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Sample records for medullary dorsal horn

  1. Glutamine uptake contributes to central sensitization in the medullary dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Hu, James W.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Mustard oil application to tooth pulp produces central sensitization in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons, which has been implicated in persistent pain mechanisms. We found that superfusion onto MDH of methylaminoisobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of the neuronal system A transporter for presynaptic uptake of glutamine (a glutamate precursor released from astroglia), significantly depressed development of mustard oil-induced central sensitization in rat MDH nociceptive...

  2. Central sensitization in medullary dorsal horn involves gap junctions and hemichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Central sensitization is a fundamental mechanism contributing to acute and chronic pain conditions. Our previous studies have documented a glutamatergic-, purinergic- and glial-dependent central sensitization that can be induced in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons by mustard oil (MO) application to the tooth pulp. The present study demonstrated that carbenoxolone, a potent gap junction and hemichannel blocker, completely blocked all parameters of MO-induced central sensitiz...

  3. Central sensitization of nociceptive neurons in rat medullary dorsal horn involves purinergic P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, K; Chiang, C-Y; Li, Z; Lee, J-C; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2011-09-29

    Central sensitization is a crucial process underlying the increased neuronal excitability of nociceptive pathways following peripheral tissue injury and inflammation. Our previous findings have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) molecules acting at purinergic receptors located on presynaptic terminals (e.g., P2X2/3, P2X3 subunits) and glial cells are involved in the glutamatergic-dependent central sensitization induced in medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons by application to the tooth pulp of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO). Since growing evidence indicates that activation of P2X7 receptors located on glia is involved in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, the aim of the present study was to test in vivo for P2X7 receptor involvement in this acute inflammatory pain model. Experiments were carried out in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats. Single unit recordings were made in MDH functionally identified nociceptive neurons for which mechanoreceptive field, mechanical activation threshold and responses to noxious stimuli were tested. We found that continuous intrathecal (i.t.) superfusion over MDH of the potent P2X7 receptor antagonists brilliant blue G and periodated oxidized ATP could each significantly attenuate the MO-induced MDH central sensitization. MDH central sensitization could also be produced by i.t. superfusion of ATP and even more effectively by the P2X7 receptor agonist benzoylbenzoyl ATP. Superfusion of the microglial blocker minocycline abolished the MO-induced MDH central sensitization, consistent with reports that dorsal horn P2X7 receptors are mostly expressed on microglia. In control experiments, superfusion over MDH of vehicle did not produce any significant changes. These novel findings suggest that activation of P2X7 receptors in vivo may be involved in the development of central sensitization in an acute inflammatory pain model. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  4. Central α-adrenoceptors contribute to mustard oil-induced central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn.

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    Wang, H; Xie, Y F; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2013-04-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp produces trigeminal central sensitization that includes increases in mechanoreceptive field size and responses to noxious stimuli and decrease in activation threshold in brainstem nociceptive neurons of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn, MDH). The aim of the present study was to test if central noradrenergic processes are involved in the central sensitization of MDH neurons and if α1-adrenoceptors or α2-adrenoceptors or both are involved. In urethane/α-chloralose-anesthetized rats, the activity of extracellularly recorded and functionally identified single nociceptive neurons in the MDH was studied. Continuous intrathecal (i.t.) superfusion of the adrenergic modulator guanethidine and α-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine or selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin over the medulla strongly attenuated all three MO-induced parameters of central sensitization in the MDH nociceptive neurons, compared to phosphate-buffered saline (as vehicle control). In contrast, i.t. superfusion of the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine had little effect on the mechanoreceptive field expansion and the decreased mechanical activation threshold, and indeed facilitated responses to noxious stimuli of sensitized nociceptive neurons. Superfusion of each of the four chemicals alone did not affect baseline nociceptive neuronal properties. These findings provide the first documentation of the involvement of central noradrenergic processes in MDH in the development of the central sensitization, and that α1- and α2-adrenoceptors may be differentially involved. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

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    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  6. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

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    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  7. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

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    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  8. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  9. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

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    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  10. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...

  11. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...... recording in spinal cord slices provided functional evidence indicating the monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and giant neurons. The recorded neurons were morphologically identified by means of biocytin injection and with avidin conjugates. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral...... dorsal roots evoked synaptic responses with short, fixed latencies (1.6-5.6 ms), which remained unchanged at high frequencies (10 Hz). Excitatory polysynaptic potentials were also observed. By means of pharmacological procedures the short-latency response was dissected in two components: one insensitive...

  12. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...... revealed the occurrence of axosomatic and axodendritic contacts between labeled boutons and giant neurons. The synaptic nature of these contacts has been confirmed by use of electron microscope procedures involving the partial three-dimensional reconstruction of identified giant neurons. Intracellular...

  13. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal...

  14. Selective plasticity of primary afferent innervation to the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei following lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in long term studies.

