WorldWideScience

Sample records for meet nox deadlines

  1. New catalyst developed at Argonne National Laboratory could help diesels meet NOx deadlines

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "A new catalyst could help auto makers meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deadline to eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide from diesel engine exhausts by 2007, while saving energy" (1 page).

  2. How to Meet Water Cleanup Deadlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    Most waste treatment techniques conceived to meet the 1977 standards can be separated into three distinct phases: primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. An examination of the four heaviest industrial water users, pulp and paper, steel, plating, and food processing, demonstrates these treatments use proven technology to meet specific…

  3. 38 CFR 1.986 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1.986 Section 1.986 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.986 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An...

  4. 7 CFR 3.76 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 3.76 Section 3.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.76 Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. An employee will not be granted a hearing and will...

  5. 49 CFR 1017.6 - Result if employee fails to meet deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Result if employee fails to meet deadlines. 1017.6... OFFSET FROM INDEBTED GOVERNMENT AND FORMER GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 1017.6 Result if employee fails to meet... this part whichever is applicable, will not result in denial of a hearing or in immediate offset, if...

  6. Team self-regulation and meeting deadlines in project teams: antecedents and effects of temporal consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, J.M.P.; van Eerde, W.; Rutte, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In a longitudinal study among 48 project teams, we investigated how temporal consensus (i.e., the extent to which team members have a shared understanding of the temporal aspects of their collective task) affects the ability of teams to establish coordinated action and meet deadlines. In addition, w

  7. Priority probability deceleration deadline-aware TCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ye; Jing Lin; Jiawei Huang

    2015-01-01

    In modern data centers, because of the deadline-agnostic congestion control in transmission control protocol (TCP), many deadline-sensitive flows can not finish before their deadlines. Therefore, providing a higher deadline meeting ratio becomes a critical chal enge in the typical online data intensive (OLDI) ap-plications of data center networks (DCNs). However, a problem named as priority synchronization is found in this paper, which de-creases the deadline meeting ratio badly. To solve this problem, we propose a priority probability deceleration (P2D) deadline-aware TCP. By using the novel probabilistic deceleration, P2D prevents the priority synchronization problem. Simulation results show that P2 D increases the deadline meeting ratio by 20%compared with D2TCP.

  8. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  9. 40 CFR 60.4325 - What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? 60... Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4325 What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns... burning that fuel. Similarly, when your total heat input is greater than 50 percent distillate oil...

  10. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  11. Optimal Deadline Scheduling with Commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shiyao; He, Ting

    2011-01-01

    We consider an online preemptive scheduling problem where jobs with deadlines arrive sporadically. A commitment requirement is imposed such that the scheduler has to either accept or decline a job immediately upon arrival. The scheduler's decision to accept an arriving job constitutes a contract with the customer; if the accepted job is not completed by its deadline as promised, the scheduler loses the value of the corresponding job and has to pay an additional penalty depending on the amount of unfinished workload. The objective of the online scheduler is to maximize the overall profit, i.e., the total value of the admitted jobs completed before their deadlines less the penalty paid for the admitted jobs that miss their deadlines. We show that the maximum competitive ratio is $3-2\\sqrt{2}$ and propose a simple online algorithm to achieve this competitive ratio. The optimal scheduling includes a threshold admission and a greedy scheduling policies. The proposed algorithm has direct applications to the chargin...

  12. Confusing deadlines: IDPs in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Duncan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available When does an IDP stop being an IDP? In Indonesiathe answer was supposed to be: on 31 December2002. This was the deadline announced in late 2001when the government released its plan describing howit would solve the ‘problem’ of the more than onemillion IDPs spread across the country.1

  13. Deadline-aware scheduling for Software Transactional Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walter; Marlier, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Software Transactional Memory (STM) is an optimistic concurrency control mechanism that simplifies the development of parallel programs. Still, the interest of STM has not yet been demonstrated for reactive applications that require bounded response time for some of their operations. We propose...... experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves the chance of a transaction meeting its deadline when its progress is hampered by conflicts....

  14. Deadline aware virtual machine scheduler for scientific grids and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Omer; Anthony, Richard; Petridis, Miltos; Parrot, Kevin; Schulz, Markus; 10.1109/WAINA.2010.107

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization technology has enabled applications to be decoupled from the underlying hardware providing the benefits of portability, better control over execution environment and isolation. It has been widely adopted in scientific grids and commercial clouds. Since virtualization, despite its benefits incurs a performance penalty, which could be significant for systems dealing with uncertainty such as High Performance Computing (HPC) applications where jobs have tight deadlines and have dependencies on other jobs before they could run. The major obstacle lies in bridging the gap between performance requirements of a job and performance offered by the virtualization technology if the jobs were to be executed in virtual machines. In this paper, we present a novel approach to optimize job deadlines when run in virtual machines by developing a deadline-aware algorithm that responds to job execution delays in real time, and dynamically optimizes jobs to meet their deadline obligations. Our approaches borrowed co...

  15. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  16. Opportunity NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karrs, M.; Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Global Inc., (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Legislation on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from stationery fired sources is becoming ever more stringent. The only proven technology for reducing NOx to below 10 ppm in flue gas is selective catalytic reduction (SCR) at temperatures of 400 - 700 Fahrenheit. But, since modern refinery and petrochemical heater stack temperatures are below this range, retrofitting a catalytic reducer to an existing heater was difficult and expensive. ABB Lummus Heat Transfer took up this problem and have developed a low impact solution for SCR retrofits. The system developed is compact and the modular design facilitates fabrication almost anywhere in the world. The modular design keeps downtime to a minimum. The investment costs are site specific but the system has marked advantages over the retrofitting of low NO{sub x} burners.

  17. Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yuhui

    2017-04-05

    Increasing regulatory, environmental, and customer pressure in recent years led to substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, including the remarkable breakthroughs demonstrated through the Super Truck program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). On the other hand, these improvements have translated into a reduction of exhaust gas temperatures, thus further complicating the task of controlling NOx emissions, especially in low power duty cycles. The need for improved NOx conversion over these low temperature duty cycles is also observed as requirements tighten with in-use emissions testing. Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200oC range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining a 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150oC. The project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015. Through this collaboration, we are exploring catalyst formulations and catalyst architectures with enhanced catalytic activity at 150°C; opportunities to approach the desirable ratio of NO and NO2 in the SCR feed gas; options for robust low-temperature reductant delivery; and the requirements for overall system integration. The program is expected to deliver an on-engine demonstration of the technical solution and an assessment of its commercial potential. In the SAE meeting, we will share the initial performance data on engine to

  18. 1 CFR 20.7 - Deadline dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS HANDLING OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL STATEMENTS § 20.7 Deadline dates. The Manual is... Manual. ...

  19. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  20. 40 CFR 257.13 - Deadline for making demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Disposal Standards...-Hazardous Waste Disposal Units Location Restrictions § 257.13 Deadline for making demonstrations....

  1. 20 CFR 405.20 - Good cause for extending deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good cause for extending deadlines. 405.20... ADJUDICATING INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.20 Good cause... review under §§ 405.501-.505, you must establish that there is good cause for missing the deadline....

  2. 7 CFR 955.122 - Change in nomination deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position as alternate of the Committee which is vacant, or about to become vacant. Such nominations shall... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change in nomination deadlines. 955.122 Section 955... ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.122 Change in nomination deadlines. Pursuant to §...

  3. Consumer returns policies with endogenous deadline and supply chain coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yongjian; Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers returns policies under which consumers' valuation depends on the refund amount they receive and the length of time theymustwait after the item is returned. Consumers face an uncertain valuation before purchase, and the realization of that purchase's value occurs only after...... the return deadline has passed. Depending on the product lifecycle length and magnitude of return rate, a retailer decides on strategies for that product's return deadline, including return prohibition, life-cycle return, and fixed return deadline. In addition, the influence of the return deadline...... on consumers' behavior and the pricing and inventory policies of the retailer are systematically investigated. Moreover, based on the analysis of consumer return behavior on a traditional buy-back contract, we present a new differentiated buy-back contract, contingent on return deadline, to coordinate a supply...

  4. GASCAV: focus on performance to meet the deadline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Franca, Ardson Luiz de S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Brazil's state-owned oil and gas giant PETROBRAS engineering team concluded the gas duct Cabiunas (RJ) - Vitoria (ES) (GASCAV), one of the Southeast - Northeast Gas Pipeline's (GASENE) lines, which will increase gas production and distribution along those regions, attending PETROBRAS' Gas Production Anticipation Plan (PLANGAS) and federal government's growth acceleration plan (PAC). GASCAV has 300 kilometers in length, measures 28-inches in diameter and the capacity for a flow of 20 million cubic meters a day with maximum pressure of 100 kgf per square centimeter, 3 (three) points of supply capacity about 500 thousand cubic meters of natural gas per day and an optic fiber-system all along its extension. In order to build GASCAV gas-duct, the engineering team faced many hard circumstances, such as flood, went through mountains and 54 streams, had to provide 563 rock blasting, passed over 14 municipalities in both states of the project and crowded areas whose support was essential for the undertaking success. Besides, the team fulfilled an EPC-contract with a state-owned Chinese company, surmounting cultural and linguistic difficulties. Despite all challenging aspects, PETROBRAS has built the pipeline in one year and seven months, focused on the working management to accomplish it as scheduled, keeping the corporative indices goals by using a tool called 'project integrated analysis', with the purpose of building GASCAV on time. Due to the project's great amount of activities, a non-scheduled-attach follow up system was created in order to focus on those critical activities that have not started yet, and also considered the interaction between both internal and external interested parts of it, which allowed to predict and check out in a better way all information and situations that could have had interfered in the project's progress. The integrated analysis allowed this kind of control by considering the following data: interconnection between different sectors to conclude the activities, strategic risks, similar situations in previous alike projects, chronogram critical activities and project's goal changes. Performing an engineering project on time meant not only customers' satisfaction, but also involved the fulfilling of their intent, costs included. In this particular case, building GASCAV and delivering it operating in safe conditions as scheduled guaranteed to the engineering team PETROBRAS' recognition for the best engineering project management of 2007 and the priceless experience on projects that complex; as for the company, the contribution of a strategic enterprise, which guaranteed the country's gas supply, a reduction of energy ration possibility and the dependency of Bolivian gas in a period that global market almost faced an energetic crisis. (author)

  5. Speed Accuracy Trade-off Under Response Deadlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan eKarşılar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making has been successfully modeled as a process of evidence accumulation up to a threshold. In order to maximize the rewards earned for correct responses in tasks with response deadlines, participants should collapse decision thresholds dynamically during each trial so that a decision is reached before the deadline. This strategy ensures on-time responding, though at the cost of reduced accuracy, since slower decisions are based on lower thresholds and less net evidence later in a trial (compared to a constant threshold. Frazier & Yu (2008 showed that the normative rate of threshold reduction depends on deadline delays and on participants’ uncertainty about these delays. Participants should start collapsing decision thresholds earlier when making decisions under shorter deadlines (for a given level of timing uncertainty or when timing uncertainty is higher (for a given deadline. We tested these predictions using human participants in a random dot motion discrimination task. Each participant was tested in free-response, short deadline (800 ms, and long deadline conditions (1000 ms. Contrary to optimal-performance predictions, the resulting empirical function relating accuracy to response time (RT in deadline conditions did not decline to chance level near the deadline; nor did the slight decline we typically observed relate to measures of endogenous timing uncertainty. Further, although this function did decline slightly with increasing RT, the decline was explainable by the best-fitting parameterization of Ratcliff's diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978, whose parameters are constant within trials. Our findings suggest that at the very least, typical decision durations are too short for participants to adapt decision parameters within trials.

  6. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  7. Meetings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGuowen; QINPeng; FENGYilun

    1994-01-01

    The International Workshop on Rice Sheath Bright Management was held in the Experimental Farm of CNRRI from Oct 10 to 15, 1993. The workshop was sponsored by IRRI and co-hosted by CNRRI. About 38 scientists from IRRI, Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam,Japan, Great Britain, France, Malaysia and P. R. China attended the meeting.

  8. Speed scaling with power down scheduling for agreeable deadlines

    CERN Document Server

    Bampis, Evripidis; Kacem, Fadi; Milis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a set of n jobs, each one specified by a release time, a deadline and a workload, on a single processor. The objective is to minimize the overall consumed energy, by adapting the processor speed and by shutting down the processor when appropriate. We provide an O(n^3) algorithm computing the optimal schedule in the case of agreeable deadlines.

  9. On QoS guarantee in MPLS network with software deadline awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Yu, Yingdi; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    With the increasing number of internet users, more and more real-time services are added into the network, such as IPTV, online-video, Voice over IP, etc. As we know, throughput is a highly important performance criterion for scheduling algorithms of networks. Besides throughput, these growing real-time services are very sensitive to delay variance termed as jitter. Therefore, high performance scheduling algorithm should achieve good performance in terms of throughput, delay, jitter and fairness together. Scheduling algorithm with deadline-awareness employed in packet switching plays a key role in QoS guarantees. Although traditional hard-deadline can provide guarantee on in-node delay-deadline criteria, the end-to-end delay-deadline criteria cannot be guaranteed due to the characteristic of hard-deadline, while the delay-deadline guaranteed throughput is low. Thus, soft-deadline scheduling algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, we investigate and compare the classical hard-deadline and soft-deadline switching algorithm. A new scheme "Bonus System" is proposed in order to realize the idea of soft-deadline switching algorithm. Bonus System based on soft-deadline is compared with classical Early-Deadline First scheme based on hard-deadline, which shows that Bonus System has better performance in End-to-End deadline guarantee.

  10. Deadline rush: a time management phenomenon and its mathematical description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A typical time management phenomenon is the rush before a deadline. Behavioral decision making research can be used to predict how behavior changes before a deadline. People are likely not to work on a project with a deadline in the far future because they generally discount future outcomes. Only when the deadline is close are people likely to work. On the basis of recent intertemporal choice experiments, the authors argue that a hyperbolic function should provide a more accurate description of the deadline rush than an exponential function predicted by an economic model of discounted utility. To show this, the fit of the hyperbolic and the exponential function were compared with data sets that describe when students study for exams. As predicted, the hyperbolic function fit the data significantly better than the exponential function. The implication for time management decisions is that they are most likely to be inconsistent over time (i.e., people make a plan how to use their time but do not follow it).

  11. 古今含义大不同的deadline(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Reporters and authors know deadlines must be met for their story tobe told.But today’s deadlines are not the matter of"life and death"theyonce were.In the1860s,at the Confederate prison camp at Andersonville,Georgia,the expression"deadline"was coined(杜撰)to represent a linedrawn approximately17feet from the camp’s fence.Officers on duty hadorders to shoot any prisoner who crossed the deadline.

  12. Semantics for Communicating Actors with Interdependent Real-Time Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoll, Istvan; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely on the r......Models of embedded systems with communicating actors and deadlines offer abstraction and encapsulation of related functionality, but their behavior is complex. Verification is therefore difficult and requires a combination of simulation, model checking and testing tools. In order to rely...

  13. 42 CFR 102.43 - Deadlines for submitting documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 102.43 Deadlines for submitting... Program terminates. (b) Documentation for benefits determinations. Although the Secretary will accept documentation required to make benefits determinations (i.e., calculate benefits available, if any) at the time...

  14. 42 CFR 102.42 - Deadlines for filing request forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 102.42 Deadlines for filing request forms. (a....g., the date that a commercial carrier places on the package at the time of drop-off) will be..., the Request Form will not be processed and the requester will not be entitled to any benefits under...

  15. Reliability Capacity of Half-Duplex Channels with Strict Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Vinhoza, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental characterization of a half-duplex wireless system with packet losses under traffic with hard deadlines is instrumental to understanding and developing efficient, coding aware policies for real-time applications. We set forth the concept of reliability capacity with a limited number...

  16. An Intuitive Formal Proof for Deadline Driven Scheduler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹乃军

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents another formal proof for the correctness of the Deadline Driven Scheduler (DDS). This proof is given in terms of Duration Calculus which provides abstraction for random preemption of processor. Compared with other approaches, this proof relies on many intuitive facts. Therefore this proof is more intuitive, while it is still formal.

  17. State Estimation in the Automotive SCR DeNOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Duwig, Christophe;

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is a widely applied diesel engine exhaust gas after-treatment technology. For effective NOx removal in a transient operating automotive application, controlled dosing of urea can be used to meet the increasingly restrictive legislations...... on exhaust gas emissions. For advanced control, e.g. Model Predictive Control (MPC), of the SCR process, accurate state estimates are needed. We investigate the performance of the ordinary and the extended Kalman filters based on a simple first principle system model. The performance is tested through...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2237 - NOX RACT and NOX conformity exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX RACT and NOX conformity exemption... RACT and NOX conformity exemption. Approval. EPA is approving the section 182(f) oxides of nitrogen (NOX) reasonably available control technology (RACT) and NOX conformity exemption request submitted...

  19. N+2 Advanced Low NOx Combustor Technology Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbon, John; Aicholtz, John; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Viars, Philip; Birmaher, Shai; Brown, Dan; Patel, Nayan; Carper, Doug; Cooper, Clay; Fitzgerald, Russell

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with NASAs technology goals for future subsonic vehicles, this contract identified and developed new combustor concepts toward meeting N+2 generation (2020) LTO (landing and take-off) NOx emissions reduction goal of 75 from the standard adopted at Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection 6 (CAEP6). Based on flame tube emissions, operability, and autoignition testing, one concept was down selected for sector testing at NASA. The N+2 combustor sector successfully demonstrated 75 reduction for LTO NOx (vs. CAEP6) and cruise NOx (vs. 2005 B777-200 reference) while maintaining 99.9 cruise efficiency and no increase in CO and HC emissions.The program also developed enabling technologies for the combustion system including ceramic matrix composites (CMC) liner materials, active combustion control concepts, and laser ignition for improved altitude relight.

  20. Cost of delay, deadlines and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana; Pastine, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    This Paper analyses endogenous price leadership in a duopolistic market with differentiated products and symmetrically informed firms. We study the effects of deadlines and discounting in a standard endogenous leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the price leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position we derive positive predictions about which firm will le...

  1. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  2. Five-fold way to NOx nirvana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monro, R.J.; Halloran, J.; Krishnan, R. [RJM Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2002-03-01

    A layered approach to NOx reduction can achieve up to 90% lower NOx emissions from coal plants, but at much lower cost than the alternatives. The paper explains the main elements of the five layered approach consisting of: burner modifications; overair fire; NOx tempering; selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and amine injection. 1 fig.

  3. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  4. NOx Sensor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications

  5. Reliability Capacity of Half-Duplex Channels with Strict Deadlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Vinhoza, Tiago;

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental characterization of a half-duplex wireless system with packet losses under traffic with hard deadlines is instrumental to understanding and developing efficient, coding aware policies for real-time applications. We set forth the concept of reliability capacity with a limited number...... and in terms of its advantages towards the mean number of packets that can be transmitted reliably. Optimal schemes for leveraging feedback are presented and the results show that a judicious use of even a single feedback packet can have a significant impact on the mean performance....

  6. Firm Deadline Checking of Safety-Critical Java Applications with Statistical Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Thomsen, Bent; Søe Luckow, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In cyber-physical applications many programs have hard real-time constraints that have to be stringently validated. In some applications, there are programs that have hard deadlines, which must not be violated. Other programs have soft deadlines where the value of the response decreases when...

  7. The Applicability of Deadline Models: Comment on Glickman, Gray, and Morales (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2005-01-01

    Glickman, Gray, and Morales (this issue) propose a statistical model for measuring the unobserved latency of stimulus-controlled processes. The model accounts for both speed and accuracy and does so by assuming that participants set an internal deadline. If a stimulus-controlled response is not produced by the deadline, the participant then…

  8. NOx Change over China and Its Influences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu(刘煜); I. S. A. ISAKSEN; J. K. SUNDET; HE Jinhai(何金海); YAN Peng(颜鹏)

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of the increase of NOx emission over China.The model is capable to reproduce basically the seasonal variation of surface NOx and ozone over eastern China.NOx emission data and observations reveal that NOx over easternChina increases quite quickly with the economic development of China.Model results indicate that NOxconcentration over eastern China increasingly rises with the increase of NOx emission over China,and accelerates to increase in winter.When the NOx emission increases from 1995 to its double,the ratio of NO2/NOx abruptly drops in winter over northern China.Ozone at the surface decreases in winter with the continual enhancement of the NOx level over eastern China,but increases over southern China in summertime.It is noticeable that peak ozone over northern China increases in summer although mean ozone changes little.In summer,ozone increases in the free troposphere dominantly below 500 hPa.Moreover,the increases of total ozone over eastern China are proportional to the increases of NOx emission.In a word,the model results suggest that the relationship between NOx and ozone at the surface would change with NOx increase.

  9. Evaluating NOx Emissions Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Gleason, J. F.; Boersma, K. F.; Hsie, E.; Lee, S.; Angevine, W. M.; Granier, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellites can provide a useful top-down assessment of bottom-up NOx emissions inventories. We present three case studies of an approach to evaluate NOx emissions at a sector level by comparing satellite retrievals to regional chemical-transport model calculations of NO2 columns. In the first example, the atmospheric impact of implementing NOx controls at eastern US power plants is demonstrated. In the second study, we use NOx monitors at western US power plants to calibrate our satellite-model comparisons. We then apply our approach to evaluate bottom-up estimates of NOx emissions from western US cities. In the third example, we validate our satellite-model approach using in-situ aircraft measurements and assess NOx emissions from power plants, cities, industrial facilities, and ports in eastern Texas. We conclude with some general insights on the usefulness of this approach and suggestions for future areas of research.

  10. Nox reduction in the sintering process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-guang Chen; Zhan-cheng Guo; Zhi Wang; Gen-sheng Feng

    2009-01-01

    A new process, NOx reduction with recycling flue gas and modifying coke breeze, was proposed. The effects of modified coke breeze and recycled flue gas on NOx reduction were investigated by sinter pot tests. The results show that the NOx reduction rate is over 10wt% in the sintering of modified coke breeze, the effects of the additives on NOx reduction are: CeO2CaOK2CO3.The NOx reduction rate increases with the amount of recycled flue gas, and is 22.35wt% in the sintering with recycling 30vo1% of the flue gas. When 30vo1% of the flue gas is recycled into the sintering of CeO2, CaO, and K2CO3 modified coke breeze, the NOx reduc-tion rates are 36.10wt%, 32.56wt%, and 32.17wt%, respectively.

  11. Impact of Aircraft NOx Emission on NOx and Ozone over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜; I.S.A.ISAKSEN; J.K.SUNDET; 周秀骥; 马建中

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional global chemistry transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of subsonic aircraft NOx emission on NOz and ozone over China in terms of a year 2000 scenario of subsonic aircraft NOx emission. The results show that subsonic aircraft NOx emission significantly affects northern China, which makes NOx at 250 hPa increase by about 50 pptv with the highest percentage of 60% in January, and leading to an ozone increase of 8 ppbv with 5% relative change in April. The NOx increase is mainly attributed to the transport process, but ozone increase is produced by the chemical process. The NOx increases by less than 10 pptv by virtue of subsonic aircraft NOx emission over China,and ozone changes less than 0.4 ppbv. When subsonic aircraft NOx emission over China is doubled, its influence is still relatively small.

  12. Minimizing Total Completion Time For Preemptive Scheduling With Release Dates And Deadline Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the single machine preemptive scheduling problem of minimizing total completion time with release date and deadline constraints is NP- hard. Du and Leung solved some special cases by the generalized Baker's algorithm and the generalized Smith's algorithm in O(n2 time. In this paper we give an O(n2 algorithm for the special case where the processing times and deadlines are agreeable. Moreover, for the case where the processing times and deadlines are disagreeable, we present two properties which could enable us to reduce the range of the enumeration algorithm

  13. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2005-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  14. Reducing Deadline Miss Rate for Grid Workloads running in Virtual Machines: a deadline-aware and adaptive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Khalid, Omer; Anthony, Richard; Petridis, Miltos

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores three major areas of research; integration of virutalization into sci- entific grid infrastructures, evaluation of the virtualization overhead on HPC grid job’s performance, and optimization of job execution times to increase their throughput by reducing job deadline miss rate. Integration of the virtualization into the grid to deploy on-demand virtual machines for jobs in a way that is transparent to the end users and have minimum impact on the existing system poses a significant challenge. This involves the creation of virtual machines, decompression of the operating system image, adapting the virtual environ- ment to satisfy software requirements of the job, constant update of the job state once it’s running with out modifying batch system or existing grid middleware, and finally bringing the host machine back to a consistent state. To facilitate this research, an existing and in production pilot job framework has been modified to deploy virtual machines on demand on the grid using...

  15. NOx Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. Results to date show that NOx emissions are not a problem for the RDE due to the short residence times and the nature of the flow field. Furthermore, simulations show that the amount of NOx can be further reduced by tailoring the fluid dynamics within the RDE.

  16. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  17. Removal of NOx by radical injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN He; GAO Xiang; LUO Zhongyang; CEN Kefa; PEI Meixiang; HUANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    Removal of NOx ( DeNOx, NOx is the total of NO and NO2) from flue gas by radical injection has been investigated . The discharge characteristics were examined and the steady streamer corona was acquired by adjusting the nozzle gases properly. It was found that an increase in the voltage resulted in a decrease in the NO concentration and the concentration of the NO2 increased at low voltages but decreased as the voltage rose to a certain level. The DeNOx efficiency increased as the applied voltage rose and reached a maximum of 70% when the voltage approached the breakdown voltage. The hypothetical mechanism of NOx removal suggested that the radicals formed in the discharge process converted the NO and NO2 into acidic species. The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the rate coefficients and the productivity of the radicals, and then the concentrations of both NO and NO2 and the DeNOx efficiencies were calculated with chemical kinetics. The calculated DeNOx efficiencies were comparable with the experimental DeNOx efficiencies at low voltages, but were lower at high voltages.

  18. Equipment Design for Oxidation of 1BP/2BP Using NO_x

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Xian-ming; CHANG; Shang-wen; LI; Gao-liang; LAN; Tian; LIU; Jin-ping; TANG; Hong-bin; HE; Hui

    2013-01-01

    NOx can Oxidize the reductants in 1BP and 2BP feed of Purex process,and can adjust the oxidation state of plutonium as Pu(Ⅳ)to meet the need of 2AF feed.Using NOx in Purex process can reduce the volumn of solid waste effectively,and attract more and more interest of researchers.In this work the oxidation of reductants in 1BP/2BP feed were investigated in glass column as the same-current mode,in

  19. NOX2-dependent regulation of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singel, Kelly L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms together have multiple functions that are important for normal physiology and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a broad range of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is critical for antimicrobial host defence. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NOX2 characterized by severe life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and by excessive inflammation, including Crohn's-like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). NOX2 defends against microbes through the direct antimicrobial activity of reactive oxidants and through activation of granular proteases and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETosis involves the breakdown of cell membranes and extracellular release of chromatin and neutrophil granular constituents that target extracellular pathogens. Although the immediate effects of oxidant generation and NETosis are predicted to be injurious, NOX2, in several contexts, limits inflammation and injury by modulation of key signalling pathways that affect neutrophil accumulation and clearance. NOX2 also plays a role in antigen presentation and regulation of adaptive immunity. Specific NOX2-activated pathways such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcriptional factor that induces antioxidative and cytoprotective responses, may be important therapeutic targets for CGD and, more broadly, diseases associated with excessive inflammation and injury.

  20. Deadline scramble : oilsands mining operators and outsiders investigate more rapid tailings pond cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2010-05-15

    Oil sand tailings ponds composed of a slurry of water, clay, sand, silt and residual bitumen have become one of the biggest environmental and public relations challenges facing the oil sand industry. The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board's Directive 74 requires that oilsands mining companies convert at least 20 per cent of the fine particles in their tailings ponds to solid waste by June 2011, rising to 50 per cent by 2013 and annually thereafter. Tailings ponds must be ready for surface reclamation within 5 years of the ponds becoming inactive. Directive 74 also stipulates that within 1 year of the creation of a dedicated disposal area, it must attain a minimum undrained shear strength of 5 kilopascals, rising to a minimum shear strength in 5 years of 10 kPa, trafficable and ready for reclamation. To date, only Suncor has committed to meeting the directive's deadlines. Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been testing centrifuge technology, and smaller companies, such as Solid Environmental Services Ltd, Foret Plasma Labs, LLC and Micro-TES, Inc. are also promoting their own solutions. The greatest challenge with the tailings ponds is to reach that 5 kPa rating. This article described some technologies that may attain the criteria, including the bentonite-based PitDry solidification process that is used to treat a variety of drilling, mining and industrial wastes; the Plasma Whirl, a plasma hydrocyclone that can be used for water treatment and heavy oil upgrading; and super bugs in which microbes break down hydrocarbons and other organic wastes into non-hazardous components such as fatty acids, carbon dioxide and water. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Rise and fall of the NOx emissions trade; Opkomst en ondergang van NOx-emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Velde, R. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Van der Kolk, J. [Van der Kolk Advies, Soest (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2005, the Netherlands started NOx emission trading. In 2014 they are terminating these activities. Are they stopping because the targets have been realized? This article provides an overview of the developments and experiences that have ultimately led to the termination of the NOx emission trade in the Netherlands [Dutch] In 2005 is Nederland begonnen in NOx-emissiehandel. In 2014 stoppen we er weer mee. Stoppen we omdat de doelen zijn gehaald? Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de ontwikkelingen en ervaringen die uiteindelijk hebben geleid tot beeindiging van de NOx-emissiehandel in Nederland.

  2. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Wu

    2003-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 31, 2003 time period.

  3. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Wu; Z. Fan; R. Herman

    2004-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the January 1 to March 31, 2004 time period.

  4. 40 CFR 75.71 - Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MONITORING NOX Mass Emissions Provisions § 75.71 Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring NOX and heat input for the purpose of calculating NOX mass emissions. 75.71 Section 75.71 Protection...

  5. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  6. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  7. Control of NOx during stationary combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Yeh; Wei-Yin Chen

    2004-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions are primary contributors to acid rain, which is associated with a number of effects including acidification of lakes and streams, accelerated corrosion of buildings, and visibility impairment. Among the various nitrogen oxides emitted from stationary combustion; nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) are stable, and NO predominates (over 90%). In health effects, NO{sub 2} can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infection. In the area of ozone nonattainment, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the atmosphere to form ozone, a photochemical oxidant and a major component of smog. Atmospheric ozone can cause respiratory problems by damaging lung tissue and reducing lung function. It is generally believed that over 80% of the total NOx emitted to the atmosphere originate at sources where fossil fuels and industrial wastes are burned. About one-half of the emissions are produced during combustion of fossil fuels in the utility industries. The rate of NOx formation is affected by fuel nitrogen content and by combustor design parameters. Higher firing temperature and combustor pressure increase NOx emissions. Nitric acid plants also produce large amounts of NOx as waste gas, but in much higher concentration than emissions from utility boiler flue gas.

