo, Cristina; Pascual-Ezama, David; Urquia-Grande, Elena; Rivero, Carlos; Akpinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to analyse the comparison of coursework and final examination between Finland and Spain to test if there are differences in assessment methodologies; second, to study whether there are different factors (such as gender, age, subject, students’ motivation, and preferences) that have an impact on the assessment of students from the two countries. The final grades obtained by 117 freshmen enrolled on the Statistics and/or Financial ...

  4. Snow bands over the Gulf of Finland in wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large shore-parallel, quasi-stationary snow bands are occasionally observed over the Gulf of Finland during wintertime when the sea is not frozen. On the basis of Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model experiments and radar observations of snow bands formed in January 2006 and February 2012, we show that their dynamics share common characteristics: (1 the sea gulf that produces the known lake effect, (2 cold easterly large-scale flow along the gulf and (3 a cold local flow from the two near and opposite coastlines of Estonia and Finland in the form of two land-breeze cells which collide offshore. The associated fronts, which have strong rising motions, are maintained by the convergence of the land-breeze cells. In addition to these factors, the concave shape of the coast in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland promotes offshore convergence and the formation of several secondary bands of precipitation that are adjacent to the eastern part of the main band. When the easterlies turn to southerlies, horizontal convective rolls appear over the sea. The Estonian land breeze is enhanced while the cold air remains stagnant inland over the Finnish coast, acting as an orographic barrier lifting the marine air mass upwards. Consequently, a line of convective precipitation composed of several cells is formed along the Finnish coast. In both events, the simulations also show two low-level jets generated by the combined effects of the land-breeze cells and baroclinicity over the coast of Finland and Estonia.

  5. Developing a new service for organizing social events in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Titikshya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a new service concept for people living in Finland by using service design methods. In this busy world, people frequently have no time to organize events on their own. Therefore, service design tools and methodology will be used as foundational pillars for the case company in this thesis in developing solutions for this issue, as well as bringing customer satisfaction from service delivery. This service concept is designed to save time and simplify the...

  6. Plans to expand nuclear power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Finnish Government made in January 2002 a Decision in Principle which concludes that constructing of a new nuclear power plant in Finland is in line with the overall good of the society. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2002. Based on this decision, the electricity generating company TVO is authorised to continue preparations for the construction of a new nuclear power plant unit

  7. COCA-COLA FINLAND – KALUSTESUUNNITELMA UUSIIN TOIMITILOIHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Luoti, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Coca-Cola Finland muutti vanhoista tiloistaan Helsingistä Sinebrychoffin tehtaalle Keravalle. Uusista tiloista haluttiin tyylikkäät ja brandin mukaiset, sillä tiloissa vierailee myös asiakkaita. Coca-Cola Finlandin uusien toimitilojen suunnittelussa yrityksen brandin huomioiminen onkin ollut tärkeää. Suunnitelmassa on keskitytty mittatilaus kalusteiden suunnitteluun, mutta työ sisältää myös visuaalisien elementtien suunnittelua. Suunnitteluprosessin aikana on tutkittu Coca-Colaa yritykse...

  8. Sharing Economy in Travel and Tourism: Finland vs. Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ullah, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...

  9. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  10. The Feasibility of Solar Panel Leasing in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse the feasibility of solar panel leasing in Finland. The research was conducted using the exploratory research design, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data. The data was collected from secondary sources, e.g. industry reports, government publications, and newspaper articles. During the literature review, methods for answering the thesis question were recognized. The chosen method was to analyse the market and industry feasibility, product or ser...

  11. Defining Marketing Strategies For Vihreä Tekno Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Manzari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define marketing strategies for Vihreä Tekno, a company in Vantaa, Finland. The company runs several businesses such as providing IT services, website designing, business/loyalty cards, professional logo design, PC repairs and installations, mobile application development, translation services, cleaning services, advertising and distribution services, billing/invoicing systems and so forth. In this thesis, the author analyzed the company’s current s...

  12. Tentative novel lyssavirus in a bat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T

    2018-06-01

    A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Development of slow pyrolysis business operations in Finland - Hidaspyro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernas, L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    Birch distillate, a by-product in slow pyrolysis process of charcoal production, was found to be a promising source for biological pesticides. However, product commercialization was problematic, for EU registration is costly, and composition, active ingredients and ecotoxicological properties were not known. In addition, constant quality and process optimisation were needed. More collaboration between SMEs and research institutes was required. The primary aim was to support and develop slow pyrolysis business operations of SMEs in Finland by generating knowledge that was needed.

  14. Investigating Teacher Leadership in ECE Centres in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Heikka, Johanna; Halttunen, Leena; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the enactment of teacher leadership in early childhood education (ECE) centres in Finland. Theoretically, the study was informed by the emerging scholarship of early childhood distributed pedagogical leadership and school based research on teacher leadership as well as classical theorizing of ECE leadership. Staff from three ECE centres participated as a purposive sample of informants in this study. The study involved participative observations of ECE sta...

  15. Developing the implementation of green warehousing at IKEA Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Minh

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has become an increasingly important trend in supply chain management recently. The green warehouse, a crucial element in the sustainable supply chain, should be implemented strategically and efficiently. The thesis aims to develop the implementation of green warehousing at IKEA Finland with three investigative questions (IQs). The research examines the IKEA’s current warehouse sustainability with a focus on energy efficiency (IQ1), waste management (IQ2) and creates develo...

  16. A Business Plan of Teahouse in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zelu

    2013-01-01

    By studying what is a business plan, this paper introduces how to make a business plan with a real life case, starting a teashop business in Helsinki, Finland. It was started by studying how to make a business plan, which includes the structure of a business plan, such as operational planning, marketing planning and financial planning. It is the internal and external analysis that determines the corporate strategy, corporate strategy determines marketing strategy and operational strategy, ope...

  17. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6.5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40% at terminals

  18. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  19. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips. stump wood chips, and chips from small-sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6,5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40 % at terminals. (orig.)

  20. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  1. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Mustonen, R.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  2. Forecasting forest chip energy production in Finland 2008-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy measures aim to increase energy production from forest chips in Finland to 10 TWh by year 2010. However, on the regional level production differences are large, and the regional estimates of the potential base of raw materials for the production of forest chips are heterogeneous. In order to analyse the validity of the above target, two methods are proposed to derive forecasts for region-level energy production from forest chips in Finland in the years 2008-2014. The plant-level data from 2003-2007 gives a starting point for a detailed statistical analysis of present and future region-level forest chip production. Observed 2008 regional levels are above the estimated prediction 95% confidence intervals based on aggregation of plant-level time averages. A simple time trend model with fixed-region effects provides accurate forecasts for the years 2008-2014. Forest chip production forecast confidence intervals cover almost all regions for the 2008 levels and the estimates of potential production levels for 2014. The forecast confidence intervals are also derived with re-sampling methods, i.e. with bootstrap methods, to obtain more reliable results. Results confirm that a general materials shortfall is not expected in the near future for forest chip energy production in Finland.

  3. Forestry-service entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, A.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of forestry-service enterprise used in this joint study by the TTS-Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) refers to enterprises and co-operatives (including forest workers operating as entrepreneurs) offering services in the fields of silviculture, basic improvement, planning and wood-harvesting sector. Companies practicing large-scale wood-conversion and traditional forestry-machine and road haulage contractors are not included in this approach. Contact information on the entrepreneurs was collected by turning to the leading wood suppliers, local forest management associations and different registers. A mail questionnaire was launched in the spring of 1998 addressed to 553 persons, and responses were obtained from 376 (68 %). Of these, 320 persons were forestry-service entrepreneurs meeting the definition applied in this study. It can be estimated that there is a total of 450 such entrepreneurs in the country. Those engaged in only a minor degree in providing forestry services are not included in the figure. Almost all forestry-service entrepreneurs provide timber felling as a service. Over half of them do planting, cleaning of young stands, tending of young stands, and forest haulage of timber. Forestry planning is done by nearly a quarter. With the focus of operations as calculated from the enterprise's turnover serving as the basis, it became apparent that the majority of entrepreneurship takes place in the form of logging. The means of transport is mostly an agricultural tractor. The average age of entrepreneurs is 41, but most of them have switched to entrepreneurship only recently. Nearly a third have college level education in forestry, 39 % have switched over from their previous occupation of forest worker. Most entrepreneurs are full-time, private practitioners. Their median turnover in 1997 was FIM 180 000. Nonindustrial private forest owners form the clientele for 82 % of the entrepreneurs, while local forest management

  4. TRIGA reactor to be introduced for therapy. Uudentyyppinen saedehoito aivokasvainten hoitoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiisimaeki, P.; Kallio, M.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility to use the FIR-1 (TRIGA) reactor located in Espoo (in Finland) as a neutron source for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a medical treatment method for gliomas in brains, is discussed in the article.

  5. Peat Research Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The VTT Seminar on Peat Research was held in Espoo, Finland, on April 14-15, 1993. The programme consisted of technical session on Peat in Energy Production, Peat Research Programs, Peat Production and Harvesting Technology

  6. Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huldén, Lena; Huldén, Larry

    2008-09-08

    A sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among Finnish troops in SE-Finland and along the front line in Hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during World War II. The common explanation has been an invasion of infective Anopheles mosquitoes from the Russian troops crossing the front line between Finland and Soviet Union. A revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of Finnish malaria. The exact start of the epidemic and the phenology of malaria cases among the Finnish soldiers were reanalyzed. The results were compared with the declining malaria in Finland. A comparison with a corresponding situation starting in the 1990's in Korea was performed. The malaria cases occurred in July in 1941 when it was by far too early for infective mosquitoes to be present. The first Anopheles mosquitoes hatched at about the same time as the first malaria cases were observed among the Finnish soldiers. It takes about 3-6 weeks for the completion of the sporogony in Finland. The new explanation is that soldiers in war conditions were suddenly exposed to uninfected mosquitoes and those who still were carriers of hypnozoites developed relapses triggered by these mosquitoes. It is estimated that about 0.5% of the Finnish population still were carriers of hypnozoites in the 1940's. A corresponding outbreak of vivax malaria in Korea in the 1990's is similarly interpreted as relapses from activated hypnozoites among Korean soldiers. The significance of the mosquito induced relapses is emphasized by two benefits for the Plasmodium. There is a synchronous increase of gametocytes when new mosquitoes emerge. It also enables meiotic recombination between different strains of the Plasmodium. The malaria peak during the positional warfare in the 1940's was a short outbreak during the last phase of declining indigenous malaria in Finland. The activation of hypnozoites among a large number of soldiers and subsequent medication contributed to diminishing the reservoir of malaria

  7. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, Terhi; Huuskonen-Snicker, Eeva; Olkkonen, Martta-Kaisa; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used in Finland since 1980's for civil engineering applications. First applications in this field were road surveys and dam inspections. Common GPR applications in road surveys include the thickness evaluation of the pavement, subgrade soil evaluation and evaluation of the soil moisture and frost susceptibility. Since the 1990's, GPR has been used in combination with other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods in road surveys. Recently, more GPR applications have been adopted, such as evaluating bridges, tunnels, railways and concrete elements. Nowadays, compared with other countries GPR is relatively widely used in Finland for road surveys. Quite many companies, universities and research centers in Finland have their own GPR equipment and are involved in the teaching and research of the GPR method. However, further research and promotion of the GPR techniques are still needed since GPR could be used more routinely. GPR has been used to evaluate the air void content of asphalt pavements for years. Air void content is an important quality measure of pavement condition for both the new and old asphalt pavements. The first Finnish guideline was released in 1999 for the method. Air void content is obtained from the GPR data by measuring the dielectric value as continuous record. To obtain air void content data, few pavement cores must be taken for calibration. Accuracy of the method is however questioned because there are other factors that affect the dielectric value of the asphalt layer, in addition to the air void content. Therefore, a research project is currently carried out at Aalto University in Finland. The overall objective is to investigate if the existing GPR technique used in Finland is accurate enough to be used as QC/QA tool in assessing the compaction of asphalt pavements. The project is funded by the Finnish Transport Agency. Further research interests at Aalto University include developing new microwave asphalt

  8. Meeting Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-01

    Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.

  9. Research ethics committees in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.

  10. Starting a Small Business in Tampere Region in Finland : Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigalkin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in Finland, there are a lot of people who are searching for a job. Also, there are opportunities for opening a new business which provides better quality or cheaper service. Such findings can lead someone to create his own workplace and reduce the level of unemployment. Repair, maintenance, and service of a passenger car are very expensive in Finland, especially in central and southern parts of Finland. The author assumes that there is a possibility to provide the described servi...

  11. Establishment of a Clothing Company in Finland Based on a University Brand Case: LAMK Apparel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Biliba, Arsenii; Mishchenko, Nikita

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to assist LAMK Apparel Company in its entry into the clothing market, in Finland. Based on country analysis of the two target countries (Russia and Finland), its original business idea is developed together with innovative concepts. Accordingly, the business plan is created to describe an applicable development way for the idea. The authors focus on the process of establishing a clothing company in Finland based on a university brand through the implementation of a business p...