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    Wu, Lisa; Wu, Jun; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies involving injuries to the nerves of the cauda equina and the conus medullaris have shown that lumbosacral ventral root avulsion in rat models results in denervation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, retrograde and progressive cell death of the axotomized motor and parasympathetic neurons, as well as the emergence of neuropathic pain. Root reimplantation has also been shown to ameliorate several of these responses, but experiments thus far have been limited to studying the effects of lesion and reimplantation local to the lumbosacral region. Here, we have expanded the region of investigation after lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation to include the thoracolumbar sympathetic region of the spinal cord. Using a retrograde tracer injected into the major pelvic ganglion, we were able to define the levels of the spinal cord that contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. We have conducted studies on the effects of the lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation models on the afferent innervation of the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei at both thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels through immunohistochemistry for the markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal a selective and significant decrease of CGRP-positive innervation in the dorsal horn at thoracolumbar levels that is partially restored with root reimplantation. However, no similar changes were detected at the lumbosacral levels despite the injury and repair targeting efferent neurons, and being performed at the lumbosacral levels. Despite the changes evident in the thoracolumbar dorsal horn, we find no changes in afferent innervation of the autonomic nuclei at either sympathetic or parasympathetic segmental levels by CGRP or VGLUT1. We conclude that even remote, efferent root injuries and repair procedures can have an effect on remote and non

  15. Burst-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located centrally in the dorsal...

  16. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43). For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III) was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent) are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  17. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Stefania Meneses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43. For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  18. Superficial dorsal horn neurons with double spike activity in the rat.

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    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Dickenson, Anthony H; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2007-05-29

    Superficial dorsal horn neurons promote the transfer of nociceptive information from the periphery to supraspinal structures. The membrane and discharge properties of spinal cord neurons can alter the reliability of peripheral signals. In this paper, we analyze the location and response properties of a particular class of dorsal horn neurons that exhibits double spike discharge with a very short interspike interval (2.01+/-0.11 ms). These neurons receive nociceptive C-fiber input and are located in laminae I-II. Double spikes are generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection (interval of 2.37+/-0.22). Cells presenting double spike (interval 2.28+/-0.11) increased the firing rate by electrical noxious stimulation, as well as, in the first minutes after carrageenan injection into their receptive field. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide soluble in water and it is used for producing an experimental model of semi-chronic pain. In the present study carrageenan also produces an increase in the interval between double spikes and then, reduced their occurrence after 5-10 min. The results suggest that double spikes are due to intrinsic membrane properties and that their frequency is related to C-fiber nociceptive activity. The present work shows evidence that double spikes in superficial spinal cord neurones are related to the nociceptive stimulation, and they are possibly part of an acute pain-control mechanism.

  19. Neuronal networks and nociceptive processing in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

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    Cordero-Erausquin, Matilde; Inquimbert, Perrine; Schlichter, Rémy; Hugel, Sylvain

    2016-12-03

    The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord receives a variety of sensory information arising from the inner and outer environment, as well as modulatory inputs from supraspinal centers. This information is integrated by the DH before being forwarded to brain areas where it may lead to pain perception. Spinal integration of this information relies on the interplay between different DH neurons forming complex and plastic neuronal networks. Elements of these networks are therefore potential targets for new analgesics and pain-relieving strategies. The present review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these networks, with a special emphasis on those involving interlaminar communication in both physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pathophysiology of neuropathic pain: molecular mechanisms underlying central sensitization in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain].

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    Yamanaka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    Neuropathic pain syndromes are clinically characterized by spontaneous pain and evoked pain (hyperalgesia and allodynia). The optimal treatment approach for neuropathic pain is still under development because of the complex pathological mechanisms underlying this type of pain. The spinal cord is an important gateway thorough which peripheral pain signals are transmitted to the brain, and sensitization of the spinal neurons is one of the important mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain. Central sensitization represents enhancement of the function of neuronal circuits in nociceptive pathways and is a manifestation of the remarkable plasticity of the somatosensory nervous system after nerve injury. This review highlights the pathological features of central sensitization, which develops because of (1) injury-induced abnormal inputs from primary afferents, (2) increase in the excitability of dorsal horn neurons, and (3) activated glial cell-derived signals.

  1. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located laterally in the deep...