  8. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2003-06-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a new effort was begun on the development of a corrosion management system for minimizing the impacts of low NOx combustion systems on waterwalls; a kickoff meeting was held at the host site, AEP's Gavin Plant, and work commenced on fabrication of the probes. FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Improvements on the mass-spectrometer system at BYU have been made and work on the steady state reactor system shakedown neared completion. The slipstream reactor continued to operate at AEP's Rockport plant; at the end of the quarter, the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 1000 hours. Some operational problems were addressed that enable the reactor to run without excessive downtime by the end of the quarter.

  11. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will

  12. Discovery of Novel NOx Catalysts for CIDI Applications by High-throughput Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blint, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-12-31

    DOE project DE-PS26-00NT40758 has developed very active, lean exhaust, NOx reduction catalysts that have been tested on the discovery system, laboratory reactors and engine dynamometer systems. The goal of this project is the development of effective, affordable NOx reduction catalysts for lean combustion engines in the US light duty vehicle market which can meet Tier II emission standards with hydrocarbons based reductants for reducing NOx. General Motors (prime contractor) along with subcontractors BASF (Engelhard) (a catalytic converter developer) and ACCELRYS (an informatics supplier) carried out this project which began in August of 2002. BASF (Engelhard) has run over 16,000 tests of 6100 possible catalytic materials on a high throughput discovery system suitable for automotive catalytic materials. Accelrys developed a new database informatics system which allowed material tracking and data mining. A program catalyst was identified and evaluated at all levels of the program. Dynamometer evaluations of the program catalyst both with and without additives show 92% NOx conversions on the HWFET, 76% on the US06, 60% on the cold FTP and 65% on the Set 13 heavy duty test using diesel fuel. Conversions of over 92% on the heavy duty FTP using ethanol as a second fluid reductant have been measured. These can be competitive with both of the alternative lean NOx reduction technologies presently in the market. Conversions of about 80% were measured on the EUDC for lean gasoline applications without using active dosing to adjust the C:N ratio for optimum NOx reduction at all points in the certification cycle. A feasibility analysis has been completed and demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of the technology using these materials compared with other potential technologies. The teaming agreements among the partners contain no obstacles to commercialization of new technologies to any potential catalyst customers.

  13. 75 FR 3448 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Notice Extending the Deadline Date for Transmittal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Office of Innovation and Improvement; Notice Extending the Deadline Date for Transmittal of Applications... format (e.g., braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette) on request to the program contact...: January 15, 2010. James H. Shelton, III, Assistant Deputy Secretary for Innovation and Improvement...

  14. Efficient schedulability analysis for mixed-criticality systems under deadline-based scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety-critical avionics systems which become more complex and tend to integrate multiple functionalities with different levels of criticality for better cost and power efficiency are subject to certifications at various levels of rigorousness. In order to simultaneously guarantee temporal constraints at all different levels of assurance mandated by different criticalities, novel scheduling techniques are in need. In this paper, a mixed-criticality sporadic task model with multiple virtual deadlines is built and a certification-cognizant dynamic scheduling approach referred as earliest virtual-deadline first with mixed-criticality (EVDF-MC is considered, which exploits different relative deadlines of tasks in different criticality modes. As for the corresponding schedulability analysis problem, a sufficient and efficient schedulability test is proposed on the basis of demand-bound functions derived in the mixed-criticality scenario. In addition, a modified simulated annealing (MSA-based heuristic approach is established for virtual deadlines assignment. Experiments performing simulations with randomly generated tasks indicate that the proposed approach is computationally efficient and competes well against the existing approaches.

  15. 75 FR 74001 - Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Mission Statement Application Deadline Extended; Secretarial Business India High Technology Mission AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke will lead a senior-level business development trade mission to New Delhi, Mumbai and...

  16. 15 CFR 30.4 - Electronic Export Information filing procedures, deadlines, and certification statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic Export Information filing procedures, deadlines, and certification statements. 30.4 Section 30.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN...

  17. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission: Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12, 2010...

  18. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12, 2010...

  19. 78 FR 15009 - Extension of Deadline; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Extension of Deadline; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP)--College... Register (78 FR 4838) a notice inviting applications for the GEAR UP College Savings Account...

  20. 78 FR 14740 - Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) Program-Deadline Extensions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Parts 204 and 206 RIN 1660-AA78 Disaster Assistance; Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG) Program--Deadline Extensions and Administrative Corrections... longer necessary. The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 established the Fire Management Assistance Grant...

  1. Efficient schedulability analysis for mixed-criticality systems under deadline-based scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yao; Li Qiao; Li Zheng; Xiong Huagang

    2014-01-01

    Safety-critical avionics systems which become more complex and tend to integrate multiple functionalities with different levels of criticality for better cost and power efficiency are subject to certifications at various levels of rigorousness. In order to simultaneously guarantee tem-poral constraints at all different levels of assurance mandated by different criticalities, novel sched-uling techniques are in need. In this paper, a mixed-criticality sporadic task model with multiple virtual deadlines is built and a certification-cognizant dynamic scheduling approach referred as ear-liest virtual-deadline first with mixed-criticality (EVDF-MC) is considered, which exploits different relative deadlines of tasks in different criticality modes. As for the corresponding schedulability analysis problem, a sufficient and efficient schedulability test is proposed on the basis of demand-bound functions derived in the mixed-criticality scenario. In addition, a modified simulated annealing (MSA)-based heuristic approach is established for virtual deadlines assignment. Experi-ments performing simulations with randomly generated tasks indicate that the proposed approach is computationally efficient and competes well against the existing approaches.

  2. 15 CFR 783.4 - Deadlines for submission of reports and amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS CIVIL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE-RELATED ACTIVITIES NOT INVOLVING NUCLEAR MATERIALS § 783.4 Deadlines for... location that commenced one or more of the civil nuclear fuel cycle-related activities described in § 783.1... activities involving uranium hard-rock mines must include any such mines that were closed down during...

  3. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in the... later than February 7, 2011. The U.S. Department of Commerce will review all applications...

  4. 7 CFR 900.30 - Deadline for issuance of Secretary's (final) decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 900.30 Section 900.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.30 Deadline for issuance of Secretary's (final) decisions....

  5. 7 CFR 900.29 - Deadline for filing exceptions to recommended decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decisions. 900.29 Section 900.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.29 Deadline for filing exceptions to recommended...

  6. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by industry... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International Trade...

  7. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    .../tmcal.html ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail... International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment and...

  8. 75 FR 47536 - Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ....html ) and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by... Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico..., International Trade Administration, and U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT...

  9. 77 FR 43807 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee; Extended Deadline for Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee; Extended Deadline... which it will accept nominations to serve on the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory... procedures, qualifications for membership, and on the composition and purpose of the Renewable Energy...

  10. Now or never! The effect of deadlines on charitable giving: Evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mette Trier; Gravert, Christina Annette

    that a reminder increases both the likelihood of making a donation and the amount donated. We find no effect of the deadlines on the propensity to give. Instead we observe a “now-or-never” effect; either donations are made immediately or not at all. In line with the “avoiding-the-ask” theory, both shorter...

  11. LOAD ADAPTIVE DYNAMIC SCHEDULING OF TASKS WITH HARD DEADLINES USEFUL FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA

    1992-01-01

    All intrinsic properties of the earliest deadline task scheduling discipline are compiled and discussed in order to show that this is the most advantageous scheme at hand, characterised by efficiency and allowing predictable system behaviour. It is then pointed out how the method naturally extends t

  12. NOx processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines, traitement des nox sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France). Service TAG

    1997-12-31

    The Solar Company, in cooperation with Tuma Turbomach, has developed the SoLoNOx combustion system with a dry, lean, premixed compound, allowing for reduced NOx and CO emission levels (respectively 42 ppmv and 50 ppmv at 15 pc O{sub 2}). The combustor size is larger than a conventional combustor in order to maintain combustion efficiency and reduce carbon monoxide levels. Leaner combustion occurs at lower temperatures which produce less nitrogen oxides but require more volume to complete the combustion process. New developments should allow for a further reduction of NOx level at 25 ppmv

  13. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  14. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  15. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  16. NOX, NOX who is there?, The contribution of NADPH Oxidase to beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTaylor-Fishwick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictions of diabetes prevalence over the next decades warrant the aggressive discovery of new approaches to stop or reverse loss of functional beta cell mass. Beta cells are recognized to have a relatively high sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS and become dysfunctional under oxidative stress conditions. New discoveries have identified NADPH oxidases in beta cells as contributors to elevated cellular ROS. Reviewed are recent reports that evidence a role for NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1 in beta cell dysfunction. NOX-1 is stimulated by inflammatory cytokines that are elevated in diabetes. First, regulation of cytokine-stimulated NOX-1 expression has been linked to inflammatory lipid mediators derived from 12-lipoxyganase activity. For the first time in beta cells these data integrate distinct pathways associated with beta cell dysfunction. Second, regulation of NOX-1 in beta cells involves feed-forward control linked to elevated ROS and Src-kinase activation. This potentially results in unbridled ROS generation and identifies candidate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Third, consideration is provided of new, first-in-class, selective inhibitors of NOX-1. These compounds could have an important role in assessing a disruption of NOX-1/ROS signaling as a new approach to preserve and protect beta cell mass in diabetes.

  17. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  18. 75 FR 5846 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal...

  19. 77 FR 19408 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal...

  20. 78 FR 20167 - Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent To Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary Entitlement Funds for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal...

  1. Commercial introduction of the Advanced NOxTECH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, B.C. [NOxTECH, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    NOxTECH is BACT for diesel electric generators. Emissions of NO{sub x} are reduced 95% or more with substantial concurrent reductions in CO, particulates, and ROG`s. No engine modifications or other exhaust aftertreatments can remove all criteria pollutants as effectively as NOxTECH. The NOxTECH system reliably maintains NH{sub 3} slip below 2 ppm. Unlike other emissions controls, NOxTECH does not generate hazardous by-products. The Advanced NOxTECH system reduces the size, weight, and cost for BACT emissions reductions. Based on the operation of a 150 kW prototype, NOxTECH, Inc. is quoting commercial units for diesel electric generators. Advanced NOxTECH equipment costs about half as much as SCR systems, and NO{sub x} reduction can exceed 95% with guarantees for emissions compliance.

  2. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... of contact uncoupling and TGFβ. Nox4 knockdown abrogates epithelial-myofibroblast transition-associated reactive oxygen species production. Laser capture microdissection reveals increased Nox4 expression in the tubular epithelium also during obstructive nephropathy. MRTF down-regulation/inhibition suppresses...

  3. A Fast-CSMA Algorithm for Deadline-Constrained Scheduling over Wireless Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, low-complexity and distributed Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)-based scheduling algorithms have attracted extensive interest due to their throughput-optimal characteristics in general network topologies. However, these algorithms are not well-suited for serving real-time traffic under time-varying channel conditions for two reasons: (1) the mixing time of the underlying CSMA Markov Chain grows with the size of the network, which, for large networks, generates unacceptable delay for deadline-constrained traffic; (2) since the dynamic CSMA parameters are influenced by the arrival and channel state processes, the underlying CSMA Markov Chain may not converge to a steady-state under strict deadline constraints and fading channel conditions. In this paper, we attack the problem of distributed scheduling for serving real-time traffic over time-varying channels. Specifically, we consider fully-connected topologies with independently fading channels (which can model cellular networks) in which flows wi...

  4. Relations of academic procrastination, rationalizations, and performance in a web course with deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W

    2005-06-01

    This study compared students' academic procrastination tendency with the (1) frequency and nature of rationalizations used to justify procrastination, (2) self-regulation, and (3) performance in a web-based study strategies course with frequent performance deadlines. 106 college students completed the 16-item Tuckman Procrastination Scale, a measure of tendency to procrastinate, the Frequency of Use Self-survey of Rationalizations for Procrastination, and a 9-item self-regulation scale. Students' subsequent course performance was measured by total points earned. A linear regression with Academic Procrastination as the criterion variable and Rationalization score and Course Points as the predictor variables suggested academic procrastinators support procrastinating by rationalizing, not self-regulating, and thus put themselves at a disadvantage, with respect to evaluation in highly structured courses with frequent enforced deadlines.

  5. Deadline-aware network coding for video on demand service over P2P networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Hui-cheng; ZHANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    We are interested in providing Video-on-Demand (VoD) streaming service to a large population of clients using peer-to-peer (P2P) approach. Given the asynchronous demands from multiple clients, continuously changing of the buffered contents, and the continuous video display requirement, how to collaborate with potential partners to get expected data for future content delivery are very important and challenging. In this paper, we develop a novel scheduling algorithm based on deadlineaware network coding (DNC) to fully exploit the network resource for efficient VoD service. DNC generalizes the existing network coding (NC) paradigm, an elegant solution for ubiquitous data distribution. Yet, with deadline awareness, DNC improves the network throughput and meanwhile avoid missing the play deadline in high probability, which is a major deficiency of the conventional NC. Extensive simulation results demonstrated that DNC achieves high streaming continuity even in tight network conditions.

  6. The development of low NOx burners under the IEA Coal Combustion Sciences agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley, H. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Canada has been involved in the International Energy Agency (IEA) implementing agreement on coal combustion sciences since 1985. The other countries belonging to this agreement are Australia, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the US. There are two operating annexes, the first, Annex 1 being task-shared, in which designated research projects within the participating countries are reported on an annual basis. Annex 2 is cost-shared and the research is conducted at the International Flame Research Foundation (IFRF) in the Netherlands and paid for by the participants, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. The objectives of Annex 2 are to develop advanced low NOx coal burners for power boilers and to characterize their performance with a wide range of coals and coal blends. Two burners have been selected as showing great promise in suppressing NOx formation, thereby reducing emissions to below regulatory levels. One is an aerodynamically air-staged burner (AASB) and the other an internally fuel-staged burner (IFSB). Both can utilize a single boiler entry port, which makes them ideal for retrofitting, the former relies on combustion air staging, the latter on fuel staging or reburning. The IFSB, when developed to a commercial stage, is anticipated to meet projected Canadian NOx regulations for the foreseeable future. Supplementary aspects of the program have been coal characterization, ash behavior and deposition, advanced in-flame measurement technique development and validation data bases for flame, combustion and NOx modeling. This presentation will focus on the two low NOx burners developed under the Annex 2 program.

  7. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    in the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Some basic concepts and reactions regarding the formation and removal of NOx are presented in chapter 1 and 2. Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NOx: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...... permolecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing...

  8. NOx emissions from Euro IV busses with SCR systems associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Xin; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Liang, Bin

    2013-05-01

    NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs) have become the most important sources of pollutants affecting urban air quality in China. In recent years, a series of emission control strategies and diesel engine polices have been introduced that require advanced emission control technology. China and Europe mostly have used Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea to meet the Euro IV diesel engine emission standard. In this study, two Euro IV busses with SCR were tested by using potable emission measurement system (PEMS) to assess NOx emissions associated with urban, suburban and freeway driving patterns. The results indicated that with the SCR system, the urea injection time for the entire driving period increased with higher vehicle speed. For freeway driving, the urea injection time covered 71%-83% of the driving period; the NOx emission factors from freeway driving were lower than those associated with urban and suburban driving. Unfortunately, the NOx emission factors were 2.6-2.8-, 2.3-2.7- and 2.2-2.3-fold higher than the Euro IV standard limits for urban, suburban and freeway driving, respectively; NOx emission factors (in g/km and g/(kW·h)) from the original vehicles (without SCR) were higher than their corresponding vehicles with SCR for suburban and freeway driving. Compared with the IVE model results, the measured NOx emission factors were 1.60-1.16-, 1.77-1.27-, 2.49-2.44-fold higher than the NOx predicted by the IVE model for urban and suburban driving, respectively. Thus, an adjustment of emission factors is needed to improve the estimation of Euro IV vehicle emissions in China.

  9. PVN adenovirus-siRNA injections silencing either NOX2 or NOX4 attenuate aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertension in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2012-02-01

    Mineralocorticoid excess increases superoxide production by activating NADPH oxidase (NOX), and intracerebroventricular infusions of NADPH oxidase inhibitors attenuate aldosterone (Aldo)/salt-induced hypertension. It has been hypothesized that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain may be a key mechanism in the development of hypertension. The present study investigated the brain regional specificity of NADPH oxidase and the role of NOX2 and NOX4 NADPH oxidase subunits in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Aldo/salt-induced hypertension. PVN injections of adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering (si)RNA targeting NOX2 (AdsiRNA-NOX2) or NOX4 (AdsiRNA-NOX4) mRNAs were used to knock down NOX2 and NOX4 proteins. Three days later, delivery of Aldo (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sc) via osmotic pump commenced and 1% NaCl was provided in place of water. PVN injections of either AdsiRNA-NOX2 or AdsiRNA-NOX4 significantly attenuated the development of Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension. In an additional study, Aldo/salt-induced hypertension was also significantly attenuated in NOX2 (genomic) knockout mice compared with wild-type controls. When animals from both functional studies underwent ganglionic blockade, there was a reduced fall in blood pressure in the NOX2 and NOX4 knockdown/knockout mice. Western blot analyses of the PVN of siRNA-NOX2- or siRNA-NOX4-injected mice confirmed a marked reduction in the expression of NOX2 or NOX4 protein. In cultured PVN neurons, silencing either NOX2 or NOX4 protein production by culturing PVN cells with siRNA-NOX2 or siRNA-NOX4 attenuated Aldo-induced ROS. These data indicate that both NOX2 and NOX4 in the PVN contribute to elevated sympathetic activity and the hypertensivogenic actions induced by mineralocorticoid excess.

  10. Low—NOx Combustion and Experimental Investigation in a ROtary Type Pulverized Coal Classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenjunKong; ShangmoCheng; 等

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the combustion conditions,maximize the carbon burnout for low-NOx firing systems and meet the requirements for ignition and flame stabilization as low volatile and low quality coal are burned in boilers,finer pulverzed coal should be used .Hence.it is of great practical importance to study the rotary type classifier for the MPS type medium-speed mill.In this pper,we first review the low-NOx combustion technology,then some model tests of rotating classifier are completed.The results show that the classifier performances are very satisfactory,with the fineness of the finished produce being R90f<10%,Rules for designing and controlling rotating classifier are also developed in this paper.

  11. Toward improved catalytic low-temperature NOx removal in diesel-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingstedt, Fredrik; Arve, Kalle; Eränen, Kari; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2006-04-01

    The potential of different catalytic after treatment techniques to meet future diesel emission standards, which are strongly shifted toward urban driving conditions including cold start, are critically discussed in this Account and evaluated for their suitability for commercial applications. The dominating techniques in this field are NO(x) storage, urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and HC-SCR. Each of these techniques have significant disadvantages such as sulfur sensitiveness and regeneration requirements of NO(x)-storage materials, infrastructure issues and formation of ammonium nitrate (at low temperatures) for urea-SCR, and low-temperature activity of HC-SCR catalysts. Ways to overcome these disadvantages in commercial applications may involve optimized regeneration strategies, reactor modifications, flow reversal, closed-loop NO(x) feedback systems, nonthermal plasma, and/or hydrogen-assisted catalyses, etc.

  12. A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Howard L.; Huang, Shyan C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2002-10-01

    Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed. Development of the NOx adsorber technology is discussed. Spectroscopic techniques are applied to understand the underlying chemical reactions over the catalyst surface during NOx trapping and regeneration periods. In-situ surface probes are useful in providing not only thermodynamic and kinetics information required for model development but also a fundamental understanding of storage capacity and degradation mechanisms. The distribution of various nitration/sulfation species is related to surface basicity. Surface displacement reactions of carbonates also play roles in affecting the trapping capability of NOx adsorbers. When ultralow-S fuel is used as a reductant during the regeneration, sulfur induced performance degradation is still observed in an aged catalyst. Other possible sources related to catalyst deactivation include incomplete reduction of surface nitration, coke formation derived from incomplete hydrocarbon burning, and lubricant formulations. Sulfur management and the

  13. 基于TBS时限分配的CAN动态调度方法%Dynamic scheduling of CAN bus based on TBS deadline allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本宏; 韩江洪; 刘啸然; 王跃飞; 张利

    2012-01-01

    To avoid the mutual interference between periodic and non-periodic messages, and to guarantee the fairness of transmitting CAN messages, a dynamic scheduling method based on TBS deadline allocation (TDA-DS) is presented. In this method elementary time snot is introduced into TDA-DS to implement bottom-layer round-robin scheduling based on non-fixed cycle by transferring trigger message (TM) and stop message (ST). And total bandwidth server (TBS) is introduced to implement upper-layer dynamic priority mixed scheduling of periodic and non-periodic messages by Earliest Deadline First (EDF) algorithm. The simulation result indicates that the method can improve the real-time character of non-periodic messages as well as meet the schedulability of periodic messages.%为避免周期性和非周期性消息相互干扰,保证CAN总线消息传输公平性,提出了基于总带宽服务器时限分配的动态调度(TDA-DS)方法.引入基本时间片,以传输触发消息帧(TM)和结束帧(ST)实现底层基于非固定周期的时间片轮转调度;引入总带宽服务器(TBS),以最早时限优先算法(EDF)实现上层周期性和非周期性消息的动态优先级混合调度.仿真结果表明,该方法在满足周期性消息可调度性的同时提高了非周期性消息的实时性.

  14. NOx from cement production - reduction by primary measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Skaarup

    1999-01-01

    cement production processes cement is typically produced by thermally treating a mixture of limestone and clay minerals in kiln systems consisting of a rotary kiln and a calciner. Clinker burning at a temperature of about 1450 °C takes place in the internally fired rotary kiln and calcination, which...... is the most energy demanding process, takes place at lower temperature in the calciner. When dealing with NOx from solid fuel combustion it is important to consider reactions of volatile contents and char separately.Chapter 4 presents an overview of NOx from cement production. Thermal NOx dominates from......, calciner operation, fuel properties and on the NOx level from the rotary kiln. The low-NOx calciner types presently marketed are based on combinations of reburning, air staging and temperature control and seem equivalent in their ability to restrict NOx formation. If fuels with a significant volatile...

  15. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia

    2014-05-01

    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

  16. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  17. Study on the Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen Into NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminta Plečkaitienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate NOx regularities combusting fuels having high concentration of nitrogen and to develop methods that will reduce the conversion of fuel nitrogen into NOx. There are three solutions to reducing NOx concentration: the combustion of fuel mixing it with other types of “clean” fuel containing small amounts of nitrogen, laundering fuel and the combustion of fuel using carbon additives. These solutions can help with reducing the amount of nitrogen in the wood waste of furniture by about 30% by washing fuel with water. Therefore, NOx value may decrease by about 35%.Article in Lithuanian

  18. FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) is the principal gasoline-producing process in the refinery. Considerable amounts of harmful sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides (SOx and NOx ) are generated with the FCC operation. Impacted by strengthening environmental regulations and the current global emphasis on environmental protection and pollution abatement, refiners have been meaning to look for effective ways to control and reduce SOx and NOx emissions. FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additives is the most promising measure. The present paper reviews the developments in FCC DeSOx and DeNOx additive technology based on the respective authors' works, the future directions of the technology are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of NOx Budget Trading Program Units Brought into the CAIR NOx Ozone Season Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA analyzed the effect of having the large non-EGU units in the NBP and the CAIR NOX ozone season trading program and evaluated whether or not emissions from this group of units were reduced as a result of their inclusion in those trading programs.

  20. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs as well as hepatocyte apoptosis. The effect of NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency in liver fibrosis is unclear, and has never been directly compared. HSCs are the primary myofibroblasts in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of NOX1 and NOX4 in liver fibrosis, and investigated whether NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates liver fibrosis by regulating HSC activation. Mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 to induce liver fibrosis. Deficiency of either NOX1 or NOX4 attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after CCl4 compared to wild-type mice. NOX1 or NOX4 deficiency reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS production in mice with liver fibrosis. NOX1 and NOX4 deficiency are approximately equally effective in preventing liver injury in the mice. The NOX1/4 dual inhibitor GKT137831 suppressed ROS production as well as inflammatory and proliferative genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, or sonic hedgehog (Shh in primary mouse HSCs. Furthermore, the mRNAs of proliferative and pro-fibrotic genes were downregulated in NOX1 and NOX4 knock-out activated HSCs (cultured on plastic for 5 days. Finally, NOX1 and NOX4 protein levels were increased in human livers with cirrhosis compared with normal controls. Thus, NOX1 and NOX4 signaling mediates the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, including the direct activation of HSC.

  1. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Wang, S. X.; Liu, H.; Xu, J. Y.; Fu, K.; Klimont, Z.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.; Cofala, J.; Amann, M.

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995-2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4%, 34.0%, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU) and an alternative policy scenario (PC), were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64% and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010) by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector, and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective catalytic reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy-duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020 and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to

  2. NOx emissions in China: historical trends and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx are key pollutants for the improvement of ambient air quality. Within this study we estimated the historical NOx emissions in China for the period 1995–2010, and calculated future NOx emissions every five years until 2030 under six emission scenarios. Driven by the fast growth of energy consumption, we estimate the NOx emissions in China increased rapidly from 11.0 Mt in 1995 to 26.1 Mt in 2010. Power plants, industry and transportation were major sources of NOx emissions, accounting for 28.4, 34.0, and 25.4% of the total NOx emissions in 2010, respectively. Two energy scenarios, a business as usual scenario (BAU and an alternative policy scenario (PC, were developed to project future energy consumption. In 2030, total energy consumption is projected to increase by 64 and 27% from 2010 level respectively. Three sets of end-of-pipe pollution control measures, including baseline, progressive, and stringent control case, were developed for each energy scenario, thereby constituting six emission scenarios. By 2030, the total NOx emissions are projected to increase (compared to 2010 by 36% in the baseline while policy cases result in reduction up to 61% in the most ambitious case with stringent control measures. More than a third of the reduction achieved by 2030 between least and most ambitious scenario comes from power sector and more than half is distributed equally between industry and transportation sectors. Selective Catalytic Reduction dominates the NOx emission reductions in power plants, while life style changes, control measures for industrial boilers and cement production are major contributors to reductions in industry. Timely enforcement of legislation on heavy duty vehicles would contribute significantly to NOx emission reductions. About 30% of the NOx emission reduction in 2020, and 40% of the NOx emission reduction in 2030 could be treated as the ancillary benefit of energy conservation. Sensitivity analysis was

  3. NOX Activation by Subunit Interaction and Underlying Mechanisms in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Radhika; Geng, Xiaokun; Li, Fengwu; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme complex with the sole function of producing superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NADPH. Vital to the immune system as well as cellular signaling, NOX is also involved in the pathologies of a wide variety of disease states. Particularly, it is an integral player in many neurological diseases, including stroke, TBI, and neurodegenerative diseases. Pathologically, NOX produces an excessive amount of ROS that exceed the body’s antioxidant ability to neutralize them, leading to oxidative stress and aberrant signaling. This prevalence makes it an attractive therapeutic target and as such, NOX inhibitors have been studied and developed to counter NOX’s deleterious effects. However, recent studies of NOX have created a better understanding of the NOX complex. Comprised of independent cytosolic subunits, p47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and Rac, and membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, the NOX complex requires a unique activation process through subunit interaction. Of these subunits, p47-phox plays the most important role in activation, binding and translocating the cytosolic subunits to the membrane and anchoring to p22-phox to organize the complex for NOX activation and function. Moreover, these interactions, particularly that between p47-phox and p22-phox, are dependent on phosphorylation initiated by upstream processes involving protein kinase C (PKC). This review will look at these interactions between subunits and with PKC. It will focus on the interaction involving p47-phox with p22-phox, key in bringing the cytosolic subunits to the membrane. Furthermore, the implication of these interactions as a target for NOX inhibitors such as apocynin will be discussed as a potential avenue for further investigation, in order to develop more specific NOX inhibitors based on the inhibition of NOX assembly and activation. PMID:28119569

  4. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  5. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  6. Explicit Allocation Strategy with Deadline and Budget Constraint Algorithm in Bag of Tasks Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Purusothaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is for effective scheduling of grid jobs based on economy for space shared resources in Bag of tasks grid. Grid Computing aims in combining the power of heterogeneous, geographically distributed, multi-domain computational resources to provide high performance or high throughput. Approach: Space shared resources are parallel supercomputers and clusters of workstations that provides a great amount of computational power. These resources require jobs to be specified formally in terms of the amount of time (tr and number of processors (p needed for execution. Bag-of-Tasks (BoT is an application consists of several uniprocessor and independent tasks that have no inter-task communications or task-dependencies. BoT is highly suitable for execution in grids. It is capable of tolerating network delays or faults and does not require formal job submission. The Explicit allocation strategy assigns the formal job parameters (p, tr to the job requests, minimizing the overhead on the grid users to provide a formal job specification. This strategy uses adaptive heuristics to determine the parameters based on certain heuristics, in order to improve throughput. In the proposed system, explicit allocation strategy combined with Deadline and Budget Constraint (DBC Cost Time optimization algorithm performs effective scheduling of the jobs based on the user’s quality of service (QoS requirements such as deadline, budget and optimization strategy. Results: The cost-time optimization scheduling allocates the cheapest resources to ensure that the deadline can be met and computation is minimized. In case if there are two resources with the same cost, scheduling is done in any affordable resource so that the job gets executed as early as possible. Conclusion: The performance of this scheme against the existing system is evaluated using cost factor (Cfactor and speed up ratio (Tspeedup and this scheme is more effective than the existing

  7. Nanomaterials to Combat NO(x) Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, J; Cruz-Yusta, M; Sánchez, L

    2015-09-01

    The presence of NO9x) gases (NO+NO2) in the atmosphere is a major concern of society because of their associated adverse and harmful effects. In order to remove the NO(x) gases from the air, photocatalysis arises as an innovative and promising technique. Through the use of photochemical oxidation processes the NO and NO2 gases are oxidised to NO3- form and thus removed from the air. In recent years new nanomaterials are being developed by researchers with the aim to enhance their photocatalytic activity to combat the NO(x) pollution. The main focus is devoted to preparing new TiO2 based compounds with the highest specific surface area (SSA), different morphology and chemical modifications. In order to increase the SSA, different substrates were used to disperse the TiO2 nanoparticles: organic and carbon fibres, mesoporous materials, clays composites and nanoporous microparticles. In the other hand, high photocatalytic performances were obtained with nanotubes, self-orderer nano-tubular films and nanoparticles with the lowest size. Conversely, when TiO2 is doped with ions the oxide exhibited a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, which is related to the creation of intermediate energy states between the conduction band and the valence band. Alternatively, visible light photocatalysts different from titanium oxide have been studied, which exhibit a good De-NO(x) efficiency working under λ > 400 nm visible light irradiation.