  12. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    I should like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 25th June 2003 at 11.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 to give a report on the outcome of the June Meetings of Council and its Committees. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the AB Auditorium (Meyrin - bldg. 6), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Luciano Maiani Director General

  13. Vanhan Suomen arkistot : arkiven från Gamla Finland / Kari Takiainen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarkiainen, Kari, 1938-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Vanhan Suomen arkistot: arkiven från Gamla Finland, toimittaneet Eljas Orman, Jyrki Paaskoski, Arkistolaitoksen yleiluettelo VI, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden seuran toimituksia, 1385 (Porvoo 2012), 400 lk.

  14. Report on joint ecogeochemical mapping and monitoring in the West Murmansk Region and the contiguous areas of Finland and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekushin, V.A.; Bogatyrev, I.V.; Finne, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    A series of meetings between the Central Kola Survey Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway in 1991-1992 led to the implementation of a pilot project of a joint ecogeochemical study of the impacts of industrial activities on the terrestrial systems of West Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in Finland and Norway. The main aims of this pilot project were to harmonize methods of sampling, preparation, analysis, data treatment and interpretation, focusing on heavy metals and radionuclides. A small area in the three-country field, including Nikel, Zapoljarny and Kirkenes was chosen as test territory. Experiences of the pilot project should form a base for planning a major project to cover some 170000 km 2 in the three countries. Snow cover, terrestrial moss, A 0 -horizon, A 0+2 -horizon, C-horizon, stream water, stream sediments and overbank sediments were used as sampling medias, with 15 sites in each country. A data quality assessment was carried out, and maps of pollutant elements clearly delineate patterns similar to those found by other workers. There is no indication that C-horizon is affected, but results of overbank sediments indicate that there are abnormal conditions with regards to the sediment transport and chemistry in the ''industrial desert''. Results of 134,137 Cs determinations in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil profile show no alarming levels. An attempt at modelling the flux of contaminants has also been made. 29 refs., 54 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  16. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  17. Non-advertising program in promoting nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, Antti

    1989-01-01

    In Finland, there are two nuclear power plants with four reactors totalling about 2 200 MWe. The oldest reactor has been operating just over ten years. In the Finnish power supply the share of nuclear power makes up one third. The optimum would be about 40%. Based on energy and nuclear attitude surveys showed that these issues are not independent in the society. Quite the opposite, the nuclear attitudes especially are tightly connected to general views like the pessimism toward the future, the credibility of large institutions, or politics, the acceptability of continuous economic growth, etc. The role of technical or economic facts, we engineers love, is found to be small, too. To change people's nuclear attitude one should be able to influence all the complex issues related to nuclear power. In theory, this is possible by ads. In that case the campaigning ought to be huge, it should last for years, and still would have basic question marks. The first question is how credible people see ads, in general, and, especially, in case of highly disputed and societal issues. Although there have been some educational ad campaigns in Finland, nuclear campaign would be a step to the unknown. Knowing that the nuclear attitudes are tightly connected to very many and quite stable societal views, and seeing the basic difficulties with ads, it is clear to me that there is no other way of promoting nuclear energy than a long and continuous public debate involving. Referring to the nuclear attitude survey results in Finland, advertising is not the solution to win the public confidence. Nuclear industry must be active in other ways than promoting nuclear power by advertising. This was the Finnish opinion. The nuclear issue is national in the sense that no country can copy models from other countries without carefully considering the local circumstances. So, in other countries there may be situations where other kinds of actions are called for

  18. Non-advertising program in promoting nuclear power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuskanen, Antti [Department of Information, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) (Finland)

    1989-07-01

    In Finland, there are two nuclear power plants with four reactors totalling about 2 200 MWe. The oldest reactor has been operating just over ten years. In the Finnish power supply the share of nuclear power makes up one third. The optimum would be about 40%. Based on energy and nuclear attitude surveys showed that these issues are not independent in the society. Quite the opposite, the nuclear attitudes especially are tightly connected to general views like the pessimism toward the future, the credibility of large institutions, or politics, the acceptability of continuous economic growth, etc. The role of technical or economic facts, we engineers love, is found to be small, too. To change people's nuclear attitude one should be able to influence all the complex issues related to nuclear power. In theory, this is possible by ads. In that case the campaigning ought to be huge, it should last for years, and still would have basic question marks. The first question is how credible people see ads, in general, and, especially, in case of highly disputed and societal issues. Although there have been some educational ad campaigns in Finland, nuclear campaign would be a step to the unknown. Knowing that the nuclear attitudes are tightly connected to very many and quite stable societal views, and seeing the basic difficulties with ads, it is clear to me that there is no other way of promoting nuclear energy than a long and continuous public debate involving. Referring to the nuclear attitude survey results in Finland, advertising is not the solution to win the public confidence. Nuclear industry must be active in other ways than promoting nuclear power by advertising. This was the Finnish opinion. The nuclear issue is national in the sense that no country can copy models from other countries without carefully considering the local circumstances. So, in other countries there may be situations where other kinds of actions are called for.

  19. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  20. Geological site selection studies in Precambrian crystalline rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.

    1988-01-01

    In general geological investigations made since 1977 the Finnish crystalline bedrock has been determined to be suitable for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. Regional investigations have been mainly based on already existing geological studies. Special attention has been paid on the international geological Finland as the Baltic Shield is stiff and stable and situated far outside the zones of volcanic and seismic activity. The present day crustal movements in Finland are related to landuplift process. Movements and possible faults in the bedrock follow fracture zones which devide the bedrock into mosaiclike blocks. As compared to small scale geological maps the bedrock blocks are often indicated as large granite rock formations which are less broken than the surrounding rocks, though the age of granite formations is at least 1500 millions of years. The large bedrock blocks (20-300 km 2 ) are divided to smaller units by different magnitudes of fractures and these smaller bedrock units (5-20 km 2 ) have been selected for further site selection investigations. At the first stage of investigations 327 suitable regional bedrock blocks have been identified on the basis of Landsat-1 winter and summer mosaics of Finland. After two years of investigations 134 investigation areas were selected inside 61 bedrock blocks and classified to four priority classes, the three first of which were redommended for further investigations. Geological criteries used in classification indicated clear differences between the classes one and three, however all classified areas are situated in large rather homogenous bedrock blocks and more exact three dimensional suitability errors may not be observed until deep bore holes have been made

  1. Sustainable Living in Finland: Combating Climate Change in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto O. Salonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland aims to be a carbon-neutral society by the year 2050. We are interested to know on a general level how sustainable living materializes among Finnish people, what is the structure of a sustainable lifestyle in Finland and how do people reason about their everyday behavior choices in the context of sustainability in order to combat climate change. The data (n = 2052 were collected by questionnaire in April 2017. They were corrected by sex, age and residential area to be representative of the population of Finland (18–79 years old. We applied mixed methods. A principal axis factoring was conducted on the 32 variables with orthogonal rotation (varimax. Six factors explained 65.2% of the variance. The respondents were also able to write why they considered the specific variable to be important for them. We classified 2811 reasonings. According to our results, Finns have become conscious of climate change, but carbon reduction has not become mainstream in their everyday life. Circulation and preventing loss of materials show a promising start to a Finn’s sustainable way of living. Recycling has been automated so that it is part of a Finn’s everyday routine and habits. Finns also favor domestic food and products. They are interested in the origin of materials. Essential reasons for that are supporting the local economy and ensuring a good employment rate for the state. Smart, carbon-free mobility is a challenge. Finns seem to estimate that their personal car use is already at the proper level. On the other hand, even one fifth reported consideration of environmental effects when planning holidays.

  2. Additive Manufacturing in Finland: Recommendations for a Renewed Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Salmi, Mika; Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    The objective of this research is to define an optimal innovation policy and funding strategy to improve Additive Manufacturing (AM) capabilities in Finnish companies. To do so, we present an international review of innovation programs in the area of AM. In addition, the study replied upon a survey prepared to evaluate factors for AM implementation. The ultimate goal is to help in the definition of a national policy strategy in the area of AM based on the characteristics of the Finnish industrial ecosystem. The methodology and data collection method involved defining the taxonomy of Finnish AM industry. The target group of the survey was a population of AM experts, and individuals with knowledge on AM and industrial processes. Overall, the survey revealed that research and innovation activities are well positioned in Finland. In order for future innovation policies to further support developments in the field, we estimated that policy strategies need to generate about 6-8 M€/year in national and EU- funding instruments for AM technology transfer, development, and innovation activities. Efforts should be targeted towards strengthening uses of AM in final production. In fact, only 36% of Finnish respondents declared to use AM for final production, while leading countries in AM use it in average more than 50%. Another area in need of development in Finland is the use of AM high performance materials. Moreover, outsourcing of AM services in Finland is 23 percentage point higher in national and 13 percentage point higher in international outsourcing to service bureaus and suppliers. In this regard, future policies and funding strategies should maintain the created momentum. However, there is a need to acquire high-end research and industrial equipment to stimulate AM integration to the existing production systems. This in the end can trigger the creation of new products, processes and intellectual property, enabling innovation and competitive advantage.

  3. Prospects of nuclear power in Finland. A joint study by the IAEA and the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-12-01

    Nuclear power is one of the most important practical applications of atomic energy and a major function of the Agency is to further its development. It became apparent in the Agency's early studies in this field that too often the economics of nuclear power were discussed in general terms and without reference to the multitude of conditions governing each specific power situation, which vary widely from country to country and even within a given country. It was also found that the few specific studies which existed had been carried out in countries where it had already been decided to establish a nuclear power station or even to embark on a full-scale nuclear power program. It was therefore considered that the prospects of nuclear power throughout the world could be realistically assessed only on the basis of a series of studies of as wide a range of different actual situations as possible. At its fourth regular session, the General Conference of the Agency adopted a resolution calling for the continuation of nuclear power surveys in Member States at their request. The Government of Finland invited the Agency to participate in a study of the prospects of nuclear power in Finland during the next decade. The desire of the Government of Finland was, on the one hand, to benefit from the specialized experience of the Agency, and on the other, to make a contribution to the Agency's program of furthering the development of nuclear power. We fully appreciate the value of this contribution and consider it very important for the Agency's program that this first nuclear power study has been undertaken together with a Member State which has long experience in conventional power planning and has consistently looked at nuclear power within the general context of the problem of meeting her growing power needs. The Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the Agency's participation in the study and work began in March 1960. A joint study group was set

  4. Prospects of nuclear power in Finland. A joint study by the IAEA and the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the most important practical applications of atomic energy and a major function of the Agency is to further its development. It became apparent in the Agency's early studies in this field that too often the economics of nuclear power were discussed in general terms and without reference to the multitude of conditions governing each specific power situation, which vary widely from country to country and even within a given country. It was also found that the few specific studies which existed had been carried out in countries where it had already been decided to establish a nuclear power station or even to embark on a full-scale nuclear power program. It was therefore considered that the prospects of nuclear power throughout the world could be realistically assessed only on the basis of a series of studies of as wide a range of different actual situations as possible. At its fourth regular session, the General Conference of the Agency adopted a resolution calling for the continuation of nuclear power surveys in Member States at their request. The Government of Finland invited the Agency to participate in a study of the prospects of nuclear power in Finland during the next decade. The desire of the Government of Finland was, on the one hand, to benefit from the specialized experience of the Agency, and on the other, to make a contribution to the Agency's program of furthering the development of nuclear power. We fully appreciate the value of this contribution and consider it very important for the Agency's program that this first nuclear power study has been undertaken together with a Member State which has long experience in conventional power planning and has consistently looked at nuclear power within the general context of the problem of meeting her growing power needs. The Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the Agency's participation in the study and work began in March 1960. A joint study group was set

  5. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  6. IMPLEMENTING HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS IN FINLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sihvo, Sinikka; Ikonen, Tuija; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods Program (MUMM) started 10 years ago as a joint venture of the Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) and the twenty hospital districts in Finland. The aim is to offer information on the effectiveness, safety, organizational...... in decision making. Conclusions: HTA-based MUMM recommendations were well received by physicians but in practice they are less used than clinical practice guidelines. Short-form electronic surveys were a useful way of gathering information about awareness and implementation. The surveys also functioned...... as another method of informing key physicians about the recommendations....

  7. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E.; Kahlbom, U.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2011-02-01

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant sense of

  8. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjulehto, T.; Saxen, L.; Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Arvela, H.

    1991-01-01

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

  9. Mood and food at the University of Turku in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined perceived stress and food intake at University of Turku, Finland. METHODS: This study was conducted as an online survey (1189 students). We computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence...... to healthy weight students. Sweets, cookies and snacks consumption were not associated with stress. Stress was associated with lower subjective importance of healthy eating, independent of gender and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress might have relationships of different magnitudes in overweight vs. normal...

  10. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  11. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  12. Inclusive education in Finland: present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, S; Zumberg, M

    1994-12-01

    The movement to integrate special education students into normal school classes started to develop in Finland in the 1960s. At the same time, the number of students labeled "special" in the Finnish comprehensive school system exploded from 2% to 17% of all school children. Presently, 84% of all special education placements are part-time placements. Special schools and special classes comprise 15% of all special education placements, while full inclusion is only 1% of all special education placements. Some factors affecting the current integration of special students and the development of integration are discussed.