  2. Leukotriene enhances NMDA-induced inward currents in dorsal horn neurons of the rat spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Taniguchi, Wataru; Okubo, Masamichi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Nishio, Naoko; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Noguchi, Koichi

    2015-09-09

    LTB4 is classified as a leukotriene (LT), a group of lipid mediators that are derived from arachidonic acid. It is recognized that leukotrienes are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including peripheral inflammatory pain. However, little is known about the effects of leukotrienes on the spinal dorsal horn during neuropathic pain. Previously, we reported that there was increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) at spinal microglia, and the leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1), a high affinity receptor of LTB4, in spinal neurons in spared nerve injury (SNI) model rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of LTB4 on spinal dorsal horn neurons in both naïve and SNI model rats using patch-clamp methods. Bath application of LTB4 did not change AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) or membrane potentials. However, we found that LTB4 enhanced the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated sEPSCs and significantly increased exogenous NMDA-induced inward currents in SNI model rats. This increase of inward currents could be inhibited by a selective LTB4 antagonist, U75302, as well as a GDP-β-S, a G-protein inhibitor. These results indicate that both increased LTB4 from spinal microglia or increased BLT1 in spinal neurons after peripheral nerve injury can enhance the activity of NMDA receptors through intracellular G-proteins in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Our findings showed that LTB4, which may originate from microglia, can activate BLT1 receptors which are expressed on the membrane of spinal dorsal horn neurons during neuropathic pain. This glia-neuron interaction induces the enhancement of NMDA currents through intracellular G-proteins. The enhancement of NMDA receptor sensitivity of dorsal horn neurons may lead to central sensitization, leading to mechanical pain hypersensitivity.

  3. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

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    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  5. Supraspinal modulation of neuronal synchronization by nociceptive stimulation induces an enduring reorganization of dorsal horn neuronal connectivity.

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    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Hernández, E; Velázquez, E; Reyes, P; Béjar, J; Martín, M; Cortés, U; Glusman, S; Rudomin, P

    2018-02-16

    The state of central sensitization induced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin leads to structured (non-random) changes in functional connectivity between dorsal horn neuronal populations distributed along the spinal lumbar segments in anaesthetized cats. The capsaicin-induced changes in neuronal connectivity and the concurrent increase in secondary hyperalgesia are transiently reversed by the systemic administration of small doses of lidocaine, a clinically effective procedure to treat neuropathic pain. The effects of both capsaicin and lidocaine are greatly attenuated in spinalized preparations, showing that supraspinal influences play a significant role in the shaping of nociceptive-induced changes in dorsal horn functional neuronal connectivity. We conclude that changes in functional connectivity between segmental populations of dorsal horn neurones induced by capsaicin and lidocaine result from a cooperative adaptive interaction between supraspinal and spinal neuronal networks, a process that may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and analgesia. Despite a profusion of information on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the central sensitization produced by intense nociceptive stimulation, the changes in the patterns of functional connectivity between spinal neurones associated with the development of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia remain largely unknown. Here we show that the state of central sensitization produced by the intradermal injection of capsaicin is associated with structured transformations in neuronal synchronization that lead to an enduring reorganization of the functional connectivity within a segmentally distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones. These changes are transiently reversed by the systemic administration of small doses of lidocaine, a clinically effective procedure to treat neuropathic pain. Lidocaine also reduces the capsaicin-induced facilitation of the spinal responses evoked by

  6. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

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    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity.

  7. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture Réjean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p., and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p. were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140 were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715 were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. Results STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRPV1 and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. Conclusion The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  8. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury.

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    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G; Tan, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure-function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury.

  9. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy.

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    Talbot, Sébastien; Chahmi, Emna; Dias, Jenny Pena; Couture, Réjean

    2010-06-29

    The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p.), and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR) of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I)-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140) were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK) and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715) were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TRPV1) and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  10. Structural and molecular alterations of primary afferent fibres in the spinal dorsal horn in vincristine-induced neuropathy in rat.

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    Thibault, Karine; Rivals, Isabelle; M'Dahoma, Saïd; Dubacq, Sophie; Pezet, Sophie; Calvino, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Vincristine is one of the most common anti-cancer drug therapies administered for the treatment of many types of cancer. Its dose-limiting side effect is the emergence of peripheral neuropathy, resulting in chronic neuropathic pain in many patients. This study sought to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain by vincristine-induced neurotoxicity. We focused on signs of functional changes and revealed that deep layers of the spinal cord (III-IV) experience increased neuronal activity both in the absence of peripheral stimulation and, as a result of tactile mechanical stimulations. These laminae and superficial laminae I-II were also subject to structural changes as evidenced by an increase in immunoreactivity of Piccolo, a marker of active presynaptic elements. Further investigations performed, using DNA microarray technology, describe a large number of genes differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglions and in the spinal dorsal horn after vincristine treatment. Our study describes an important list of genes differentially regulated by vincristine treatment that will be useful for future studies and brings forward evidence for molecular and anatomical modifications of large diameter sensory neurons terminating in deep dorsal horn laminae, which could participate in the development of tactile allodynia.

  11. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

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    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  12. Responses of rat spinal dorsal horn neurons to intracutaneous microinjection of histamine, capsaicin, and other irritants.