  8. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Hisao; Fukai, Tohru; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min. Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2-pY), EC migration and proliferation at the similar extent. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or overexpression of Nox4, which produces H2O2, increases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), which is prevented by Nox2 siRNA, suggesting that Nox2 senses Nox4-derived H2O2 to promote mtROS production. Mechanistically, H2O2 increases S36 phosphorylation of p66Shc, a key mtROS regulator, which is inhibited by siNox2, but not by siNox4. Moreover, Nox2 or Nox4 knockdown or overexpression of S36 phosphorylation-defective mutant p66Shc(S36A) inhibits VEGF-induced mtROS, VEGFR2-pY, EC migration, and proliferation. In summary, Nox4-derived H2O2 in part activates Nox2 to increase mtROS via pSer36-p66Shc, thereby enhancing VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in ECs. This may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism of ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by the Nox4/Nox2/pSer36-p66Shc/mtROS axis, which drives sustained activation of angiogenesis signaling program. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Homocysteine-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells coincides with nuclear NOX2 and peri-nuclear NOX4 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipkens, Jessica A; Hahn, Nynke; van den Brand, Carlien S; Meischl, Christof; Cillessen, Saskia A G M; Smith, Desirée E C; Juffermans, Lynda J M; Musters, René J P; Roos, Dirk; Jakobs, Cornelis; Blom, Henk J; Smulders, Yvo M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Rauwerda, Jan A; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Niessen, Hans W M

    2013-11-01

    Apoptosis of endothelial cells related to homocysteine (Hcy) has been reported in several studies. In this study, we evaluated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing signaling pathways contribute to Hcy-induced apoptosis induction, with specific emphasis on NADPH oxidases. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 0.01-2.5 mM Hcy. We determined the effect of Hcy on caspase-3 activity, annexin V positivity, intracellular NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and p47(phox) expression and localization, nuclear nitrotyrosine accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m). Hcy induced caspase-3 activity and apoptosis; this effect was concentration dependent and maximal after 6-h exposure to 2.5 mM Hcy. It was accompanied by a significant increase in ΔΨ m. Cysteine was inactive on these parameters excluding a reactive thiol group effect. Hcy induced an increase in cellular NOX2, p47(phox), and NOX4, but not that of NOX1. 3D digital imaging microscopy followed by image deconvolution analysis showed nuclear accumulation of NOX2 and p47(phox) in endothelial cells exposed to Hcy, but not in control cells, which coincided with accumulation of nuclear nitrotyrosine residues. Furthermore, Hcy enhanced peri-nuclear localization of NOX4 coinciding with accumulation of peri-nuclear nitrotyrosine residues, a reflection of local ROS production. p47(phox) was also increased in the peri-nuclear region. The Hcy-induced increase in caspase-3 activity was prevented by DPI and apocynin, suggesting involvement of NOX activity. The data presented in this article reveal accumulation of nuclear NOX2 and peri-nuclear NOX4 accumulation as potential source of ROS production in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells.

  10. NOX Activity Is Increased in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunita; Parrino, Taryn E.; Knight, Alecia G.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Weidner, Adam M.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a longitudinally followed group of patients. This group included both control and late-stage AD subjects, and also subjects with preclinical AD and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to evaluate the profile of NOX in the earliest stages of dementia. Data show significant elevations in NOX activity and expression in the temporal gyri of MCI patients as compared with controls, but not in preclinical or late-stage AD samples, and not in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical evaluations of NOX expression indicate that whereas microglia express high levels of gp91phox, moderate levels of gp91phox also are expressed in neurons. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that NOX inhibition blunted the ability of oligomeric amyloid beta peptides to injure cultured neurons. Collectively, these data show that NOX expression and activity are upregulated specifically in a vulnerable brain region of MCI patients, and suggest that increases in NOX-associated redox pathways in neurons might participate in the early pathogenesis of AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1371–1382. PMID:19929442

  11. 40 CFR 91.319 - NOX converter check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must amount to... of the NO concentration). The NOX analyzer must be in the NO mode so that the span gas does not pass... analyzer in the most common range the NOX converter cannot give a reduction from 80 percent to 20...

  12. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of stea

  13. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  14. ASCR{trademark}: lower NOx removal costs without sacrificing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, S.; Rummenhohl, V.; Siebeking, M.; Thomas, R.; Triece, C. [Fuel Tech (United States)

    2011-05-15

    With recent regulatory initiatives, the new Industrial Emissions Directive in Europe, and new rules being proposed by EPA in the USA, the question for power plants is now whether they will be required to reduce NOx emissions in the future to stay in operation, but when. What is needed is a low-capital-cost but high-performance NOx removal technology. 7 figs.

  15. Constraining NOx emissions over East Asia using satellite NO2 column retrievals with emphasis on the role of NOx transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Kim, S.; Brioude, J. F.; Cooper, O. R.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, C.; Trainer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite observations have provided a continuous view of significant changes in NOx emissions over the past two decades. In this study, tropospheric NO2 columns from the polar orbiting OMI, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments were used to diagnose the annual and seasonal variations and the spatial characteristic of NOx emissions over East Asia. As expected, we found substantial increases in both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over China from 2005 to 2011, resulting from rapid economic growth. However, the year-to-year change in NO2 columns over Korea showed increasing trends, in contrast to decreasing inventoried NOx emissions. Both NO2 columns and bottom-up NOx emissions over Japan decreased during this period. Seasonally, maximum and minimum NO2 columns occur in winter and summer above China, Korea, and Japan, as NOx chemical lifetime changes. Above Korea and Japan, however, secondary peaks are found in spring. Numerical simulations using Lagrangian and Eulerian chemical transport models indicate that transport of NOx from China could explain the spring peaks of NO2 columns above Korea and Japan and the discrepancy between annual trends of satellite observations and bottom-up emissions downwind of China . The model results also quantify the contributions of emissions and transport to the local NOx budget over each country and sub-regions of China.

  16. Chemically enhanced biological NOx removal from flue gases : nitric oxide and ferric EDTA reduction in BioDeNox reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der P.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere is a major environmental problem. To abate NOx emissions from industrial flue gases, to date, mainly chemical processes like selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are applied. All these processes require high temperatures (>300 °C) and expensi

  17. Scheduling Packets with Values and Deadlines in Size-bounded Buffers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by providing quality-of-service differentiated services in the Internet, we consider buffer management algorithms for network switches. We study a multi-buffer model. A network switch consists of multiple size-bounded buffers such that at any time, the number of packets residing in each individual buffer cannot exceed its capacity. Packets arrive at the network switch over time; they have values, deadlines, and designated buffers. In each time step, at most one pending packet is allowed to be sent and this packet can be from any buffer. The objective is to maximize the total value of the packets sent by their respective deadlines. A 9.82-competitive online algorithm has been provided for this model (Azar and Levy. SWAT 2006), but no offline algorithms have been known yet. In this paper, We study the offline setting of the multi-buffer model. Our contributions include a few optimal offline algorithms for some variants of the model. Each variant has its unique and interesting algorithmic feature. Thes...

  18. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  19. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  20. Electrochemical NOx reduction on an LSM/CGO symmetric cell modified by NOx adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    nitrate reduction. The cell with the BaO/Pt/Al2O3 layer exhibited a preferable performance at low temperatures (350 and 400 °C) and low voltages (1.5 to 2 V) due to the NO oxidation ability of the Pt catalyst, although its performance was relatively poor at elevated temperatures and voltages due......This study investigated the effect of modifying a (La0.85Sr0.15)0.99MnO3 (LSM)/Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) symmetric cell by NOx adsorbents on the electrochemical reduction of NOx under O2-rich conditions. The modification was based on a full ceramic cell structure without any noble metals. Three cells...... were prepared and tested: a blank cell, a cell impregnated with BaO, and a cell coated with a BaO/Pt/Al2O3 layer. The electrochemical reduction of NOx on the three cells was studied by conversion measurement, degradation testing, and microstructure characterization. The modification, either...

  1. NOX4 is an early initiator of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Christian; Geuss, Eva; Sommer, Claudia; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain remains challenging as the etiology is heterogeneous and pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. One possible mechanism is oxidative stress due to unphysiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The only know dedicated enzymatic source of ROS are NADPH oxidases of which the type 4 isoform (NOX4) has been suggested to be involved in the subacute and chronic phase of neuropathic pain. Here, we aim to translate this finding into a treatment strategy by examining the efficacy of the NOX1/4-specific inhibitor GKT136901 using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) mouse model of neuropathic pain. Unexpectedly, post-nerve lesion treatment using GKT136901 was ineffective to reduce pain-related behavior after CCI. We therefore re-investigated the role of NOX4 using an independent KO mouse model. Early after CCI we found an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS formation and the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine in the lesioned nerve together with an upregulated Nox4 gene expression. In NOX4 KO mice, mechanical allodynia was markedly reduced from day 4 after nerve injury as were all ROS related and acute biomarkers. In addition, we observed a reduction in the CCI-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia along with NOX4-deficiency. Thus, we conclude that NOX4 is involved in the development of neuropathic pain states by producing oxidative stress and subsequent cytokine dysregulation at the lesion site. This appears at very early stages immediately after nerve injury explaining ineffectiveness of post-acute pharmacological NOX inhibition. We suggest that future target validation of NOX4 should now focus on defining the possible therapeutic window in human neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based deNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Michelsen, Poul

    The NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments at two industrial power plants running on natural gas (Ringsted) and biomass (Haslev). Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx of 1.56. Fourier transform infrared....... Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. An optimized oxidation scheme for NOx reduction processes with time dependent combustion, such as the biomass power plants, was developed. Ozone production by micro-hollow and capillary discharges at atmospheric pressures was investigated...

  3. Full-scale NOx reduction experiments at Norcem Brevik

    OpenAIRE

    Bregge, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The NOx reduction system installed at Norcem Brevik is based on the SNCR technology. It was installed in 2012 and substantial reduction of NOx has been achieved. However, it has never been performed experiments or optimizations of the system. SNCR technology is based on injection of a nitrogen-containing reduction agent, in this case ammonium hydroxide, to reduce the NOx concentration within the required temperature range, 1100-1400K (827-1127oC). The developed experiments were based on fi...

  4. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  5. Heteropoly acid promoted catalyst for SCR of NOx with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gases. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a highly alkali metal resistant heteropoly acid promoted catalyst and the use of said catalyst for removal of NOx from exhaust or flue gases, said gases...... comprising alkali or earth alkali metals. Such gases comprise for example flue gases arising from the burning of biomass, combined biomass and fossil fuel, and from waste incineration units. The process comprises the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen...

  6. 76 FR 79170 - Southcross CCNG Transmission Ltd.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southcross CCNG Transmission Ltd.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on December 13, 2011, Southcross CCNG Transmission Ltd... concerning periodic reviews of rates charges by section 311 and Hinshaw pipelines to extend the cycle...

  7. 76 FR 76711 - Overland Trail Transmission, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...-003] Overland Trail Transmission, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on November 30, 2011, Overland Trail Transmission, LLC (OTTCO) filed a request for an... rates charges by section 311 and Hinshaw pipelines to extend the cycle for such reviews from three...

  8. 75 FR 70752 - ONEOK WesTex Transmission, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ONEOK WesTex Transmission, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline November 10, 2010. Take notice that on November 2, 2010, ONEOK WesTex Transmission, LLC (OWT) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to January 3,...

  9. 34 CFR 690.61 - Submission process and deadline for a Student Aid Report or Institutional Student Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Report or Institutional Student Information Record. 690.61 Section 690.61 Education Regulations of the... and deadline for a Student Aid Report or Institutional Student Information Record. (a) Submission... under the conditions set forth in 34 CFR 668.16(f) and 668.60. (b) Student Aid Report or...

  10. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle...

  11. 76 FR 18754 - J-W Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission J-W Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on March 28, 2011, J-W Pipeline Company (J-W) filed a request for an extension...\\ Therefore, J-W requests that the date for its next rate filing be extended to November 21, 2013, which...

  12. 76 FR 39869 - Lee 8 Storage Partnership; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lee 8 Storage Partnership; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on June 27, 2011, Lee 8 Storage Partnership (Lee 8) filed a request for.... Eastern Time on Monday, July 11, 2011. Dated: June 28, 2011. Nathaniel J. Davis, Sr., Deputy...

  13. 77 FR 55469 - Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on August 30, 2012, Kinder Morgan Border Pipeline LLC (KM...

  14. 78 FR 40731 - Deadline Dates for Reports and Other Records Associated With the Free Application for Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... (FAFSA), the Federal Pell Grant Program, the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, the Teacher... Loan Program; 84.063 Federal Pell Grant Program; 84.268 William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program; 84... deadline date notice are the Federal Pell Grant, William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan),...

  15. 76 FR 6178 - Deadline for Notification of Intent to Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 23 (Thursday, February 3, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 6178] [FR Doc No: 2011-2381] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Deadline for Notification of Intent to Use the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Primary, Cargo, and Nonprimary...

  16. 20 CFR 404.2116 - When claims for payment for VR services must be made (filing deadlines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When claims for payment for VR services must... Rehabilitation Services Payment Provisions § 404.2116 When claims for payment for VR services must be made (filing deadlines). The State VR agency or alternate participant must file a claim for payment in each...

  17. 20 CFR 416.2216 - When claims for payment for VR services must be made (filing deadlines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When claims for payment for VR services must... Rehabilitation Services Payment Provisions § 416.2216 When claims for payment for VR services must be made (filing deadlines). The State VR agency or alternate participant must file a claim for payment in each...

  18. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS General § 37.5 Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a) Driver's... individuals born after December 1, 1964, unless such license or card is a REAL ID-compliant driver's...

  19. 76 FR 76711 - DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on November 30, 2011, DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC (Raptor) filed a request for an extension consistent..., Raptor requests that the date for its next rate filing be extended to September 1, 2014, which is...

  20. Impact of Soot on NOx Adsorption over Cu-Modified Hydrotalcite-Derived Lean NOx Trap Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Song, Chonglin; Lv, Gang; Chen, Ke; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-28

    The impact of soot on NOx adsorption was studied over a Cu-modified hydrotalcite-derived lean NOx trap catalyst in a NO + O2 atmosphere. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface properties of the pure catalyst and the soot/catalyst mixture. The adsorbed NOx species on the samples were evaluated by in situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform spectroscopy. The soot coverage decreases the available adsorption sites on the surface of the catalyst, and a portion of active oxygen species are consumed by the soot oxidation during He pretreatment process. The NOx adsorption on two catalyst samples simultaneously undergoes two routes: the "nitrite route" and the "nitrate route". The "nitrite route" is more dominant than the "nitrate route". During NOx adsorption, the soot oxidation weakens the NO oxidation to NO2, and the released CO2 competes with NOx on the adsorption sites. Moreover, the temperature-programmed desorption tests indicate that the presence of soot reduces the NOx storage capacity of the catalyst and shifts the NO desorption peak to the lower temperature range by 50 °C.

  1. Application of a Central Composite Design for the Study of NOx Emission Performance of a Low NOx Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dutka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of various factors on nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions of a low NOx burner is investigated using a central composite design (CCD approach to an experimental matrix in order to show the applicability of design of experiments methodology to the combustion field. Four factors have been analyzed in terms of their impact on NOx formation: hydrogen fraction in the fuel (0%–15% mass fraction in hydrogen-enriched methane, amount of excess air (5%–30%, burner head position (20–25 mm from the burner throat and secondary fuel fraction provided to the burner (0%–6%. The measurements were performed at a constant thermal load equal to 25 kW (calculated based on lower heating value. Response surface methodology and CCD were used to develop a second-degree polynomial regression model of the burner NOx emissions. The significance of the tested factors over their respective ranges has been evaluated using the analysis of variance and by the consideration of the coefficients of the model equation. Results show that hydrogen addition to methane leads to increased NOx emissions in comparison to emissions from pure methane combustion. Hydrogen content in a fuel is the strongest factor affecting NOx emissions among all the factors tested. Lower NOx formation because of increased excess air was observed when the burner was fuelled by pure methane, but this effect diminished for hydrogen-rich fuel mixtures. NOx emissions were slightly reduced when the burner head was shifted closer to the burner outer tube, whereas a secondary fuel stream provided to the burner was found to have no impact on NOx emissions over the investigated range of factors.

  2. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  3. 40 CFR 96.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 96.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.186 Section 96.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Opt-in Units § 96.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual...

  5. 40 CFR 97.186 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.186 Section 97.186 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Opt-In Units § 97.186 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program. Except as...

  6. 40 CFR 97.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 97.386 Section 97.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Opt-in Units § 97.386 Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading...

  7. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal....

  8. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  9. Characterization of LSM/CGO Symmetric Cells Modified by NOx Adsorbents for Electrochemical NOx Removal with Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    /CGO electrode by selectively trapping NO2 in the form of nitrate over the BaO sites and provided availability for a direct reduction of the stored nitrate. The BaO-Pt-Al2O3 layer enhanced the NOx adsorption and promoted the formation of NO2 due to the NO oxidation ability of the Pt catalyst, but hindered......This study uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to characterize an LSM/CGO symmetric cell modified by NOx adsorbents for the application of electrochemical NOx reduction. Three cells were prepared and tested: a blank cell, a cell impregnated with BaO, and a cell coated with a Ba...

  10. Study on the NOx release rule along the boiler during pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jing; ZHANG Zhongxiao; LI Ruiyang

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental study on NOx release along the boiler during pulverized coal combustion have been conducted.With the increase of temperature the NOx emission increased and the peak value of NOx release moved forward.But when the temperature increased to a certain degree,NOx emission began to reduce.NOx emission increased with the increase of nitrogen content of coal.The peak value of NOx release moved backwards with the increase of coal rank.NOx emission increased obviously with the increase of stoichiometric ratio.There existed a critical average diameter of the pulverized coal (de).If d≤dc,NOx emission reduced with the decrease of pulverized coal size.If d>de,NOx emission reduced with the increase of the pulverized coal size.The results showed that the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results for concentration distribution of NOx along the axis of the furnace.

  11. Update on microkinetic modeling of lean NOx trap chemistry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard S.; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Choi, Jae-Soon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Chakravarthy, V, Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-04-01

    Our previously developed microkinetic model for lean NOx trap (LNT) storage and regeneration has been updated to address some longstanding issues, in particular the formation of N2O during the regeneration phase at low temperatures. To this finalized mechanism has been added a relatively simple (12-step) scheme that accounts semi-quantitatively for the main features observed during sulfation and desulfation experiments, namely (a) the essentially complete trapping of SO2 at normal LNT operating temperatures, (b) the plug-like sulfation of both barium oxide (NOx storage) and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites, (c) the degradation of NOx storage behavior arising from sulfation, (d) the evolution of H2S and SO2 during high temperature desulfation (temperature programmed reduction) under H2, and (e) the complete restoration of NOx storage capacity achievable through the chosen desulfation procedure.

  12. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Wolter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i Quantum cascade lasers (QCL based photoacoustic (PA systems; ii gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET sensors, and iii functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

  13. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Cinzia; Elia, Angela; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Bruno, Giovanni; Losurdo, Maria; Garcia, Michael A.; Wolter, Scott D.; Brown, April; Ricco, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling. PMID:22412315

  14. Impact of passenger car NOx emissions and NO2 fractions on urban NO2 pollution - Scenario analysis for the city of Antwerp, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraeuwe, Bart; Thunis, Philippe; Clappier, Alain; Weiss, Martin; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Vranckx, Stijn

    2016-02-01

    The annual NO2 concentrations in many European cities exceed the established air quality standard. This situation is mainly caused by Diesel cars whose NOx emissions are higher on the road than during type approval in the laboratory. Moreover, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions of modern diesel cars appears to have increased as compared to previous models. In this paper, we assess 1) to which level the distance-specific NOx emissions of Diesel cars should be reduced to meet established air quality standards and 2) if it would be useful to introduce a complementary NO2 emissions limit. We develop a NO2 pollution model that accounts in an analysis of 9 emission scenarios for changes in both, the urban background NO2 concentrations and the local NO2 emissions at street level. We apply this model to the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results suggest that a reduction in NOx emissions decreases the regional and urban NO2 background concentration; high NO2 fractions increase the ambient NO2 concentrations only in close spatial proximity to the emission source. In a busy access road to the city centre, the average NO2 concentration can be reduced by 23% if Diesel cars emitted 0.35 g NOx/km instead of the current 0.62 g NOx/km. Reductions of 45% are possible if the NOX emissions of Diesel cars decreased to the level of gasoline cars (0.03 g NOx/km). Our findings suggest that the Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure can solve the problem of NO2 exceedances in cities if it reduced the on-road NOx emissions of diesel cars to the permissible limit of 0.08 g/km. The implementation of a complementary NO2 emissions limit may then become superfluous. If Diesel cars continue to exceed by several factors their NOx emissions limit on the road, a shift of the vehicle fleet to gasoline cars may be necessary to solve persisting air quality problems.

  15. Resource Availability-Aware Advance Reservation for Parallel Jobs with Deadlines

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Shen, Bin; Wu, Hao; He, Min; Yang, Jundong

    2012-01-01

    Advance reservation is important to guarantee the quality of services of jobs by allowing exclusive access to resources over a defined time interval on resources. It is a challenge for the scheduler to organize available resources efficiently and to allocate them for parallel AR jobs with deadline constraint appropriately. This paper provides a slot-based data structure to organize available resources of multiprocessor systems in a way that enables efficient search and update operations, and formulates a suite of scheduling policies to allocate resources for dynamically arriving AR requests. The performance of the scheduling algorithms were investigated by simulations with different job sizes and durations, system loads and scheduling flexibilities. Simulation results show that job sizes and durations, system load and the flexibility of scheduling will impact the performance metrics of all the scheduling algorithms, and the PE-Worst-Fit algorithm becomes the best algorithm for the scheduler with the highest a...

  16. NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Salewski, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    NOx reduction by ozone injection and direct plasma treatment is investigated for different process parameters in a 6 m long serpentine reactor. Several aspects including the role of mixing scheme, water vapours, steep temperature gradient and time dependet NOx levels are taken into consideration....... The process chemistry is monitored by FTIR, chemiluminiscence and absorbtion spectroscopy. The kinetic mechanism is also investigated in 3D simulations....

  17. Impact of FCC regenerator design in the NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Hugo Borges; Sandes, Emanuel Freire; Gilbert, William Richard; Roncolatto, Rodolfo Eugenio; Gobbo, Rodrigo; Casavechia, Luiz Carlos; Candido, William Victor Carlos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bridi, Patricia Elaine [Possebon Engenharia, Sao Mateus do Sul, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is the main point source of NOx in the refinery and it is responsible for at least 20% of the total NOx emissions from the refineries. The thermal NOx formation in the FCC regenerator is negligible. However, half of the feed nitrogen is converted to coke, and is burned in the regenerator. The majority of coke nitrogen is reduced to N2 and less than 10% is converted to NOx. This number may vary significantly with the oxygen excess in the flue gas and other operational conditions. With the purpose of evaluating the impact of different regenerator designs in NOx formation, several tests were carried out in the PETROBRAS FCC prototype unit. The test unit is equipped with adiabatic insulation and a CO boiler, allowing it to reproduce the heat balance of a commercial FCC and to operate either in full combustion or partial combustion. Two different designs of FCC regenerators were evaluated: single stage regenerator (the existing configuration) and two stage regenerator, with the catalyst bed divided into two sections by a structured packing baffle. It was observed in the tests that the combustion regime had a very strong effect on NOx formation. In full combustion, the effect of the FCC operating variables: excess oxygen, combustion promoter content in catalyst and regenerator design could be identified. The two stage configuration was capable of decreasing NOx emissions by 30%. In partial combustion, the effect of the CO-boiler variables on NOx emissions was overwhelming, but the use of the structured packing baffle was able to improve the catalyst regeneration.(author)

  18. Effect of oxygen on NOx removal in corona discharge field: NOx behavior without a reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Arai; M. Saito; S. Yoshinaga [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Department of Mechanical System Engineering

    2004-10-01

    A DeNOx process using a DC corona discharge was investigated experimentally. A mixture system of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/NO was used as a test gas. The compositions such as NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and so on were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and an NOx meter. It was found that the characteristics of NO removal by corona discharge differed remarkably whether or not oxygen exists in the mixture. In regard to the spectrum of light emission from the corona discharge in N{sub 2} atmosphere or N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture, some N{sub 2} bands were detected. N{sub 2} dissociation into atomic N and N{sub 2} radical in the corona discharge field was conjectured. Furthermore, ozone was yielded by the corona discharge in the case of the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Ozone gas from an ozonizer was added into the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture without corona discharge to investigate the effect of O{sub 3} on the characteristics of NOx removal by corona discharge. In the case of the N{sub 2}/NO mixture, the process of NO reduction was mainly controlled by N{sub 2} radicals excited by the corona discharge. On the other hand, in the case of the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/NO mixture, NO was oxidized by ozone generated from the corona discharge and converted to NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  19. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...... by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  20. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  1. Clinical evaluation of the deadline of healing of the ulcer of Buruli hurts of diameter lower or equal to 10 centimeters in pobe (Benin)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Koudoukpo; Félix Atadokpede; Laouali Salissou; Françoise Assogba; Fabrice Akpadjan; Bérénice Degboe; Nadège Agbessi; Hugues Adégbidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcer of Buruli is a skin disorder due to Mycobacterium ulcerans. The objective was to estimate the deadline of healing of the hurts of the ulcer of ulcer of Buruli of diameter ≤ 10 cm...

  2. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Soriano-Mora; A. Bueno-Lopez; A. Garcia-Garcia; R. Perry; C.E. Snape [University of Alicante (Spain). Department of Inorganic Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials have been proposed as potential inexpensive reducing agents for NOx reduction under suitable operating conditions. Potassium has been found to be an effective catalyst in the C-NOx reaction at sufficiently high concentration. In the current work it was decided to explore low-cost carbon precursors for their suitability for NOx reduction, and to incorporate them in pellets rather than briquettes. The much greater surface area afforded by pellets should allow them to be used to better effect in removing NOx from flue gases passing through a fixed bed. The feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was used as a binder, as it can be heat-cured per se at ca. 275{sup o}C, with little loss in volatile matter. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325 - 350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant levels of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction, being the consumption of O{sub 2} hardly appreciable, leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. The highest selectivity of ca. 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal and this was comparable to that achieved for briquettes from earlier studies. (Abstract only).

  3. Nox2 and Cyclosporine-Induced Renal Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamali, Arjang; Wilson, Nancy A; Sadowski, Elizabeth A; Zha, Wei; Niles, David; Hafez, Omeed; Dorn, Justin R; Mehner, Thomas R; Grimm, Paul C; Hoffmann, F Michael; Zhong, Weixiong; Fain, Sean B; Reese, Shannon R

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate oxidase 2 (Nox2) plays an important role in cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced chronic hypoxia. We tested this hypothesis in Fisher 344 rats, C57BL/6 J wild type and Nox2-/- mice, and in liver transplant recipients with chronic CsA nephrotoxicity. We used noninvasive molecular imaging (blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging) and molecular diagnostic tools to assess intrarenal oxygenation and perfusion, and the molecular phenotype of CsA nephrotoxicity. We observed that chemical and genetic inhibition of Nox2 in rats and mice resulted in the prevention of CsA-induced hypoxia independent of regional perfusion (blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, pimonidazole, HIF-1α). Nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate oxidase 2 knockout was also associated with decreased oxidative stress (Nox2, HIF-1α, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxynonenal), and fibrogenesis (α-smooth muscle actin, picrosirius red, trichrome, vimentin). The molecular signature of chronic CsA nephrotoxicity using transcriptomic analyses demonstrated significant changes in 40 genes involved in injury repair, metabolism, and oxidative stress in Nox2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of kidney biopsies from liver transplant recipients with chronic CsA nephrotoxicity showed significantly greater Nox2, α-smooth muscle actin and picrosirius levels compared with controls. These studies suggest that Nox2 is a modulator of CsA-induced hypoxia upstream of HIF-1α and define the molecular characteristics that could be used for the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity.

  4. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  5. Direct interaction between Tks proteins and the N-terminal proline-rich region (PRR) of NoxA1 mediates Nox1-dependent ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Davide; DerMardirossian, Céline; Bokoch, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) family enzymes are one of the main sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. To date seven members of this family have been reported, including Nox1-5 and Duox1 and 2. With the exception of Nox2, the regulation of the Nox enzymes is still poorly understood. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon, and requires two cytosolic regulators, the organizer subunit NoxO1 and the activator subunit NoxA1, as well as the binding of Rac1 GTPase, for its activity. Recently, we identified the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 as functional members of a p47(phox)-related organizer superfamily. As a functional consequence of this interaction, Nox1 localizes to invadopodia, actin-rich membrane protrusions of cancer cells which facilitate pericellular proteolysis and invasive behavior. Here, we report that Tks4 and Tks5 directly bind to NoxA1. Moreover, the integrity of the N-terminal PRR of NoxA1 is essential for this direct interaction with the Tks proteins. When the PRR in NoxA1 is disrupted, Tks proteins cannot bind NoxA1 and lose their ability to support Nox1-dependent ROS generation. Consistent with this, Tks4 and Tks5 are unable to act as organizers for Nox2 because of their inability to interact with p67(phox), which lacks the N-terminal PRR, thus conferring a unique specificity to Tks4 and 5. Taken together, these results clarify the molecular basis for the interaction between NoxA1 and the Tks proteins and may provide new insights into the pharmacological design of a more effective anti-metastatic strategy.

  6. Gaseous ligand selectivity of the H-NOX sensor protein from Shewanella oneidensis and comparison to those of other bacterial H-NOXs and soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Wen; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2017-09-01

    To delineate the commonalities and differences in gaseous ligand discrimination among the heme-based sensors with Heme Nitric oxide/OXygen binding protein (H-NOX) scaffold, the binding kinetic parameters for gaseous ligands NO, CO, and O2, including KD, kon, and koff, of Shewanella oneidensis H-NOX (So H-NOX) were characterized in detail in this study and compared to those of previously characterized H-NOXs from Clostridium botulinum (Cb H-NOX), Nostoc sp. (Ns H-NOX), Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), Vibrio cholera (Vc H-NOX), and human soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), an H-NOX analogue. The KD(NO) and KD(CO) of each bacterial H-NOX or sGC follow the "sliding scale rule"; the affinities of the bacterial H-NOXs for NO and CO vary in a small range but stronger than those of sGC by at least two orders of magnitude. On the other hand, each bacterial H-NOX exhibits different characters in the stability of its 6c NO complex, reactivity with secondary NO, stability of oxyferrous heme and autoxidation to ferric heme. A facile access channel for gaseous ligands is also identified, implying that ligand access has only minimal effect on gaseous ligand selectivity of H-NOXs or sGC. This comparative study of the binding parameters of the bacterial H-NOXs and sGC provides a basis to guide future new structural and functional studies of each specific heme sensor with the H-NOX protein fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear Nox4-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Guida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for intracellular ROS production has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neoplasias. ROS sources, such as NAD(PH oxidase (Nox complexes, are frequently activated in AML (acute myeloid leukemia blasts and strongly contribute to their proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, with an increased propensity to develop AML. The molecular basis for MDS progression is unknown, but a key element in MDS disease progression is the genomic instability. NADPH oxidases are now recognized to have specific subcellular localizations, this targeting to specific compartments for localized ROS production. Local Nox-dependent ROS production in the nucleus may contribute to the regulation of redox-dependent cell growth, differentiation, senescence, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We observed that Nox1, 2, and 4 isoforms and p22phox and Rac1 subunits are expressed in MDS/AML cell lines and MDS samples, also in the nuclear fractions. Interestingly, Nox4 interacts with ERK and Akt1 within nuclear speckle domain, suggesting that Nox4 could be involved in regulating gene expression and splicing factor activity. These data contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by nuclear ROS to drive MDS evolution to AML.