  13. Inventory of volatile organic compound emissions in Finland, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroueh, U.M.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compile an inventory of the emissions of volatile organic compounds in Finland for the year 1985. The report was prepared for the ECE Task Force on Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Stationary Sources according to the classification given by the Task Force. It considers anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Mobile sources are excluded. The quantities as well as the main components are listed, as far as possible. The values given exclude methane which according to the present understanding is regarded as unreactive

  14. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others: Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  15. Work-Family Interference: Nurses in Norway and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Bente; Holte, Kari Anne; Laine, Marjukka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the level of work–family inter-ference (WFI) for part-time nurses in Norway and Finland. Part-time work is usually cited as a desirable way in which to facilitate work and family harmony. However, the opportunity to work part-time in professions may be associated with greater difficulties and challenges than commonly presumed. Part-time professionals are often stigmatized as being less committed to work and report fewer job rewards than colleagu...

  16. Estimation of wind power potential of the Gulf of Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monzikova, Anna K.; Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2013-01-01

    boundary layer. Calculations of the wind power potential take into account effect of the atmospheric stratification over the water surface and peculiarities of the surface roughness in the presence of ice cover. Evaluations of the number of wind turbines needed to «replace» electricity production......An assessment of wind power potential of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its seasonal variations are presented. Measurements taken from meteorological stations around the coastline are used as the input data. Calculations are based on the similarity theory for the atmospheric planetary...

  17. Justifications of national gambling policies in France and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marionneau Virve

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – The principles of free trade and free circulation of services within the European Union have created pressures to make the strictly controlled European gambling markets more open. According to the Court of Justice of the European Union, restrictions on gambling are only allowed if they are justified in admissible terms of consumer protection, prevention of criminal activity and protection of public order. This study compares the gambling laws of two European societies, France and Finland, to analyse how their legal frames of gambling have been adjusted to these principles.

  18. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  19. Farm Entrepreneurs’ Intentions to Develop Pluriactive Business Activities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Niemelä

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the entrepreneurial intentions literature by applying the theory of planned behaviour and resource-based views to the model of active entrepreneurs’ intention to develop their pluriactive usinesses. Using our 2012 survey data from farm firms in Finland, we address the limited focus on active ntrepreneurs and their intentions to develop on-going income-generating, off-farm related business activities. We found that attitudinal proxy antecedents such as innovation, cooperation and growth for pluriactivity differ for active and non-active entrepreneurs and with respect to the entrepreneurs’ age and production line and innovation behaviour.

  20. Viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla : Case: Sony Music Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kerminen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tekijät Satu Kerminen Ryhmä tai aloitusvuosi 2007 Opinnäytetyön nimi Viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla Case: Sony Music Finland Sivu- ja liitesivumäärä 37 + 7 Ohjaaja Mirja Jaakkola Tämä raportti on Haaga-Helia Ammattikorkeakoululle tehty opinnäytetyö. Opinnäytetyö on osa IT-tradenomin tutkintoa. Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on viraalimarkkinointi web-sivustoilla. Aihetta tutkittiin suunnittelemalla ja toteuttamalla viraalimarkkinointisivusto Sony ...

  1. Spatial scaling of regional strategic programmes in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Inkinen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    framework. Spatial scales proved to be a black box for regional strategies in Finland. Regional strategic programmes use a similar language that ignores the spatial variations of their locations. Clusters and regional innovation systems should be considered as parts of vertical and horizontal interlinkages...... within the economy and not as individual islands of organizational proximities in isolated contexts. It is argued here that an imprecise understanding of the innovation systems and cluster approaches, both conceptually and practically, has led to some ambiguity, resulting in the use of these terms...

  2. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan

  3. Self-evaluation on Capacity Building in Finland: Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, Jaana; Aurela, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned: • In Finland the most important result of the CB self-evaluation was the process itself. Commitment to this work and results by the experts and organizations are very important. • There should be a broad cooperation in the national capacity building work. • Complicated queries end in thin catch - also endless patience is needed. • All definitions should be agreed and the rules should be clear (plans of the organizations). Quality takes time. • Reserve enough time and resources. In the Finnish case the national effort forced MEE to leave important international projects aside. • It pays to be active with media also during the Self-Assessment

  4. State-Based Curriculum-Making: Approaches to Local Curriculum Work in Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølstad, Christina Elde

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how state authorities in Norway and Finland design national curriculum to provide different policy conditions for local curriculum work in municipalities and schools. The topic is explored by comparing how national authorities in Norway and Finland create a scope for local curriculum. The data consist of interviews with…

  5. The Swedish "People's School" in Finland and the Language Question: Homogenization and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sven-Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an historical overview of issues around the language of instruction and the curriculum of mother-tongue education for the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland during the half-century after the establishment of the public school in 1866. In a linguistic- and culturally-diverse society like that of Finland it has not been…

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Primary Teacher Professionalism in England and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Hamalainen, Seppo; Sarja, Anneli; Kimonen, Eija; Nevalainen, Raimo

    2004-01-01

    Policy-makers' conceptions of teacher professionalism currently differ markedly in England and Finland. In England they are shaped by agendas associated with the drive to raise standards and "commercialized professionalism" whilst in Finland they are influenced by notions of "teacher empowerment". This article analyses findings…

  7. 77 FR 14733 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-405-803, A-421-811] Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland and the Netherlands: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland and the Netherlands covering the period July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. See...

  8. Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides deposited on peat and urban surfaces in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, A.

    1992-10-01

    In the thesis the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on Finland was studied in three aspects: (1) the areal distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Finland was determined by measuring peat samples, (2) the behaviour of fallout radionuclides was investigated in the combustion of peat in power plants, and (3) the removal rates of fallout radionuclides on urban surfaces were resolved

  9. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  10. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Aaltonen, H.; Mustonen, R.; Taipale, T.K.; Juutilainen, J.

    1987-06-01

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  11. Medication calculation skills of graduating nursing students in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandell-Niemi, H; Hupli, M; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the basic mathematical proficiency and the medication calculation skills of graduating nursing students in Finland. A further concern was with how students experienced the teaching of medication calculation. We wanted to find out whether these experiences were associated with various background factors and the students' medication calculation skills. In spring 1997 the population of graduating nursing students in Finland numbered around 1280; the figure for the whole year was 2640. A convenience sample of 204 students completed a questionnaire specially developed for this study. The instrument included structured questions, statements and a medication calculation test. The response rate was 88%. Data analysis was based on descriptive statistics. The students found it hard to learn mathematics and medication calculation skills. Those who evaluated their mathematical and medication calculation skills as sufficient successfully solved the problems included in the questionnaire. It was felt that the introductory course on medication calculation was uninteresting and poorly organised. Overall the students' mathematical skills were inadequate. One-fifth of the students failed to pass the medication calculation test. A positive correlation was shown between the student's grade in mathematics (Sixth Form College) and her skills in medication calculation.

  12. Forensic age assessment of asylum seekers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsäniitty, Mari; Varkkola, Olli; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Ranta, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays. Forensic age assessment is always performed by two forensic odontologists. In 2015, the total number of forensic age assessment examinations was 149, and the countries of origin of the asylum seekers were most commonly Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia. The current legislation on forensic age assessment has been well received and approved. Radiological and other examinations can be performed in different parts of Finland, but the forensic odontologist at the University of Helsinki is always involved in the process and ensures joint quality standards for the forensic age assessment.

  13. Small-Sized Whole-Tree Harvesting in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    In Finland, there are two mechanized harvesting systems used for small diameter (d{sub 1.3}= 10 cm) thinning wood: 1) the traditional two-machine (harvester and forwarder) system, and 2) the harwarder system (i.e. the same machine performs both felling and haulage to the roadside). At present, there are more than 20 energy wood harwarders in use in Finland. However, there have been no comprehensive studies carried out on the energy wood harwarders. This paper looks into the productivity results obtained with energy wood harwarders. In addition, the energy wood harvesting costs for harwarders are compared with those of the two-machine system. The results clearly indicated what kind of machine resources can be profitably allocated to different whole-tree harvesting sites. The energy wood harwarders should be directed towards harvesting sites where the forwarding distances are small, the trees harvested are relatively small, and the total volume of energy wood removed is quite low. Respectively, when the stem size removed is relatively large in young stands, and the forest haulage distances are long, the traditional two-machine system is more competitive.

  14. Trends in radiology in Finland between 1995 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, Arvi; Jaervinen, Hannu; Soimakallio, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of a joint nomenclature, i.e., the examination coding system used in Finland, for making a nationwide summary of the radiological examinations and interventional procedures. Another objective was to find trends in radiological practices in Finland between 1995 and 2000 by comparing the nationwide summaries made by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). An inquiry for the numbers of radiological examinations performed in 2000 was sent to 473 medical radiation users, i.e., safety license holders obtained from the registry maintained by STUK. In 2000, the proportions of plain radiography, contrast-enhanced radiography, angiography, computed tomography and radiological interventional procedures were approximately 91.1, 1.4, 0.9, 5.0, and 1.5%, respectively (distribution of medical examinations). Between 1995 and 2000, the number of medical X-ray examinations showed a slight decrease from ca. 4.2 million to ca. 4.1 million. During the investigated five years period the frequency of contrast enhanced radiography diminished ca. 50% while the frequency of computed tomography increased ca. 20%. The reported number of ultrasonographic examinations showed a slight increase to approximately 0.5 million, whereas the reported number of MRI examinations increased approximately twofold to approximately 0.1 million. The observed trends in radiological practices are useful in attempts to optimize the resources of STUK in the field of radiological protection. (orig.)

  15. Work–Family Interference: Nurses in Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Abrahamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the level of work–family inter-ference (WFI for part-time nurses in Norway and Finland. Part-time work is usually cited as a desirable way in which to facilitate work and family harmony. However, the opportunity to work part-time in professions may be associated with greater difficulties and challenges than commonly presumed. Part-time professionals are often stigmatized as being less committed to work and report fewer job rewards than colleagues in full-time positions. This study challenges the notion of the desir-able consequences of work hour flexibility concerning the integration of work and family. Part-time nurses in Norway and Finland report an equal level or even higher levels of interference than nurses in full-time positions. A disproportional distri-bution of inconvenient work schedules appears to be a central explanation for the results reported by Norwegian nurses, but to a lesser degree by Finnish nurses.

  16. Research needs on the natural gas field in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the research needs on natural gas sector in Finland during the next 5-10 years. 0n that ground it has also been drafted a proposal for organization of the research and on which fields the research should be directed. The basis and criterium in this study has been on the other hand, the improvement of the possibilities in international trade of finnish companies and on the other hand the improvement of the efficiency and the reduction of the environmental impacts of energy use and production in Finland. As a result of the study it is proposed that a research entireness, which will direct extensively towards the gaseous fuels (gasification of coal and biomass, natural gas, LPG, hydrogen), will be formed. The key topics of the research would be: Production of the gases (gasification), high-efficient power and heat generation with gaseous fuels, improvement of efficiency and reduction of environmental impacts of energy use in industry with direct use of gaseous fuels and gaseous fuels in vehicles

  17. Cold hardiness research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LINDÉN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an overview of cold hardiness research conducted on agricultural and horticultural crops, as well as on amenity plants in Finland. Inadequate freezing tolerance and/or winter hardiness often prevents introduction of new species and cultivars to Finland. Field observations on winter hardiness and more recently the results from laboratory freezing tests, have assisted breeders to select hardy genotypes. Research approaches for agricultural crops have evolved from observations on winter and frost damage to studies on molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing injury. The results of experiments on survival of winter cereals, grasses and clovers and frost tolerance of potato and turnip rape are discussed. The studies conducted on horticultural crops, including apple, strawberry, raspberry, currants, blueberry, sea buckthorn, perennial herbs as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs have included field evaluations of cultivars, or selections for winter hardiness, and studies on the effects of cultural management practices on winter survival. During the last decade detailed studies including controlled freezing tests have provided tools to assist in explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cold hardiness also in horticultural plants. ;

  18. Evaluation of the work of hospital districts' research ethics committees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halila, Ritva

    2014-12-01

    The main task of research ethics committees (RECs) is to assess research studies before their start. In this study, 24 RECs that evaluate medical research were sent questionnaires about their structure and functions. The RECs were divided into two separate groups: those working in university hospital districts (uRECs) and those in central hospital districts (non-uRECs). The two groups were different in many respects: the uRECs were bigger in size, covered a wider range of disciplines (both medical and non-medical), had better resources and more frequent and regular meetings. After the survey was performed and analysed, the Medical Research Act was amended so that only hospital districts with a medical faculty in their region had a duty to establish ethics committees. After the amendment, the number of RECs evaluating medical research in Finland decreased from 25 to 9. The ethics committees that remained had wider expertise and were better equipped already by the time of this survey. Only one non-uREC was continuing its work, and this was being done under the governance of a university hospital district. Simple measures were used for qualitative analysis of the work of RECs that evaluate medical research. These showed differences between RECs. This may be helpful in establishing an ethics committee network in a research field or administrational area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Demand for food products in Finland: A demand system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka P. Laurila