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    Carstens, E

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the spinal processing of cutaneous pruritic and algesic stimuli, single-unit recordings were made from wide-dynamic-range-type lumbar spinal dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-sodium-anesthetized rats. Neuronal responses were recorded to mechanical and noxious thermal stimuli, as well as to microinjection (1 microl) of histamine (0.01-10% = 9 x 10(-1)-9 x 10(-4) M), capsaicin (0.1% = 3.3 x 10(-3) M), or other algesic chemicals into skin within the receptive field via intracutaneously placed needles. Most (84%) of the 89 neurons responded to intracutaneous (i.c.) microinjection of histamine with a brief phasic discharge followed by an afterdischarge of variable (s to min) duration. Ten minutes after i.c. microinjection of histamine (but not NaCl), there was a significant increase in the mean area of the low-threshold (but not high-threshold) portion of unit mechanical receptive fields. However, responses to graded pressure stimuli were not significantly affected after histamine. Responses did not exhibit significant tachyphylaxis when histamine microinjections were repeated at 5- or 10-min intervals. Unit responses significantly increased in a dose-related manner to microinjection of histamine at concentrations ranging across 4 orders of magnitude. Within 30 s after i.c. microinjection of the H1 antagonist cetirizine, unit responses to i.c. histamine delivered at the same skin site were significantly attenuated. Unit responses to histamine, as well as to noxious thermal stimulation, were significantly reduced after systemic administration of morphine (3.5 mg/kg i.p.) in a naloxone-reversible manner. Application of a mechanical rub, scratch, or a noxious heat stimulus during the unit's ongoing response to i.c. histamine produced a brief and marked excitation, often followed by a period of reduced ongoing discharge. Unit responses to histamine were markedly suppressed by electrical stimulation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Most (79%) histamine

  13. MHC-I promotes apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and contributes to cancer induced bone pain.

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    Fu, Qiaochu; Shi, Dai; Zhou, Yaqun; Zheng, Hua; Xiang, Hongbing; Tian, Xuebi; Gao, Feng; Manyande, Anne; Cao, Fei; Tian, Yuke; Ye, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) remains one of the most intractable clinical problems due to poor understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate the decline of inhibitory interneurons, especially GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord, can evoke generation of chronic pain. It has also been reported that neuronal MHC-I expression renders neurons vulnerable to cytotoxic CD8 + T cells and finally lead to neurons apoptosis in a variety neurological disorders. However, whether MHC-I could induce the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in spinal cord and contribute to the development of CIBP remains unknown. In this study, we investigated roles of MHC-I and underlying mechanisms in CIBP on a rat model. Our results showed that increased MHC-I expression on GABAergic interneurons could deplete GABAergic interneurons by inducing their apoptosis in the spinal dorsal horn of tumor-bearing rats. Pretreatment of MHC-I RNAi-lentivirus could prevent the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons and therefore alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by tumor cells intratibial injection. Additionally, we also found that CD8 + T cells were colocalized with MHC-I and GABAergic neurons and presented a significant and persistent increase in the spinal cord of tumor-bearing rats. Taken together, these findings indicated that MHC-I could evoke CIBP by promoting apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the dorsal horn, and this apoptosis was closely related to local CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Donors Increase the Responsiveness of Dorsal Horn Neurons and Induce Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats

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    Hee Young Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers have analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through spinal mechanisms in the rat. The studies suggest that superoxide in spinal cord is one of important mediators of persistent pain. To test the hypothesis that increase of superoxide-derived intermediates leads to central sensitization and pain, the effects of an intrathecal injection of chemical ROS donors releasing either OH∙, OCl-, or H2O2 were examined on pain behaviors. Following treatment with t-BOOH (OH∙ donor, dorsal horn neuron responses to mechanical stimuli in normal rats and the changes of neuronal excitability were explored on substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons using whole-cell patch clamping recordings. Intrathecal administration of t-BOOH or NaOCl (OCl- donor, but not H2O2, significantly decreased mechanical thresholds of hind paws. The responses of wide dynamic range neurons to mechanical stimuli increased after a local application of t-BOOH. The t-BOOH increased the frequency and the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, depolarized membrane potential in SG neurons, and increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. These results suggest that elevated ROS, especially OH∙, in the spinal cord sensitized dorsal horn neurons and produced hyperalgesia in normal rats.

  15. Early spread of hyperexcitability to caudal dorsal horn networks after a chemically-induced lesion of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

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    Deumens, R; Mazzone, G L; Taccola, G

    2013-01-15

    Hyperexcitability of dorsal horn neurons has been shown to play a key role in neuropathic pain following chronic experimental spinal cord injury. With a neonatal in vitro spinal cord injury model, we show that a chemically-induced lesion leads to rapid gain-of-function of sublesional dorsal horn networks biased to hyperexcitation. The expression of the GABA synthetic enzyme GAD65 was significantly reduced at the same level of the spinal cord, suggesting a compromised inhibitory system. We propose that our model could be useful to test early approaches to contrast spinal cord injury-induced central sensitization of dorsal horn circuits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

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    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GLT1 overexpression reverses established neuropathic pain-related behavior and attenuates chronic dorsal horn neuron activation following cervical spinal cord injury.