  8. Research on Calculation Method of Period and Deadline of Frame in Automotive Electronic and Information Integrated Control System

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; With the increase of the complexity of automotive control, it is necessary to develop AEIICS (Automotive Electronic and Information Integrated Control System) for exchanging information between ECUs (Electronic Control Units) based on in-vehicle network technology. We named the parameter (or variable) contained in and transmitted by frame as signal. Period and deadline are basic temporal characteristics for signal and frame. Designers mainly focus on directly designing...

  9. Effects of heat release rate on NOx time history in diesel combustion; Diesel nensho ni okeru netsu hasseiritsu keika ga NOx nodo rireki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T.; Miwa, K.; Higashida, M. [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-06-25

    For determining the optimum combination of combustion control techniques to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it is important to clarify the effects of each technique not only on the NOx emission but also on its time history during combustion. In this paper, NOx concentration in the combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine has been measured by using a total gas sampling method. In order to elucidate the relation between NOx history and heat release rate, air temperatures nozzle hole size and air motion are varied to control the heat release process. The results show that NOx emission is not solely dependent upon initial combustion. Air utilization in the main diffusive combustion phase has great influence on NOx formation and its decay. NOx formation is accelerated by activation of the initial stage of the main combustion when using a nozzle with small holes. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  11. Impacts of the abolition of NOx emission trade; Effecten van de afschaffing van NOx- emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The consequences of abolishing the NOx emission trade have been analyzed for the installations that are covered by BEMS legislation (Dutch decree on emission limits for medium-sized combustion plants). The following aspects have been analyzed: What are the enforcement costs if these installations need to comply with BEMS requirements as of 2014?; How are these costs distributed across the various sectors and in particular for the sectors of onshore/offshore gas and oil extraction, greenhouse horticulture and hospitals?; To what extent can costs be lowered by allowing a 2-,3- or 5-year delay of the implementation date for existing installations in BEMS? To answer the above questions, data were used from the NEA (Netherlands Emission Authority) at sector level. Model calculations were conducted to determine the costs and effects [Dutch] De gevolgen van de afschaffing van NOx-emissiehandel zijn geanalyseerd voor het installatiepark dat terugvalt op BEMS-wetgeving (Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties). De volgende zaken zijn geanalyseerd: Wat zijn de nalevingskosten indien vanaf 2014 deze installaties aan de BEMS-eisen moeten voldoen?; Hoe zijn deze kosten verdeeld over de verschillende sectoren en in het bijzonder voor de sectoren offshore/onshore gas- en oliewinning, de glastuinbouw en ziekenhuizen?; In hoeverre zijn de kosten te verlagen door 2, 3 of 5 jaar uitstel te geven ten opzichte van de implementatiedatum voor bestaande installaties in BEMS? Voor het beantwoorden van de bovenstaande vragen is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van de NEa (Nederlandse Emissie autoriteit) op sectorniveau. Met modelberekeningen zijn hiermee kosten en effecten bepaald.

  12. Managing Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Meetings are a means of giving people a chance to contribute. Meetings are also the nursery where the people's skills of listening, speaking, and building good working relationships are honed. They are where people practice being courteously challenging and confident, and they are where people are fascinated and fascinating. Meetings are where…

  13. NOx Emissions from Diesel Passenger Cars Worsen with Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens

    2016-04-05

    Commonly, the NOx emissions rates of diesel vehicles have been assumed to remain stable over the vehicle's lifetime. However, there have been hardly any representative long-term emission measurements. Here we present real-driving emissions of diesel cars and light commercial vehicles sampled on-road over 15 years in Zurich/Switzerland. Results suggest deterioration of NOx unit emissions for Euro 2 and Euro 3 diesel technologies, while Euro 1 and Euro 4 technologies seem to be stable. We can exclude a significant influence of high-emitting vehicles. NOx emissions from all cars and light commercial vehicles in European emission inventories increase by 5-10% accounting for the observed deterioration, depending on the country and its share of diesel cars. We suggest monitoring the stability of emission controls particularly for high-mileage light commercial as well as heavy-duty vehicles.

  14. Expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX 5 in rabbit corneal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Rizvi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether NOX 5 is expressed in rabbit corneal stromal cells (RCSC. NADPH oxidases (NOXes are enzymes that preferentially use NADPH as a substrate and generate superoxide. Several isoforms of NOXes function as multi-protein complexes while NOX5 and DUOXs do not require the accessory proteins for their activity and possess calcium binding EF hands. METHODS: Human NOX5 primers were used to amplify the rabbit NOX5 by RT-PCR. Amplified product was sequenced to confirm its identity. The protein encoded by the NOX5 was identified by western blot analysis. NOX5 siRNA was used to reduce transcript, protein, and calcium stimulated activity. In silico analyses were performed to establish the putative structure, functions, and evolution of rabbit NOX5. RESULTS: NOX activity was measured in RCSC with NADPH rather than NADH as a substrate. RT-PCR with NOX5 primers amplified 288 bp product using RCSC cDNA, which, when sequenced, confirmed its identity to human NOX5 mRNA. This sequence was used to predict the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus NOX5 gene. NOX5 siRNA reduced amounts of NOX5 mRNA in RCSC and reduced ionomycin stimulated superoxide production. A protein of about 65 to 70 kDa encoded by the NOX5 was detected by western blot analysis. In silico analysis predicted a putative rabbit NOX5 protein containing 801 amino acids. Motif searches predicted the presence of at least 3 putative EF-hands in N-terminus and a NOX domain in C terminal region. CONCLUSIONS: The data document that the NOX5 gene was expressed in cells of lagomorphs unlike rodents, making the rabbit an interesting model to study NOX5 functions. The activity of the rabbit NOX5 was calcium stimulated, a trait of NOX5 in general. NOX5 may also prove to be a useful genetic marker for studying the taxonomic position of lagomorphs and the Glires classification.

  15. Bringing down the cost of SO{sub 2} and NOx removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohan, S.M.; Rettig, T.W.; Torbov, T.S.; Gale, T.K. [APTECH CST, LLC (United States)

    2008-10-15

    A twist of an old technique, flue gas recirculating, helps prevent slagging in the upper furnace and convective pass, according to pilot testing recently completed by APTECH CST and the South Research Institute. The technology, along with a companion technology for furnace sorbent and urea injection for SO{sub 2} and NOx control, could help owner/operators of smaller, older coal-fired plants meet emissions limits at a reasonable cost. The article reviews the details and results of initial pilot-scale testing. Results met all the company's expectations when testing Powder River Basin and Galatia coals. A full-scale project is planned for operation in 2009. 7 figs.

  16. Influence of fuel quality on vehicular NOx emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The quality of gasoline and diesel fuel affects pollutant emissions from vehicles. By applying the COMPLEX model, developed by the MUS EPA and industry to relate fuel composition to vehicle emissions, this paper estimates the influence of improvements in gasoline quality to lower vehicular NOx emissions. A case study is performed for Guangzhou City that has NOr concentrations significantly above the national ambient air quality standards(NAAQS).The paper discusses the potential for reducing NOx in Guangzhou by improving the quality of gasoline.

  17. The Adsorption of NOx on Magnesium Aluminium Hydrotalcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Ming NI; Wei Hua YU; Shao Fen ZHAO; Zhong Hua GE

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium aluminium hydrotalcite (Mg-Al-HT) with molar ratio of Mg-to-Al of 3 to 1 was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectra (IR).The performances of Mg-Al-HT for the adsorption and desorption of NOx were studied.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of the hydrotalcite for NOx was 1398.2 mg/g, and it was higher than the acticarbon's.The adsorption capacities depended on adsorption time and temperature.Mg-Al-HT could be regenerated by thermal decomposition, and the adsorption efficiency had not changed markedly after three cycles.

  18. THE CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHOD: THE CASE OF GROUP NOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ALMEIDA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, different groups of architects search for the possibilities of digital technology contribution to architecture. Among the various stances, this paper particularly highlights the Dutch architects group called NOX, which develops a design method that uses both digital and analogical techniques, as well as incorporates knowledge from other disciplines. The Dutch group’s work serves as a guideline, as it indicates the subjects to be examined. Also based on the studies of other authors, the present research analyses the modifications contemporary architecture is going through, such as matters related to form, design method and conceiving of space, time and reality. Keywords: Contemporary architecture; NOX group; design methodology; digital; analogical.

  19. Scheduling Multilevel Deadline-Constrained Scientific Workflows on Clouds Based on Cost Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Malawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost optimization model for scheduling scientific workflows on IaaS clouds such as Amazon EC2 or RackSpace. We assume multiple IaaS clouds with heterogeneous virtual machine instances, with limited number of instances per cloud and hourly billing. Input and output data are stored on a cloud object store such as Amazon S3. Applications are scientific workflows modeled as DAGs as in the Pegasus Workflow Management System. We assume that tasks in the workflows are grouped into levels of identical tasks. Our model is specified using mathematical programming languages (AMPL and CMPL and allows us to minimize the cost of workflow execution under deadline constraints. We present results obtained using our model and the benchmark workflows representing real scientific applications in a variety of domains. The data used for evaluation come from the synthetic workflows and from general purpose cloud benchmarks, as well as from the data measured in our own experiments with Montage, an astronomical application, executed on Amazon EC2 cloud. We indicate how this model can be used for scenarios that require resource planning for scientific workflows and their ensembles.

  20. Multi-Robot Coalitions Formation with Deadlines: Complexity Analysis and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Jose; Oliver, Gabriel; Valero, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation is one of the main problems to address in order to design a multi-robot system, very especially when robots form coalitions that must carry out tasks before a deadline. A lot of factors affect the performance of these systems and among them, this paper is focused on the physical interference effect, produced when two or more robots want to access the same point simultaneously. To our best knowledge, this paper presents the first formal description of multi-robot task allocation that includes a model of interference. Thanks to this description, the complexity of the allocation problem is analyzed. Moreover, the main contribution of this paper is to provide the conditions under which the optimal solution of the aforementioned allocation problem can be obtained solving an integer linear problem. The optimal results are compared to previous allocation algorithms already proposed by the first two authors of this paper and with a new method proposed in this paper. The results obtained show how the new task allocation algorithms reach up more than an 80% of the median of the optimal solution, outperforming previous auction algorithms with a huge reduction of the execution time.

  1. Characterization of NOx emission in the suburbs of Tokyo based on simultaneous and real-time observations of atmospheric Ox and NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NO, NO2), and volatile organic compounds, VOCs, are important as precursors of photochemical oxidants (tropospheric ozone, O3). To predict and control photochemical oxidants, NOx emission should be captured precisely. In addition, the ratio of NO2/NOx in the exhaust gas is also important as the initial balance between NO and NO2 in the atmosphere. Monitoring the NO2/NOx ratio in the exhaust gases is essential. Especially, the influence of the NOx emission on the real atmosphere should be explored. However, conversion reactions among NO, NO2 and O3 are typically in the time scale of minutes. The NO2/NOx ratio can change rapidly just after emission. Real-time observations of these compounds in the second time scale are essential. In view of photochemical oxidant, near emission sources of NO, ozone concentration can be easily perturbed by reaction with locally emitted NO. As an index of oxidant, the sum of O3 and NO2 (Ox = O3 + NO2) is useful. In this study, a simultaneous and real-time analyzer of atmospheric Ox and NOx has been developed utilizing the dual NO2 detectors based on laser-induced fluorescence technique (LIF), and characterization of NOx emission was explored through the observations of Ox and NOx in the suburbs of Tokyo. The dual LIF detectors consisted of one laser head, two LIF cells, and one common vacuum pump. As the Ox monitor, the excess NO was added to the sample and O3 was converted to NO2, and then the sum of O3 and NO2 in the sample was quantified at the 1st LIF cell. As the NOx monitor, the excess O3 was added to the sample and NO was converted to NO2, and then the sum of NO and NO2 in the sample was quantified at the 2nd LIF cell. Both the ';Ox' and ';NOx' channels in the dual LIF analyzer were simultaneously monitoring Ox and NOx in the sample air, respectively. The temporal resolution of observed data was 1 s. Typical conversion efficiencies of O3 and NO to NO2 were more than 0.98. The lower detection limits were 0

  2. Optimum NOx abatement in diesel exhaust using inferential feedforward reductant control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krijnsen, H.C.; Leeuwen, J.C.M. van; Bakker, R.; Bleek, C.M. van den; Calis, H.P.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). DelftChem Tech, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Chemical Reactor Engineering

    2001-05-01

    To adequately control the reductant flow for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx in diesel exhaust gas a tool is required that is capable of accurately and quickly predicting the engine's fluctuating NOx emissions based on its time-dependent operating variables, and that is also capable of predicting the optimum reductant/NOx ratio for NOx abatement. Measurements were carried out on a semi-stationary diesel engine. Four algorithms for non-linear modelling are evaluated. The models resulting from the algorithms gave very accurate NOx predictions with a short computation time. Together with the small errors this makes the models very promising tools for on-line automotive NOx emission control. The optimum reductant/NOx ratio (to get the lowest combined NOx + reduction emission of the exhaust treating system) was best predicted by a neural network. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  4. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    % NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  5. NOx emission trends in megacities derived from satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Igor; Beekmann, Matthias; Richter, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The effects of air pollutant emissions on both local air quality in megacities and composition of the atmosphere on regional and global scales are currently an important issue of atmospheric researches. In order to properly evaluate these effects, atmospheric models should be provided with accurate information on emissions of major air pollutants. However, such information is frequently very uncertain, as it is documented in literature. The quantification of emissions and related effects is an especially difficult task in the case of developing countries. Recently, it has been demonstrated that satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can be used as a source of independent information on NOx emissions. In particular, the satellite measurements were used in our earlier studies to improve spatial allocation of NOx emissions, to estimate multi-annual changes of NOx emissions on regional scales and to validate data of traditional emission inventories (see Ref. 1, 2). The goals of the present study are (1) developing an efficient method for estimation of NOx emissions trend in megacity regions by using satellite measurements and an inverse modeling technique and (2) obtaining independent estimates of NOx emission trends in several megacities in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. The study is based on the synergetic use of the data for tropospheric NO2 column amounts derived from the long-term GOME and SCIAMACHY measurements and simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. We performed the analysis involving methods of different complexity ranging from estimation of linear trends in the tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellite measurements to evaluation of nonlinear trends in NOx emission estimates obtained with the inverse modeling approach, which, in the given case, involves only very simple and transparent formulations. The most challenging part of the study is the nonlinear trend estimation, which is

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Success of EPA’s NOx CAP-and-Trade Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    concerns as the use of banked NOx allowances. 27. See Laurel J. Carlson, NESCAUM/ MARAMA NOx Budget Model Rule (prepared for the Northeast States for...Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association ( MARAMA ) NO, Budget Task Force’s NESCAUM/ MARAMA NOx...a two-for-one basis. See Laurel J. Carlson, NESCA UM/ MARAMA NOxBudget Model Rule (prepared for the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use

  7. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

    2003-07-01

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

  8. 40 CFR 96.10 - Authorization and responsibilities of the NOX authorized account representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submissions, legally bind each owner and operator of the NOX Budget source represented and each NOX Budget... permitting authority, the Administrator, or a court regarding the source or unit. (d) No NOX Budget permit... knowledge and belief true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for...

  9. Re-vision as Remediation : Hypermediacy and Translation in Anne Carson’s Nox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brillenburg Wurth, C.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores Anne Carson’s Nox (2010) in the light of remediation. Nox is a book about death and the recording of loss: lost time, a lost brother, and lost presence. It conveys this loss through the logic of hypermediacy and a word-for-word translation of Catullus 101. Nox reworks the mater

  10. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670... may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX...

  11. 40 CFR 96.386 - Withdrawal from CAIR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Trading Program. 96.386 Section 96.386 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR... Season Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of this section, a CAIR NOX Ozone...

  12. NASA Glenn High Pressure Low NOx Emissions Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Wey, Changlie

    2008-01-01

    In collaboration with U.S. aircraft engine companies, NASA Glenn Research Center has contributed to the advancement of low emissions combustion systems. For the High Speed Research Program (HSR), a 90% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (relative to the then-current state of the art) has been demonstrated in sector rig testing at General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). For the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST), a 50% reduction in NOx emissions relative to the 1996 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards has been demonstrated in sector rigs at both GEAE and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). During the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), a 70% reduction in NOx emissions, relative to the 1996 ICAO standards, was achieved in sector rig testing at Glenn in the world class Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR) and at contractor facilities. Low NOx combustor development continues under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. To achieve these reductions, experimental and analytical research has been conducted to advance the understanding of emissions formation in combustion processes. Lean direct injection (LDI) concept development uses advanced laser-based non-intrusive diagnostics and analytical work to complement the emissions measurements and to provide guidance for concept improvement. This paper describes emissions results from flametube tests of a 9-injection-point LDI fuel/air mixer tested at inlet pressures up to 5500 kPa. Sample results from CFD and laser diagnostics are also discussed.

  13. Sulfur Deactivation of NOx Storage Catalysts: A Multiscale Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankovic N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean NOx Trap (LNT catalysts, a promising solution for reducing the noxious nitrogen oxide emissions from the lean burn and Diesel engines, are technologically limited by the presence of sulfur in the exhaust gas stream. Sulfur stemming from both fuels and lubricating oils is oxidized during the combustion event and mainly exists as SOx (SO2 and SO3 in the exhaust. Sulfur oxides interact strongly with the NOx trapping material of a LNT to form thermodynamically favored sulfate species, consequently leading to the blockage of NOx sorption sites and altering the catalyst operation. Molecular and kinetic modeling represent a valuable tool for predicting system behavior and evaluating catalytic performances. The present paper demonstrates how fundamental ab initio calculations can be used as a valuable source for designing kinetic models developed in the IFP Exhaust library, intended for vehicle simulations. The concrete example we chose to illustrate our approach was SO3 adsorption on the model NOx storage material, BaO. SO3 adsorption was described for various sites (terraces, surface steps and kinks and bulk for a closer description of a real storage material. Additional rate and sensitivity analyses provided a deeper understanding of the poisoning phenomena.

  14. 40 CFR 90.319 - NOX converter check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the manufacturer's specifications using zero and span gas (the NO content of which must amount to... percent of the NO concentration). The NOX analyzer must be in the NO mode so that the span gas does not... (a)(2) of this section. Record the indicated concentration “d.” Note: If, with the analyzer in...

  15. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  16. Synergie Klimaat- en NOx-beleid: Een kostenevaluatie tot 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets WLM; Hoen A; Wijngaart RA van den; LED

    2005-01-01

    Bij de aankoop van relatief goedkope CO2-emissierechten in het buitenland worden binnenlandse synergetische neveneffecten op de emissies van luchtverontreinigende stoffen gemist en zullen extra kosten moeten worden gemaakt voor het realiseren van de nationale emissieplafonds van NOx, SO2, en NMV

  17. Synergie Klimaat- en NOx-beleid: Een kostenevaluatie tot 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets WLM; Hoen A; Wijngaart RA van den; LED

    2005-01-01

    The acquisition of relative cheap CO2 emission rights from foreign countries may mean missing synergistic side-effects on the domestic emissions of air-polluting substances. Extra costs will be necessary if the emission ceilings for NOx, SO2, and NMVOS are to be realised. These factors have, to date

  18. NOx Emissions Characteristics and Correlation Equations of Two P and W's Axially Staged Sector Combustors Developed Under NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.

    2017-01-01

    Two P&W (Pratt & Whitney)'s axially staged sector combustors have been developed under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. One combustor was developed under ERA Phase I, and the other was developed under ERA Phase II. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions characteristics and correlation equations for these two sector combustors are reported in this article. The Phase I design was to optimize the NOx emissions reduction potential, while the Phase II design was more practical and robust. Multiple injection points and fuel staging strategies are used in the combustor design. Pilot-stage injectors are located on the front dome plate of the combustor, and main-stage injectors are positioned on the top and bottom (Phase I) or on the top only (Phase II) of the combustor liners downstream. Low power configuration uses only pilot-stage injectors. Main-stage injectors are added to high power configuration to help distribute fuel more evenly and achieve lean burn throughout the combustor yielding very low NOx emissions. The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) landing-takeoff NOx emissions are verified to be 88 percent (Phase I) and 76 percent (Phase II) under the ICAO CAEP/6 (Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection 6th Meeting) standard, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction, and the combustors proved to have stable combustion with room to maneuver on fuel flow splits for operability.

  19. Atmospheric emission of NOx from mining explosives: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwoye, Ibukun; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Gore, Jeff; Oskierski, Hans C.; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor

    2017-10-01

    High-energy materials such as emulsions, slurries and ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil (ANFO) explosives play crucial roles in mining, quarrying, tunnelling and many other infrastructure activities, because of their excellent transport and blasting properties. These explosives engender environmental concerns, due to atmospheric pollution caused by emission of dust and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from blasts, the latter characterised by the average emission factor of 5 kg (t AN explosive)-1. This first-of-its-kind review provides a concise literature account of the formation of NOx during blasting of AN-based explosives, employed in surface operations. We estimate the total NOx emission rate from AN-based explosives as 0.05 Tg (i.e., 5 × 104 t) N per annum, compared to the total global annual anthropogenic NOx emissions of 41.3 × 106 t N y-1. Although minor in the global sense, the large localised plumes from blasting exhibit high NOx concentration (500 ppm) exceeding up to 3000 times the international standards. This emission has profound consequences at mining sites and for adjacent atmospheric environment, necessitating expensive management of exclusion zones. The review describes different types of AN energetic materials for civilian applications, and summarises the essential properties and terminologies pertaining to their use. Furthermore, we recapitulate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the reactive nitrogen species in blasting of AN-based explosives, review their implications to atmospheric air pollution, and compare the mechanisms with those experienced in other thermal and combustion operations. We also examine the mitigation approaches, including guidelines and operational-control measures. The review discusses the abatement technologies such as the formulation of new explosive mixtures, comprising secondary fuels, spin traps and other additives, in light of their effectiveness and efficiency. We conclude the review with a summary of unresolved problems

  20. Low-cost carbon pellets for NOx reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano-Mora, J.M.; Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Perry, R.; Snape, C.E. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Various low-cost carbon precursors were examined for their suitability and selectivity towards NOx reduction. The carbon feedstocks selected included bituminous coal, high- and medium-temperature cokes, petroleum coke, anthracite, scrap tyre pyrolysis char and power station PFA. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was the binder. Pellets were prepared from a solid mixture containing 65 mass % of air-dried carbon feedstock crushed to {lt} 0.5 mm, 30% potassium hydroxide milled to {lt}0.2 mm and 5% CNSL. To test their propensity to reduce NOx in flue gas, 10 g samples of pellets were heated in a reactor at 325-350{sup o}C in a 2 dm{sup 3}/min flow of gas comprising 2000 ppmv NO, 5% oxygen with nitrogen as the balance. The reduction in NOx and O{sub 2} conversion were measured on-line together with CO{sub 2} and CO evolution. A selectivity factor was then calculated for each pellet sample and test condition, which defines the proportion of carbon consumed in reducing NOx relative to its combustion with oxygen. The results show that constant values of NOx reduction are kept after 2 hours of reaction leading to satisfactory values of selectivity factor. This parameter is highly dependent on potassium content of the samples following all stages of heat treatment. Final potassium content is itself obviously dependent on the loss in mass experienced by the pellets during heat treatment, but measured potassium contents were without exception higher than those attributable to volatile losses alone, suggesting that there was alkali-induced activation occurring resulting in some of the carbon being consumed during carbonisation. The highest selectivity of around 0.4 was obtained for the carbonised bituminous coal. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Combustion and NOx Emission Behavior of Chinese Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHonggang; XIEKechang

    2002-01-01

    Seven Chinese coals ranking from anthracite to sub-bituminous from the Shanxi province were selected for study to forecast the combustion and NOx emission behavior.Three UK,one Indonesia and one South Africa coal was included in the study for reference.A flat flame-turbulent jet apparatus was employed to assess flame stability,ignition performance and NOx emission behavior for the initial stage of devolatilization and combustion. This apparatus can simulate particle heating rates,maximum temperatures and the influence of the turbulent fluid interactionson the fate of volatiles.To simulate processes occurring over longer residence time, additional devolatilization experiments were performed in a drop tube furnace.Char reactivity was studied through thermogravimetric analysis.Finally,fouling propensity was studied with the aid of a purpose-built laboratory combustor that enabled the characteristics of the ash deposit to be assessed empirically.The results show that Chinese coals do not appear to possess unusual features in respect of NOx formation,flame stability and ignition,char burnout and ash slagging.The range of coals available in China appears sufficiently broad that suits all requirements.In particular,Shenfu coal,with its initial fast devolatilization and nitrogen release rates and its low initial nitrogen content and high char reactivity,will perform well when fired in industrial boilers as far as NOx emission,flame stability and combustion efficiency are concerned.Pingshuo coal exhibits high char reactivity and an attractive slagging performance suggesting that this fuel represents a good compromise between NOx emission and overall plant efficiency.

  2. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  3. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  4. 6th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The sixth CTF3 collaboration meeting was held at CERN from the 1st to the 2nd November 2000. This meeting was devoted to the CTF3 combiner ring, delay loop and transfer lines, with the participation of members of the CLIC study group at CERN and of collaborators from INFN-Frascati. The CTF3 status has been summarized by the project leader, and several members of the INFN-Frascati group have presented an overview of the design activity of the different components. Working group sessions have been held on beam optics, on diagnostics and equipment and on RF deflectors. The main conclusions from the working groups have been reported at the end of the meeting. Issues that have been addressed include prototype design and construction (RF deflectors, path-length tuning wigglers, extraction kicker and vacuum chamber sections) and deadlines for component specifications. The impedance budget for the ring, delay loop and transfer lines, its impact on the choice of beam-position monitors and the problem of beam stability...

  5. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  6. Molecular evolution of the reactive oxygen-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox/Duox family of enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambeth J David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NADPH-oxidases (Nox and the related Dual oxidases (Duox play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Members of the Nox/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. Results We assembled and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of 101 Nox/Duox orthologs from 25 species, including vertebrates, urochordates, echinoderms, insects, nematodes, fungi, slime mold amoeba, alga and plants. In contrast to ROS defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase that are present in prokaryotes, ROS-generating Nox/Duox orthologs only appeared later in evolution. Molecular taxonomy revealed seven distinct subfamilies of Noxes and Duoxes. The calcium-regulated orthologs representing 4 subfamilies diverged early and are the most widely distributed in biology. Subunit-regulated Noxes represent a second major subdivision, and appeared first in fungi and amoeba. Nox5 was lost in rodents, and Nox3, which functions in the inner ear in gravity perception, emerged the most recently, corresponding to full-time adaptation of vertebrates to land. The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus possesses the earliest Nox2 co-ortholog of vertebrate Nox1, 2, and 3, while Nox4 first appeared somewhat later in urochordates. Comparison of evolutionary substitution rates demonstrates that Nox2, the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox, and Duox are more stringently conserved in vertebrates than other Noxes and Nox regulatory subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons identified key catalytic or regulatory regions, as 68 residues were highly conserved among all Nox/Duox orthologs, and 14 of these were identical with those mutated in Nox2 in variants of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. In addition to

  7. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  8. Direct satellite observation of lightning-produced NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning is an important source of NOx in the free troposphere, especially in the tropics, with high impact on ozone production. However, estimates of lightning NOx (LNOx production efficiency (LNOx per flash are still quite uncertain. In this study we present a systematic analysis of NO2 column densities from SCIAMACHY measurements over active thunderstorms, as detected by the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, where the WWLLN detection efficiency was estimated using the flash climatology of the satellite lightning sensors LIS/OTD. Only events with high lightning activity are considered, where corrected WWLLN flash rate densities inside the satellite pixel within the last hour are above 1 /km2/h. For typical SCIAMACHY ground pixels of 30×60 km2, this threshold corresponds to 1800 flashes over the last hour, which, for literature estimates of lightning NOx production, should result in clearly enhanced NO2 column densities. From 2004–2008, we find 287 coincidences of SCIAMACHY measurements and high WWLLN flash rate densities. For some of these events, a clear enhancement of column densities of NO2 could be observed, indeed. But overall, the measured column densities are below the expected values by more than one order of magnitude, and in most of the cases, no enhanced NO2 could be found at all. Our results are in contradiction to the currently accepted range of LNOx production per flash of 15 (2–40×1025 molec/flash. This probably partly results from the specific conditions for the events under investigation, i.e. events of high lightning activity in the morning (local time and mostly (for 162 out of 287 events over ocean. Within the detected coincidences, the highest NO2 column densities were observed around the US Eastcoast. This might be partly due to interference with ground sources of NOx being uplifted by the convective systems. However, it could also indicate that flashes in this region are particularly productive. We

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance

  10. NO Removal in Continuous BioDeNOx Reactors: Fe(II)EDTA2- Regeneration, Biomass Growth, and EDTA Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der P.M.F.; Brink, van den P.; Utomo, S.; Klapwijk, A.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    BioDeNOx is a novel technique for NOx removal from industrial flue gases. In principle, BioDeNOx is based on NO absorption into an aqueous Fe(II)EDTA2- solution combined with biological regeneration of that scrubber liquor in a bioreactor. The technical and economical feasibility of the BioDeNOx

  11. NADPH Oxidases NOX-1 and NOX-2 Require the Regulatory Subunit NOR-1 To Control Cell Differentiation and Growth in Neurospora crassa▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Domínguez, Nallely; Álvarez-Delfín, Karen; Hansberg, Wilhelm; Aguirre, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell differentiation. Enzymes belonging to the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family produce superoxide in a regulated manner. We have identified three distinct NOX subfamilies in the fungal kingdom and have shown that NoxA is required for sexual cell differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we show that Neurospora crassa NOX-1 elimination results in complete female sterility, decreased asexual development, and reduction of hyphal growth. The lack of NOX-2 did not affect any of these processes but led instead to the production of sexual spores that failed to germinate, even in the presence of exogenous oxidants. The elimination of NOR-1, an ortholog of the mammalian Nox2 regulatory subunit gp67phox, also caused female sterility, the production of unviable sexual spores, and a decrease in asexual development and hyphal growth. These results indicate that NOR-1 is required for NOX-1 and NOX-2 functions at different developmental stages and establish a link between NOX-generated ROS and the regulation of growth. Indeed, NOX-1 was required for the increased asexual sporulation previously observed in mutants without catalase CAT-3. We also analyzed the function of the penta-EF calcium-binding domain protein PEF-1 in N. crassa. Deletion of pef-1 resulted in increased conidiation but, in contrast to what occurs in Dictyostelium discoideum, the mutation of this peflin did not suppress the phenotypes caused by the lack of NOX-1. Our results support the role of ROS as critical cell differentiation signals and highlight a novel role for ROS in regulation of fungal growth. PMID:18567788

  12. An Enhanced Rate-Based Emission Trading Program for NOx: The Dutch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Sholtz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government’s policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry’s need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those “cleaner” than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry’s requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers. However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM, Automated Credit Exchange (ACE, in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed and secondary (variable credits, and outlines how the Dutch

  13. An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtz, A M; Van Amburg, B; Wochnick, V K

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF AN ULTRA LOW NOx COMBUSTOR FOR GAS TURBINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEIL K. MCDOUGALD

    2005-04-30

    nanoSTAR technology. A mechanically simple single zone injector can be used in Solar Turbine's Taurus 60 engine. (3) Rig testing of single monolithic injectors demonstrated sub 3 ppmv NOX and sub 10 ppmv CO and UHC emissions (all corrected to 15% O2) at Taurus 60 full-load pressure and combustion air inlet temperature. (4) Testing of two nanoSTAR injectors in Solar Turbine's sector rig demonstrated the ability for injectors to survive when fired in close proximity at Taurus 60 full load pressure and combustion air inlet temperature. (5) Sector rig tests demonstrated emissions performance and range of operability consistent with single injector rig tests. Alzeta has committed to the commercialization of nanoSTAR injectors and has sufficient production capability to conclude development and meet initial demand.