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the estimation of food-demand parameters in a system context. The patterns of food consumption in Finland were presented over the period 1950-1991, and a complete demand system of food expenditures was estimated. Price and expenditure elasticities of demand were derived, and the results were used to obtain projections on future consumption. While the real expenditure on food has increased, the budget share of food has decreased. In the early 19505, combined Food-at-Home and Food-away-from-Home corresponded to about 40% of consumers’ total expenditure. In 1991 the share was 28%. There was a shift to meals eaten outside the home. While the budget share of Food-away-from-Home increased from 3% to 7% over the observation period, Food-at-Home fell from 37% to 21%, and Food-at-Home excluding Alcoholic Drinks fell from 34% to 16%. Within Food-at-Home, the budget shares of the broad aggregate groups, Animalia (food from animal sources, Beverages, and Vegetablia (food from vegetable sources, remained about the same over the four decades, while structural change took place within the aggregates. Within Animalia, consumption shifted from Dairy Products (other than Fresh Milk to Meat and Fish. Within Beverages, consumption shifted from Fresh Milk and Hot Drinks to Alcoholic Drinks and Soft Drinks. Within Vegetablia, consumption shifted from Flour to Fruits, while the shares of Bread and Cake and Vegetables remained about the same. As the complete demand system, the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS was employed. The conventional AIDS was extended by developing a dynamic generalisation of the model and allowing for systematic shifts in structural relationships over time. A four-stage budgeting system was specified, consisting of seven sub-systems (groups, and covering 18 food categories. Tests on parameter restrictions and misspecification tests were used to choose the most preferred model specification for each group. Generally

  20. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    The total energy consumption in Finland increased by less than a percent in 1999. The total energy consumption in 1999 was 1310 PJ corresponding to about 31 million toe. The electric power consumption increased moderately by 1.6%, which is less than the growth of the gross national product (3.5%). The final consumption of energy grew even less, only by 0.5%. Import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. The import of electric power was due to the availability of low-priced electric power on the Nordic electricity markets. Nuclear power generation increased by 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increment of the nuclear power generation increased because of the increased output capacity and good operability of the power plants. Wind power production doubles, but the share of it in the total energy consumption is only about 0.01%. The peat consumption decreased by 12% and the consumption of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrease in production of hydroelectric power was compensated by an increase import of electric power. The consumption of fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas remained nearly the same as in 1998. The gasoline consumption, however, decreased, but the consumption of diesel oil increased due to the increased road transport. The share of the fossil fuels was nearly half of the total energy consumption. The consumption of renewable energy sources remained nearly the same, in 23% if the share of peat is excluded, and in 30% if the share of peat is included. Wood-based fuels are the most significant type of renewable fuels. The share of them in 1999 was over 80% of the total usage of the renewable energy sources. The carbon dioxide emissions in Finland decreased in 1999 by 1.0 million tons. The total carbon dioxide emissions were 56 million tons. The decrease was mainly due to the decrease of the peat consumption. The final consumption of energy increased by 0.5%, being hence about 1019 PJ. Industry is the main consumer of energy

  1. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  2. Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In October 2010, the Ministry of Employment and the Economy set up a committee to examine the long-term competence needs of the nuclear energy sector. The study was implemented by a group of experts ensuring extensive representation of the nuclear energy sector. One of the key conclusions was that comprehensive high-standard national competence is needed by nuclear sector companies and research institutes, as well as by authorities. Training of experts and sector-specific research activities call for long-term investments and cooperation, both among national actors and on an international scale. Competence needs in Finland's nuclear energy sector are growing. The nuclear power plant units presently in operation, as well as the Olkiluoto 3 unit under construction, require a competent labour force on a continuous basis. Posiva must have readiness for commencing final disposal of spent fuel by 2020. The new nuclear power projects - TVO's Olkiluoto 4 and Fennovoima's nuclear power plant, which were given favourable decisions-in-principle by the Government in 2010 - will particularly increase the need for experts. In its statement when ratifying these decisions-in-principle on 1 July 2010 Parliament required that the Government will, for its own part, create the preconditions for utilising Finnish labour, knowledge and business life as far as possible in nuclear power projects. The appointment letter of 27 October 2010 assigns the following duties to the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence: (1) to survey the present personnel resources of nuclear actors; (2) to conduct an extensive review of the need for Finnish basic higher education, postgraduate education, further education and supplementary training; (3) to investigate the opportunities for Finnish participation in the forthcoming major nuclear power plant projects; (4) to survey the research infrastructure available to nuclear actors and research; (5) to examine Finnish research activities and

  3. August Meeting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... rural hometowns, where they unite with their rural-based colleagues for ... extent have they empowered the women-folk in the public sphere? ...... It would be safe, therefore, for one to conceptualise the 'August Meeting'.

  4. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    You were hundreds of persons to participate in our information meetings of October 3 and 6 2014, and we thank you for your participation! The full presentation is available here. A summary of the topics is available here (in french).

  5. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Simila, L.; Sipila, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  6. Low carbon Finland 2050. VTT clean energy technology strategies for society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T; Simila, L; Sipila, K [and others

    2012-11-15

    The Low Carbon Finland 2050 project by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland aims to assess the technological opportunities and challenges involved in reducing Finland's greenhouse gas emissions. A target for reduction is set as at least 80% from the 1990 level by 2050 as part of an international effort, which requires strong RD and D in clean energy technologies. Key findings of the project are presented in this publication, which aims to stimulate enlightening and multidisciplinary discussions on low-carbon futures for Finland. The project gathered together VTT's technology experts in clean energy production, smart energy infrastructures, transport, buildings, and industrial systems as well as experts in energy system modelling and foresight. VTT's leading edge 'Low Carbon and Smart Energy' enables new solutions with a demonstration that is the first of its kind in Finland, and the introduction of new energy technology onto national and global markets. (orig.)

  7. History of EISCAT – Part 2: The early history of EISCAT in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oksman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Nordic incoherent scatter facility, proposed by Bengt Hultqvist, was for the first time discussed among representatives of the three Nordic countries Norway, Sweden and Finland in 1969 in Oulu, Finland. In the years to follow, when other countries joined in and the plans of the facility to be built gradually received concrete forms, Finland participated in the planning work, in spite of the large costs to be expected. When in negotiations with the Nordic partners in 1975 the share of Finland in EISCAT was reduced to five per cent and when the existing facilities and personnel at Sodankylä could be taken into account in the Finnish share, the Academy of Finland was finally ready to join EISCAT.

  8. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  9. Meeting Mid-Year Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of ScienCE. 57th Annual. Meeting ... Srinivas, Institute for Social and Economic. Change ... "Quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics of anyons" .... Special Issue on Geomagnetic Methods and.

  10. Financial provision for future nuclear waste management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeaetaeinen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The main principle as regards nuclear waste management in Finland is that the operator that has produced nuclear waste is responsible for the management of all such nuclear waste. It has to take care of its waste (including that of decommissioning) until it has been disposed of in a manner accepted by the authorities. Spent nuclear fuel is considered to be nuclear waste subject to disposal into a final repository. According to the Nuclear Energy Act, all nuclear waste produced in Finland must be handled, stored and disposed of in Finland. The spent fuel and other nuclear wastes are stored at the power plant sites until they are disposed of. At the both two sites there already are the final repositories for low and intermediate level waste. The funding system is based on the principle that, if a nuclear facility would stop its operation and also stop to produce more waste, the money in the Fund and the securities given to the State would, together, always suffice to handle the situation and take care of the management of all the existing waste and dismantling and decommissioning of the plant. As the actual waste management measures would not be taken immediately, the interest accrued, in the meantime, by this existing capital is used to compensate for the inflation and cost escalation. The critical question is how the system takes into account the difficulty of arriving at reliable estimates. The Finnish funding system contains some built-in features to minimise the risk of the State having to contribute additional funds to carrying out these operations. The system continuously requires new updated estimates that must take into account the practical experience accumulating world-wide. The estimates must, however, always be based on technology currently available. Additionally, the law also requires that the uncertainty of available information about prices and costs shall be taken into account, in a reasonable manner, as raising the estimated liability. In the case

  11. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  12. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department The CERN Ombuds The new account management system Crèche progress + Restaurants Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch   Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  13. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN The new account management system Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting   Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium ...

  14. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS Department An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Summer Student program Bringing Library services to users Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department CERN Global Network An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) ...

  16. Climate change and employment. A case study of Finland; Changement climatique et emploi. Cas de la Finlande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The study has been carried out by a consortium led by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Social Development Agency (SDA), which includes Syndex, the Wuppertal Institute and ISTAS. It was commissioned by the European Commission, DG environment, as a contribution to improve current understanding of the relationship between climate change and employment. The study was also supported financially by seven public bodies: Ministries of Environment of Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, United-Kingdom; ADEME and DIAC in France. The first part of the study examines the potential consequences for employment of global warming in Europe - which has already begun and will continue. The main finding is that even moderate climate change will affect economic activity and employment in Europe, with some regions and economic sectors being particularly vulnerable. Increased warming will be likely to have very damaging consequences. The second half of the report considers the challenge for employment of the transition towards a lower CO2 European economy at the horizon 2030, in four key economic sectors: energy production, transport, steel and cement industries, construction/housing. The study considers a number of scenario for a reduction of 40% in CO2 emissions by the year 2030 and what the effects can be on European employment and skills. Case studies of eleven European countries are also analysed. This report is about Finland. [French] La Finlande est le 5e pays europeen en superficie, avec un total de 338.145 km{sup 2}, pour une population de 5,2 millions d'habitants. Le climat finlandais est le plus froid d'Europe, avec des besoins en chauffage pratiquement toute l'annee et des besoins en eclairage tres importants les mois d'hiver, en raison de la duree tres courte du jour. L'industrie est dominee par l'exploitation forestiere et le papier, ainsi que la metallurgie et la chimie, ces industries etant hautement energie-intensives. Ces

  17. Environmental communication research in Finland; Ympaeristoeviestinnaen tutkimus Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.; Palosaari, M.

    2004-07-01

    This report presents Finnish research on environmental communication and describes different was of understanding the term environmental communication. The objective of the report is to indicate relevant topics for future research in environmental communication from the point of view of environmental policy research and Finnish environmental administration. The report outlines the development of environmental journalism from the 1960's till present and explores the different approaches taken in researching environmental communication. Or organisation and crisis communication, sociology, environmental education and policy are current y the fields of science most active in environmental communication research. Visuality of communication and the effects of new information technology are increasingly interesting phenomena for the study of environmental communication. This report points out needs of research from each of these fields. The report includes also a bibliography of environmental communication research in Finland. (orig.)

  18. Quality control of image-intensifier television chains in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirinen, M.

    1989-01-01

    There are some 500 image-intensifier television (TV) chains connected to fluoroscopic units in Finland, most installed in the 1970s, although the oldest still in use date back to the late 1960s. To establish performance levels of the chains, 300 of them were assessed in 1982 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Results showed great diversity in the condition of the chains. The main reason was lack of periodical quality assurance of the chains. Recommendations for limits were established from results of assessing three parameters describing the condition of the chains: spatial resolution, automatically controlled dose-rate and contrast sensitivity. Recommendations also advise hospitals on how to arrange alternative quality assurance measurements and observations, either by hospital's maintenance staff, the manufacturer, or the supervising authority (STUK). Results following adoption of the recommendations by hospitals are presented. (author)

  19. Salt content labelling of foods in supermarkets in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NÄRHINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lightly salted food products are included in the assortments of Finnish supermarkets and prominently placed on shelves. The study was carried out in eastern Finland in four supermarkets of different food chains. Six food groups of importance for people's salt intake were considered. The food labels of 689 packaged food products were checked for salt and sodium information on the basis of Finnish regulations on salt. Products with reduced salt contents were found in most food groups but not among whole-meat or ready-to-eat foods. Half of the products with reduced amounts of salt were labelled "lightly salted". All four supermarkets had a similar assortment of lightly salted products. From the public health point of view, the food industry should increase the supply of lightly salted products, and make a special effort to develop lightly salted ready-to-eat foods.

  20. Internal radiation doses from radioactivity of drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlos, H.; Asikainen, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity of drinking water in Finland was carried out from 1974 to 1978. Samples were collected from nearly all water supply plants with more than 200 users and from privately dug or drilled wells. This paper considers drinking water as a factor in increasing the natural radiation exposure of the population and estimates the collective and per capita dose rates caused by the 222 Rn present in water. Instead of performing dose calculations, the significance of 226 Ra and uranium is assessed by means of daily intake. The assessment is made for both the whole population and three subgroups using the water from water supply plants and privately dug or drilled wells. (author)

  1. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Finland. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  2. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...... conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5...

  3. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  4. Comparison Of Development: Ireland, South Korea, Finland And Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The article compares the development followed by Finland, South Korea and Ireland and compares in some ways with which Costa Rica has had. The initial situation starts in the 1960s, the policies pursued by each country in the context of their models and then, sets the current situation of these countries. Finally, define some lessons learned by the nations, the result of the achievements and challenges of development. El artículo compara, en ciertos aspectos, el desarrollo que ha tenido Fi...

  5. WWER nuclear waste management regulatory experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, Tero

    2000-01-01

    About 30% of all electricity produced in Finland is generated by nuclear power. Four reactors, with a total capacity of 2 656 MW e (net), are currently in operation. At Loviisa, there are two 488 MW e WWER units (recently upgraded 440-units) and at Olkiluoto two 840 MW e BWR units. At the Loviisa plant conditioning, storage and final disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes from reactor operation will take place at the NPP sites. Intermediate level ion exchange resins and evaporation concentrates are currently stored in tanks. However, a license application for constructing a solidification plant based on cementation is currently under STUKs regulatory review. The construction of the final repository for I/LLW at the Loviisa site was started in 1993 and the Government granted the operating license in 1998. The nuclear legislation requires disposal of spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. (Authors)

  6. Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurement at Haestholmen, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, C.; Klasson, H.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents hydraulic fracturing measurements in two boreholes located on the Haestholmen island near Loviisa, Finland. The aim of the measurements was to provide stress data, forming input for the design of an underground facility for disposal of low- and medium-level waste as well as future plant decommissioning radioactive waste from the IVO reactor units situated on Haestholmen. The theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method is summarized, as is the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case. All results obtained are presented and critically discussed. The final stress parameters presented are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to schedule in both boreholes.(orig.)