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    Falnikar, Aditi; Hala, Tamara J; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2016-03-01

    Development of neuropathic pain occurs in a major portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. Following SCI, chronic dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis has been shown to play a key role in persistent central hyperexcitability of superficial dorsal horn neurons that mediate pain neurotransmission, leading to various forms of neuropathic pain. Astrocytes express the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of functional glutamate uptake, particularly in the spinal cord. In our unilateral cervical contusion model of mouse SCI that is associated with ipsilateral forepaw heat hypersensitivity (a form of chronic at-level neuropathic pain-related behavior), we previously reported significant and long-lasting reductions in GLT1 expression and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake in cervical spinal cord dorsal horn. To therapeutically address GLT1 dysfunction following cervical contusion SCI, we injected an adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-Gfa2 vector into the superficial dorsal horn to increase GLT1 expression selectively in astrocytes. Compared to both contusion-only animals and injured mice that received AAV8-eGFP control injection, AAV8-GLT1 delivery increased GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes of the injured cervical spinal cord dorsal horn, resulting in a significant and persistent reversal of already-established heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, AAV8-GLT1 injection significantly reduced expression of the transcription factor and marker of persistently increased neuronal activation, ΔFosB, in superficial dorsal horn neurons. These results demonstrate that focal restoration of GLT1 expression in the superficial dorsal horn is a promising target for treating chronic neuropathic pain following SCI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interferon-gamma potentiates NMDA receptor signaling in spinal dorsal horn neurons via microglia-neuron interaction.

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    Sonekatsu, Mayumi; Taniguchi, Wataru; Yamanaka, Manabu; Nishio, Naoko; Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito; Nakatsuka, Terumasa

    2016-01-01

    Glia-neuron interactions play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokne →cytokine Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is upregulated in the dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury, and intrathecal IFNγ administration induces mechanical allodynia in rats. A growing body of evidence suggests that IFNγ might be involved in the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but its effects on the spinal dorsal horn are unclear. We performed blind whole-cell patch-clamp recording to investigate the effect of IFNγ on postsynaptic glutamate-induced currents in the substantia gelatinosa neurons of spinal cord slices from adult male rats. IFNγ perfusion significantly enhanced the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons, but did not affect AMPA-induced currents. The facilitation of NMDA-induced current by IFNγ was inhibited by bath application of an IFNγ receptor-selective antagonist. Adding the Janus activated kinase inhibitor tofacitinib to the pipette solution did not affect the IFNγ-induced facilitation of NMDA-induced currents. However, the facilitatory effect of IFNγ on NMDA-induced currents was inhibited by perfusion of the microglial inhibitor minocycline. These results suggest that IFNγ binds the microglial IFNγ receptor and enhances NMDA receptor activity in substantia gelatinosa neurons. Next, to identify the effector of signal transmission from microglia to dorsal horn neurons, we added an inhibitor of G proteins, GDP-β-S, to the pipette solution. In a GDP-β-S-containing pipette solution, IFNγ-induced potentiation of the NMDA current was significantly suppressed after 30 min. In addition, IFNγ-induced potentiation of NMDA currents was blocked by application of a selective antagonist of CCR2, and its ligand CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents. Our findings suggest that IFNγ enhance the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons via microglial

  19. Interferon-gamma potentiates NMDA receptor signaling in spinal dorsal horn neurons via microglia–neuron interaction

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    Sonekatsu, Mayumi; Yamanaka, Manabu; Nishio, Naoko; Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito; Nakatsuka, Terumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background Glia–neuron interactions play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokne →cytokine Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is upregulated in the dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury, and intrathecal IFNγ administration induces mechanical allodynia in rats. A growing body of evidence suggests that IFNγ might be involved in the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but its effects on the spinal dorsal horn are unclear. We performed blind whole-cell patch-clamp recording to investigate the effect of IFNγ on postsynaptic glutamate-induced currents in the substantia gelatinosa neurons of spinal cord slices from adult male rats. Results IFNγ perfusion significantly enhanced the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons, but did not affect AMPA-induced currents. The facilitation of NMDA-induced current by IFNγ was inhibited by bath application of an IFNγ receptor-selective antagonist. Adding the Janus activated kinase inhibitor tofacitinib to the pipette solution did not affect the IFNγ-induced facilitation of NMDA-induced currents. However, the facilitatory effect of IFNγ on NMDA-induced currents was inhibited by perfusion of the microglial inhibitor minocycline. These results suggest that IFNγ binds the microglial IFNγ receptor and enhances NMDA receptor activity in substantia gelatinosa neurons. Next, to identify the effector of signal transmission from microglia to dorsal horn neurons, we added an inhibitor of G proteins, GDP-β-S, to the pipette solution. In a GDP-β-S–containing pipette solution, IFNγ-induced potentiation of the NMDA current was significantly suppressed after 30 min. In addition, IFNγ-induced potentiation of NMDA currents was blocked by application of a selective antagonist of CCR2, and its ligand CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents. Conclusion Our findings suggest that IFNγ enhance the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia

  20. Light touch induces ERK activation in superficial dorsal horn neurons after inflammation: involvement of spinal astrocytes and JNK signaling in touch-evoked central sensitization and mechanical allodynia

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    Gao, Yong-Jing; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in spinal cord neurons could serve as a marker for sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in persistent pain. ERK is normally activated by high-threshold noxious stimuli. We investigated how low-threshold mechanical stimuli could activate ERK after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. Unilateral injection of CFA induced ipsilateral heat hyperalgesia and bilateral mechanical allodynia. CFA-induced ERK activation in ipsilateral dorsal horn neurons declined after 2 days. Interestingly, low threshold mechanical stimulation given by light touch either on the inflamed paw or the contralateral non-inflamed paw dramatically increased ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to touch stimulation. Notably, light touch induced pERK mainly in superficial neurons in laminae I-IIo. Intrathecal administration of the astroglial toxin L-α-aminoadipate (L-α-AA) on post-CFA day 2 reversed CFA-induced bilateral mechanical allodynia but not heat hyperalgesia. Furthermore, L-α-AA, the glial inhibitor fluorocitrate, and a peptide inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) all reduced light touch-evoked ERK activation ipsilateral to touch. Collectively, these data suggest that (a) ERK can be activated in superficial dorsal horn neurons by low threshold mechanical stimulation under pathological condition and (b) ERK activation by light touch is associated with mechanical allodynia and requires an astrocyte network. PMID:20722971

  1. NR2 subunits and NMDA receptors on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons of the mouse dorsal horn

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    MacDermott Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NMDA receptors expressed by spinal cord neurons in the superficial dorsal horn are involved in the development of chronic pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury. The superficial dorsal horn has a complex and still poorly understood circuitry that is mainly populated by inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Little is known about how NMDA receptor subunit composition, and therefore pharmacology and voltage dependence, varies with neuronal cell type. NMDA receptors are typically composed of two NR1 subunits and two of four NR2 subunits, NR2A-2D. We took advantage of the differences in Mg2+ sensitivity of the NMDA receptor subtypes together with subtype preferring antagonists to identify the NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors expressed on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. To distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, we used transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the GAD67 promoter. Results Analysis of conductance ratio and selective antagonists showed that lamina II GABAergic interneurons express both the NR2A/B containing Mg2+ sensitive receptors and the NR2C/D containing NMDA receptors with less Mg2+ sensitivity. In contrast, excitatory lamina II interneurons express primarily NR2A/B containing receptors. Despite this clear difference in NMDA receptor subunit expression in the two neuronal populations, focally stimulated synaptic input is mediated exclusively by NR2A and 2B containing receptors in both neuronal populations. Conclusions Stronger expression of NMDA receptors with NR2C/D subunits by inhibitory interneurons compared to excitatory interneurons may provide a mechanism to selectively increase activity of inhibitory neurons during intense excitatory drive that can provide inhibitory feedback.

  2. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors at the site of inflammation inhibits activation of spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats.

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    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Cai, Qiaoyan; Wang, Dongmei; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-06-01

    Repeated inflammation in the periphery is a major cause of chronic inflammatory pain. We have showed that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery inhibits repeated inflammation-induced pain hypersensitivity. The present study investigated whether inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor signaling at the site of inflammation could inhibit repeated inflammation-induced neurochemical changes in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Treatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (20μg) in the hindpaw following intraplantar injection of carrageenan inhibited the increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reactivity, a marker of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in the spinal dorsal horn. Administration of formalin (1%) in the hindpaw following the carrageenan injection evoked a great increase in NADPH-d reactivity in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. These changes were abolished by the pretreatment of ketanserin (20μg). The ketanserin treatment also reduced the repeated inflammation-induced expression of protein kinase gamma (PKCγ) in the membrane of spinal dorsal horn neurons and increased PKCγ protein level in the cytosol. Following the treatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide (5mg/kg, s.c.), the administration of ketanserin failed to inhibit the repeated inflammation-induced increase in NADPH-d reactivity and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. These results suggest that 5-HT2A receptor bioactivity in the inflammatory site plays an important role in repeated inflammation-induced central sensitization. The present study supports the notion that targeting 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery can be a promising therapy for relieving chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Origin of heterogeneous spiking patterns from continuously distributed ion channel densities: a computational study in spinal dorsal horn neurons.