  15. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  16. Pressure Effects on the Thermal De-NOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Karsten; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the thermal de-NOx process has been investigated in flow reactor experiments. The experiments were performed at pressures from 1 to 10 bar and temperatures ranging from 925 to 1375 K. The inlet O-2 level was varied from 1000 ppm to 10%, while NH3 and NO were maintained...... at 1000 and 500 ppm, respectively At the highest pressure, CO was added to shift the regime for NO reduction to lower temperatures. The results show that the pressure affects the location and the width of the temperature window for NO reduction. As the pressure is increased, both the lower and the higher...... effect of the pressure but also cause a slight decrease in the NO reduction potential. The results are consistent with recent atmospheric pressure experiments of thermal de-NOx covering a wide range of reactant partial pressures. Comparisons of the experimental data with the recent chemical kinetic model...

  17. LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

    2004-08-01

    In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

  18. An overview of photocatalysis phenomena applied to NOx abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, Joana; Andrade, Luísa; Madeira, Luís M; Mendes, Adélio

    2013-11-15

    This review provides a short introduction to photocatalysis technology in terms of the present environmental remediation paradigm and, in particular, NOx photoabatement. The fundamentals of photoelectrochemical devices and the photocatalysis phenomena are reviewed, highlighting the main reaction mechanisms. The critical historical developments on heterogeneous photocatalysis are briefly discussed, giving particular emphasis to the pioneer works in this field. The third part of this work focus mainly on NOx removal technology considering topics such as: TiO2 photochemistry; effect of the operating conditions on the photocatalysis process; Langmuir-Hinshelwood modeling; TiO2 photocatalytic immobilization approaches; and their applications. The last section of the paper presents the main conclusions and perspectives on the opportunities related to this technology.

  19. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of

  20. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    You were hundreds of persons to participate in our information meetings of October 3 and 6 2014, and we thank you for your participation! The full presentation is available here. A summary of the topics is available here (in french).

  1. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  2. Electrochemical removal of NOx with porous cell stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werchmeister, Rebecka Maria Larsen; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    In this study porous cell stacks were investigated for their ability to remove NOx electrochemically. The cell stacks were made from laminated tapes of porous electrolyte Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 and composite electrodes of La1−xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.15, and 0.5) and ceria doped with Gd or Pr. The cell stacks were...

  3. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface-850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  4. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  5. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  6. NOx and NOy in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Chris; Evans, Mathew J.; Lee, James D.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Read, Katie A.; Mendes, Luis N.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) and their reservoir species (NOy) play a central role in determining the chemistry of the troposphere. Although their concentrations are low (1-100 ppt) in regions such as the remote marine boundary layer, they have a profound impact on ozone production and the oxidizing capacity. There are very few observations of NOx and NOy in remote oceanic regions due to the technical challenges of measuring such low concentrations, and thus our understanding of this background chemistry is incomplete. Here we present long term measurements of NOx (2006-2015) and more recent measurements of speciated NOy (total peroxyacetyl nitrates, PANs; alkyl nitrates, ANs; nitric acid; and aerosol analogues) made at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO; 16° 51' N, 24° 52' W) located in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. We identify potential interferences in the NO2 and NOy measurements and methods to eliminate them. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are interpreted using a box model. We find a complex chemistry with interactions between organic and inorganic chemistry, between the aerosol and gas phase, and between the very local and large scales.

  7. OZONE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND NOX DEPLETION IN AN URBAN PLUME: INTERPRETATION OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EVALUATING O3-NOX-VOC SENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone production efficiency (OPE) can be defined as the number of ozone (O3) molecules photochemically produced by a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2) before it is lost from the NOx - O3 cycle. Here, we consider observational and modeling techniques to evaluate various operational defi...

  8. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone reductions by

  9. Regulation of Nox enzymes expression in vascular pathophysiology: Focusing on transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Constantin, Alina; Manda, Gina; Sasson, Shlomo; Manea, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) represent a family of hetero-oligomeric enzymes whose exclusive biological function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nox-derived ROS are essential modulators of signal transduction pathways that control key physiological activities such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune responses, and biochemical pathways. Enhanced formation of Nox-derived ROS, which is generally associated with the up-regulation of different Nox subtypes, has been established in various pathologies, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The detrimental effects of Nox-derived ROS are related to alterations in cell signalling and/or direct irreversible oxidative damage of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Thus, understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanisms of Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to find ways to counteract the excessive formation of Nox-derived ROS in various pathological states. Despite the numerous existing data, the molecular pathways responsible for Nox up-regulation are not completely understood. This review article summarizes some of the recent advances and concepts related to the regulation of Nox expression in the vascular pathophysiology. It highlights the role of transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms in this process. Identification of the signalling molecules involved in Nox up-regulation, which is associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. On-road measurements of vehicle NO2/NOx emission ratios in Denver, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Robert J.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Eilerman, Scott J.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Brown, Steven S.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emitted by on-road combustion engines are important contributors to tropospheric ozone production. The NOx fraction emitted as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is usually presumed to be small but can affect ozone production and distribution, and this fraction is generally not reported in emissions inventories. We have developed an accurate method for determination of this primary NO2 emission and demonstrated it during measurement of on-road vehicle emission plumes from a mobile laboratory during July and August 2014 in the region between Denver and Greeley in Colorado. During a total of approximately 90 h of sampling from an instrumented mobile laboratory, we identified 1867 vehicle emission plumes, which were extracted using an algorithm that looks for rapid and large increases in measured NOx. We find a distribution of NO2/NOx emissions similar to a log-normal profile, with an average emission ratio of 0.053 ± 0.002 per sampled NOx plume. The average is not weighted by the total NOx emissions from sampled vehicles, which is not measured here, and so may not represent the NO2/NOx ratio of the total NOx emission if this ratio is a function of NOx itself. Although our current data set does not distinguish between different engine types (e.g., gasoline, light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel), the ratio is on the low end of recent reports of vehicle fleet NO2 to NOx emission ratios in Europe.

  11. Source apportionment and health effect of NOx over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-05-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NOx not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NOx and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NOx from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NOx sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NOx sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NOx in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NOx on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0-4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0-2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NOx in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NOx emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NOx emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources.

  12. Regulation of Nox enzymes expression in vascular pathophysiology: Focusing on transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Adriana Manea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases (Nox represent a family of hetero-oligomeric enzymes whose exclusive biological function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Nox-derived ROS are essential modulators of signal transduction pathways that control key physiological activities such as cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune responses, and biochemical pathways. Enhanced formation of Nox-derived ROS, which is generally associated with the up-regulation of different Nox subtypes, has been established in various pathologies, namely cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The detrimental effects of Nox-derived ROS are related to alterations in cell signalling and/or direct irreversible oxidative damage of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Thus, understanding of transcriptional regulation mechanisms of Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in an attempt to find ways to counteract the excessive formation of Nox-derived ROS in various pathological states. Despite the numerous existing data, the molecular pathways responsible for Nox up-regulation are not completely understood. This review article summarizes some of the recent advances and concepts related to the regulation of Nox expression in the vascular pathophysiology. It highlights the role of transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms in this process. Identification of the signalling molecules involved in Nox up-regulation, which is associated with the onset and development of cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. NOx emission from incineration of organic hazardous liquid waste containing hexamethylendiamine in fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别如山; 李季; 杨励丹

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate NOx concentration profiles along bed height and influences of temperature and excess air on NOx emission in the range from 700 ℃ to 900 ℃, when waste water containing 5% Hexamethylenediamine incinerated in a bench scale hot fluidized bed. The testing results indicate that the concentration of NO2 is larger than that of NO along bed height except in the freeboard at 900 ℃, where NO, NO2 concentrations are zero. Temperature and excess air play significant role on NOx emission. With increasing in temperature the NOx emission decreases very rapidly in the range from 700 ℃ to 900 ℃. With increasing in excess air, NOx emission increases considerably at 700 ℃, but it is almost independent of excess air at 800 ℃,and at 900 ℃ NOx emission is zero indicating that NH2 from NH2(CH2)6NH2 has strong effect on de-NOx with increasing in temperature and excess air. NOx concentration profiles decrease progressively with bed height because of reduction of NOx by NH2. The mechanism of NOx formation and destruction is presented in the paper.

  14. Role of smooth muscle Nox4-based NADPH oxidase in neointimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoyong; Khandelwal, Alok R; Qin, Zhexue; Wu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Lili; Ago, Tetsuro; Sadoshima, Junichi; Cohen, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall play a key role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. Nox4-based NADPH oxidase is a major ROS generating enzyme in the vasculature, but its roles in neointimal hyperplasia remain unclear. Our purpose was to investigate the role of smooth muscle cell (SMC) Nox4 in neointimal hyperplasia. Mice overexpressing a human Nox4 mutant form, carrying a P437H dominant negative mutation (Nox4DN) and driven by SM22α promoter, to achieve specific expression in SMC, were generated in a FVB/N genetic background. After wire injury-induced endothelial denudation, Nox4DN had significantly decreased neointima formation compared with non-transgenic littermate controls (NTg). ROS production, serum-induced proliferation and migration, were significantly decreased in aortic SMCs isolated from Nox4DN compared with NTg. Both mRNA and protein levels of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were significantly downregulated in Nox4DN SMCs. Downregulation of TSP1 by siRNA decreased cell proliferation and migration in SMCs. Similar to Nox4DN, downregulation of Nox4 by siRNA significantly decreased TSP1 expression level, cell proliferation and migration in SMCs. Downregulation of smooth muscle Nox4 inhibits neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing TSP1, which in part can account for inhibition of SMC proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Possibility of Reducing Formations of NOx and SO2 Simultaneously during Coal Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Comparing with other NOx and SO2 control technologies, in-bed reducing NOx and SO2 simultaneously during coal combustion may lower the investment and operation cost. However, there are several possible contradictions between the reduction of NOx and the capture of SO2 during combustion: 1) CO rich atmosphere is favorable for the reduction of NOx, whereas O2 rich favorable for the capture of SO2; 2) higher preheating temperature of coal is favorable for reducing NOx, but unfavorable for reducing SO2; 3) sulphation of some minerals may deactivate their catalytic effect on the reduction of NOx. The attempts to eliminate such contradictions by coating coal granules with thin layer of monometallic oxides and mixed oxides were proposed. Ni2O3 and Fe2O3 showed high activity on NOx reduction and CaO and Cr2O3 showed good effect on sulfur capture. The mixed metallic oxides, e.g., Fe2O3NiO, etc., showed effective for both NOx reduction and SO2 retention. It is possible to in-bed reduce NOx and SO2 simultaneously if the adhering materials are properly chosen to be difunctional materials of both active catalysts for NOx reduction reactions and better sorbents for SO2 retention.

  16. Determination of the NOx loading of an automotive lean NOx trap by directly monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst material itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremerey, Peter; Reiss, Sebastian; Geupel, Andrea; Fischerauer, Gerhard; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the degree of loading of several types of automotive exhaust aftertreatment devices can be directly monitored in situ and in a contactless way by a microwave-based method. The goal of this study was to clarify whether this method can also be applied to NOx storage and reduction catalysts (lean NOx traps) in order to obtain further knowledge about the reactions occurring in the catalyst and to compare the results with those obtained by wirebound NOx loading sensors. It is shown that both methods are able to detect the different catalyst loading states. However, the sensitivity of the microwave-based method turned out to be small compared to that previously observed for other exhaust aftertreatment devices. This may limit the practical applicability of the microwave-based NOx loading detection in lean NOx traps.

  17. Determination of the NOx Loading of an Automotive Lean NOx Trap by Directly Monitoring the Electrical Properties of the Catalyst Material Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that the degree of loading of several types of automotive exhaust aftertreatment devices can be directly monitored in situ and in a contactless way by a microwave-based method. The goal of this study was to clarify whether this method can also be applied to NOx storage and reduction catalysts (lean NOx traps in order to obtain further knowledge about the reactions occurring in the catalyst and to compare the results with those obtained by wirebound NOx loading sensors. It is shown that both methods are able to detect the different catalyst loading states. However, the sensitivity of the microwave-based method turned out to be small compared to that previously observed for other exhaust aftertreatment devices. This may limit the practical applicability of the microwave-based NOx loading detection in lean NOx traps.

  18. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Boersma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3-D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parameterizations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parameterizations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parameterizations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal

  19. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kelder

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO2+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parametrisations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parametrisations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parametrisations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal correlation

  20. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no

  1. H-NOX from Clostridium botulinum, like H-NOX from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, Binds Oxygen but with a Less Stable Oxyferrous Heme Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Wen; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2015-12-08

    Heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein isolated from the obligate anaerobe Clostridium botulinum (Cb H-NOX) was previously reported to bind NO with a femtomolar K(D) (Nioche, P. et al. Science 2004, 306, 1550-1553). On the other hand, no oxyferrous Cb H-NOX was observed despite full conservation of the key residues that stabilize the oxyferrous complex in the H-NOX from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX) (the same study). In this study, we re-measured the kinetics/affinities of Cb H-NOX for CO, NO, and O2. K(D)(CO) for the simple one-step equilibrium binding was 1.6 × 10(-7) M. The K(D)(NO) of Cb H-NOX was 8.0 × 10(-11) M for the first six-coordinate NO complex, and the previous femtomolar K(D)(NO) was actually an apparent K(D) for its multiple-step NO binding. An oxyferrous Cb H-NOX was clearly observed with a K(D)(O2) of 5.3 × 10(-5) M, which is significantly higher than Tt H-NOX's K(D)(O2) = 4.4 × 10(-8) M. The gaseous ligand binding of Cb H-NOX provides another supportive example for the "sliding scale rule" hypothesis (Tsai, A.-L. et al. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2012, 17, 1246-1263), and the presence of hydrogen bond donor Tyr139 in Cb H-NOX selectively enhanced its affinity for oxygen.

  2. Application of the NOx Reaction Model for Development of Low-NOx Combustion Technology for Pulverized Coals by Using the Gas Phase Stoichiometric Ratio Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yamamoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously proposed the gas phase stoichiometric ratio (SRgas as an index to evaluate NOx concentration in fuel-rich flames. The SRgas index was defined as the amount of fuel required for stoichiometric combustion/amount of gasified fuel, where the amount of gasified fuel was the amount of fuel which had been released to the gas phase by pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification reactions. In the present study we found that SRgas was a good index to consider the gas phase reaction mechanism in fuel-rich pulverized coal flames. When SRgas < 1.0, NOx concentration was strongly influenced by the SRgas value. NOx concentration was also calculated by using a reaction model. The model was verified for various coals, particle diameters, reaction times, and initial oxygen concentrations. The most important reactions were gas phase NOx reduction reactions by hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon concentration was estimated based on SRgas. We also investigated the ratio as an index to develop a new low-NOx combustion technology for pulverized coals. We examined the relation between local SRgas distribution in the fuel-rich region in the low-NOx flame and NOx emissions at the furnace exit, by varying burner structures. The relationship between local SRgas value and local NOx concentration was also examined. When a low-NOx type burner was used, the value of SRgas in the flame was readily decreased. When the local SRgas value was the same, it was difficult to influence the local NOx concentration by changing the burner structure. For staged combustion, the most important item was to design the burner structure and arrangement so that SRgas could be lowered as much as possible just before mixing with staged air.

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  4. Laboratory and Field Measurements of the Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Miller, D. J.; Dahal, B. R.; Lew, A. F.; Peltier, R.; Hastings, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    The nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) has been measured from several NOx emissions sources in prior studies. These measurements have utilized a variety of methods for collecting the NOx as nitrate or nitrite for isotopic analysis, but none of these methods have been verified for complete conversion of NOx. Less than 100% conversion can result in isotopic fractionations. We present a method for accurately measuring the nitrogen isotopic composition of NOx using a .25 M KMnO4 and 0.5 M NaOH solution. Based on laboratory tests, this technique has been found to collect all NOx passed through under a variety of conditions (e.g., air flow rate, NOx concentration, temperature, humidity), allowing for diagnosis of δ15N-NOx without correction for fractionation. The precision across the entire analytic technique is 1.5‰. This active collection method is advantageous for collecting NOx over short time scales in environments with highly variable NOx sources and concentrations. The major drawback of the NaOH/KMnO4 method is a significant nitrate background found in the KMnO4, but this background is consistent and can be easily accounted for. We aim to use this method to provide more robust constraints on the isotopic signatures of NOx emissions from different sources. Initial results will be presented from lab- and field-based collections of NOx emissions. Emissions from a diesel engine were measured in a laboratory smog chamber and yielded δ15N values with a mean of -18.0‰ (n = 5, 1σ = 0.97‰). Measurements of δ15N-NOx were also made on a rooftop between two highways in Providence, RI. The values ranged from -7.7 to -0.63‰ for different time periods sampled, with excellent reproducibility in side-by-side collections. Additionally, the NaOH/KMnO4 was deployed in a laboratory study of biomass burning (FLAME4) to analyze the nitrogen isotopic composition of NOx produced from the burning of variety of materials (e.g. trees, agricultural

  5. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  6. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department CERN Global Network An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) ...

  7. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department The CERN Ombuds The new account management system Crèche progress + Restaurants Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch   Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2010 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS Department An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Summer Student program Bringing Library services to users Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): ...

  9. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN The new account management system Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting   Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium ...

  10. Deadline statistics on October 2006 for district heating cost. Price overview 2006 on district heating; Stichtagsstatistik zum Oktober 2006 fuer Fernwaermekosten. Fernwaerme-Preisuebersicht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-03-15

    Since more than 50 years deadline prices of public utilities are imposed by the AGFW, last at 1st October 2006. As well the federation of heat- and cogeneration economy relates to typical supply cases in different dimensions representing different user behaviour. In addition to this cases of purchase and utilization periods of a development to efficient energy consumption are adapted. (GL)

  11. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Tuesday 13 January 2004 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year and to present a perspective of CERN's future activities. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  12. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Tuesday 13 January 2004 at 4:00 p.m. - Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year and to present a perspective of CERN's future activities. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). A simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  13. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  14. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine

  15. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  16. Advances in catalytic removal of NOx under lean-burn conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhiming; HAO Jiming; FU Lixin; LI Junhua; CUI Xiangyu

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic removal of NOx under lean conditions is one of the most important targets in catalysis research. The activities of metal oxides, zeolite-based catalysts and noble metal catalysts together with the factors are influencing the selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons are reviewed. The reaction mechanisms for the three types of catalysts are briefly discussed. Recent progress in combined catalyst and NOx storage reduction catalysts is also introduced. Finally, future research directions are forecasted.

  17. Effect of sulfate aerosol on tropospheric NOx and ozone budgets: Model simulations and TOPSE evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Emmons, Louisa; Horowitz, Larry; Brasseur, Guy; Ridley, Brian; Atlas, Elliot; Stround, Craig; Hess, Peter; Klonecki, Andrzej; Madronich, Sasha; Talbot, Robert; Dibb, Jack

    2003-02-01

    The distributions of NOx and O3 are analyzed during TOPSE (Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox). In this study these data are compared with the calculations of a global chemical/transport model (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART)). Specifically, the effect that hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosols has on tropospheric NOx and O3 budgets is studied. The results show that without this heterogeneous reaction, the model significantly overestimates NOx concentrations at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in winter and spring in comparison to the observations during TOPSE; with this reaction, modeled NOx concentrations are close to the measured values. This comparison provides evidence that the hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosol plays an important role in controlling the tropospheric NOx and O3 budgets. The calculated reduction of NOx attributed to this reaction is 80 to 90% in winter at high latitudes over North America. Because of the reduction of NOx, O3 concentrations are also decreased. The maximum O3 reduction occurs in spring although the maximum NOx reduction occurs in winter when photochemical O3 production is relatively low. The uncertainties related to uptake coefficient and aerosol loading in the model is analyzed. The analysis indicates that the changes in NOx due to these uncertainties are much smaller than the impact of hydrolysis of N2O5 on sulfate aerosol. The effect that hydrolysis of N2O5 on global NOx and O3 budgets are also assessed by the model. The results suggest that in the Northern Hemisphere, the average NOx budget decreases 50% due to this reaction in winter and 5% in summer. The average O3 budget is reduced by 8% in winter and 6% in summer. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the sulfate aerosol loading is significantly smaller than in the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, sulfate aerosol has little impact on NOx and O3 budgets of the Southern Hemisphere.

  18. Phase II NOx controls for the Marama and Nescaum regions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This technical report discusses Phase II NOx controls for utility boilers in the Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) and the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) regions. The subject areas include: Utility boiler population profile in the MARAMA and NESCAUM regions; Discussion of RACT controls; Available NOx controls and their levels of performance; and Costs and cost effectiveness of NOx controls.

  19. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT for NOx storage catalysts (NSC enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD. The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1 time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2 during the short-term thermal NOx release.

  20. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...... in current diesel after-treatment techniques. The electrochemical system consisted of an electrochemical cell modified with NOx adsorbents and a diesel oxidation catalyst placed upstream of the cell. The system offers highly selective NOx reduction and a strong resistance to oxygen interference with almost...

  1. Transport versus energetic particle precipitation: Northern polar stratospheric NOx and ozone in January-March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivärinta, S.-M.; Verronen, P. T.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; Seppälä, A.; Andersson, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    In early 2012, a strong sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) took place, accompanied by several medium-scale solar proton events (SPEs). Here we use a chemistry transport model (CTM) in order to assess the relative contributions of (1) intensified downward transport of odd nitrogen (NOx) and (2) in situ production of NOx by protons, on stratospheric NOx and ozone during January-March 2012. The CTM is constrained by an upper boundary condition for reactive nitrogen (NOy) species, based on satellite observations from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board Envisat, and includes a new parameterization of the SPE-caused effects on NOy and odd hydrogen (HOx) species. We found that the amount of NOx increases due to both transport and in situ production effects, the intensified descent of NOx dominating the middle and upper stratospheric impact. The model results indicate NOx enhancements of 120-3300% (5-48 ppbv) between 38 and 50 km, caused by the transport of mesosphere/lower thermosphere NOx down to the stratosphere following the SSW. The SPEs increase NOx by up to 820-1200% (14-21 ppbv) at 33 to 50 km. The effect on the stratospheric ozone is larger following the downward transport of NOx than during and after the SPEs. The model predicts ozone losses of up to 17% and 9% at around 40 km due to transport and SPE effects, respectively.

  2. Variation of radiative forcings and global warming potentials from regional aviation NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Agnieszka; Lee, David S.; De León, Ruben R.

    2015-03-01

    The response to hemispherical and regional aircraft NOx emissions is explored by using two climate metrics: radiative forcing (RF) and Global Warming Potential (GWP). The global chemistry transport model, MOZART-3 CTM, is applied in this study for a series of incremental aircraft NOx emission integrations to different regions. It was found that the sensitivity of chemical responses per unit emission rate from regional aircraft NOx emissions varies with size of aircraft NOx emission rate and that climate metric values decrease with increasing aircraft NOx emission rates, except for Southeast Asia. Previous work has recognized that aircraft NOx GWPs may vary regionally. However, the way in which these regional GWPs are calculated are critical. Previous studies have added a fixed amount of NOx to different regions. This approach can heavily bias the results of a regional GWP because of the well-established sensitivity of O3 production to background NOx whereby the Ozone Production Efficiency (OPE) is greater at small background NOx. Thus, even a small addition of NOx in a clean-air area can produce a large O3 response. Using this 'fixed addition' method of 0.035 Tg(N) yr-1, results in the greatest effect observed for North Atlantic and Brazil, ∼10.0 mW m-2/Tg(N) yr-1. An alternative 'proportional approach' is also taken that preserves the subtle balance of local NOx-O3-CH4 systems with the existing emission patterns of aircraft and background NOx, whereby a proportional amount of aircraft NOx, 5% (N) yr-1, is added to each region in order to determine the response. This results in the greatest effect observed for North Pacific that with its net NOx RF of 23.7 mW m-2/Tg(N) yr-1 is in contrast with the 'fixed addition' method. For determining regional NOx GWPs, it is argued that the 'proportional' approach gives more representative results. However, a constraint of both approaches is that the regional GWP determined is dependent on the relative global emission pattern

  3. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-07

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device.

  4. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 15 June 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other Committees a. Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) b. IT Service Review Meeting (ITSRM) c. GS User Commission Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in bra...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 4 December 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Fellows, Associates and Summer Student Programmes Particle Data Book distribution Revoking Computer accounts Equipment insurance on site Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Dates for meetings in 2003 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (74837...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria  W. Adam  (71661) Belgium  G. Wilquet  (74664) Bulgaria  R. Tzenov  (77958) Czech Republic  P. Závada&am...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) Fr...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Re...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :   Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)...

  10. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk ! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Wednesday 2nd April at 10:30 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned !

  11. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 4 December 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Fellows, Associates and Summer Student Programmes Particle Data Book distribution Revoking Computer accounts Equipment insurance on site Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Dates for meetings in 2003 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (74837...

  12. Crisis meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To all CERN staff: your rights are at risk! We invite you to come to a crisis meeting on Thursday 7th May 2015 at 9 a.m., Auditorium, Main Building, Meyrin site. Your presence is crucial, we are ALL concerned!

  13. Characterization of superoxide overproduction by the D-Loop(Nox4)-Nox2 cytochrome b(558) in phagocytes-Differential sensitivity to calcium and phosphorylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrichon, Laure; Picciocchi, Antoine; Debeurme, Franck; Defendi, Federica; Beaumel, Sylvain; Jesaitis, Algirdas J; Dagher, Marie-Claire; Stasia, Marie-José

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial element of phagocytes involved in microbicidal mechanisms. It becomes active when membrane-bound cytochrome b(558), the redox core, is assembled with cytosolic p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac proteins to produce superoxide, the precursor for generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the potential second intracellular loop of Nox2 was essential to maintaining NADPH oxidase activity by controlling electron transfer from FAD to O(2). Moreover, replacement of this loop by the Nox4-D-loop (D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2) in PLB-985 cells induced superoxide overproduction. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that both soluble and particulate stimuli were able to induce this superoxide overproduction. Superoxide overproduction was also observed after phosphatidic acid activation in a purified cell-free-system assay. The highest oxidase activity was obtained after ionomycin and fMLF stimulation. In addition, enhanced sensitivity to Ca(2+) influx was shown by thapsigargin, EDTA, or BTP2 treatment before fMLF activation. Mutated cytochrome b(558) was less dependent on phosphorylation triggered by ERK1/2 during fMLF or PMA stimulation and by PI3K during OpZ stimulation. The superoxide overproduction of the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2 mutant may come from a change of responsiveness to intracellular Ca(2+) level and to phosphorylation events during oxidase activation. Finally the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2-PLB-985 cells were more effective against an attenuated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to WT-Nox2 cells. The killing mechanism was biphasic, an early step of ROS production that was directly bactericidal, and a second oxidase-independent step related to the amount of ROS produced in the first step.

  14. Industrial application of the decomposition of CO2 . NOx by large flow atmospheric microwave plasma LAMP employed in motorcar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Niwa, Syunta; Morii, Yoshinari; Ikezawa, Shunjiro

    2012-10-01

    In order to decompose CO2 . NOx [1], we have developed the large flow atmospheric microwave plasma; LAMP [2]. It is very important to apply it for industrial innovation, so we have studied to apply the LAMP into motorcar. The characteristics of the developed LAMP are that the price is cheap and the decomposition efficiencies of CO2 . NOx are high. The mechanism was shown as the vertical configuration between the exhaust gas pipe and the waveguide was suitable [2]. The system was set up in the car body with a battery and an inverter. The battery is common between the engine and the inverter. In the application of motorcar, the flow is large, so the LAMP which has the merits of large flow, high efficient decomposition, and cheap apparatus will be superior.[4pt] [1] H. Barankova, L. Bardos, ISSP 2011, Kyoto.[0pt] [2] S. Ikezawa, S. Parajulee, S. Sharma, A. Pandey, ISSP 2011, Kyoto (2011) pp. 28-31; S. Ikezawa, S. Niwa, Y. Morii, JJAP meeting 2012, March 16, Waseda U. (2012).

  15. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  16. NOx production and rainout from Chicxulub impact ejecta reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkos, Devon; Alexeenko, Alina; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2015-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact 66.0 Ma ago initiated the second biggest extinction in the Phanerozoic Eon. The cause of the concurrent oceanic nitrogen isotopic anomaly, however, remains elusive. The Chicxulub impactor struck the Yucatán peninsula, ejecting 2 × 1015 kg of molten and vaporized rock that reentered globally as approximately 1023 microscopic spherules. Here we report that modern techniques indicate that this ejecta generates 1.5 × 1014 moles of NOx, which is enough to cause the observed nitrogen enrichment of the basal layer. Additionally, reentry-based NO production would explain the anomalously heavy isotopic composition of the observed nitrogen. We include N, O, N2, O2, and NO species in simulations of nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow around a reentering spherule. We then determine the net production of NO from all the spherules and use turbulence models to determine how quickly this yield diffuses through the atmosphere. Upon reaching the stratosphere and troposphere, cloud moisture absorbs the NOx and forms nitric acid. We model this process and determine the acidity of the resulting precipitation, which peaks about 1 year after the impact. The precipitation ultimately reaches the upper ocean, where we assume that the well-mixed surface layer is 100 m deep. We then model the naturally occurring carbonate/bicarbonate buffer and determine the net pH. We find that insufficient NOx reaches the ocean to directly cause the observed end-Cretaceous oceanic extinction via acidification and buffer removal. However, the resulting nitrates are sufficient to explain the concurrent nitrogen isotopic anomaly and facilitate an end-Cretaceous algae bloom.

  17. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  18. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  19. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  20. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  1. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  2. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  3. 2009 public meetings: To inform and exchange ideas on the issues at stake

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2009 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. If the stakes are generally high, this year and the next ones they are huge. This is an additional reason for the need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2009. For all these reasons and to help us prepare optimally for these critical deadlines, we invite all of you to attend our public meetings.