  7. Flowers visited by honey bee in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Käpylä

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of nectar and pollen sources of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. in southern Finland based on 44 500 flower records is presented. Only the common wild and cultivated species are included, 139 species altogether. The flowering times are shown with an accuracy of two weeks. The most important food sources during spring (April—May are Salix spp., and Tussilago farfara: during early summer (late May and June Salix spp., Taraxacum officinale, Acer platanoides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Barbarea vulgaris, Ribes spp., Malus domestica, Sorbus aucuparia, and Geranium sylvaticum; during mid-summer Trifolium repens, T. hybridum, Rubus idaeus, Tilia cordata, Epilobium angustifolium, and Cirsium arvense; during late summer and early autumn Calluna vulgaris, Arctium tomentosum, Sonchus arvensis and Leontodon autumnalis.

  8. From political controversy to a technical problem? Fifteen years of opioid substitution treatment in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Jani; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Partanen, Airi; Tammi, Tuukka; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze changes in opioid substitution treatments (OST) in Finland. OST spread in Finland in the late 1990s and early 2000s (Phase 1). Since then, OST has become an integrated part of Finnish drug policy and is provided in various substance abuse treatment units as well as in municipal health centers (Phase 2). The paper analyses the policy around the implementation of opioid substitution treatment in Finland, focusing on identifying the key factors and the relations between them that have contributed to the implementation of OST in Finland. OST has become accepted in Finland during the past ten years as a crucial element of a harm reduction strategy. Present incentives behind this development are not as clearly related to drug-specific policies as in the late 1990s; rather, they stem from both the restructuring of health care services (e.g. cost-effectiveness) and the strengthening of the medical or technico-administrative approach to the development of OST. Since the early 2000s, the development of substitution treatment in Finland has not taken place under explicit drug-political guidance, but largely as a result of many differing intended and unintended effects. One of the unintended effects is the fact that buprenorphine has replaced heroin as the most commonly misused opioid in Finland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Staff meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Thursday 18 January 2007 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg.. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN's activities during 2006 and to present the perspectives for this special year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg.. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg.. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  10. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  11. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Robert Aymar

    2005-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Thursday 12 January 2006 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN's activities during 2005 and to present the perspectives for this coming year. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season Robert AYMAR

  12. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Tuesday 13 January 2004 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year and to present a perspective of CERN's future activities. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  14. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  15. Bioenergy policy and market development in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Karin; Huttunen, Suvi; Nilsson, L.J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    The use of biomass in Finland and Sweden has steadily increased over the past 25 years, up to approximately 20% of the primary energy supply in 2001. In both countries most biomass originates from forests. Forest biomass is now an integral part of modern energy systems, although primarily in industry and in the heating sector. For example, biomass accounts for 7.9% and 53% of the fuel mix in district heating in Finland and Sweden, respectively. The general energy policy of both countries has supported biomass for energy over the entire period, although specific policies have changed with time. Research, development and demonstration has been continuously supported, and some subsidy schemes have been applied, in particular, for district heating systems (DHS) and combined heat and power. Heavy taxation of competing fossil fuels seems to have been the most effective policy instrument, although this has been directed mainly at the heat and transportation fuel markets. Electricity taxes are imposed on consumption (industry is largely exempt), and do not discriminate significantly between the sources of electricity. Starting in 2003, Sweden will have a quota-based system, a renewable portfolio standard, which is expected to increase biomass-based electricity production. Both countries possess vast and not fully exploited biomass resources in the form of forests, and have a history of rational and large-scale forestry. Strong actors exist both with regard to forest ownership and the industrial processing of forest products. The user side, in particular, represented by DHS, can also be characterised by strong and professional management. Over time, structures have developed that facilitate an increased use of biomass for energy, for example, the forest industry infrastructure and extensive district heating. Actors within these structures have had the ability to react to policies, resulting in a stable growth in biomass use

  16. Bases for Decisions on Final Disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolahti, Jaana

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of the spent nuclear fuel is approaching one of the significant milestones in Finland. Social debate on the nuclear waste management is going on aiming at a decision of principle on future directions of spent fuel management. The research so far has required no political decision. This current situation is preceded by preparations for two decades carried out by Posiva Oy who took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voinia Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. The preparations comprise site investigations, technical concept development, research into long-term safety and an environmental impact assessment. The work carried out by Posiva is under regular assessment by the authorities. Research programmes are drawn up every year and reports are published for open review. The preparations in the next years to come aim at starting the construction of the repository in 2010 and the disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. Various stakeholders in Finland are involved in the decision-making process on the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The process started when Posiva as an implementer applied for the Government's Decision in Principle in 1999. The Government made a favourable decision in December 2000 on the basis of different considerations. Among the important bases were the preceding favourable decisions made by the proposed siting municipality and the regulatory authority for radiation safety. At the moment the members of the Parliament are discussing the principles of the disposal in order to be able to vote on the Government's decision in the springtime. This paper discusses similarities and differences between the decisions made so far as regards the deep repository. The objective is to present the significance of the decisions from the point of view of an implementer of the repository. The Decision in Principle does not give any consent to start constructing the repository. Licenses for construction and

  17. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Suomela, M.; Illukka, E.; Puhakainen, M.; Pusa, S.

    1993-02-01

    The atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of the 1950s, '60s and '70s caused global radioactive fallout. After the reactor accident at Chernobyl, radioactive fallout was carried by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1989-90 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Ten different groups of people resident in Finland were measured during 1989-90. Three were local reference groups, two groups consisted of radiation workers, one was a population group presenting the entire country, and four were groups representative of people with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137 Cs body burden in the population group was 1200 Bq at the end of 1989, and 900 Bq at the end of 1990. The burdens varied from less than 50 Bq to 13 000 Bq in 1990. The measurement data showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in the summer 1987, after which a continuous decrease could be observed. In the groups with special diets, the highest mean Cs-137 body burden in 1990 was found in the Lapp group from Inari. Within this group, the maximum mean body burden, 10 000 Bq, was found in male reindeer herders their body burdens varying from 3000 to 30 000 Bq. The mean effective doses delivered to the population in Finland, estimated by using the measurement data on the population group, was 0.04 mSv in 1989, 0.03 mSv in 1990 and the corresponding committed effective doses were 0.06 mSv and 0.04 mSv, respectively. (orig.). (18 refs., 11 figs., 40 tabs.)

  18. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H; Hemminki, Elina K

    2010-09-01

    There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs' web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland's Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV-company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19(th) century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health-care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20-145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0-1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision-making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co-operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000-15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter competition for financing and visibility in the future.

  19. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P.

    2010-06-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finlad) collected the number of radiological examinations classified to those made to adult and child patients in Finland in 2008. The work was based on the statute of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation. In 2008, approximately 3.9 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. Earlier, the number of x-ray examinations has been investigated in 1984, 1995, 2000 and in 2005. During this time the total number of x-ray examinations has slightly diminished. During 2005 and 2008 the number of x-ray examinations has slightly increased, although the average number of examinations per inhabitant has still slightly decreased. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 90.2%, 8.3%, 0.8% and 0.8%, respectively. In proportion to the Finnish population about 717 x-ray examinations per 1000 inhabitants were performed in 2008. Dental examinations are excluded from this number, but CT examinations (ca. 60 per 1000 inhabitants) and interventional x-ray procedures (ca. 5 per 1000 inhabitants) are included. Slightly more than 0.5 million ultrasound examinations and 190 000 MRI examinations were reported. Of the all x-ray examinations made in 2008, ca 7.5% were made to child patients. 0-16-year-old were thought to be child patients in this study. 8% of conventional x-ray examinations and 2% of computed tomography examinations and angiographic examination were made to child patients. (orig.)

  20. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  1. Waste management policy and its implementation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekipentti, I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main principles of Finnish nuclear legislation is that the waste producers - i.e. power companies - shall bear the total responsibility for all waste management operations including final disposal and for all the costs of these operations. The government shall assume the responsibility after the final repository has been approved as fulfilling the safety requirements and after sufficient financial assurances covering the costs of continued surveillance have been given to the authorities. The terms of the operation licences prefer the export of high-level waste to a foreign destination, but as an alternative require preparatory activities for final disposal in domestic territory. The spent fuel from two of the four existing units is returned to the fuel supplier country, the Soviet Union, but the management of spent fuel from the two other units is open. In Finland nuclear waste management has become one of the key problems in the public debate relating to the use of nuclear energy and especially to the licensing of additional nuclear power units. The small size of the national economy may cause some additional difficulties in the efforts to solve waste management problems. Public opinion is in favour of plans for waste management arrangements and facilities being prepared in advance of the licensing of new nuclear units, although it might accept the fact that it is not reasonable to carry out the actual management operations until after rather long storage. The small size of the national economy together with the fact that there are only four nuclear power units in Finland essentially limits the ability to allocate major resources to waste management R and D work and to develop Finnish solutions independently. The political situation which prevails as regards back-end operations internationally may even hinder the extended construction of nuclear plants and use of nuclear energy

  2. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround; Schweden, Finnland und die deutsche Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaestad, Maja [Royal Institute for Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Hakkarainen, Petri [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  3. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  4. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 4 December 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Fellows, Associates and Summer Student Programmes Particle Data Book distribution Revoking Computer accounts Equipment insurance on site Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Dates for meetings in 2003 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (74837...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria  W. Adam  (71661) Belgium  G. Wilquet  (74664) Bulgaria  R. Tzenov  (77958) Czech Republic  P. Závada&am...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :   Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Re...

  9. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 15 June 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other Committees a. Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) b. IT Service Review Meeting (ITSRM) c. GS User Commission Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in bra...

  10. Delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media administration focusing on clinical aspects. First expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Materials presented at the first expert meeting of leading specialists in medical radiology are briefly described. The include 14 reports of the scientists of Germany, England, Japan, USA, Finland, Austria. The reports concert delayed allergy-like response to X-ray contrast media accepting on clinical aspects and analysis of nonionic dimeric isotonic media application

  11. Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education Organized by UNESCO with the Co-operation of UNEP (Tbilisi, USSR, 14-26 October 1977). Regional Meetings of Experts on Environmental Education - A Synthetic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Five regional meetings of 24-30 experts each, in environmental education, were held during the autumn/winter of 1976-77 in the Congo, Thailand, Kuwait, Colombia, and Finland. The topics discussed at these meetings were: (1) environmental problems and development; (2) the nature and scope of environmental education; (3) the development of programs;…

  12. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Background: Within last few years we have been faced the fact that ageing of experts in nuclear safety field cannot be ignored in Finland. A great number of all experts/specialists with special competence on nuclear safety studied in the early 70's and had their first permanent jobs in the 'golden era' of nuclear power. These experts are going to retire within next ten years. Therefore both the regulatory body and licensees in Finland have the situation where the age distribution of staff member has become distorted. Also the amount of students in universities which have nuclear technology as their major subject has diminished remarkably until the decision of the new nuclear power plant unit in Finland was made in May 2001. After that the amount of students has risen. Assuring competences within the regulatory body STUK adopted the systematic approach to training in early 90's, this method is widely presented in IAEA TECDOC 1254 (2001). However, the very low turnover of staff led to decrease of training needs and therefore also the systematic training efforts decreased. In 2001 a need to restart the systematic approach to assuring competences was identified. To improve competence management at the regulatory body a competence analysis was carried out and a human resource plan for nuclear safety area for the near future was made. Competence analysis is a method which is quite commonly used on public sector and governmental organisations in Finland. STUK studied carefully the models used in other public sector organisations and adjusted the method to its own purposes. The model used has four competence categories: substance related, management skills, common working skills and STUK related working skills. Substance related competences were defined and described at working unit level. Descriptions for the rest three categories were made at STUK level and those were common for all departments. Substance related competencies common to all working at the

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  14. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  15. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1084-1087 (Review)] Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective Date: January 7, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  16. Changing Drinking Styles in Denmark and Finland. Fragmentation of Male and Female Drinking Among Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Torronen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, “heroic drinking,” is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, “playful drinking,” has become more prevalent in Denmark as well......, especially among men. However, it seems that another drinking style leading to intoxication, "playful drinking", has become more prevalent in Denmark as well as in Finland. Playful drinking is characterized by self-presentations in diverse forms of game situations where you need to play with different...... and Finland by analyzing how they discuss these two drinking styles in focus groups (N = 16).Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10826084.2011.569965 A traditional heavy intoxication-oriented drinking style, "heroic drinking", is a central drinking practice in Denmark and Finland...

  17. As Finland leads the way in sensible waste management, so others must follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2016-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015, Finland took a landmark decision that saw the country demonstrate international leadership in tackling one of the most challenging issues facing the world's nuclear energy industry.