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    Balachandar, Arjun; Prescott, Steven A

    2018-01-20

    Distinct spiking patterns may arise from qualitative differences in ion channel expression (i.e. when different neurons express distinct ion channels) and/or when quantitative differences in expression levels qualitatively alter the spike generation process. We hypothesized that spiking patterns in neurons of the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of spinal cord reflect both mechanisms. We reproduced SDH neuron spiking patterns by varying densities of K V 1- and A-type potassium conductances. Plotting the spiking patterns that emerge from different density combinations revealed spiking-pattern regions separated by boundaries (bifurcations). This map suggests that certain spiking pattern combinations occur when the distribution of potassium channel densities straddle boundaries, whereas other spiking patterns reflect distinct patterns of ion channel expression. The former mechanism may explain why certain spiking patterns co-occur in genetically identified neuron types. We also present algorithms to predict spiking pattern proportions from ion channel density distributions, and vice versa. Neurons are often classified by spiking pattern. Yet, some neurons exhibit distinct patterns under subtly different test conditions, which suggests that they operate near an abrupt transition, or bifurcation. A set of such neurons may exhibit heterogeneous spiking patterns not because of qualitative differences in which ion channels they express, but rather because quantitative differences in expression levels cause neurons to operate on opposite sides of a bifurcation. Neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, for example, respond to somatic current injection with patterns that include tonic, single, gap, delayed and reluctant spiking. It is unclear whether these patterns reflect five cell populations (defined by distinct ion channel expression patterns), heterogeneity within a single population, or some combination thereof. We reproduced all five spiking patterns in a computational model by

  4. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

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    Yun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN and the spinal dorsal horn (DH. To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+ neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7% and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%, suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  5. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Sook; Park, Jun Hong; Choi, Su Jung; Bae, Jin Young; Ahn, Dong Kuk; McKemy, David D; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN) and the spinal dorsal horn (DH). To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7%) and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%), suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  6. Connectivity of Pacemaker Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

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    Ford, Neil C.; Arbabi, Shahriar; Baccei, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons with an intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing have been characterized in lamina I of the neonatal spinal cord, where they are innervated by high-threshold sensory afferents. However, little is known about the output of these pacemakers, as the neuronal populations which are targeted by pacemaker axons have yet to be identified. The present study combines patch clamp recordings in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord with tract-tracing to demonstrate that lamina I pacemaker neurons contact multiple spinal motor pathways during early life. Retrograde labeling of premotor interneurons with the trans-synaptic virus PRV-152 revealed the presence of burst-firing in PRV-infected lamina I neurons, thereby confirming that pacemakers are synaptically coupled to motor networks in the spinal ventral horn. Notably, two classes of pacemakers could be distinguished in lamina I based on cell size and the pattern of their axonal projections. While small pacemaker neurons possessed ramified axons which contacted ipsilateral motor circuits, large pacemaker neurons had unbranched axons which crossed the midline and ascended rostrally in the contralateral white matter. Recordings from identified spino-parabrachial and spino-PAG neurons indicated the presence of pacemaker activity within neonatal lamina I projection neurons. Overall, these results show that lamina I pacemakers are positioned to regulate both the level of activity in developing motor circuits as well as the ascending flow of nociceptive information to the brain, thus highlighting a potential role for pacemaker activity in the maturation of pain and sensorimotor networks in the CNS. PMID:25380417

  7. Spinal cord injury triggers sensitization of wide dynamic range dorsal horn neurons in segments rostral to the injury.

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    Zhang, Haijun; Xie, Wenrui; Xie, Yikuan

    2005-09-07

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) was produced in adult rats by complete spinal cord transection at L6-S1. Neuropathic pain behaviors similar to the chronic central pain (CCP) syndrome in human, such as thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and autotomy, were present in these rats after spinal cord injury. Meanwhile, wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons recorded in the spinal dorsal horn rostral to the lesion responded as high frequency of spontaneous activities, long duration of after-discharges to noxious electrical stimuli and an augmented wind-up to 0.5 Hz stimuli. By using bupivacaine powder, a sodium channel blocker, at the locus of transection immediate after nerve injury, the chronic pain behaviors were prevented; the hyperexcitability of WDR neurons was also substantially reduced. It is suggested that spinal cord transection induces the CCP syndromes, which may be evoked and maintained by the hyperexcitability in WDR neurons rostrally. Reducing the neuronal activity at the site of lesion following injury may prevent the development of CCP after SCI.

  8. Loss of calcineurin in the spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain, and intrathecal administration of the phosphatase provides prolonged analgesia.