  4. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  5. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  6. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 160-1-009 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Purchasing procedures at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news CERN Clubs Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Las...

  7. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - W. Adam (71661) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (75877) Denmark - J.B. Hansen...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 June 2009At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management CERN Social Services User services in GS Department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - G. Walzel (76592) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (7587...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria, W. Adam (71661) Belgium, C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic, P. Závada (75877) Denmark, J.B. Hansen (...

  10. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2010 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson) (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic S. Nemecek (71144) ...

  11. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tThe CERN Press Office 7.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 8.\tThe Burotel project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria C...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tOther business 13.\tAgenda of the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Re...

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 March 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The CERN Press Office An update on Safety at CERN The Burotel project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel () Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark...

  14. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. ...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 December 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Restaurant No. 1 extension An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Election of the ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Záv...

  16. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tAn update on safety at CERN 7.\tChildcare initiative 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.\tUsers’ Office news 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 September 2009 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tCode of Conduct 7.\tEqual Opportunities at CERN 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tThe CERN shuttle service 10.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 11.\tUsers’ Office news 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria G. Walzel (76592) Belgium C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Cze...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2011 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002   Chairperson's remarks Adoption of the agenda      Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising       News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Report on new CHIS rules Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria M. Jeitler (76307) Belgium C. Vander Velde (Chairperson)...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (716...

  20. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. Health Insurance news and follow-up of survey 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wil...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 March 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in the Council Chamber Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Follow-up on Space Management Users' Desktop needs PIE procedures Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer L. Serin (712...

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 June 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management PIE procedures CERN Cars EP Electronics Advisory Board Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (71143) Germany H. Kroha ...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting News from the CERN Management Matters arising The PH Department Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 December 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Report from IT division on Computing matters 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Young Particle Physicists Association 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 10. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 11. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 12. Election of the ACCU Chair 6. Report from the new Director-General 13. Any Other Business 7. CERN's 50th anniversary 14. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 13 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Ada...

  6. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 March 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 6. The PH Department 2. Adoption of the agenda 7. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. News from the CERN Management 9. Any Other Business 5. Matters arising 10. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic P. Závada ...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 June 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Reports from ACCU representatives 2. Adoption of the agenda on other committees 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 8. Users' Office news 4. Matters arising 9. Any Other Business 5. News from the CERN Management 10. Agenda for the next meeting 6. Property Protection at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (74837) Portugal P. Bordalo (74704) Czech Republic ...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 March 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equipment insurance on site 2. Adoption of the agenda,8. ACCU reporting mechanisms in the different countries 3. Minutes of the previous meeting9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management11. Any Other Business 6. CHIS news and follow-up of survey12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661)NorwayH. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (7591...

  9. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 11 September 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Health Insurance Questionnaire Host States Relations Service Update on EP Space management Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer (71247) L. Serin (...

  10. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 8. Registration plans for portables 2. Adoption of the agenda 9. Reports from ACCU representatives 3. Minutes of the previous meeting on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting 7. Equal Opportunities Commission Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): AustriaW. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgari...

  11. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 September 2003 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 7. Equal Opportunities Commission 2. Adoption of the agenda 8. Registration plans for portables 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 9. Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4. Matters arising 10. Users' Office news 5. News from the CERN Management 11. Any Other Business 6. The Press Office 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway H. Helstrup (73601) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland Z. Hajduk (75917) Bulgar...

  12. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (...

  13. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 March 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 160-1-009 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Purchasing procedures at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news CERN Clubs Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Las...

  14. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 June 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Open Access Publishing Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini ...

  15. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.     Chairman's remarks 2.     Adoption of the agenda 3.     Minutes of the previous meeting 4.     Matters arising 5.     News from the CERN Management 6.     Report on Fellows and Associates programme 7.     Overview of safety at CERN 8.     Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees 9.     Users' Office news 10.  Any Other Business 11.  Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets):Austria W. Adam  (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria ...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 September 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Logistics at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer S. Laplace...

  17. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (7594...

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions/EP (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising EP Space management Cars Housing EDH from the User's point of view VRVS Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) France M. Déj...

  20. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (7...

  1. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 September 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management The Visits Service Lifetime of Computer Accounts Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Bauer (7...

  2. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 14 June 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car sharing pilot project The CERN Document Server : the portal to Open Access Videoconferencing and collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users'Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) ...

  3. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 December 2004 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting The effects of the reorganization of CERN's structure, one year on Matters arising News from the CERN Management Computer Security The new CERN Dosimeter Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskin...

  5. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives on ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  6. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2005-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 December 2005 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Closure of computer accounts upon CERN contract expiry Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Election of ACCU Chair Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets). Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) ...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Video-conferencing/recording Fellows programme Operational Circular No. 6 EP Space management Update on Computing Issues Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary)  ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  9. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2006 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Safety at CERN Car sharing pilot project CERN Public Web Sites and Intranet Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria   Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finl...

  10. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Dosimetry at CERN Status of collaborative tools at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office newss Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (7935...

  11. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941...

  12. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda of the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 September 2006 at 9:15 a.m. in Room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on Fellows and Associates Programme Overview of safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under Item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K....

  13. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 June 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 6.\tDosimetry at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 7.\tStatus of collaborative tools at CERN 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising 9.\tUsers’ Office newss 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 10.\tAny Other Business 11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Norway G. Løvhøiden (73176) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Poland M. Witek (78967) Bulgaria Portugal...

  14. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. La...

  15. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 7 March 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Car-sharing pilot project Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 9 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Finland K. Lassila-Perini (79354) France F. Kunne S. ...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2006-01-01

    DRAFT Agendafor the meeting to be held on Wednesday 8 March 2006At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Proposal for a centralised access control service Report from PH Space Management Policy Board Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark J.B. Hansen (75941) Fin...

  17. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Logistics and Self-service stores EP Space management follow-up How to improve IT User Support? Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Roger.Jones@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiis...

  18. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2004-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 9 June 2004 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Update on CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations Report from the EPOG (European Particle Physics Outreach Group) Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tsenov (79573) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark P. Hansen (75941) Finlan...

  19. ACCU meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be heldon Wednesday 5 March 2008 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management An update on Safety at CERN The CERN Ombudsperson proposal Childcare initiative Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) BelgiumnC. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denm...

  20. ACCU meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tLHC 2008 start-up events 7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilq...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tEmergency Services at CERN 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tThe Meyrin Tram project 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 4.\tMatters arising10.\tUsers’ Office news 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tElection of ACCU Chair 6. LHC 2008 start-up events 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN 12.\tAny Other Business 13.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Aust...

  2. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t7.\tCar sharing pilot project3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees4.\tMatters arising9.\tUsers’ Office newss5.\tNews from the CERN Management10.\tAny Other Business11.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)Bulgaria\tPortugalP...

  3. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 12 September 2007 at 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks7.\tCar sharing pilot project 2.\tAdoption of the agenda\t8.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting9.\tUsers’ Office newss 4.\tMatters arising10.\tAny Other Business 5.\tNews from the CERN Management11.\tAgenda for the next meeting 6.\tLogistics and transport at CERN Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria\tW. Adam (71661)NorwayG. Løvhøiden (73176)Belgium\tG. Wilquet (74664)PolandM. Witek (78967)...

  4. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. News from the CERN Management 4. Minutes of the previous meeting 5. Matters arising 6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board 7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office 8. Update on Computing Issues 9. Users' Office News 10. Any Other Business 11. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Bryan Pattison (Secretary). ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Z vada (75...

  5. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Bryan Pattison

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 13 September 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building1. Chairman's remarks2. Adoption of the agenda3. News from the CERN Management4. Minutes of the previous meeting5. Matters arising6. Report from the Scientific Information Policy Board7. Report from ETT Division: The Press Office8. Update on Computing Issues9. Users' Office News10. Any Other Business11. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail toBryan Pattison(Secretary).ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :Austria G. Neuhofer (74094)Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)Czech Republic P. Závada (75877)Den...

  6. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions / EP Division

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 June 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising EP Space management Cars Housing EDH from the User's point of view VRVS Users' Office News Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) France M. Déj...

  7. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 March 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in the Council Chamber Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Follow-up on Space Management Users' Desktop needs PIE procedures Users' Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland E. Tuominen (71534) France F. Bauer L. Serin (712...

  8. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2009-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 10 June 2009At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management CERN Social Services User services in GS Department An update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to mailto:Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria - G. Walzel (76592) Belgium - C. Vander Velde (71539) Bulgaria Czech Republic - P. Závada (7587...

  9. Experimental and modeling analysis of the NOxOUT process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rota, R.; Antos, D.; Zanoelo, E.V.; Morbidelli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica Applicata/CIIRCO

    2002-01-01

    The selective non-catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with urea has been investigated experimentally in a temperature range from 950 to 1450 K using a laboratory reactor that approximates well stirred conditions. From the experimental results it has been possible not only to deduce some generate trends of interest in the NOxOUT process, but also to validate a detailed kinetic mechanism. In particular, the experiments showed that the NOxOUT process is effective in a narrow temperature window. The effect of increasing the ratio of nitrogen in the reducing agent and in NO is to increase the efficiency of abatement, while that of increasing O{sub 2} concentration depends on the temperature considered. Moreover, the effect of increasing the CO/NO ratio up to one is not very pronounced. The detailed kinetic mechanism developed has been validated by comparison with several experimental findings, thus providing an effective tool for process simulation in a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. Chemical Analysis of NOx Removal Under Different Reduced Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouche, A.; Lemerini, M.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a chemical kinetic analysis of different species involved in nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas induced by stationary corona discharge at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This study takes into account twenty different chemical species participating in one hundred and seventy selected chemical reactions. The reaction rate coefficients are taken from the literature, and the density is analyzed by the continuity equation without the diffusion term. A large number of investigations considered the removal of NOx showing the effects of N, O and O3 radicals. The aim of the present simulation is to complete these studies by analysing various plasma species under different reduced electric fields in the range of 100-200 Td (1 Td=10-21 V·m2). In particular, we analyze the time evolution of depopulation (10-9-10-3 s) of NOx. We have found that the depopulation rate of NO and NO2 is substantially affected by the rise of reduced electric field as it grows from 100 Td to 200 Td. This allows us to ascertain the important role played by the reduced electric field.

  11. The Influence on Exhaust Gas Components and Fuel Consumption of Injection of Concentrated NOx into Diesel Engine Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    The authors inject NO into a diesel engine intake and investigate the reduction of NOx generation at the combustion chamber at first. The result shows that 20 - 30% of the injected NO (0.225 ∼ 0.72 slm) is reduced. Discussion through the calculation of the extended Zeldovich mechanism suggests that the reduction is mainly attributed to the region where equivalence ratio ranges in 1.1 - 1.5 and that the reaction between NO and hydrocarbon species slightly contributes to the NO reduction. Moreover, another experimental result shows that the injection of NO slightly improves specific fuel consumption, e.g. 0.4% at NO injection of 0.72 slm for intake airflow of 285 slm. Calculation of reaction enthalpy of NO reduction and CO oxidation considerably meets the experimental results on the change in fuel consumption.

  12. 40 CFR 96.360 - Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.360 Submission of CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfers. A CAIR authorized account representative seeking recordation of a CAIR... and is to be transferred; and (c) The name and signature of the CAIR authorized account...

  13. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  14. NOx Emissions Performance and Correlation Equations for a Multipoint LDI Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.; Follen, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    Lean Direct Injection (LDI) is a combustor concept that reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This paper looks at a 3-zone multipoint LDI concept developed by Parker Hannifin Corporation. The concept was tested in a flame-tube test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. Due to test facility limitations, such as inlet air temperature and pressure, the flame-tube test was not able to cover the full set of engine operation conditions. Three NOx correlation equations were developed based on assessing NOx emissions dependencies on inlet air pressure (P3), inlet air temperature (T3), and fuel air equivalence ratio (?) to estimate the NOx emissions at the unreachable high engine power conditions. As the results, the NOx emissions are found to be a strong function of combustion inlet air temperature and fuel air equivalence ratio but a weaker function of inlet air pressure. With these three equations, the NOx emissions performance of this injector concept is calculated as a 66% reduction relative to the ICAO CAEP-6 standard using a 55:1 pressure-ratio engine cycle. Uncertainty in the NOx emissions estimation increases as the extrapolation range departs from the experimental conditions. Since maximum inlet air pressure tested was less than 50% of the full power engine inlet air pressure, a future experiment at higher inlet air pressure conditions is needed to confirm the NOx emissions dependency on inlet air pressure.

  15. On-road NOx and CO2 investigations of Euro 5 Light commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    NOx emissions of vehicles contribute to the ambient NO2 concentration. To gain insight into those NOx emissions, TNO, commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, regularly performs real-world emission measurements on vehicles. The measurements mainly focus on vehicles w

  16. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K.F.; Werf, van de G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO+NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome-specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter

  17. SEMS operating as a proven system for screening real-world NOx and NH3 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.J.; Goethem, S. van; Baarbe, H.L.; Zuidgeest, L.W.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Vonk, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    NOx emissions of heavy-duty and light-duty diesel vehicles depend strongly on the driving conditions. The introduction of combined emission reduction technologies in Euro VI vehicles have demonstrated that NOx emissions become less predictable when the data is based on relatively short test cycles.

  18. NOX2 protects against progressive lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Laura C; Goss, Kelli L; Newell, Elizabeth A; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Hook, Jessica S; Moreland, Jessica G

    2014-07-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common clinical condition in patients in intensive care units that can lead to complications, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality rate, and it is unclear why some patients resolve SIRS, whereas others develop MODS. Although oxidant stress has been implicated in the development of MODS, several recent studies have demonstrated a requirement for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived oxidants in limiting inflammation. We recently demonstrated that NOX2 protects against lung injury and mortality in a murine model of SIRS. In the present study, we investigated the role of NOX2-derived oxidants in the progression from SIRS to MODS. Using a murine model of sterile systemic inflammation, we observed significantly greater illness and subacute mortality in gp91(phox-/y) (NOX2-deficient) mice compared with wild-type mice. Cellular analysis revealed continued neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum and lungs of the NOX2-deficient mice and altered activation states of both neutrophils and macrophages. Histological examination showed multiple organ pathology indicative of MODS in the NOX2-deficient mice, and several inflammatory cytokines were elevated in lungs of the NOX2-deficient mice. Overall, these data suggest that NOX2 function protects against the development of MODS and is required for normal resolution of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K.F.; Werf, van de G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO+NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome-specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter c

  20. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2005-01-01

    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine,

  1. Schatting van de effecten van een reductie in NOx-emissies op oxidantniveaus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw FAAM

    1984-01-01

    Uit berekeningen m.b.v. computersimulatiemodellen volgt dat de oxidantproduktiesnelheid tijdens fotochemische episoden afhankelijk is van de NOx- en van de koolwaterstofconcentraties. Zowel lage als hoge NOx-concentraties hebben een remmende invloed op de oxidantproduktiesnelheid. Dit heeft tot g

  2. Urinary NOx:creatinine ratios during gluten challenge in children with celiac disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster-Kamphuis, L.; Straaten, E.A. van; Kors, W.A.; Schrijver, J.E. de; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.; Meer, R. van der; Forget, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced small bowel enteropathy. Inflammation is known to be associated with enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. An increase in urinary nitrate and nitrite (NOx) reflects increased NO production. The urinary NOx:creatinine ratio can be used as an indicator

  3. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  4. Research of Boiler Combustion Regulation for Reducing Nox Emission and its Effect on Boiler Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-dong; LUAN Tao; CHENG Lin; XIAO Kun

    2007-01-01

    The effect of boiler combustion regulation on Nox emission of two 1025t/h boilers has been studied. The researches show that Nox emission is influenced by coal species, operation conditions, etc, and can be reduced by regulating the combustion conditions. The effect of combustion regulation on boiler efficiency has also been checked.

  5. Demonstration of a Filter Cart for NOx Removal from Ground Support Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    emissions. The filter cart was designed to control emissions of NOx, particulate, and unburned hydrocarbons ( UHCs ) from mobile diesel generators. It uses a...rows of activated carbon (AC) filters to adsorb NOx and UHCs . A separate stand-alone system is used to desorb and destroy the contaminants adsorbed

  6. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.

  7. Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the agreement between CERN and Ukraine concerning the granting of the status of Associate Member at CERN Extension of the deadline for the notification of the completion of the internal approval procedures of the agreement by Ukraine

  8. Numerical simulation of NOx formation in a cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-qin; REN Jian-xing; WEI Dun-song

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, FLUENT software was used to simulate the burning process in a utility boiler. Chose the kinetics/diffusion-limited as combustion model, two-compet-ingrates as devolatjlization model, RNG k-εmodel as viscous model, and PDF model as combustion turbulent flow model. Numerical calculation of NOx formation in a 330 MW cyclone-opposed coal-fired utility boiler with 32 double air registers was done. The distribution characteristics of temperature, NOx and oxygen concentration in furnace were studied. They were symmetrically distributed in furnace. In the combustion area, temperature and NOx concentration are high, while oxygen concentration is low. Temperature and NOx concentration are declined gradually along with furnace height, while oxygen concentration is raised. The higher the temperature is and the greater the excess air coefficient is, the more NOx formation.

  9. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REMOVAL OF NOX IN FLUE GAS AT THE NONEQUILIBRIUM PLASMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 许世森; 顾璠

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen oxides (NOX) in flue gas by means of nonequilibrium plasma technology is a very prospect and attractive method. As the nonequilibrium plasma micro discharges can generate a powerful energy flux, imparted to the flue gas, the molecules and atoms of pollutants are motivated and decomposed, and then NOX in the flue gas are decomposed and conversed in the particular conditions. Based on nonequilibrium plasma in combination with catalytic principle, an experimental investigation on NOX decomposition and conversion with Al2O3 catalysts was carried out and the NOX removal rate up to 95% was obtained. The NOX decomposition and conversion principle with Al2O3 catalysts was also discussed.

  11. Estimation of NOx Emission from Fossil Fuel Consumption in China for the Period 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the largest consumer of fossil fuel, China NOx emission from energy consumption has become a hotspot for studies. In this study, emission inventory was used to analysis the historical variation of NOx emission in china for the period 1980 to 2012. Results indicate that NOx mission of China has increased from 446.45 × 104t to 2499.72 × 104t during 1980-2012, electricity, industry and transportation was the main contributor and NOx emission has increased from 145.04 × 104t, 206.75 × 104t, 39.44 × 104t to 1311.6 × 104t, 479.46 × 104t, 576.31 × 104t respectively; from the spatial pattern, high total NOx emission with mainly concentrated in the north of China and the high emission intensity mainly concentrate in eastern China.

  12. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene - Part II. Influence of elevated NOx concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klotz, B; Volkamer, R; Hurley, MD

    2002-01-01

    -containing species in high yield. The results from the present work also show that experimental studies aimed at establishing/verifying chemical mechanisms for aromatic hydrocarbons must be performed using NOx levels which are representative of those found in the atmosphere......., respectively). In contrast to results from previous studies, a pronounced dependence of the product distribution on the NOx concentration was observed. The phenol yield decreases from approximately 50-60% in the presence of low concentrations (10 000 ppb) NOx concentrations. In the presence of high......The present work represents a continuation of part I of this series of papers, in which we investigated the phenol yields in the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene under conditions of low to moderate concentrations of NOx, to elevated NOx levels. The products of the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene...

  13. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  14. Staff meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, 2007 is a very special year for CERN. I would like to review the status of our activities with you, and I invite you to a presentation on Wednesday 27 June 2007 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg. 500) Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Robert AYMAR

  15. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  16. Nox4 Is Expressed In Pulmonary Artery Adventitia And Contributes To Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Scott A.; Chen, Feng; Su, Yunchao; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Wang, Yusi; Catravas, John D.; Han, Weihong; Orfi, Laszlo; Szantai-Kis, Csaba; Keri, Gyorgy; Szabadkai, Istvan; Barabutis, Nektarios; Rafikova, Olga; Rafikov, Ruslan; Black, Stephen M.; Jonigk, Danny; Giannis, Athanassios; Asmis, Reto; Stepp, David W.; Ramesh, Ganesan; Fulton, David J.R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is associated with increased pressure in PH. However, the cellular location of Nox4 and its contribution to aberrant vascular remodeling in PH remains poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to identify the vascular cells expressing Nox4 in PA and determine the functional relevance of Nox4 in PH. APPROACH AND RESULTS Elevated expression of Nox4 was detected in hypertensive PA from 3 rat PH models and human PH using qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In the vascular wall, Nox4 was detected in both endothelium and adventitia and perivascular staining was prominently increased in hypertensive lung sections, colocalizing with cells expressing fibroblast and monocyte markers and matching the adventitial location of ROS production. Small molecule inhibitors of Nox4 reduced adventitial ROS generation and vascular remodeling as well as ameliorating right ventricular hypertrophy and non-invasive indices of PA stiffness in monocrotaline (MCT)-treated rats as determined by morphometric analysis and high resolution digital ultrasound. Nox4 inhibitors improved PH in both prevention and reversal protocols and reduced the expression of fibroblast markers in isolated PA. In fibroblasts, Nox4 over-expression stimulated migration and proliferation and was necessary for matrix gene expression. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that Nox4 is prominently expressed in the adventitia and contributes to altered fibroblast behavior, hypertensive vascular remodeling and the development of PH. PMID:24947524

  17. Importance of NOx control for peak ozone reduction in the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Zheng, Junyu; Liu, Shawchen

    2013-08-01

    As major air pollutants and key precursors of several secondary air pollutants, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are regulated in many countries. However, NOx control increases ozone concentrations when the ozone formation regime is volatile organic compound (VOC) limited. Although many studies have shown that NOx regulation reduces ozone levels over the long term, it is still of concern that NOx regulation increases short-term ozone levels in metropolitan regions, where ozone formation is found to be predominantly VOC-limited. The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China is such a region. Our modeling sensitivity study shows that while NOx reduction in the PRD region may raise the mean ozone concentration, it can also decrease peak ozone levels. Similar changes are observed in the NOx and ozone data of the PRD regional air quality monitoring network (2006-2012), lending further credence to our results. In the model, this NOx control effect is a result of the complicated spatial and diurnal variations of the ozone formation regime. In most of the PRD region, the formation regime is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx-limited during peak ozone hours. Although some areas are always VOC-limited, their ozone concentrations are relatively low, and the ozone increases caused by NOx reduction generally do not cause higher ozone levels than the region's original ozone maxima. Several control scenarios are simulated to evaluate the effects of various possible control regulations. Our results show that in addition to VOC control, NOx control can be effective for reducing peak ozone concentrations in the PRD region.

  18. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2008-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meetingto be held on Wednesday 3 December 2008 at 9:15 a.m.in Room 60-6-002 1.\tChairman’s remarks 2.\tAdoption of the agenda 3.\tMinutes of the previous meeting 4.\tMatters arising 5.\tNews from the CERN Management 6.\tReport from the new Director-General 7.\tReport on the Fellows and Associates programme 8.\tAn update on Safety at CERN 9.\tReports from ACCU representatives on other committees 10.\tUsers’ Office news 11.\tAny Other Business 12.\tAgenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 11 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium C. Va...

  20. 40 CFR 51.10 - How does my state report emissions that are required by the NOX SIP Call?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are required by the NOX SIP Call? 51.10 Section 51.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... does my state report emissions that are required by the NOX SIP Call? The District of Columbia and states that are subject to the NOX SIP Call § 51.121) are subject to the emissions reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX plus NMHC and particulate... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-15 NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines. (a)(1) Heavy-duty engines eligible for NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging,...

  2. 40 CFR 75.33 - Standard missing data procedures for SO2, NOX, Hg, and flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SO2 concentration (MPC) value for each type of fuel combusted in the unit, in a manner consistent with... units. For each hour of missing volumetric flow rate data, NOX emission rate data, or NOX concentration... units using operational bins. Whenever no prior quality-assured flow rate data, NOX concentration data...

  3. 40 CFR 75.17 - Specific provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chooses to monitor in the ducts rather than the stack, the owner or operator shall monitor the NOX... NOX emission rate at the unit level, in lieu of installing flow monitors on each stack or duct. If... emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX emission rate. 75.17 Section 75.17 Protection...

  4. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  5. Diesel NO(x) aftertreatment by combined process using temperature swing adsorption, NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma, and NO(x) recirculation: improvement of the recirculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichiro; Kuwahara, Takuya; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2012-09-15

    NO(x) emitted from a stationary diesel engine generator was treated with a hybrid system comprising NO(x) reduction by nonthermal plasma (NTP) and temperature swing adsorption (TSA) driven by engine waste heat. TSA produces a low-volume gas mixture of N(2) and highly concentrated NO(x), which is effectively reduced by NTP treatment. Improved treatment performance and efficiency are achieved by re-injecting the NTP-treated gas mixture into the engine intake. The system comprises two switchable adsorption chambers; the operation of this system was simulated by using a one-chamber system. The maximum energy efficiency for NO(x) treatment is 200 g(NO(2))/kWh. The respective contributions of NTP and injection of N(2) and NO(x) to the performance were theoretically analyzed. The analysis predicts that high energy efficiency and high NO(x)-removal efficiency can be simultaneously achieved with this system but miniaturization of the adsorption chambers will be a challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  7. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  8. Meeting Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  9. Chemerin Regulates Crosstalk Between Adipocytes and Vascular Cells Through Nox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Karla Bianca; Nguyen Dinh Cat, Aurelie; Lopes, Rheure Alves Moreira; Rios, Francisco Jose; Anagnostopoulou, Aikaterini; Lobato, Nubia Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Tostes, Rita C; Montezano, Augusto C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-09-01

    Adipocytes produce adipokines, including chemerin, a chemoattractant that mediates effects through its ChemR23 receptor. Chemerin has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury in pathological conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive. Here we assessed whether chemerin through redox-sensitive signaling influences molecular processes associated with vascular growth, apoptosis, and inflammation. Human microvascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated with chemerin (50 ng/mL). Chemerin increased generation of reactive oxygen species and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, effects that were inhibited by ML171, GKT137831 (Nox inhibitors), and N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger). Chemerin increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators in vascular cells and increased monocyte-to-endothelial cell attachment. In human vascular smooth muscle cells, chemerin induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and stimulated proliferation (increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression [proliferation marker] and BrdU incorporation [proliferation assay]). Chemerin decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B activation and increased TUNEL-positive human vascular smooth muscle cells. In human microvascular endothelial cells, chemerin reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide production. Adipocyte-conditioned medium from obese/diabetic mice (db/db), which have elevated chemerin levels, increased reactive oxygen species generation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas adipocyte-conditioned medium from control mice had no effect. Chemerin actions were blocked by CCX 832, a ChemR23 inhibitor. Our data demonstrate that chemerin, through Nox activation and redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, exerts proapoptotic, proinflammatory, and

  10. Development of chemical kinetic models for lean NOx traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard S.

    2010-04-01

    Overall project goal: Obtain the fundamental surface chemistry knowledge needed for the design and optimal utilization of NOx trap catalysts, thereby helping to speed the widespread adoption of this technology. Relevance to VT Program goals: Effective, durable advanced aftertreatment systems for lean-burn engines must be available if the fuel economy advantages of these engines are to be realized. Specific current year objective: Identify and correct any deficiencies in the previously developed reaction mechanism describing normal storage/regeneration cycles, and complete development of a supplementary mechanism accounting for the effects of sulfation. A fundamental understanding of LNT chemistry is needed to realize the full potential of this aftertreatment technology, which could lead to greater use of fuel-efficient lean-burn engines. We have used a multi-tiered approach to developing an elementary chemical mechanism benchmarked against experimental data: (1) Simulate a set of steady flow experiments, with storage effects minimized, to infer a tentative mechanism for chemistry on precious metal sites (completed). (2) Simulate a set of long cycle experiments to infer a mechanism for NOx and oxygen storage sites while simultaneously finalizing precious metal chemistry (completed). (3) Simulate a simplified sulfation/desulfation protocol to obtain a supplementary set of reactions involving sulfur on all three kinds of sites (nearly completed). (4) Investigate the potential role of reductants other than CO and H{sub 2}. While simulation of isothermal experiments is the preferred way to extract kinetic parameters, simulation of realistic storage/regeneration cycles requires that exotherms be considered. Our ultimate goal is to facilitate improved designs for LNT-based aftertreatment systems and to assist in the development of improved catalysts.

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  12. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  13. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus

  14. Effects of biogenic nitrate chemistry on the NOx lifetime in remote continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, E. C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    We present an analysis of the NOx budget in conditions of low NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) and high biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) concentrations that are characteristic of most continental boundary layers. Using a steady-state model, we show that below 500 pptv of NOx, the NOx lifetime is extremely sensitive to organic nitrate (RONO2) formation rates. We find that even for RONO2 formation values that are an order of magnitude smaller than is typical for continental conditions significant reductions in NOx lifetime, and consequently ozone production efficiency, are caused by nitrate forming reactions. Comparison of the steady-state box model to a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) confirms that the concepts illustrated by the simpler model are a useful approximation of predictions provided by the full CTM. This implies that the regional and global budgets of NOx, OH, and ozone will be sensitive to assumptions regarding organic nitrate chemistry. Changes in the budgets of these species affect the representation of processes important to air quality and climate. Consequently, CTMs must include an accurate representation of organic nitrate chemistry in order to provide accurate assessments of past, present, and future air quality and climate. These findings suggest the need for further experimental constraints on the formation and fate of biogenic RONO2.

  15. Fundamental limits on gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the plasma, the electrons do not react directly with the NOx molecules. The electrons collide mainly with the background gas molecules like N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron impact on these molecules result partly in dissociation reactions that produce reactive species like N, O and OH. The NOx in the engine exhaust gas initially consist mostly of NO. The ground state nitrogen atom, N, is the only species that could lead to the chemical reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The O radical oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2} leaving the same amount of NOx. The OH radical converts NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. Acid products in the plasma can easily get adsorbed on surfaces in the plasma reactor and in the pipes. When undetected, the absence of these oxidation products can often be mistaken for chemical reduction of NOx. In this paper the authors will examine the gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx. They will show that under the best conditions, the plasma can chemically reduce 1.6 grams of NOx per brake-horsepower-hour [g(NOx)/bhp-hr] when 5% of the engine output energy is delivered to the plasma.

  16. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  17. Mechanistic Investigation of the Reduction of NOx over Pt- and Rh-Based LNT Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kubiak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the noble metals (Pt vs. Rh on the NOx storage reduction performances of lean NOx trap catalysts is here investigated by transient micro-reactor flow experiments. The study indicates a different behavior during the storage in that the Rh-based catalyst showed higher storage capacity at high temperature as compared to the Pt-containing sample, while the opposite is seen at low temperatures. It is suggested that the higher storage capacity of the Rh-containing sample at high temperature is related to the higher dispersion of Rh as compared to Pt, while the lower storage capacity of Rh-Ba/Al2O3 at low temperature is related to its poor oxidizing properties. The noble metals also affect the catalyst behavior upon reduction of the stored NOx, by decreasing the threshold temperature for the reduction of the stored NOx. The Pt-based catalyst promotes the reduction of the adsorbed NOx at lower temperatures if compared to the Rh-containing sample, due to its superior reducibility. However, Rh-based material shows higher reactivity in the NH3 decomposition significantly enhancing N2 selectivity. Moreover, formation of small amounts of N2O is observed on both Pt- and Rh-based catalyst samples only during the reduction of highly reactive NOx stored at 150 °C, where NOx is likely in the form of nitrites.