  18. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  19. As Finland leads the way in sensible waste management, so others must follow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Towards the end of 2015, Finland took a landmark decision that saw the country demonstrate international leadership in tackling one of the most challenging issues facing the world's nuclear energy industry.

  20. Poliitkabaree "Mental Finland" torgib kõike, mis valu teeb / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    19. veebr. Brüsselis Flaami Kuninglikus Teatris esietendunud Kristian Smedsi lavastusest "Mental Finland", milles osalevad üheteistkümne rahvuse esindajad , sealhulgas eesti näitlejad Juhan Ulfsak ja Eva Klemets

  1. Meeting information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  2. Carbon sequestration through urban ecosystem services: A case study from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuittinen, Matti; Moinel, Caroline; Adalgeirsdottir, Kristjana

    2016-09-01

    Plants and soil are natural regulators of atmospheric CO2. Whereas plants sequester atmospheric carbon, soils deposit it for decades. As cities become increasingly more densely built, the available land area for such ecosystem services may decrease. We studied seven different housing areas in the Finnish city of Espoo to ascertain the extent to which site efficiency affects to the ecosystem services if the full life-cycle GHG emissions of these areas are taken into account. The results show that the impact of CO2 uptake through carbon sinks in growing plants and the uptake of soil organic carbon vary greatly. Its share of all emissions varied from a marginal value of 1.2% to a more considerable value of 11.9%. The highest potential was calculated for a detached house located on a large site, while the weakest was calculated for compact apartment blocks. The study revealed that in order to quantify this potential more accurately, several knowledge gaps must first be addressed. These include impartial growth algorithms for Nordic wood species, missing accumulation factors for soil organic carbon in cold climates and statistical maintenance scenarios for gardens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 6. The PH Department 2. Adoption of the agenda 7. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. News from the CERN Management 9. Any Other Business 5. Matters arising 10. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic P. Závada ...

  4. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising10.\tUsers’ Office news 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 6. LHC 2008 start-up events 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Aust...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tAn update on safety at CERN 7.\tChildcare initiative 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.\tUsers’ Office news 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75...

  7. ACCU meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tLHC 2008 start-up events 7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilq...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.     Chairman's remarks 2.     Adoption of the agenda 3.     Minutes of the previous meeting 4.     Matters arising 5.     News from the CERN Management 6.     Report on Fellows and Associates programme 7.     Overview of safety at CERN 8.     Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.     Users' Office news 10.  Any Other Business 11.  Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets):Austria W. Adam  (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria ...

  10. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 December 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Closure of computer accounts upon CERN contract expiry Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Election of ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets). Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agendafor the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Fin...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tCar sharing pilot project 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tUsers’ Office newss 4.\tMatters arising10.\tAny Other Business 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tAgenda for the next meeting 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)...

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  14. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (7594...

  16. ACCU meeting

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria, W. Adam (71661) Belgium, C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic, P. Závada (75877) Denmark, J.B. Hansen (...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 6.\tDosimetry at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 7.\tStatus of collaborative tools at CERN 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising 9.\tUsers’ Office newss 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway G. Løvhøiden (73176) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland M. Witek (78967) Bulgaria Portugal...

  19. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  20. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - W. Adam (71661) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (75877) Denmark - J.B. Hansen...

  1. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  2. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finlan...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. ...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t7.\tCar sharing pilot project3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees4.\tMatters arising9.\tUsers’ Office newss5.\tNews from the CERN Management10.\tAny Other Business11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)Bulgaria\tPortugalP...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Video-conferencing/recording Fellows programme Operational Circular No. 6 EP Space management Update on Computing Issues Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary)  ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic...

  6. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equal Opportunities Commission 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. Registration plans for portables 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgar...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda,8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management11. Any Other Business 6. CHIS news and follow-up of survey12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661)NorwayH. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (7591...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Ada...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. Health Insurance news and follow-up of survey 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wil...

  10. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Reports from ACCU representatives 2. Adoption of the agenda on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. Matters arising 9. Any Other Business 5. News from the CERN Management 10. Agenda for the next meeting 6. Property Protection at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (74837) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic ...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Registration plans for portables 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Reports from ACCU representatives 3. Minutes of the previous meeting on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting 7. Equal Opportunities Commission Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): AustriaW. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgari...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (716...

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. News from the CERN Management 4. Minutes of the previous meeting 5. Matters arising 6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board 7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office 8. Update on Computing Issues 9. Users' Office News 10. Any Other Business 11. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Bryan Pattison (Secretary). ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Z vada (75...

  14. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Bryan Pattison

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building1. Chairman's remarks2. Adoption of the agenda3. News from the CERN Management4. Minutes of the previous meeting5. Matters arising6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office8. Update on Computing Issues9. Users' Office News10. Any Other Business11. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail toBryan Pattison(Secretary).ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :Austria G. Neuhofer (74094)Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)Czech Republic P. Závada (75877)Den...

  15. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The CERN Press Office An update on Safety at CERN The Burotel project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark...

  16. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson) (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic S. Nemecek (71144) ...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2011 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda      Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising       News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Report on new CHIS rules Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria M. Jeitler (76307) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson)...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tOther business 13.\tAgenda of the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Re...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 June 2009At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management CERN Social Services User services in GS Department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - G. Walzel (76592) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (7587...

  20. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 December 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Restaurant No. 1 extension An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Election of the ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Záv...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of Conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Cze...

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tThe CERN Press Office 7.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 8.\tThe Burotel project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria C...

  3. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (7...

  4. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users'Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) ...

  5. The Impacts of Internationalization on Quality Assurance Policy: A Comparative Study of Finland and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, PO-YUN

    2008-01-01

    Internationalization and quality assurance have become the central considerations of higher education development currently. The aim of this research is to explore and compare the impacts of internationalization on quality assurance policy in Finland and Taiwan. To achieve this aim, the general impacts of internationalization on quality assurance policy have been discussed first. Next, the empirical research of Finland and Taiwan are conducted by qualitative interviews of higher education pol...

  6. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  7. Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    17 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918 -1945, 485. 18 Ronald D. Bachman and Eugene K. Keefe, Romania : A Country...Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II A Monograph by MAJ Edward M. Kaspar United States Army...Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Factors Associated with Occupational Stress among University Teachers in Pakistan and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Naima Akhtar Malik; Kaj Björkqvist; Karin Österman (correspondence author)

    2017-01-01

    The study examines the interplay of psychosocial factors and works conditions on occupational stress among 531 university teachers in Pakistan and Finland with the help of a web-based questionnaire. Results from an MANOVA revealed that good working conditions, social support at work, and promotion and development opportunities were rated as significantly better by the Finnish sample. Workplace bullying occurred considerably less often in Finland than in Pakistan. Male Pakistani teachers repor...

  9. Making the Climate Count: Climate Policy Integration and Coherence in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaa, Paula; Mickwitz, Per

    2009-01-01

    Tackling climate change in Finland and other industrialised countries requires major changes in production processes and consumption patterns. These changes will not take place unless climate change becomes a crucial factor in general and sector-specific policy-making. In this report climate policy integration in Finland is studied at different levels of policy-making: at the national level, regionally in Kymenlakso and the Metropolitan Area, as well as in the city of Helsinki and the town of...

  10. Towards low energy consumption in Finland - An ecological change in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairinen, R.; Jaervilehto, P.

    1994-01-01

    Per capita energy consumption in Finland is twice the OECD average. Could Finland become a society with low energy consumption? What would that mean and why we need lower energy consumption and higher efficiency? These are questions dealt with in this article. The authors suggest that ecological goals could and should be considered in connection with the necessary changes in the economic structures resulting from the present economic depression. (orig.)

  11. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  12. JOB SATISFACTION AMONG FOREIGN NURSES IN A PRIVATE NURSING HOME, SOUTHERN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjohi, Nelius; Maringi, Peris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the experience of the foreign nurses working in Southern Finland and the factors that influence their job satisfaction. The aim was to provide information that could help improve job satisfaction. The research was carried out in a private nursing home in Southern Finland. The methodology used in this study was qualitative research method. Data was obtained by conducting interviews. A qualitative analysis of the data was applied to identify the fac...

  13. Ten Years After - Welfare Effects of the Application of the CAP in Austria, Finland and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Jyrki S.; Fahlbeck, Erik; Hofreither, Markus F.

    2005-01-01

    Ten years ago, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU. The application of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) caused major repercussions on the agricultural sectors of the entering countries. This article analyses the welfare effects of accession to the EU on the agricultural markets in Austria, Finland and Sweden in a simple supply and demand framework, which is kept strictly identical across all three countries. The quantitative results of the study are derived by using standard partia...

  14. Seminar.net with special issue from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Nordkvelle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the world has learned to ”see to Finland” over the last decade, beacuse of its reputation as a leading nation in educational achievement, as well as its many creative and diligent approaches in technology. Since 1990 Finnish researchers in media, technology and education have met annually to discuss research matters and further advances in the area. For the conference of 2016, held 13-15th April in Hämeenlinna, Finland, we were asked to have the best papers published in Seminar.net. After a rigourous review process we will print six papers, four in this issue and two in the next.Antti Syvänen, Jaana-Piia Mäkiniemi, Sannu Syrjä, Kirsi Heikkilä-Tammi and Jarmo Viteli, all of the University of Tampere, present the paper “When does the educational use of ICT become a source of technostress for Finnish teachers?» This interesting paper is based on the analysis of questionnaires filled in by 2741 Finnish teachers. It provides significant insight into what causes teachers to experience stress and alienation when using information and communication technologies (ICT in their classrooms.Tuulikki Keskitalo and Heli Ruokamo of Lapland University present a paper dealing with “Students’ Expectations and Experiences of Meaningful Simulation-Based Medical Education». Simulation in nursing education is a very rapidly developing area, and the students – as well as their teachers – have high expectation. This project is about student’s expectations and the very positive result from this study was that their experiences were even higher than their expectations.Hanna Vuojärvi, of the University of Lapland and Miikka Eriksson, of the University of Eastern Finland, have written the article «Using Mobile Tools to Support Meaningful Work-based Learning in Vocational Education» together. Their case study focused on meaningful work-based learning (WBL and the pedagogical use of mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs

  15. Solid and liquid biofuels markets in Finland. A study on international biofuels trade. IEA bioenergy task 40 and EUROBIONET II. Country report of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.; Alakangas, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study considered the current situation of solid and liquid biofuels markets and international biofuels trade in Finland and identified the challenges of the emerging international biofuels markets for Finland. The fact that industry consumes more than half of the total primary energy, widely applied combined heat and power production (CHP) and a high share of biofuels in the total energy consumption are specific to the Finnish energy system. One third of the electricity is generated in CHP plants. As much as 27% of the total energy consumption is met by using wood and peat, which makes Finland the leading country in the use of biofuels. Finland has made a commitment to maintain greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level at the highest during the period 2008-2012. The Finnish energy policy aims to achieve the target, and a variety of measures are taken to promote the use of renewable energy sources and especially wood fuels. In this study, the wooden raw material streams of the forest industry were included the international biofuels trade in addition to biomass streams that are traded for energy production. In 2004, as much as 45% of the raw wood imported into Finland ended up in energy production. The total international trading of biofuels was evaluated at 72 PJ, of which the majority, 58 PJ, was raw wood. About 22% of wood based energy in Finland originated from imported raw wood. Tall oil and wood pellets composed the largest export streams of biofuels. The annual turnover of international biofuels trade was estimated at about euro 90 million for direct trade and at about euro 190 million for indirect trade. The forest industry as the biggest user of wood, and the producer and user of wood fuels has a central position in biomass and biofuels markets in Finland. Lately, the international aspects of Finnish biofuels markets have been emphasised as the import of raw wood and the export of wood pellets have increased. Expanding the use of biofuels in the road

  16. Geological site selection studies for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, M.; Vuorela, P.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    1985-10-01

    In the work of selecting at the areas, heed has been taken of international geological recommendations, which have been adapted to local conditions prevailing in this country. At the present stage, the studies are largely based on the available information about the bedrock of Finland, as contained in, for example, geological maps, various geophysical maps covering the country as a whole and the maps of ore deposits and indications as well as of groundwater areas. The regional investigations of the structure of the Finnish bedrock has taken as its point of departure the study of satellite photos. These pictures best show the mosaiclike block structure of the Finnish bedrock, where the fracture zones surrounding the blocks are involved in the movements of the bedrock resulting mainly from land uplift. From the interpretation of satellite photos, attention has switched over to the interpretation of large-scale maps and stereoscopic aerial photographs. The investigation areas selected by the interpretation of aerial photos have also been studied tentatively on the ground to obtain a more accurate comparative estimation of the different localities. Of the areas chosen for study, the majority consist of granites, which best meet the geological site selection recommendations. The investigation areas have been classified into four categories according to how well they are suited to further study. One important criterion in the classification has been the amount of information obtainable from the bedrock. The areas included in the first category have well exposed and solid bedrock. The areas chosen for inclusion in the second category contain fewer outcrops and are not so easy to study with respect to the structure of the bedrock. The areas included in the third category are generally blanketed under surficial deposits with the result that obtaining reliable information about the bedrock calls for further investigation. The fourth category represents areas where features

  17. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suopajärvi, Leena, E-mail: leena.suopajarvi@ulapland.fi

    2013-09-15

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest.

