Full Text Available This essay discusses the practices of journalistic illustration in nineteenth-century weekly illustrated magazines in London: magazines such as the 'Illustrated London News 'and the 'Graphic'. It focuses on the way that Géricault’s schema for representing shipwreck survivors in rafts and boats, mostly in the processes of rescue, was a resource for journalistic illustration in London. It concentrates on the period after 1880, ending with a discussion of the presence of ‘The Raft’ in reports of the 'Titanic'’s sinking. The essay considers some of the ways in which Géricault’s schema may have been a resource in the mythopoetic response to the 'Titanic' disaster. The essay discusses the persistence of hand-made illustrations in the period of the ‘domestication’ of the half-tone screen (from the 1890s onwards, which introduced the photographic image (as distinct from hand-drawn or wood-engraved images derived from photographs into magazine illustration. In doing this it engages with the ways in which the coexistence of (half-tone accounts of hand-made pictures and of (half-tone accounts of photographs in the pages of magazines of the 'ILN' genre destabilized the truth-effects of hand-made illustration and threw the relative lack of affective power of the reportorial photograph into relief. It also discusses the implications for journalistic illustration of the difference between the telegram-speed ‘global-village-ization’ of the news community in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the ‘snail-mail’ speed of transoceanic communication of pictures, until after the end of the First World War. The essay aligns the picture-making logic of journalistic illustration with that of easel painting, to think about both these visual-culture-production milieux in terms of the manipulation of inherited visual resources, on the one hand in the praxis of picture-making, and on the other in pursuit of visible intertextualities so as to make ‘publics’ and to gratify contemporary interpretative communities. To do this the essay looks briefly at some possible sources for Géricault’s pictorial solutions to his representational tasks, both narrative and political, and considers some occurrences of the ‘Medusa’ compositional schema and iconography in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, from the UK and elsewhere, in broadsheet imagery and in magazines and newspapers. It then identifies some of the ways in which journalistic illustrators of the end of the 'Titanic' used Géricault’s schema as a way at once of fabricating and of adding resonance to their supposedly reportorial pictures. The essay shows how ‘authorship’ of magazine illustration was collective and distributed, complicating the interpretation of visible intertextualities. This discussion of issues of interpretation will use the distinction between ‘publics’ and ‘audiences’, and consider the interpretative communities of reader-viewers of magazines of the 'ILN' genre in the period 'c'.1880 to 'c'.1912 in relation to the interpretative and theoretical resources of the twenty-first-century art historian.
Full Text Available Objective: To detect wild rodents ectoparasites in the southeast of Iran. Methods: In this survey, the wild rodents were trapped from 2014 to 2015. The captured rodents were checked for any ectoparasites. Results: In this study, 681 ectoparasites belonged to 6 species of flea, 2 species of lice, 1 species of mite and 2 species of hard tick were collected. The flea species were including, Xenopsylla gerbilli, Xenopsylla cheopis, Xenopsylla buxtoni, Xenopsylla conformis, Nosopsyllus medus and Amphipysylla spp., the lice species were including Hoplopleura spp. and Polyplax spp., the mite species was Ornithonyssus bacoti and tick species were Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. Conclusions: Among all ectoparasites, Hoplopleura spp. and Amphipysylla spp. had the high and low frequency infestation in rodents, respectively. Also among captured rodents, the highest ectoparasites infestation was found in Tatera indica and no ectoparasites in Apodemus witherbyi, Cricetelus migratorius, and Microtus mystacinus kermanesis.
penicillatus, and these were found to be identical with meduse of Sarsia bella. Young medusae of P. penicillatus from the plankton can be clearly distinguished from S. bella medusae by the number of their exumbrellar nematocyst patches. Both P. penicillatus and Sarsia bella have eight adradial rows of exumbrellar nematocyst patches when young, however each row in P. penicillatus consists of at least three vertically alligned patches whereas each row never has more than two patches in S. bella. In both species the patches consist of microbasic p-mastigophores, but capsules in the case of P. penicillatus are larger than those in S. bella. Later stages of the two species are easily distinguished using other morphological characters with only four tentacles in S. bella and more than four in P. penicillatus. No hydroid of the genus Polyorchis has been described to date.