  18. Nox2 Mediates Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Induced by a High Fat Diet*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Padron de Figueiredo, Alvaro; Salmon, Adam B.; Bruno, Francesca; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Herman G.; Halade, Ganesh V.; Ahuja, Seema S.; Clark, Robert A.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Abboud, Hanna E.; El Jamali, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are consistently associated with metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes. Although the role of Nox2, a major ROS-generating enzyme, is well described in host defense and inflammation, little is known about its potential role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet was mitigated in Nox2-null mice compared with wild-type mice after 3 or 9 months on the diet. High fat feeding increased Nox2 expression, superoxide production, and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle tissue of wild-type mice but not in Nox2-null mice. Exposure of C2C12 cultured myotubes to either high glucose concentration, palmitate, or H2O2 decreases insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. Pretreatment with catalase abrogated these effects, indicating a key role for H2O2 in mediating insulin resistance. Down-regulation of Nox2 in C2C12 cells by shRNA prevented insulin resistance induced by high glucose or palmitate but not H2O2. These data indicate that increased production of ROS in insulin resistance induced by high glucose in skeletal muscle cells is a consequence of Nox2 activation. This is the first report to show that Nox2 is a key mediator of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:25825489

  19. Summertime NOx measurements during the CHABLIS campaign: can source and sink estimates unravel observed diurnal cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Roscoe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available NOx measurements were conducted at the Halley Research Station, Antarctica, during the austral summer period 1 January–10 February 2005. A clear NOx diurnal cycle was observed with minimum concentrations close to instrumental detection limit (5 pptv measured between 04:00–05:00 GMT. NOx concentrations peaked (24 pptv between 19:00–20:00 GMT, approximately 5 h after local solar noon. An optimised box model of NOx concentrations based on production from in-snow nitrate photolysis and chemical loss derives a mean noon emission rate of 3.48×108 molecules cm−2 s−1, assuming a 100 m boundary layer mixing height, and a relatively short NOx lifetime of ~6.4 h. This emission rate compares to directly measured values ranging from 1.7 to 3.4×108 molecules cm−2 s−1 made on 3 days at the end of the study period. Calculations of the maximum rate of NO2 loss via a variety of conventional HOx and halogen oxidation processes show that the lifetime of NOx is predominantly controlled by halogen processing, namely BrNO3 and INO3 gas-phase formation and their subsequent heterogeneous uptake, with a potential smaller contribution from HNO4 formation and uptake. Furthermore the presence of halogen oxides is shown to significantly perturb NOx concentrations by decreasing the NO/NO2 ratio. We conclude that in coastal Antarctica, the potential ozone production efficiency of NOx emitted from the snowpack is mitigated by the more rapid NOx loss due to halogen nitrate hydrolysis. These results suggest that the role of halogen oxides need to be considered when interpreting the isotopic signature of nitrate impurities held within snow and ice.

  20. Dióxido de estanho nanoestruturado como sensor de NOx Nanostructured tin dioxide as a NOx gas sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Maciel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, nanopartículas de SnO2 foram obtidas pelo método do precursor polimérico e caracterizadas por difração de raios X, isotermas de adsorção-dessorção, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Apenas a fase cassiterita (tetragonal foi observada. O material obtido apresenta com alta área superficial e porosidade. Estas características são pré-requisitos para um bom sensor de gás. A sensibilidade ao NOx para o SnO2 foi estudado na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 200 e 500 ºC. Observou-se uma baixa sensibilidade entre 200 e 350 ºC, porém, a partir de 400 ºC ocorreu um aumento de três vezes na sensibilidade do sensor. A máxima sensibilidade ocorreu em 400 ºC, com um tempo de resposta de 730 s.In this work SnO2 nanoparticles were obtained by the polimeric precursor method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Only the cassiterite (tetragonal phase was observed. The obtained material presents a high surface area and high porosity. These characteristics are prerequisites for a good gas sensor. The NOx sensibility was studied in the temperature range between 200 and 500 °C. A low sensibility between 200 to 350 °C is also observed; however, starting from 400 °C, an increase of three times in the sensor sensibility occurs. The maximum sensibility was measured at 400 °C with a response time of 730 s.

  1. 微波加热技术在催化 NOx 脱除中的应用%Application of microwave heating technology in catalytic removal of NOx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳春; 郭亚琴; 曾令可; 王慧; 任雪谭

    2014-01-01

    The types,harm and removal methods of nitrogen oxides in the air were summarized. Nitrogen oxides mainly consisted of NO,N2 O and NO2 ,which were produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and plants,and the conversion of nitrogen compounds in animal waste and the soil. NOx was one of major for-mation causes of acid rain and the smog,which had a serious influence on the health of human beings. Selective catalytic reduction technology based on the interaction of reducing agents such as ammonia and catalysts could make NOx into N2 and H2 O,while non-selective catalytic reduction technology achieved the removal of NOx with reducing agents such as ammonia at high temperature. However,the traditional techniques for removing NOx had shortcomings of low removal efficiency and easy production of secondary pollution. Microwave discharge technology could directly decompose NOx to N2 by producing high-energy electrons,and microwave carbon thermal reduction technology could significantly improve NOx removal ability by utilizeing thermal effects of microwave irradiation on active charcoal. The removal efficiency of NO was more than 96% . The application researches on microwave relating to de-NOx technology in com-mercial catalytic denitrification field showed that the combination of catalysts,microwave and other tech-niques was an ideal way of removing the nitrogen oxides,which had a good application prospect.%综述了空气中氮氧化物的类型、危害及脱除方法。空气中氮氧化物主要为 NO、N2 O 和NO2,化石燃料和植物体的燃烧以及土壤和动物排泄物中含氮化合物的转化是其主要来源,NOx 是酸雨和雾霾天气形成的主要原因之一,严重影响人类健康。选择性催化还原技术通过氨等还原剂和催化剂的共同作用将 NOx 还原成 N2和 H2 O,选择性非催化还原技术利用氨等还原剂在高温环境下的还原能力实现 NOx 的脱除。传统 NOx 脱除技术存在脱除效率不高和

  2. Lowering USAF Diesel Engine NOx Emissions With Utilizing B20 Biodiesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    6.5L engine. Table 2. IS0 8178 Weighted Average B20 Emission Deviations from DF-2 Certification Fuel 6.5L HMMWV Engine UHC CO NOx CO2 Smoke g/hp-hr g/hp...manifold CO2. Most data was obtained in triplicate runs. The UHC , CO, NOx, and Smoke emission values were similar to values reported in the...Base Timing (0) and Base EGR (0%) UHC [g/kWh] CO [g/kWh] CO2 [g/kWh] NOx [g/kWh] Smoke [AVL] BSFC [g/kWh] EGR Target [%] EGR Target [%] EGR Target

  3. Identification of NoxD/Pro41 as the homologue of the p22phox NADPH oxidase subunit in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Isabelle; Lalucque, Hervé; Siegmund, Ulrike; Silar, Philippe; Brun, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are membrane complexes that produce O2(-). Researches in mammals, plants and fungi highlight the involvement of Nox-generated ROS in cell proliferation, differentiation and defense. In mammals, the core enzyme gp91(phox)/Nox2 is associated with p22(phox) forming the flavocytochrome b558 ready for activation by a cytosolic complex. Intriguingly, no homologue of the p22(phox) gene has been found in fungal genomes, questioning how the flavoenzyme forms. Using whole genome sequencing combined with phylogenetic analysis and structural studies, we identify the fungal p22(phox) homologue as being mutated in the Podospora anserina mutant IDC(509). Functional studies show that the fungal p22(phox), PaNoxD, acts along PaNox1, but not PaNox2, a second fungal gp91(phox) homologue. Finally, cytological analysis of functional tagged versions of PaNox1, PaNoxD and PaNoxR shows clear co-localization of PaNoxD and PaNox1 and unravel a dynamic assembly of the complex in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the vacuolar system.

  4. New insights into an old organelle: meeting report on biology of cilia and flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-06-01

    The rising interest of the scientific community in cilia biology was evident from the fact that registration for the third FASEB conference on 'The Biology of Cilia and Flagella' closed out before the early bird deadline. Cilia and flagella are organelles of profound medical importance; defects in their structure or function result in a plethora of human diseases called ciliopathies. 240 clinicians and basic scientists from around the world gathered from 23 June 2013 to 28 June 2013 at Sheraton at the Falls, Niagara Falls, NY to present and discuss their research on this intensely studied subcellular structure. The meeting was organized by Gregory Pazour (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Bradley Yoder (University of Alabama-Birmingham), and Maureen Barr (Rutgers University) and was sponsored by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Here, we report highlights, points of discussion, and emerging themes from this exciting meeting.

  5. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  6. Fruitful meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Mike Lamont

    2010-01-01

    The annual meeting for the LHC Performance Workshop was held in Chamonix from 25 to 29 January 2010 in the Centre de Congrès Le Majestic. The Workshop focused on how to reach the maximum operating energy.   The LHC Performance Workshop took place between 25 and 29 January 2010 in a rather chilly Chamonix. Following the successful start of beam commissioning last year, there remain a number of important questions about the near future of the machine. Topics discussed included the maximum operational energy that will be possible in 2010 and the steps need to go above the planned 2010 start-up energy of 3.5 TeV. Of particular importance were the required splice and magnet consolidation measures that would be demanded by an increase above this energy.  The energy in the magnets and beams will always represent a considerable threat, and the possible impact of an incident and the potential measures required to speed up a recovery were put on the table. Safety is critical and there were...

  7. Involvement of the NADH oxidase-encoding noxA gene in oxidative stress responses in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2015-02-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ORF NCgl0328, designated noxA, encodes an NADH oxidase enzyme. The noxA gene, which was preferentially expressed in the log growth phase, was found to be under the control of the whcA, whcB, and whcE genes, which play regulatory roles in cells under oxidative stress. While noxA transcription was minimal in whcE-deleted mutant cells (ΔwhcE) during growth, its transcription was maximal even in the stationary phase in ΔwhcA cells. The transcription levels of noxA in ΔwhcB and whcB-overexpressing cells were comparable to the levels only in the log growth phase in ΔwhcA and whcA-overexpressing cells, respectively. Direct binding of purified WhcA to the promoter region of noxA was observed in vitro. The DNA-protein interaction was only possible in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. A noxA-deleted mutant strain and a strain overexpressing the noxA gene (P180-noxA) were established, and these strains were found to exhibit defective cell growth. The ΔnoxA and P180-noxA strains were sensitive to the redox-cycling oxidant menadione, suggesting a role of noxA in redox balancing. Accordingly, the purified NoxA enzyme exhibited NADH-oxidizing activity. Taken together, these data show that noxA plays a role in oxidative stress responses and also that the gene is under direct control of the WhcA protein, which was shown to be a regulatory DNA-binding protein. Furthermore, the involvement and roles of the whcA, whcB, and whcE genes in regulating the expression of noxA were demonstrated.

  8. Kinetics of ozone and nitric oxides in dielectric barrier discharges in O2/NOx and N2/O2/NOx mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, I.; Bibinov, N. K.; Deryugin, A. A.; Vinogradov, I. P.; Napartovich, A. P.; Wiesemann, K.

    2001-08-01

    Concentrations of NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, and O3 were measured by classical absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges in flowing O2/NOx and N2/O2/NOx mixtures. The results of measurements in different parts of the discharge chamber and in its exhaust are compared to a numerical zero-dimensional kinetic model and good agreement is found. The experimentally found upper limit of the NOx concentration allowing ozone production is confirmed by the kinetic calculations for both gas mixtures. The rotational temperature of different nitrogen bands was measured by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The results are explained on the basis of a simplified model and related to the gas temperature in the microdischarge channel and the surrounding gas.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-04-30

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A series of field tests for RRI at the Ameren Sioux Unit No.1 have demonstrated that RRI can provide up to 30% NOx reduction over the use of over fire air in large scale (480MW) cyclone fired utility boilers. The field tests and modeling results are in good agreement. Final data analysis has been completed for tests performed at Eastlake Power Station of a real-time waterwall corrosion monitoring system. The tests demonstrated that corrosion could be measured accurately in real-time in normal boiler operations, and an assessment of waterwall wastage could be made without impacting boiler availability. Detailed measurements of soot volume fraction have been performed for a coal burner in a pilot scale test furnace. The measured values are in good agreement with the expected trends for soot generation and destruction. Catalysts from four commercial manufacturers have been ordered and one of the samples was received this quarter. Several in situ analyses of vanadium-based SCR catalyst systems were completed at BYU. Results to date indicate that the system produces results that represent improvements compared to literature examples of similar experiments. Construction of the catalyst characterization system (CCS) reactor is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. A literature review originally commissioned from other parties is being updated and will be made available under separate cover as part of this investigation. Fabrication of the multi-catalyst slipstream

  10. Experimental investigation on NOx and green house gas emissions from a marine auxiliary diesel engine using ultralow sulfur light fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Tan, Qinming; Zhang, Chunhui; Wei, Lijiang; He, Xianzhong; Cao, Erming; Jiang, Kai

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, marine auxiliary diesel engine has been widely used to produce electricity in the large ocean-going ship. One of the main technical challenges for ocean-going ship is to reduce pollutant emissions from marine auxiliary diesel engine and to meet the criteria of disposal on ships pollutants of IMO (International Maritime Organization). Different technical changes have been introduced in marine auxiliary diesel engine to apply clean fuels to reduce pollutant emissions. The ultralow sulfur light fuel will be applied in diesel engine for emission reductions in China. This study is aimed to investigate the impact of fuel (ultralow sulfur light fuel) on the combustion characteristic, NOx and green house gas emissions in a marine auxiliary diesel engine, under the 50%-90% engine speeds and the 25%-100% engine torques. The experimental results show that, in the marine auxiliary diesel engine, the cylinder pressure and peak heat release rate increase slightly with the increase of engine torques, while the ignition advances and combustion duration become longer. With the increases of the engine speed and torque, the fuel consumption decreases significantly, while the temperature of the exhaust manifold increases. The NOx emissions increase significantly with the increases of the engine speed and torque. The NO emission increases with the increases of the engine speed and torque, while the NO2 emission decreases. Meanwhile, the ratio of NO2 and NO is about 1:1 when the diesel engine operated in the low speed and load, while the ratio increases significantly with the increases of engine speed and torque, due to the increase of the cylinder temperature in the diffusive combustion mode. Moreover, the CO2 emission increases with the increases of engine speed and torque by the use of ultralow sulfur light fuel.

  11. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  12. NOx-Catalyzed Gas-Phase Activation of Methane:the Formation of Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoxian Xiao; Zhen Yan; Yuan Kou

    2003-01-01

    NOx-catalyzed oxidation of methane without a solid catalyst was investigated, and a hydrogen selectivity of 27% was obtained with an overall methane conversion of 34% and a free O2 concentration of 1.7% at 700 ℃.

  13. Observations of a seasonal cycle in NOx emissions from fires in the African savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebust, A. K.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from wildfires account for ~15% of the global total, inducing large fluctuations in the chemical production and loss rates of O3 and CH4 and thereby affecting Earth's radiative balance. NOx emissions from fires depend on fuel N content, combustion stage, and total biomass burned; sparse observations limit current understanding of the variability in these factors across biomes. Here we use satellite-based measurements to study emission coefficients (ECs), a value proportional to emission factors i.e. NOx emitted per unit of biomass burned, from fires in African savannas. NOx ECs decrease steadily across the fire season, rather than remaining constant as is currently assumed. We speculate that this is due to reallocation of nutrients, including N, to plant roots after the growing season. We account for the observed cycle in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to show the impacts on monthly tropospheric ozone.

  14. Removal of Nox from flue gas with radical oxidation combined with chemical scrubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN He; GAO Xiang; LUO Zhong-yang; GUAN Shi-pian; CEN Kefa; HUANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, removal of NOx(namely DeNOx) from flue gas by radical injection combined with NaOH solution(26% by weight of NaOH in water) scrubbing was investigated. The experimental results showed that the steady streamer corona occurs through adjusting the flow rate of the oxygen fed into the nozzles electrode. The vapor in the oxygen has influence on the V-I characteristics of corona discharge. Both HNO2 and HNO3 come into being in the plasma reactor and the DeNOx efficiency in the plasma reactor is more than 60%. The overall DeNOx efficiency of the whole system reaches 81.7% when the NaOH solution scrubbing is collaborated.

  15. NOx Catalyzed Pathway of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: A Coupled Cluster Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Achintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2012-06-12

    We report a theoretical investigation on the NOx catalyzed pathways of stratospheric ozone depletion using highly accurate coupled cluster methods. These catalytic reactions represent a great challenge to state-of-the-art ab initio methods, while their mechanisms remain unclear to both experimentalists and theoreticians. In this work, we have used the so-called "gold standard of quantum chemistry," the CCSD(T) method, to identify the saddle points on NOx-based reaction pathways of ozone hole formation. Energies of the saddle points are calculated using the multireference variants of coupled cluster methods. The calculated activation energies and rate constants show good agreement with available experimental results. Tropospheric precursors to stratospheric NOx radicals have been identified, and their potential importance in stratospheric chemistry has been discussed. Our calculations resolve previous conflicts between ab initio and experimental results for a trans nitro peroxide intermediate, in the NOx catalyzed pathway of ozone depletion.

  16. Electrochemical Removal of NOx on Ceria-Based Catalyst-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the electrochemical properties for NOx reduction of a ceria-based mixed ionic electronic conducting porous electrode promoted by Pt nanoparticles, as efficient catalyst for NO oxidation, and BaO, as sorbent to store NOx. This catalytic layer was deposited by screen-printing on a dense membrane of gadolinia-doped ceria, an O2− ionic conductor. The targeted Ba and Pt loadings were 150 and 5 μg/cm2, respectively. The NOx selective electrochemical reduction was performed between 400 °C and 500 °C with and without oxygen in the feed. Variations of the open-circuit voltage with time were found to be a good sensor of the NOx storage process on the ceria-based catalyst-electrode. However, no N2 production was observed in the presence of O2 phase in spite of nitrates formation.

  17. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  18. Urea-SCR technology for deNOx after treatment of diesel exhausts

    CERN Document Server

    Nova, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Of intense interest both to academics and industry professionals, this groundbreaking book-length treatment of selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia/urea includes papers by researchers at the leading edge of diesel exhaust abatement.

  19. Pilot-scale development of a low-NOx coal-fired tangential system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. T.; Brown, R. A.; Chu, E. K.; Wightman, J. B.; Pam, R. L.; Swenson, E. L.; Merrick, E. B.; Busch, C. F.

    1981-08-01

    A 293 kWt (1 million Btu/hr) pilot scale facility is used to develop a low NOx pulverized coal fired tangential system. A burner concept is developed which achieves low NOx by directing the fuel and a fraction of the secondary combustion air into the center of the furnace, with the remaining secondary combustion air directed horizontally and parallel to the furnance walls. Such separation of secondary combustion air creates a fuel rich zone in the center of the furnace where NOx production is minimized. This combustion modification technique lowers NOx 64%, relative to conventional tangential firing, by injecting 85% of the secondary air along the furnace walls. Under these conditions, NO emissions are 180 ppm corrected to 0% 02. Also at these conditions, CO, UHC, and unburned carbon emissions are less than 40 ppm, 3 ppm, and 2.4%, respectively, comparable to conventional tangentially fired pilot scale results.

  20. The NOx Budget Trading Program: A Collaborative, Innovative Approach to Solving a Regional Air Pollution Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article examines the development and implementation of the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) and the lessons the Environmental Protection Agency has learned from this seasonal emissions cap-and-trade program.

  1. Optical and Electronic NO(x) Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Cinzia; Elia, Angela; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Bruno, Giovanni; Losurdo, Maria; Garcia, Michael A; Wolter, Scott D; Brown, April; Ricco, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current production and emerging NO(x) sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NO(x) show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

  2. Hydrotalcite-derived MnxMg3-xAlO catalysts used for soot combustion, NOx storage and simultaneous soot-NOx removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Meng, Ming; Xian, Hui; Tsubaki, Noritatsu; Li, Xingang; Xie, Yaning; Hu, Tiandou; Zhang, Jing

    2010-06-15

    The hydrotalcite-based Mn(x)Mg(3-x)AlO catalysts with different Mn:Mg atomic ratios were synthesized by coprecipitation, and employed for soot combustion, NOx storage and simultaneous soot-NO(x) removal. It is shown that with the increase of Mn content in the hydrotalcite-based Mn(x)Mg(3-x)AlO catalysts the major Mn-related species vary from MnAl(2)O(4) and Mg(2)MnO(4) to Mn(3)O(4) and Mn(2)O(3). The catalyst Mn(1.5)Mg(1.5)AlO displays the highest soot combustion activity with the temperature for maximal soot combustion rate decreased by 210 degrees C, as compared with the Mn-free catalyst. The highly reducible Mn(4+) ions in Mg(2)MnO(4) are identified as the most active species for soot combustion. For NO(x) storage, introduction of Mn greatly influences bulk NO(x) storage, with the adsorbed NO(x) species varying from linear nitrites to ionic and chelating bidentate nitrates gradually. The coexistence of highly oxidative Mn(4+) and highly reductive Mn(2+) in Mn(1.0)Mg(2.0)AlO is favorable to the simultaneous soot-NO(x) removal, giving a NO(x) reduction percentage of 24%. In situ DRIFTS reveals that the ionic nitrate species are more reactive with soot than nitrites and chelating bidentate nitrates, showing higher NO(x) reduction efficiency.

  3. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castellanos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO + NO2. Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial trends in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region, but are more variable than published biome specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED v3. Satellite based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30 % lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average a factor of 2 higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5–2.0 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion

  4. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Vinken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 27 Tg N yr−1. We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. We used a state-of-science soil NOx emission inventory (Hudman et al., 2012 as a priori in the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to identify 11 regions where tropospheric NO2 columns are dominated by soil NOx emissions. Strong correlations between soil NOx emissions and simulated NO2 columns indicated that spatial patterns in simulated NO2 columns in these regions indeed reflect the underlying soil NOx emissions. Subsequently, we used a mass-balance approach to constrain emissions for these 11 regions on all major continents using OMI observed and GEOS-Chem simulated tropospheric NO2 columns. We found that responses of simulated NO2 columns to changing NOx emissions were suppressed over low NOx regions, and accounted for these non-linearities in our inversion approach. In general, our approach suggests that emissions need to be increased in most regions. Our OMI top-down soil NOx inventory amounts to 10.0 Tg N for 2005 when only constraining the 11 regions, and 12.9 Tg N when extrapolating the constraints globally. Substantial regional differences exist (ranging from −40% to +90%, and globally our top-down inventory is 4–35% higher than the GEOS-Chem a priori (9.6 Tg N yr−1. We evaluated NO2 concentrations simulated with our new OMI top-down inventory against surface NO2 measurements from monitoring stations in Africa, the USA, and Europe. Although this comparison is complicated by several factors, we find an encouraging improved agreement when using the OMI top-down inventory compared to using the a priori inventory. To our knowledge, this study provides, for the first time, specific constraints

  5. Effective NOx remediation from a surrogate flue gas using the US NRL Electra electron beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Tz. B.; Petrov, G. M.; Wolford, M. F.; Giuliani, J. L.; Ladouceur, H. D.; Hegeler, F.; Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NOx) emission is under restrictive federal regulations because of its negative impact on atmosphere, biosphere, and human health. Therefore, its removal has been a subject of extensive research to develop new efficient and cost effective techniques that can be applied on an industrial scale. In this work, we study both experimentally and theoretically an effective removal of NOx pollutants from a surrogate flue gas (SFG) using high power electron beam (e-beam) pulses. SFG is a simulant for exhaust from coal combustion power plants (82% N2, 6% O2, 12% CO2, and ˜100 ppm of NOx). The pulsed electron beam is generated using the United States Naval Research Laboratory Electra facility, which delivers e-beams with energies of ˜500 keV and a power pulse duration of ˜140 ns. During the e-beam irradiation, the energetic electrons generate a non-equilibrium plasma containing chemically active species, which then react with NOx to form harmless substances. A non-equilibrium time-dependent model is developed to describe NOx remediation from SFG. The model combines e-beam deposition rates obtained by solving the electron Boltzmann equation and extensive plasma chemistry modeling, which follows the species on a time scale from sub-nanoseconds to a few seconds. NOx decomposition as a function of electron beam parameters is studied. It is demonstrated experimentally that short (ns) pulses are the most efficient for NOx removal. A sharp reduction of NOx was measured with e-beam power deposition increasing, following the trend predicted by the model, achieving a 20 fold reduction to ˜5 ppm at energy deposition ˜20 J/l.

  6. Low-temperature NOx reduction processes using combined systems of pulsed corona discharge and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.; Takashima, K.; Katsura, S.; Mizuno, A.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we will report NOx removal via reduction processes using two types of combined system of pulse corona discharge and catalysts: the single-stage plasma-driven catalyst (PDC) system, and the two-stage plasma-enhanced selective catalytic reduction (PE-SCR) system. Several catalysts, such as γ-alumina catalysts, mechanically mixed catalysts of γ-alumina with BaTiO3 or TiO2, and Co-ZSM-5 were tested. In the PDC system, which is directly activated by the discharge plasma, it was found that the use of additives was necessary to achieve NOx removal by reduction. Removal rates of NO and NOx were linearly increased as the molar ratio of additive to NOx increased. The dependence of NO and NOx removal on the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) at a fixed specific input energy (SIE) indicates that plasma-induced surface reaction on the catalyst plays an important role in the PDC system. It was found that the optimal GHSV of the PDC system with the γ-alumina catalyst was smaller than 6000 h-1. Mechanical mixing of γ-alumina with BaTiO3 or TiO2 did not enhance NO and NOx removal and γ-alumina alone was found to be the most suitable catalyst. The dielectric constant of the catalyst only influenced the plasma intensity, not the NOx removal. In the PE-SCR system, plasma-treated NOx (mostly NO2) was reduced effectively with NH3 over the Co-ZSM-5 catalyst at a relatively low temperature of 150 °C. Under optimal conditions the energy cost and energy yield were 25 eV/molecule and 21 g-N (kWh)-1, respectively.

  7. Prostanoid-mediated contractions of the carotid artery become Nox2-independent with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias R; Fredette, Natalie C; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for carotid artery disease that may lead to stroke and dementia. Vascular effects associated with aging include increased vasomotor tone, as well as enhanced contractility to endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity partly due to increased oxidative stress. We hypothesized that vascular NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide may be involved in prostanoid- and NO-related functional aging. NO-mediated relaxations and prostanoid-mediated contractions to acetylcholine as well as phenylephrine-dependent contractions were investigated in the carotid artery from young (4 months) and aged mice (24 months). Gene expression of Nox subunits and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was determined in the carotid artery and aorta. In young mice, the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 fully blocked acetylcholine-induced contractions while reducing responses to phenylephrine by 75 %. The Nox2-targeted inhibitor Nox2ds-tat and the superoxide scavenger tempol reduced acetylcholine-stimulated, prostanoid-mediated contractions by 85 and 75 %, respectively, and phenylephrine-dependent contractions by 45 %. Unexpectedly, in aged mice, the substantial Nox2-dependent component of acetylcholine- and phenylephrine-induced, prostanoid-mediated contractions was abolished. In addition, endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxations were impaired with aging. The expression of Nox subunits was greater in the aorta compared with the carotid artery, in which Nox1 was undetectable. eNOS gene expression was reduced in the aorta of aged compared to young mice. In conclusion, aging decreases prostanoid-mediated contractility in the carotid artery involving a loss of Nox2 activity and is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of carotid artery disease and the aging process.

  8. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC EXPRESSION AND DESIGN TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajiv Srivastava; M. A. Ebadian

    2000-09-15

    The ''Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction Program'' and ''Ozone Non-Attainment Program'' in the 1990 Clean Air Act provide guidelines for controlling NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}) emissions in new and existing stationary sources. NOx emissions have local (air quality), regional (acid rain), and global (ozone production) consequences. This study aids in developing the photocatalyst technology that has potential for use in abatement of NOx. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the principles of chemical engineering fundamentals--reaction kinetics, transport phenomena and thermodynamics--in the process design for a system that will utilize a photocatalytic reactor to oxidize NOx to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). HNO{sub 3} can be more easily trapped than NOx on adsorbent surfaces or in water. The project dealt with the engineering aspect of the gas-solid heterogeneous oxidation of NOx. The experiments were conducted in a photocatalyst wash-coated glass flow tube reactor. A mathematical model was developed based on a rigorous description of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the reactor. The mathematical model took into account (1) intrinsic reaction kinetics (i.e., true reaction rates), (2) transport phenomena that deal with the mass transfer effects in the reactor, and (3) the geometry of the reactor. The experimental results were used for validation of the mathematical model that provides the basis for a versatile and reliable method for the purpose of design, scale-up and process control. The NOx abatement was successfully carried out in a flow tube reactor surrounded by black lights under the exploratory grant. Due to lack of funds, a comprehensive kinetic analysis for the photocatalytic reaction scheme could not be carried out. The initial experiments look very promising for use of photocatalysis for NOx abatement.

  9. Combining nonthermal plasma with perovskite-like catalyst for NOx storage and reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Han Hsuan; Pan, Kuan Lun; Yu, Sheng Jen; Yan, Shaw Yi; Chang, Moo Been

    2016-10-01

    A new NOx storage and reduction (NSR) system is developed for NOx removal by combining perovskite-like catalyst with nonthermal plasma technology. In this hybrid system, catalyst is mainly used for oxidizing NO to NO2 and storing them, while nonthermal plasma is applied as a desorption-reduction step for converting NOx into N2. An innovative catalyst with a high NOx storage capacity and good reduction performance is developed by successive impregnation. The catalysts prepared with various metal oxides were investigated for NOx storage capacity (NSC) and NOx conversion. Characterization of the catalysts prepared reveals that addition of cobalt (Co) and potassium (K) considerably increases the performance for NSC. Results also show that SrKMn0.8Co0.2O4 supported on BaO/Al2O3 has good NSC (209 μmol/gcatalyst) for the gas stream containing 500 ppm NO and 5 % O2 with N2 as carrier gas. For plasma reduction process, NOx conversion achieved with SrKMn0.8Co0.2O4/BaO/Al2O3 reaches 81 % with the applied voltage of 12 kV and frequency of 6 kHz in the absence of reducing agents. The results indicate that performance of plasma reduction process (81 %) is better than that of thermal reduction (64 %). Additionally, mixed gases including 1 % CO, 1 % H2 and 1 % CH4, and 2 % H2O(g) are simultaneously introduced into the system to investigate the effect on NSR with plasma system and results indicate that performance of NSR with plasma can be enhanced. Overall, the hybrid system is promising to be applied for removing NOx from gas streams. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX standards do not apply to a manufacturer whose U.S. LDV/T and MDPV sales are 100% Tier 2 LDV/Ts... sufficient Tier 2 NOX credits, interim non-Tier 2 LDV/LLDT NOX credits or interim non-Tier 2 HLDT/MDPV NOX...) Their Tier 2 LDV/LLDT and Tier 2 HLDT/MDPV fleet average NOX emissions for each model year through 2008...