  18. Social impact assessment in mining projects in Northern Finland: Comparing practice to theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suopajärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses social impact assessments (SIA) for mining projects in light of the international principles and guidelines for such assessments and the academic literature in the field. The data consist of environmental impact assessment (EIA) programmes and reports for six mining projects that have started up in northern Finland in the 2000s. A first observation is that the role of the SIAs in the EIA programmes and reports studied was quite minor: measured in number of pages, the assessments account for three or four percent of the total. This study analyses the data collection, research methodology and conceptual premises used in the SIAs. It concludes that the assessments do not fully meet the high standards of the international principles and guidelines set out for them: for example, elderly men are over-represented in the data and no efforts were made to identify and bring to the fore vulnerable groups. Moreover, the reliability of the assessments is difficult to gauge, because the qualitative methods are not described and where quantitative methods were used, details such as non-response rates to questionnaires are not discussed. At the end of the paper, the SIAs are discussed in terms of Jürgen Habermas' theory of knowledge interests, with the conclusion that the assessments continue the empirical analytical tradition of the social sciences and exhibit a technical knowledge interest. -- Highlights: • Paper investigates social impact assessments in Finnish mining projects. • Role of social impact assessment is minor in whole EIA-process. • Mining SIAs give the voice for elderly men, vulnerable groups are not identified. • Assessment of SIAs is difficult because of lacking transparency in reporting. • SIAs belong to empirical analytical tradition with technical knowledge interest

  19. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  20. Experiential health from an ageing and migration perspective: the case of older Finland-Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulla, Gunilla; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2010-02-01

    Research has shown that immigrants and minority groups tend to have a lower health status compared to the majority population. The Finnish immigrants in Sweden are no exception. The Finland-Swedes, i.e., persons living in Finland who have Swedish as their mother language, seem to be an exception, however. They have been found to have better health and longer life expectancy compared to the Finnish majority. Research on health among migrated Finland-Swedes is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe and deepen the understanding of how older Finland-Swedes living as immigrants in Sweden, as well as re-migrants in Finland, experienced their health. Data was collected through 39 qualitative interviews with 29 older Finland-Swedes aged 65 or more. Data was analysed through qualitative thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in five themes: Ageing means becoming frail and closer to death; Despite frailty and old age it is possible to feel well and experience peace; Being grateful for health as a source of life; Health comes from inner strength and external sources; Migration meant a mental and physical burden to health. Overall, both ageing and migration were experienced as jeopardising health.

  1. Second meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Helsinki, 6-9 June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The Second Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) was held in Helsinki, Finland, from 6-9 June 1988. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes since the first meeting of IWGATWR in May 1987 in the field of Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors and other presentations at the Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 12 papers presented at the meeting. Figs and tabs

  2. Water repellency of clay, sand and organic soils in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RASA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Water repellency (WR delays soil wetting process, increases preferential flow and may give rise to surface runoff and consequent erosion. WR is commonly recognized in the soils of warm and temperate climates. To explore the occurrence of WR in soils in Finland, soil R index was studied on 12 sites of different soil types. The effects of soil management practice, vegetation age, soil moisture and drying temperature on WR were studied by a mini-infiltrometer with samples from depths of 0-5 and 5-10 cm. All studied sites exhibited WR (R index >1.95 at the time of sampling. WR increased as follows: sand (R = 1.8-5.0 < clay (R = 2.4-10.3 < organic (R = 7.9-undefined. At clay and sand, WR was generally higher at the soil surface and at the older sites (14 yr., where organic matter is accumulated. Below 41 vol. % water content these mineral soils were water repellent whereas organic soil exhibited WR even at saturation. These results show that soil WR also reduces water infiltration at the prevalent field moisture regime in the soils of boreal climate. The ageing of vegetation increases WR and on the other hand, cultivation reduces or hinders the development of WR.;

  3. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1992-01-01

    Finland has remarkable achievements in nuclear power. The existing four plants have some of the best operating records in the world - high capacity factors, low occupational doses and short refuelling outages. Public opinion was strongly turned against nuclear power after Chernobyl accident, and the previous government decided not to allow for the construction of a fifth nuclear unit during its period of reign. The opposition has however slowly been diminishing. According to the latest polls the opinion is almost balanced. Finnish power companies are going to file an application for a decision-in-principle to build a new plant to the new government appointed in April 1991. A readiness to start new construction project immediately after a positive political decision is made has been maintained during the intermediate period. Continuous research, development, modification and upgrading work provide important components of the good operational history of the Finnish nuclear power plants. Efforts have also been devoted to identifying possible new problems arising from the use of distributed digital C and I technology. The following a short description is summarizing recent activities related to the C and I-systems of the nuclear power plants. (author). 3 tab

  4. Ways to maintain nuclear safety competence in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanttola, T.; Mattila, L.; Reiman, L.

    2000-01-01

    In mid-1990's, both Finnish nuclear power operators started extensive plant modernization. National surveys indicated that the present age distribution of nuclear power experts implies shortage of resources through retirement within 10 years, unless education is timely enhanced. The current rate of nuclear energy specific education, about 10 master's degrees per year, will be too low, particularly if construction of new nuclear capacity were started. The problem is recognised, and some measures have been initiated. In Finland continued public funding for nuclear energy research is judged important to assure impartial expertise for the safety authorities. This research has been organised as national research programmes, where the requirement to raise experts is emphasised. Challenging tasks have proved to be important in motivating the students and the permanent personnel. The specific features of the VVER reactors, participation in international R and D projects and, recently, design and assessment of ALWR concepts have offered such possibilities. The image of nuclear energy affects the interest of young generation when choosing a career. One way to improve the situation is to increase communication with the public and direct information to the potential students. The need for other than technical skills is also reflected in the latest work programme of the Young Generation Network, organised by the Finnish Nuclear Society. (authors)

  5. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (Phealth problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Borehole geophysical investigations of Lavia deep testhole, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, Pauli

    1985-02-01

    According to the Goverment's decision in principle in 1983 Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for all the steps of final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plants. Before the actual site investigation phase, TVO drilled a deep borehole in Lavia, Western Finland. The borehole is used during 1984-85 for testing investigation techniques and methods used for bedrock characterization. Borehole geophysical loggings performed in Lavia consisted of galvanic electrical, transient electromagnetic, radiometric, temperature, seismic and magnetic msurements. This composite survey provided both lithological and structural information of rock mass. The neutron-neutron, density, natural gamma radiation and susceptibility methods characterized rock type. Fracturing and its type could be interpreted most effectively with resistivity, acoustic P-wave velocity and density logs. Temperature and tube-wave measurements revealed several fractured zones related to possible water flow in rock. Lavia investigations indicated that a high quality of instrumentation and careful calibration are necessary for site investigations. The large amount of log data also requires efficient data collection and processing systems both in the field and laboratory. (author)

  7. Gender equality and fertility intentions revisited: Evidence from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Miettinen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by the recent debate on gender roles and men's fertility behaviour (Puur et al. 2008; Westhoff and Higgins 2009; Goldsheider, Oláh and Puur 2010, we present evidence from Finland as a country well into the second phase of the so-called gender revolution. We examine how gender role attitudes relate to childbearing intentions at the onset of family life, intentions to have many (3 or more children, and high personal fertility ideals among low-parity men and women. Gender equality attitudes are measured for both the public and the domestic sphere and the influence of work and family orientation is controlled for. Finding signs of a U-shaped association among men, we conclude that both traditional and egalitarian attitudes raise men's expected fertility compared to men with intermediate gender attitudes and independently of family values. Among Finnish women the impact of gender attitudes is smaller and more ambiguous.

  8. Instrumentation renewal at the FIR 1 research reactor in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Bruno; Kall, Leif

    1982-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA Mark II reactor (FIR 1 100 kW, later 250 kW steady state power and pulsing capability up to 250 MW) has been in operation for 20 years. The reactor is the only research reactor in Finland and is an important research training and service facility, which obviously will be operated for 10...20 years ahead. The mechanical parts of the reactor are in good shape. Some minor modifications have previously been made in the instrumentation. However, the original instrumentation could hardly have been used for 10...20 years ahead without extensive modifications and modernization. After a careful evaluation and planning process the whole reactor instrumentation was renewed in 1981 at a cost of about 400 000 dollar. The renewal was carried out in cooperation with the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which delivered the nuclear part of the instrumentation and with the Finnish company Valmet Oy Instrument Works, which delivered the conventional instrumentation, including the automatic power control system and the control console. The instrumentation, which is located in-a new isolated control room is based on modern industrial standard modular units with standardized signal ranges, electronic testing possibilities, galvanically isolated outputs etc. The instrument renewal project was brought successfully to completion in November 1981 after only about 10 working days of shut down time. The reactor is now in routine operation and the experiences gained from the new instrumentation are excellent. (author)

  9. Weeds in spring cereal fields in Finland - a third survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring cereal fields was conducted in 16 regions of southern and central Finland in 1997-1999. Data were collected from conventional and organic farms, both of which applied their normal cropping practices. A total of 690 fields were investigated by counting and weighing the weed species from ten sample quadrats 0.1 m2 in size in late July - early August. Altogether 160 weed species were found, of which 134 were broad-leaved and 26 grass species. The total number of weed species ranged from 41 to 84 between regions. In organically farmed fields, the average species number was 24 and in conventionally farmed fields 16. The most frequent weed species were Viola arvensis 84%, Stellaria media 76% and Galeopsis spp. 70%. Only 18 species exceeded the frequency level of 33%. The average density of weeds was 136 m-2 (median= 91 in sprayed conventional fields, 420 m-2 (374 in unsprayed conventional fields and 469 m-2 (395 in organic fields. The average air-dry above-ground biomass of weeds was 163 kg ha-1 (median=63, 605 kg ha-1 (413 and 678 kg ha-1 (567, respectively. Weed biomass accounted for 3% of the total biomass of the crop stand in sprayed conventional fields and for 17% in organic fields. Elymus repens, the most frequent grass species, produced the highest proportion of weed biomass.

  10. Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli; Brommer, Jon E.; Pettay, Jenni E.; Lummaa, Virpi; Enbuske, Matti; Jokela, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution. PMID:25232134

  11. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  12. Environmental aspects of Greenfield NPP site in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopisto, L.

    2015-01-01

    Fennovoima will build a nuclear power plant of 1200 MW at Hanhikivi headland in Pyhaejoki, Northern Finland on the shore of the Baltic Sea. According to the target schedule the plant will produce electricity in 2024. The plant supplier is Rusatom Overseas, subsidiary of the Russian Rosatom. No industrial activity is practiced in the immediate surroundings of the site area and the headland and its surroundings are sparsely populated. The area is in its natural state. This means that all the preparatory and infrastructure works needs to be done before the construction of NPP can start. The environmental and nature conservation aspects have to be taken into consideration in planning, construction and operation of the NPP. Northern location sets some challenges to the design of the power plant. The sea area is normally covered with ice almost half of the year which has to be taken into account in the design of the power plant. But there are also advantages: in winter when the cooling water is cold the efficiency of electricity production is estimated to be exceptionally good, approximately 39 %. Since 2008, Fennovoima has carried out several environmental studies and surveys in the site area and has collected information about the nature conditions on land and in the sea area. The collected environmental data has been utilized in land use planning, environmental impact assessment procedure and in applying for conventional permits. The environmental data can also be used as baseline data. The document is composed of an abstract and the presentation slides

  13. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland; Ydinuhkat ja varautuminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R; Aaltonen, H; Laaksonen, J; Lahtinen, J; Rantavaara, A; Reponen, H; Rytoemaa, T; Suomela, M; Toivonen, H; Varjoranta, T

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.).

  14. Adapting Bioretention Construction Details to Local Practices in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tahvonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioretention is a method of storm water management that includes several processes following the natural hydrological cycle. Bioretention, or variations of it, include rain gardens and bioswales, infiltrates, filtrates, evapotranspirates, and help to store and manage storm water run-off. A bioretention cell retains water, removes pollutants, and provides water elements for urban green areas. Although bioretention is a promising method for multifunctional storm water management, its construction details should not be copied from other climatic areas. A direct application may dismiss local conditions, materials, and construction practices. This study aimed to adapt construction details for bioretention to Finnish local practices and conditions and to formulate bioretention constructions that balance water, soil, and vegetation. First, construction details were reviewed, then local adaptations were applied, and finally, the application and two variations of growing media in two construction depths were tested in a test field in Southern Finland. Sandy growing media allowed the efficient retention of water during the first year, but failed to provide vital growth. The use of topsoil and compost in the growing media improved growth, but held high electrical conductivity after infiltration. All the experimental cells in the test field showed activity during the melting periods, both during winter and spring. If bioretention plays a multifunctional role in urban design and engineered ecology, the design parameters should not only focus on storm water quantity, but also on quality management and vegetation growth.

  15. Groundwater flow modelling at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary site investigations for spent fuel disposal has been carried out at the Olkiluoto site, Finland. During the investigations high salt concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples deep in the bedrock. In this study, the groundwater flow is analyzed at Olkiluoto taking into account the effects of salinity. The transient simulations are performed by solving coupled and non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and solute transport. A site-specific simulation model for flow and transport is developed on the basis of the field investigations. The simulations are carried out for a period that started when the highest hills at Olkiluoto rose above sea level. The simulation period continues until the present day. The results of the coupled simulations were strongly dependent on the poorly known initial salinity distribution in the solution domain. The DP approximation together with the EC approximation proved to be a useful complementary approach when simulating solute transport in a fractured rock mass. The simulations also confirm the assumption that the realistic simulation of groundwater flow at Olkiluoto requires taking into account the effects of salinity

  16. Experience of in vitro fertilization surrogacy in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Blomqvist, Tom; Foudila, Tuija; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Kurunmäki, Henri; Siegberg, Rita; Tulppala, Maija; Tuomi-Nikula, Merja; Vilska, Sirpa; Hovatta, Outi

    2002-08-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) surrogacy makes it possible for women who do not have a functional uterus to have their own genetic offspring. We describe here our experience of IVF surrogacy in Finland over a 10-year period. This retrospective study included 17 women who underwent ovarian stimulation in connection with surrogacy in 1991-2001 at four clinics. The surrogate mothers were unpaid volunteers: six sisters, three mothers, one husband's sister, one cousin, four friends and three other volunteers. Thorough counseling was given to the commissioning couples and to the surrogate mothers and their partners. The commissioning couples were prepared to adopt their biological children. Twenty-eight surrogate IVF cycles were started in 17 women. One couple received donated oocytes. Trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval was feasible in every case, including those five women with congenital absence of the vagina and uterus. An average of 1.8 embryos was transferred at a time, and 11 pregnancies were achieved [50% per fresh embryo transfer (ET) and 16% per frozen-thawed ET]. Nine healthy singletons and one set of twins were born. One pregnancy ended in miscarriage. The mean birth weight of singleton infants was 3498 g (2270-4650 g). The birth weights of the twins were 2900 and 2400 g. In all cases the genetic parents took care of the infant immediately after birth. Two surrogate mothers had postpartum depression. Altruistic IVF surrogacy works well, but careful counseling of all parties involved is essential.

  17. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  18. Marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland, 1750-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relethford, J H; Mielke, J H

    1994-01-01

    Marriage records from 1750 through 1949 were used to examine effects of population size, geographic distance, and temporal change on rates of marital exogamy in the Aland Islands, Finland. Exogamy rates for individuals (not couples) were computed for 15 Aland parishes in each of four 50-year time periods, giving a total of 60 observations. These rates were analysed with respect to population size using a quadratic regression model. Regression analyses were also used to examine the relationship of marital exogamy with two measures of geographic distance--average distance to all other parishes and nearest-neighbour distance. Analysis of variance was used to examine temporal trends. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine all of these factors simultaneously. Marital exogamy is highest in smaller and larger populations, and less in medium-sized populations. Higher exogamy rates in small populations are related to the lack of available mates in small groups. Higher exogamy rates in larger populations may reflect economic attraction of larger groups. Exogamy rates are lower in the more geographically isolated parishes. From 1750 through 1899 there is little change in exogamy rates, whereas exogamy rates double after 1900. This temporal change reflects changes in transportation technology and other cultural factors promoting increased migration. The multiple regression model shows population size, geographic distance, and temporal change are all significant correlates of exogamy, collectively explaining a large percentage of variation in rates (R2 = 0.79).

  19. Hydrogeochemical interpretation of the groundwater at the Haestholmen site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstrom, D.K.

    1986-11-01

    This investigation forms a part of the research aimed at marking an assessment of the suitability of rapakivi granite at Haestholmen, an island off the southeastern coast of Finland, for the storage of reactor waste from the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to provide preliminary interpretations of the groundwater chemistry based on analyses of groundwater samples taken from several drillholes down to depths of 200 m, as well as other hydrogeological studies made on the site. Chemical analyses of grounfwaters at Haestholmen have demonstrated a fresh-water/saline-water interface at 60-150 m depth, depending on the distance from the coast. The main conclusions from this study are that (1) the saline water has a seawater origin, (2) the saline water is most likely old Baltic seawater from the early to middle Holocene, (3) this seawater has been chemically modified by at least four processes: calcite precipitation, fluorite dissolution and precipitation, Na-K-Mg-Ca cation exchange and sulfate reduction, (4) the saline groundwaters are not chemically uniform with depth and (5) the saline water chemistry reflects a structural control by the bedrock

  20. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L; Hakkarainen, V; Kaija, J; Kuivamaki, A; Lindberg, A; Paananen, M; Paulamaki, S; Ruskeeniemi, T

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Veitsivaara area, Finland summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Saksa, P.; Hinkkanen, H.

    1991-10-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO carries out site investigations in Finland for final disposal of nuclear high level waste during 1987-2000. Investigations by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods were carried out in the Veitsivaara area in 1987-90 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity. Airborne surveys were performed by magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods and ground investigations by VLF magnetic and resistivity, magnetic and impulse radar methods. Electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used to locate crushed and fracture zones. The properties of weak electrical conductors, e.g. their depth dimensions, were studied by direct current resistivity measurements. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ-radiation and radiometric γ γ-density. Electrical and acoustic logging allowed water bearing fractures to be mapped and the results of water injection tests to be interpreted. Flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by both fluid logging and tube wave sounding

  2. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1988-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1991-06-01

    Sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants were studied by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety from 1979 onwards. Sampling of sludge was extended to include more sewage treatment plants after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. The study was continued in some of the wastewater treatment plants in order to continuously follow the level of and changes in the fallout radioactivity. Sludge samples were also taken from treatment plants in communities close to the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. For a long time the most frequently detected nuclide in sewage sludge was 137 Cs originating from Chemobyl. The 137 Cs activity concentration in sludge varied in 1988 from 68 to 750, in 1989 from 16 to 480 and in 1990 from 11 to 300 Bq kg - 1 dry weight. The activation products in sludge originating from nuclear power stations in Finland were some becquerels per kilo, at the most about twenty becquerels per kilo dry weight. The most frequently detected medical radionuclide was 131 I, frequently detected in almost all wastewater treatment plants

  3. Pricing and competition in the private dental market in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Väisänen, A; Mikkola, H

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how the prices were set in private dental care, which factors determined prices and whether the recent National Dental Care Reform had increased competition in the dental care market in Finland. A questionnaire to all full time private dentists (n = 1,121) in the ten largest cities. Characteristics of the practice, prices charged, price setting, perceived competition and expectations for the practices were requested. The response rate was 59.6%. Correlation analysis (Pearson's) was used to study relationships between the prices of different treatment items. Linear regression analysis was used to study determinants of the price of a one surface filling. Most dentists' fee schedules were based on the price of a one surface filling and updated annually. Changes in practice costs calculated by the dentists' professional association and information on average prices charged on dental treatments in the country influenced pricing. High price levels were associated with specialisation, working in a group practice, working close to many other practices or in a town with a dental school. Less than half of the respondents had faced competition in dental services and price competition was insignificant. Price setting followed traditional patterns and private markets in dental services were not found to be very competitive.

  4. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  5. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, 2007 is a very special year for CERN. I would like to review the status of our activities with you, and I invite you to a presentation on Wednesday 27 June 2007 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  6. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  7. The long term operation of nuclear power plants measured by the yardstick of environmental impact assessment and public participation. Perspective on the European directives, on the Aarhus convention and the Espoo convention. Application to the specific case of Belgium/A perspective on the national implementation of the conventions to nuclear activities. Long-term operation of NPP's measured by the yardstick of environmental impact assessment and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Mr Beyens illustrated the challenges regarding the applicability of the concepts of environmental impact assessment and public participation, as defined in the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions and the relevant directives of the European Union, to the federal laws extending the operation of two nuclear power plants in Belgium. The Belgian authorities considered that those laws only opened the possibility to extend the operational period of those nuclear plants, subject to conditions set by the Belgian regulatory authority. Therefore, these laws should be considered as 'policies', exempt from the requirements of environmental impact assessment and public participation. In addition, Mr Beyens explained that, after an environmental screening had been carried out, the regulator ruled that its decision to authorise the long-term operation project did not require an environmental impact assessment, since it considered that the modifications to the installations would not significantly impact existing radiological environmental effects. However, in both instances legal challenges have been filed before the constitutional and administrative courts and are still pending. It is possible that a request for a preliminary ruling be submitted to the Court of Justice of the European Union in this regard

  8. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, L. van [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Peace and Conflict Research

    1998-03-01

    Finland``s entrance on the non-proliferation scene was in 1963 when President Kekkonen suggested a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ). This started a debate in and among the Nordic countries and it created a Finnish profile towards the Soviet Union. In most cases, the Soviets tried to bring Finland into a much closer relationship with the USSR. The mere prospect and debate on a Nordic NWFZ reduced the incentive for the Soviets to undermine Finnish neutrality or their desire to suggest consultations according to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance on military assistance in the case of a threat to Soviet and/or Finnish security. During the negotiations on the Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1965-1968, Finland played a very active role as a bridge-builder, first between the superpowers and later between the developed and the developing world. This activity gave Finland a name in the UN, strengthened its neutrality and established good relations with the West as well. In 1978, Kekkonen brought up the Nordic NWFZ once more, this time under influence of certain strategic challenges to Finland and general East-West developments. In this Kekkonen had much backing by the public in Finland whereas other states reacted very reluctantly. Politics in Finland has to a large extent been marked by the relations with Russia and later the Soviet Union. However, nuclear non-proliferation was used to ease the weight of this imposing neighbour; a strategy that certainly must be regarded as successful. While achieving this, it was also possible to increase contacts with western states and remain accepted as a neutral state. For Finland, non-proliferation policy was initially a suitable issue to solve other problems than those related exclusively to proliferation. But it was also a policy with a high degree of persistence, pragmatism and willingness to work with concrete issues that maybe do not reach the international limelight in the short run but that work in

  9. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen, L. van

    1998-03-01

    Finland''s entrance on the non-proliferation scene was in 1963 when President Kekkonen suggested a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ). This started a debate in and among the Nordic countries and it created a Finnish profile towards the Soviet Union. In most cases, the Soviets tried to bring Finland into a much closer relationship with the USSR. The mere prospect and debate on a Nordic NWFZ reduced the incentive for the Soviets to undermine Finnish neutrality or their desire to suggest consultations according to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance on military assistance in the case of a threat to Soviet and/or Finnish security. During the negotiations on the Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1965-1968, Finland played a very active role as a bridge-builder, first between the superpowers and later between the developed and the developing world. This activity gave Finland a name in the UN, strengthened its neutrality and established good relations with the West as well. In 1978, Kekkonen brought up the Nordic NWFZ once more, this time under influence of certain strategic challenges to Finland and general East-West developments. In this Kekkonen had much backing by the public in Finland whereas other states reacted very reluctantly. Politics in Finland has to a large extent been marked by the relations with Russia and later the Soviet Union. However, nuclear non-proliferation was used to ease the weight of this imposing neighbour; a strategy that certainly must be regarded as successful. While achieving this, it was also possible to increase contacts with western states and remain accepted as a neutral state. For Finland, non-proliferation policy was initially a suitable issue to solve other problems than those related exclusively to proliferation. But it was also a policy with a high degree of persistence, pragmatism and willingness to work with concrete issues that maybe do not reach the international limelight in the short run but that work in

  10. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meetingto be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m.in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Va...

  11. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in Establishing a Research Reactor Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-01-24

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency, the Government of Finland and the Government of the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Finland, in connection with the Agency's assistance to the Government of Finland in establishing a research reactor project, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. These agreements entered into force on 30 December 1960.

  12. School, a Miniature of Society: Life Stories about Well-being, Education and Career Plan of Young Iranians in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    HAGHSERESHT, ARMAN

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of the Finnish education system in education and career plan of young Iranians with refugee background in Finland. Since the influential factors that affect their education and education plans are similar to other young immigrants in Finland, it indirectly involves the future education and career of many thousand potential fresh labour forces in Finland. The goal is to realise the influence of education system and school experiences on life, and education and...

  13. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in Establishing a Research Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency, the Government of Finland and the Government of the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Finland, in connection with the Agency's assistance to the Government of Finland in establishing a research reactor project, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. These agreements entered into force on 30 December 1960

  14. CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.; Holmstroem, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analyzers, held in June 9-12, 1992, in Lappeenranta, Finland, was sponsored by the Committee on the Safety on Nuclear Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It was organized in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and the Lappeenranta Technical University of Technology (LTKK). All the presented papers were invited and devided into four sessions. In the first session the objectives, requirements and consepts of simulators were discussed against present standards and guidelines. The second session focused on the capabilities of current analytical models. The third session focused on the experiences gained so far from the applications. The final fourth session concentrated on simulators, which are currently under development, and future plans with regard to both development and utilization. At the end of the meeting topics of the meeting were discussed at the panel discussion. Summaries of the sessions and shortened version of the panel discussion are included into the proceeding. (orig.)

  15. Meeting Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  16. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  17. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P.

    2009-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m 2 ), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m 2 ) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m 2 ). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m 2 . The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m 2 ) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m 2 ). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be

  18. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P. (Alleco Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m2), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m2) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m2). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m2. The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m2) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m2). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be explained by

  19. Meetings and Meeting Modeling in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real time or off-line. The research reported here forms part of the European 5th and 6th framework programme projects multi-modal meeting

  20. Meetings and meeting modeling in smart surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nishida, T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real-time or off-line. Intelligent real-time and off-line generation requires understanding of what is going on during a meeting. The