  11. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF LOW-NOx COMBUSTION FLY ASH UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERIC M. SUUBERG; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-10-19

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  12. A New Approach for NOx Soft Sensors for the Aftertreatment of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, S.; Kajiwara, I.; Sato, J.; Hanamura, Y.

    2016-09-01

    To maintain the NOX concentration at an appropriate level, traditionally an air-path control that regulates the intake and exhaust system of diesel engines aims to control the mass air flow and the manifold absolute pressure, which influence the production of NOX. To improve the control accuracy, a more recent approach takes the NOX concentration directly as a controlled output variable, but the sensors monitoring the NOX concentration are slow to respond. Consequently, a direct sensor is inappropriate as a feedback controller. Instead a mechanism called a soft sensor, which computes the NOX concentration from state quantities of diesel engines, is used. Because the prediction accuracy from the sensor model greatly affects the control performance, it is important to improve the model accuracy. However, deviations in the steady state indicate an insufficient model accuracy. This study proposes a method to construct an adaptive NOX soft sensor that corrects the parameters of the sensor model sequentially using the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation while comparing the values computed by the software to actual measurements as well as examines the effectiveness of the proposed method experimentally.

  13. Toluene decomposition performance and NOx by-product formation during a DBD-catalyst process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufang; Liao, Xiaobin; Fu, Mingli; Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of toluene decomposition and formation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by-products were investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with/without catalyst at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Four kinds of metal oxides, i.e., manganese oxide (MnOx), iron oxide (FeOx), cobalt oxide (CoOx) and copper oxide (CuO), supported on Al2O3/nickel foam, were used as catalysts. It was found that introducing catalysts could improve toluene removal efficiency, promote decomposition of by-product ozone and enhance CO2 selectivity. In addition, NOx was suppressed with the decrease of specific energy density (SED) and the increase of humidity, gas flow rate and toluene concentration, or catalyst introduction. Among the four kinds of catalysts, the CuO catalyst showed the best performance in NOx suppression. The MnOx catalyst exhibited the lowest concentration of O3 and highest CO2 selectivity but the highest concentration of NOx. A possible pathway for NOx production in DBD was discussed. The contributions of oxygen active species and hydroxyl radicals are dominant in NOx suppression.

  14. Sensitivities of NOx transformation and the effects on surface ozone and nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As precursors for tropospheric ozone and nitrate aerosols, Nitrogen oxides (NOx in present atmosphere and its transformation in responding to emission and climate perturbations are studied by CAM-Chem model and air quality measurements including National Emission Inventory (NEI, Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET and Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System (EPA AQS. It is found that not only the surface ozone formation but also the nitrate formation is associated with the relative emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC. Due to the availability of VOC and associated NOx titration, ozone productions in industrial regions increase in warmer conditions and slightly decrease against NOx emission increase, which is converse to the response in farming region. The decrease or small increase in ozone concentrations over industrial regions result in the responded nitrate increasing rate staying above the increasing rate of NOx emissions. It is indicated that ozone concentration change is more directly affected by changes in climate and precursor emissions, while nitrate concentration change is also affected by local ozone production types and their seasonal transfer. The sensitivity to temperature perturbations shows that warmer climate accelerates the decomposition of odd nitrogen (NOy during the night. As a result, the transformation rate of NOx to nitrate decreases. Examinations on the historical emission and air quality records on typical pollution areas further confirm the conclusion drawn from modeling experiments.

  15. The impact of global aviation NOx emissions on tropospheric composition changes from 2005 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Khan, M. A. H.; Shallcross, D. E.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of aviation NOx emissions from 2005 to 2011 on the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been investigated on the basis of integrations of the 3-D global chemical and transport model, STOCHEM-CRI with the novel CRIv2-R5 chemistry scheme. A base case simulation without aircraft NOx emissions and integrations with NOx emissions from aircraft are inter-compared. The sensitivity of the global atmosphere to varying the quantity and the geographical distribution of the global annual aviation NOx emissions is assessed by performing, for the first time, a series of integrations based on changing the total mass and distribution of aircraft NOx emissions derived from air traffic movements recorded between 2005 and 2011. The emissions of NOx from the global fleet based on actual records of air traffic movements between 2005 and 2011 increased the global tropospheric annual mean burden of O3 by 1.0 Tg and decreased the global tropospheric annual mean burden of CH4 by 2.5 Tg. The net NOy and O3 production increases by 0.5% and 1%, respectively between 2005 and 2011 in total. At cruise altitude, the absolute increase in the modelled O3 mixing ratios is found to be up to 0.7 ppb between 2005 and 2011 at 25°N-50°N.

  16. Nox Inhibitors & Therapies: Rational Design of Peptidic and Small Molecule Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Pagano, M. Eugenia; Meijles, Daniel N.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-related diseases underlie many if not all of the major leading causes of death in United States and the Western World. Thus, enormous interest from both academia and pharmaceutical industry has been placed on the development of agents which attenuate oxidative stress. With that in mind, great efforts have been placed in the development of inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (Nox), the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in many cells and tissue. The regulation of a catalytically active Nox enzyme involves numerous protein-protein interactions which, in turn, afford numerous targets for inhibition of its activity. In this review, we will provide an updated overview of the available Nox inhibitors, both peptidic and small molecules, and discuss the body of data related to their possible mechanisms of action and specificity towards each of the various isoforms of Nox. Indeed, there have been some very notable successes. However, despite great commitment by many in the field, the need for efficacious and well-characterized, isoform-specific Nox inhibitors, essential for the treatment of major diseases as well as for delineating the contribution of a given Nox in physiological redox signalling, continues to grow. PMID:26510437

  17. First Measurements of the Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of NOx from Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, Dorothy L; Hastings, Meredith G

    2016-11-01

    The nitrogen isotopic composition (δ(15)N) of NOx (NO + NO2) was measured during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). The δ(15)N-NOx produced by burning a variety of biomass types ranged from -7 to +12‰ (vs air N2). In the laboratory experiments, two types of emissions were sampled: "stack" fires where the emissions were measured within a few seconds of production from the fire and "chamber" fires where the emissions were held in a room for 1-2 h and sampled continuously. For both types of emissions sampled, the primary control on δ(15)N-NOx is the δ(15)N of the biomass burned (δ(15)N-biomass), although differences were found for δ(15)N-NOx between the two types of fires. For the stack emissions, δ(15)N-NOx = 0.41 × δ(15)N-biomass +1.0 (R(2) = 0.83, p-value biomass +1.7 (R(2) = 0.94, p-value biomass suggests that in any given environment, the δ(15)N-NOx can be predicted.

  18. Kinetic Study of Co-β-Zeolite for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Propane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛树红; 王润平; 池永庆; 王艳; 张清华; 丛燕青

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grain size, space velocity, temperature and reactant concentration on the kinetics of NOx reduction with propane over Co-β-zeolite catalyst were investigated. The external mass transfer phenomenon was examined by varying the space velocity. The results show that the transfer can be negligible when the space velocity is greater than 60000 h-1 in low temperature range. However, the transfer exists at high temperatures even when the space velocity reaches a high level.Variation of the catalyst grain size from 0.05 to 0.125 mm does not change the conversion rate of NOx. The concentrations of components, NOx, C3H8 and O2, were also investigated to have a better understanding of mechanism. Based on the experimental data, the selectivity formula was proposed. The results shows that lower temperature is helpful to get higher selectivity as the activation energy of hydrocarbon oxidation, Ea,2, is greater than that of NOx reduction, Ea,1, (Ea,2>Ea,l). High NOx concentration and low C3H8 concentration are beneficial to high selectivity. However in order to maintain high activity simultaneously, the temperature and C3H8 concentration should be high enough to promote NOx reduction. 10%(φ) H2O and 75×i0-6(φ) SO2 were introduced into the reaction system, and Co-β-zeolite shows strong resistance to water and SO2.

  19. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated NOX4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Invasion in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rackhyun; Li, Liqing; Jang, Minsu; Morris, Andrew J.; Huang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S/G2/M population. Moreover, NOX4 deficiency resulted in a dramatic decrease in invadopodium formation and the invasive activity. In addition, NOX4 deficiency also caused a decrease in focal adhesions and cell migration in HeLa cells. These results suggest that NOX4 is required for both efficient proliferation and invasion of HeLa cells. PMID:28099519

  20. BcNoxD, a putative ER protein, is a new component of the NADPH oxidase complex in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Ulrike; Marschall, Robert; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In fungi these multi-enzyme complexes are involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to mammalian systems, the composition and recruitment of the fungal Nox complexes are unresolved. Here we introduce a new Nox component, the membrane protein NoxD in the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It has high homology to the ER protein Pro41 from Sordaria macrospora, similar functions to the catalytic Nox subunit BcNoxA in differentiation and pathogenicity, and shows similarities to phagocytic p22phox. BcNoxA and BcNoxD interact with each other. Both proteins are involved in pathogenicity, fusion of conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) and formation of sclerotia and conidia. These data support our earlier view based on localization studies, for an ER-related function of the Nox complex. We present the first evidence that some functions of the BcNoxA complex are indeed linked to the ER, while others clearly require export from the ER. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated NOX4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Invasion in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Naser; Kim, Hyunju; Park, Rackhyun; Li, Liqing; Jang, Minsu; Morris, Andrew J; Park, Junsoo; Huang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S/G2/M population. Moreover, NOX4 deficiency resulted in a dramatic decrease in invadopodium formation and the invasive activity. In addition, NOX4 deficiency also caused a decrease in focal adhesions and cell migration in HeLa cells. These results suggest that NOX4 is required for both efficient proliferation and invasion of HeLa cells.

  2. Future Circular Collider Study (FCC) kick-off meeting | 12-15 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The kick-off meeting of the international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC) will take place in Geneva from 12 to 15 February 2014 at the University of Geneva, Unimail site. The programme and registration details can be found on the meeting's website. This meeting is the starting point of the five-year international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC). The main emphasis of the conceptual design study will be on a hadron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel with a 80-100 km circumference for the purposes of studying physics at the highest energies. The study will also include a lepton collider, as a potential intermediate step towards realisation of the hadron facility. Options for e-p scenarios will also be considered. The main purpose of this meeting is to discuss the study topics and to prepare international collaborations. The meeting is a public meeting with a registration deadline closing on Friday 31 Janua...

  3. Evidence of the Importance of Nox4 in Production of Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P; Skelton, Meredith M; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4) on the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single-cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4, resulting in a loss of the ≈68 kDa band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the knock out of Nox4 in the SS rat (SS(Nox4-/-)) rats. SS(Nox4-/-) rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared with SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 versus 151±3 mm Hg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3-dimensional cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD [reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide]) in the kidneys of SS(Nox4-/-) rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet, indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared with SS rats. Before the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of Nox subunits Nox2, p67(phox), and p22(phox) were found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in SS(Nox4-/-) compared with SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus, the mutation of Nox4 seems to modify transcription of several genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SS(Nox4-/-) rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SS(Nox4-/-) rat could be the result of multiple pathways, including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4.

  4. 75 FR 66061 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  5. 76 FR 37062 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  6. 78 FR 12715 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  7. 76 FR 68127 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular Board meeting in Washington, DC, Wednesday, November...

  8. 77 FR 7126 - Meetings

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    2012-02-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  9. 77 FR 36479 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  10. 76 FR 21702 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  11. 75 FR 13075 - Meetings

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    2010-03-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  12. 77 FR 74827 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

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  13. 76 FR 78611 - Meetings

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    2011-12-19

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  14. 75 FR 80455 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings...; ] ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and...

  15. 75 FR 22100 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. ] SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  16. 77 FR 51513 - Meetings

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    2012-08-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD Meetings AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) plans to hold its regular committee and Board meetings in Washington, DC,...

  17. 76 FR 10557 - Meetings

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    2011-02-25

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  18. 78 FR 76101 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... regarding the meetings, please contact David Capozzi, Executive Director, (202) 272- 0010 (voice); (202) 272...; Information and Communications Technologies; Classroom Acoustics; Emergency Transportable Housing; Passenger... sign language interpreters will be available at the Board meeting and committee meetings....

  19. Key chemical NOx sink uncertainties and how they influence top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stavrakou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Triggered by recent developments from laboratory and field studies regarding major NOx sink pathways in the troposphere, this study evaluates the influence of chemical uncertainties in NOx sinks for global NOx distributions calculated by the IMAGESv2 chemistry-transport model, and quantifies their significance for top-down NOx emission estimates. Our study focuses on four key chemical parameters believed to be of primary importance, more specifically, the rate of the reaction of NO2 with OH radicals, the newly-identified HNO3-forming channel in the reaction of NO with HO2, the reactive uptake of N2O5 on aerosols, and the regeneration of OH in the oxidation of isoprene. Sensitivity simulations are performed to estimate the impact of each source of uncertainty. The model calculations show that, although the NO2 + OH reaction is the largest NOx sink globally accounting for 50–70% of the total sink, the reaction contributing the most to the overall uncertainty is the formation of HNO3 in NO + HO2, leading to NOx column changes reaching a~factor of two over tropical regions, and to a 35% decrease in the global tropospheric NOx lifetime. Emission inversion experiments are carried out using model settings which either miminize (MINLOSS or maximize (MAXLOSS the total NOx sink, both constrained by one year of OMI NO2 column data from the DOMINO v2 KNMI algorithm. The choice of the model setup is found to have a major impact on the top-down flux estimates, with 50% higher emissions for MAXLOSS compared to the MINLOSS inversion globally. Even larger departures are found for soil NO (factor of 2 and lightning (70%, whereas the global anthropogenic source is comparatively better constrained, especially in China. Evaluation of the emission optimization is performed against independent satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY sensor, airborne NO2 measurements, observed NOx lifetimes at megacities, as well as with two new bottom-up inventories of

  20. Design aspects of a Low-NOx burner for a Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepter, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    The Stirling engine is a promising prime mover for micro-scale combined heat and power. For Stirling engines with heat supply by combustion, the external heating system is one of the most important parts. It has major influence on the overall performance. The central component of the external heating system is the burner. This thesis describes the theoretical and experimental studies in the development of a gas fired burner for the extemal heating system that have been carried out. The focus was on low emissions and high system efficiency. As a first step, a system analysis of the external heating system is presented based on fundamental considerations about the thermodynamics and practical aspects of the Stirling engine. The results of the analysis show that the expected NOx emissions are strongly determined by the system design. Without making any restrictions to the burner design, a span of the NOx emissions with a ratio of 1:800 was found. Modern design methodology is then introduced in order to analyze a large number of different low-NOx burner concepts that were found in literature. The concepts are evaluated and classified with help of the methodology in order to find possible new low-NOx concepts by favourable combinations of generic principles. Based on this, the concept of the porous inert media (PIM) burner is chosen for further development as a burner for the Stirling engine. The selection is confirmed by an experimental benchmark study in which the PIM burner shows low NOx emissions and the lowest pressure drop compared to three other low NOx burner concepts. The optimization of the design of the PIM burner is described. A favourable combination of materials was found, which enables stable operation with a turn-down ratio of 1:15 and a span of the excess-air ratio from 1.28 to 2.0 when methane is used as the fuel. Temperature and CO measurements inside the combustion region were made which enable conclusion about the stabilization of the combustion

  1. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  2. INF-γ Enhances Nox2 Activity by Upregulating phox Proteins When Applied to Differentiating PLB-985 Cells but Does Not Induce Nox2 Activity by Itself.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ellison

    Full Text Available The cytokine and drug interferon-γ enhances superoxide anion production by the antimicrobicidal Nox2 enzyme of neutrophils. Because mature neutrophils have a short lifespan, we hypothesized that the effects of interferon-γ on these cells might be mediated by its prolonged exposure to differentiating neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow rather than its brief exposure to mature circulating neutrophils. Effects of INF-Γ on NOX2 activity: To address this possibility we exposed the myeloid PLB-985 cell line to interferon-γ for 3 days in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide which induces terminal differentiation of these cells. Interferon-γ was found to enhance superoxide production by Nox2 in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, application of interferon-γ alone for 3 days failed to induce detectible Nox2 activity. Additionally, application of interferon-γ for 3 hours to pre-differentiated PLB-985 cells, which models studies using isolated neutrophils, was much less effective at enhancing superoxide anion production. Effects of INF-Γ on phox protein levels: Addition of interferon-γ during differentiation was found to upregulate the Nox2 proteins gp91phox and p47phox in concert with elevated transcription of their genes. The p22phox protein was upregulated in the absence of increased transcription presumably reflecting stabilization resulting from binding to the elevated gp91phox. Thus, increased levels of gp91phox, p47phox and p22phox likely account for the interferon-γ mediated enhancement of dimethyl sulfoxide-induced Nox2 activity. In contrast, although interferon-γ alone also increased various phox proteins and their mRNAs, the pattern was very different to that seen with interferon-γ plus dimethyl sulfoxide. In particular, p47phox was not induced thus explaining the inability of interferon -γ alone to enhance Nox2 activity. Short application of interferon-γ to already differentiated cells failed to increase any phox

  3. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  4. What Negative Impact does Wind have on the Deadline of a Construction Project? Mathematical Modeling for the Measurement and Optimization of Wind Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hafidi Alaoui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In regard to economic phenomena such as the expansion of trade, the interactions between markets encouraging companies to cross borders, the research for market in new areas should be accompanied by sufficient knowledge of their own environment and especially the weather conditions. Indeed, the objectives of a construction project (cost, deadline and quality are affected by a multitude of events, of internal and external origin, such as climate changes when they are severe and abrupt. Certainly, each region is characterized by a specific climate. For some regions, it is rather the wind that remains the most characterizing climate factor. Wind is widely felt in areas exposed to currents such as (trade wind, North wind, Nordet, Harmattan etc…, in other places we underestimate, see, ignore the effects of wind, particularly on a construction site. Yet, the consequences of ignoring this risk factor can be heavy on a construction company (in terms of late penalty law for example; In fact, if bad weather affects particularly on the initial works: earthworks, foundations, slab; wind effects may proclaim during all the duration of the construction site. The wind affect all project’s aspects, quality, cost, safety as well as deadline. Nevertheless there are few studies that were interested in studying relation construction‘s deadline and wind. Tangier, the city located on the Strait of Gibraltar, where the study was conducted, is exposed to wind whose origin is the Anti cyclone of the Azores, in addition to the local winds that are due to the presence of the two seas and imposing mountains, with a wind that might exceed 220km/h. The equation introduced by this study will allow evaluating (measuring the impact of wind on the deadline (expressed Δ, it shall encompass all aspects: - Limiting conditions of equipments existing in construction site (producers’ references - Recommendations of the standard practice - Regulation in terms of work

  5. Optimal hostage rescue problem where an action can only be taken once : case where its effectiveness lasts up to the deadline

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fengbo

    2001-01-01

    We propose the following mathematical model for optimal reacue problems concerning hostages.Suppose that a person is taken as a hostage and that a decision has to be made from among three alternatives:storm for rescue,or wait up to the next point in time for an opportunity to preasent itself,or take one action of negotiation which might save the situation.It is assumed that the action of negotiation can only be taken once and it will be effective up to the deadline.The objective is to find an...

  6. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  7. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  8. Recent advances in automotive catalysis for NOx emission control by small-pore microporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, A M; Gao, F; Lezcano-Gonzalez, I; Peden, C H F; Szanyi, J

    2015-10-21

    The ever increasing demand to develop highly fuel efficient engines coincides with the need to minimize air pollution originating from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Dramatically improved fuel efficiency can be achieved at air-to-fuel ratios much higher than stoichiometric. In the presence of oxygen in large excess, however, traditional three-way catalysts are unable to reduce NOx. Among the number of lean-NOx reduction technologies, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 over Cu- and Fe-ion exchanged zeolite catalysts has been extensively studied over the past 30+ years. Despite the significant advances in developing a viable practical zeolite-based catalyst for lean NOx reduction, the insufficient hydrothermal stabilities of the zeolite structures considered cast doubts about their real-world applicability. During the past decade renewed interest in zeolite-based lean NOx reduction was spurred by the discovery of the very high activity of Cu-SSZ-13 (and the isostructural Cu-SAPO-34) in the NH3-SCR of NOx. These new, small-pore zeolite-based catalysts not only exhibited very high NOx conversion and N2 selectivity, but also exhibited exceptionally high hydrothermal stability at high temperatures. In this review we summarize the key discoveries of the past ∼5 years that led to the introduction of these catalysts into practical applications. This review first briefly discusses the structure and preparation of the CHA structure-based zeolite catalysts, and then summarizes the key learnings of the rather extensive (but not complete) characterisation work. Then we summarize the key findings of reaction kinetic studies, and provide some mechanistic details emerging from these investigations. At the end of the review we highlight some of the issues that still need to be addressed in automotive exhaust control catalysis.

  9. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  10. The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Choi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  11. NOX2 amplifies acetaldehyde-mediated cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Moritz; Garlapati, Venkata; Oelze, Matthias; Sotiriou, Efthymios; Knorr, Maike; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Kossmann, Sabine; Schönfelder, Tanja; Morawietz, Henning; Schulz, Eberhard; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Wenzel, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) resulting from excess alcohol consumption is an important cause of heart failure (HF). Although it is assumed that the cardiotoxicity of the ethanol (EtOH)-metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA) is central for its development and progression, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. Murine cardiomyocytes (CMs) exposed to ACA or EtOH showed increased superoxide (O2•−) levels and decreased mitochondrial polarization, both being normalized by NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition. C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient for the ACA-degrading enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2−/−) were fed a 2% EtOH diet for 5 weeks creating an ACA-overload. 2% EtOH-fed ALDH-2−/− mice exhibited a decreased cardiac function, increased heart-to-body and lung-to-body weight ratios, increased cardiac levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as increased NOX activity and NOX2/glycoprotein 91phox (NOX2/gp91phox) subunit expression compared to 2% EtOH-fed C57BL/6 mice. Echocardiography revealed that ALDH-2−/−/gp91phox−/− mice were protected from ACA-overload-induced HF after 5 weeks of 2% EtOH-diet, demonstrating that NOX2-derived O2•− contributes to the development of ACM. Translated to human pathophysiology, we found increased gp91phox expression in endomyocardial biopsies of ACM patients. In conclusion, ACM is promoted by ACA-driven mitochondrial dysfunction and can be improved by ablation of NOX2/gp91phox. NOX2/gp91phox therefore might be a potential pharmacological target to treat ACM. PMID:27624556

  12. NADPH oxidase NOX2 defines a new antagonistic role for reactive oxygen species and cAMP/PKA in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform-specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse β-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform-specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic β-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS.

  13. 75 FR 1780 - Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... CORPORATION Meetings AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm Credit...

  14. Potential synergic effect between MOR and BEA zeolites in NOx SCR with methane: A dual bed design approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Acácio Nobre; Matynia, Alexis; Toullec, Alain; Capela, Sandra; Ribeiro, M.Filipa; Henriques, Carlos; Costa, Patrick Da

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The selective catalytic reduction of NOx with methane (NOx CH4-SCR) under lean conditions was investigated with catalysts based on two different zeolite structures (MOR and BEA) containing Pd and Ce. The catalytic performance for NO oxidation to NO2 reaction, considered an important first key step in the NOx CH4-SCR mechanism, was also assessed.Pd(0.3)Ce(2)-HBEA was found to be very active for NO oxidation but exhibits poor activity for NOx CH4-SCR. Conversely, Pd(0.3)...

  15. NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 mediates cigarette smoke-induced superoxide generation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2017-02-01

    Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is one of the common etiological factors, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been suggested as a potential mediator of oxidative stress. In this study, cigarette smoke (CS)-induced superoxide production was characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). CS was prepared in forms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and total particulate matter (TPM). Several molecular probes for reactive oxygen species were trialed, and dihydroethidium (DHE) and WST-1 were chosen for superoxide detection considering the autofluorescence, light absorbance, and peroxidase inhibitory activity of CS. Both CSE and TPM generated superoxide in a VSMC culture system by stimulating cells to produce superoxide and by directly producing superoxide in the aqueous solution. NOX, specifically NOX1 was found to be an important cellular source of superoxide through experiments with the NOX inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and VAS2870 as well as isoform-specific NOX knockdown. NOX inhibitors and the superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL reduced the cytotoxicity of CSE, thus suggesting the contribution of NOX1-derived superoxide to cytotoxicity. Since NOX1 is known to mediate diverse pathological processes in the vascular system, NOX1 may be a critical effector of cardiovascular toxicity caused by smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experiments and simulations of NOx formation in the combustion of hydroxylated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the influence of molecular structure in hydroxylated fuels (i.e. fuels with one or more hydroxyl groups), such as alcohols and polyols, on NOx formation. The fuels studied are three lower alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol), two diols (1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol), and one triol (1,2,3-propanetriol); all of which are liquids at room temperature and span a wide range of thermophysical properties. Experimental stack emissions measurements of NO/NO2, CO, and CO2 and flame temperature profiles utilizing a rake of thermocouples were obtained in globally lean, swirling, liquid atomized spray flames inside a refractory-lined combustion chamber as a function of the atomizing air flow rate and swirl number. These experiments show significantly lower NOx formation with increasing fuel oxygen content despite similarities in the flame temperature profiles. By controlling the temperature profiles, the contribution to NOx formation through the thermal mechanism were matched, and variations in the contribution through non-thermal NOx formation pathways are observed. Simulations in a perfectly stirred reactor, at conditions representative of those measured within the combustion region, were conducted as a function of temperature and equivalence ratio. The simulations employed a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic model for NOx formation from hydroxylated fuels developed based on recent alcohol combustion models and extended to include polyol combustion chemistry. These simulations provide a qualitative comparison to the range of temperatures and equivalence ratios observed in complex swirling flows and provide insight into the influence of variations in the fuel decomposition pathways on NOx formation. It is observed that increasing the fuel bound oxygen concentration ultimately reduces the formation of NOx by increasing the proportion of fuel oxidized through formaldehyde, as opposed to acetylene or acetaldehyde

  17. Composite TiO{sub 2}/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Vaimakis, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, 451 10, Ioannina (Greece); Trapalis, C., E-mail: trapalis@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clays-supported TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are prepared by simple, scalable method. • Visible light active TiO{sub 2} is incorporated in hydrotalcite, talk and kunipia clays. • The alkali substrates facilitate the NOx adsorption to the photocatalytic surface. • Low-content TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts demonstrated high NOx oxidation activity. • Titania/hydrotalcite photocatalyst exhibited remarkable NOx removal activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO{sub 2} in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO{sub 2} and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania

  18. 基于截止期价值度优先的CAN消息实时调度算法∗%Real-time Scheduling Algorithm of CAN Bus Message Based on Deadline-value First

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简毅; 魏磊; 杨亚联; 刘其鑫

    2015-01-01

    为了保证CAN总线网络中实时性消息的截止期,同时减小紧迫性消息的传输延迟,综合考虑了CAN网络中实时消息的截止期和价值度两个参数,提出了截止期-价值度优先( Deadline-Value First)实时调度算法,简称DVF算法。给出了算法遵循原则和设计过程,对截止期因素进行分段线性处理的方法,使得算法在保证消息截止期的前提下尽量让关键性消息优先发送。以 EDF 算法和HVF( higest value first)算法为基准,从关键消息的相对延迟、丢帧率和丢失价值率这三个方面对DVF算法进行性能分析,实验表明DVF算法相比于EDF算法和HVF算法有很大改善。%In order to guarantee the deadline of real-time message in CAN network and reduce the transmis-sion delay of Emergency messages, a real-time scheduling algorithm named DVF ( Deadline-Value First) is proposed, Considered deadline and value of real-time message in CAN network. The Principle and way of the algorithm is given. By disposing the deadline element in subsection-linear method, this algorithm can send the most critical message firstly with no loss of other message’ s deadline. The performance of the DVF (deadline-value first) algorithms is analyzed by comparing it with EDF(earliest deadline first) algorithm and HVF ( highest value first) algorithm based on value lose ratio, miss message ratio and relative transmis-sion delay. The experiment shows that HVF algorithms can improve the performance compared to the classi-cal EDF algorithm and HVF algorithm under all workload conditions.

  19. Gene silencing of Nox4 by CpG island methylation during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Álvarez, Guadalupe S.; Wojdacz, Tomasz K.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Monroy-Ramírez, Hugo C.; Rodríguez-Segura, Miguel A.; Pacheco-Rivera, Ruth A.; Valencia-Antúnez, Carlos A.; Cervantes-Anaya, Nancy; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Villa-Treviño, Saúl

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The association between the downregulation of genes and DNA methylation in their CpG islands has been extensively studied as a mechanism that favors carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylation of a set of genes selected based on their microarray expression profiles during the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were euthanized at: 24 h, 7, 11, 16 and 30 days and 5, 9, 12 and 18 months post-treatment. We evaluated the methylation status in the CpG islands of four deregulated genes (Casp3, Cldn1, Pex11a and Nox4) using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technology for the samples obtained from different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We did not observe methylation in Casp3, Cldn1 or Pex11a. However, Nox4 exhibited altered methylation patterns, reaching a maximum of 10%, even during the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. We observed downregulation of mRNA and protein of Nox4 (97.5% and 40%, respectively) after the first carcinogenic stimulus relative to the untreated samples. Our results suggest that Nox4 downregulation is associated with DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter. We propose that methylation is a mechanism that can silence the expression of Nox4, which could contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. PMID:27895046

  20. A GdAlO3 Perovskite Oxide Electrolyte-Based NOx Solid-State Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Dongmei; Cai, Guohui; Zheng, Yong; Zhong, Fulan

    2016-11-01

    NOx is a notorious emission from motor vehicles and chemical factories as the precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. Although zirconia-based NOx sensors have been developed and showed high sensitivity and selectivity at a high temperature of above 800 °C, they fail to show good performance, and even don’t work at the typical work temperature window of the automotive engine (type oxide Gd1‑xCaxAlO3‑δ(GCA) as the electrolyte and NiO as the sensing electrode. NOx sensing properties of the device were investigated at the temperature region of 400–500 °C. The response current value at ‑300 mV was almost linearly proportional to the NOx concentration between 300 and 500 ppm at 500 °C. At such a temperature, the optimal sensor gave the highest NO2 sensitivity of 20.15 nA/ppm, and the maximum response current value reached 5.57 μA. Furthermore, a 90% response and 90% recover time to 500 ppm NO2 were about 119 and 92 s, respectively. The excellent selectivity and stability towards NOx sensing showed the potential application of the sensor in motor vehicles.