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    Miletic, Gordana; Lippitt, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Kristine M; Miletic, Vjekoslav

    2013-10-01

    Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 3) regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain. The development of neuropathic pain appears dependent on some of the same mechanisms that underlie brain synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined whether calcineurin regulates chronic constriction injury (CCI)-elicited plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. CCI animals exhibited mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity 7 days after ligation of the sciatic nerve. Neither control uninjured nor sham-operated animals exhibited pain behavior. Calcineurin activity and content of its Aα isoform were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral postsynaptic density (PSD) of dorsal horn neurons in CCI animals. Calcineurin activity and content in the contralateral PSD of CCI animals or either side of the dorsal horn in sham animals were not modified. The pain behavior in CCI animals was attenuated by intrathecal application of exogenous calcineurin. The treatment was long-lasting as a single injection provided analgesia for 4 days by restoring the phosphatase's activity and Aα content in the PSD. No signs of toxicity were detected up to 14 days after the single intrathecal injection. Intrathecal application of the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 elicited pain behavior in control uninjured animals and significantly reduced calcineurin activity in the PSD. CCI may elicit neuropathic pain at least in part as a result of the loss of calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation in the dorsal horn. Addition of the phosphatase by intrathecal injection reverses the injury-elicited loss and provides prolonged pain relief. Clinical therapy with calcineurin may prove to be a novel, effective, and safe approach in the management of well-established neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nerve injury-induced calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein dysregulation leads to increased pre-synaptic excitatory input into deep dorsal horn neurons and neuropathic allodynia

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    Zhou, Chunyi; Luo, Z. David

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of voltage-gated-calcium-channel α2δ1 subunit post spinal nerve ligation injury (SNL) or in α2δ1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice correlates with tactile allodynia, a pain state mediated mainly by Aβ sensory fibers forming synaptic connections with deep dorsal horn neurons. It is not clear however whether dysregulated α2δ1 alters deep dorsal horn synaptic neurotransmission that underlies tactile allodynia development post nerve injury. Methods Tactile allodynia was tested in the SNL and α2δ1 Tg models. Miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents were recorded in deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons from these animal models using whole cell patch clamp slice recording techniques.. Results There was a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) in DDH neurons that correlated with tactile allodynia in SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Gabapentin, an α2δ1 ligand that is known to block tactile allodynia in these models, also normalized mEPSC frequency dose-dependently in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. In contrast, neither frequency nor amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was altered in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that α2δ1 dysregulation is highly likely contributing to tactile allodynia through a pre-synaptic mechanism involving facilitation of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in deep dorsal horn of spinal cord. PMID:25691360

  10. PKCα is required for inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II dorsal horn neurons during the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopach, Olga; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav; Atianjoh, Fidelis E; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2013-02-01

    Persistent inflammation promotes internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing, Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and insertion of GluR1-containing, Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs at extrasynaptic sites in dorsal horn neurons. Previously we have shown that internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing AMPARs requires activation of spinal cord protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), but molecular mechanisms that underlie altered trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPARs are unclear. Here, using antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) that specifically knock down PKCα, we found that a decrease in dorsal horn PKCα expression prevents complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced increase in functional expression of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the rat spinal cord. Augmented AMPA-induced currents and associated [Ca(2+)](i) transients were abolished, and the current rectification 1 day post-CFA was reversed. These changes were observed specifically in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those that exhibited strong adaptation. Finally, dorsal horn PKCα knockdown produced an antinociceptive effect on CFA-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity during the maintenance period of inflammatory pain, indicating a role for PKCα in persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. Our results indicate that inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing SG neurons depends on PKCα, and that this PKCα-dependent trafficking may contribute to persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. This study shows that PKCα knockdown blocks inflammation-induced upregulation of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in dorsal horn neurons and produces an antinociceptive effect during the maintenance period of inflammatory pain. These findings have potential implications for use of PKCα gene-silencing therapy to prevent and/or treat persistent inflammatory pain. Copyright

  11. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

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    Jaime L Watson

    Full Text Available In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation, persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression, and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to

  12. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

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    Watson, Jaime L; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation), persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression), and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to neuropathic pain

  13. [Effect of electroacupuncture on phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Fang, Jun-Fan; Du, Jun-Ying; Qiu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on phosphorylation of spinal NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain rats. METHods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group, n = 10), the model group (CFA group, n = 15), and the EA group (n = 15). The inflammatory pain model was established by subcutaneous injecting CFA (0.1 mL per rat) into the right hind paw. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured before CFA injection (as the base), as well as at 24 h, 25 h, 3rd day, and 7th day after CFA injection. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn at the 3rd day post-injection were detected using immunohistochemical assay. PWTs in the CFA group were significantly lower than those of the N group at every detective time point post-injection (P CFA group at 25 h and 3rd day post-injection (P CFA group was up-regulated. Compared with the CFA group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats showed a decreasing tendency in the EA group. EA might effectively inhibit CFA-induced inflammatory pain possibly associated with down-regulating phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  14. The effect of intrathecal administration of glial activation inhibitors on dorsal horn BDNF overexpression and hind paw mechanical allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats.

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    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yongming; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quanhong; Pu, Shaofeng; Jiang, Wei; Du, Dongping

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that activated glia in the spinal cord may play a vital role at different times during spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain; therefore, glial activation inhibitors have been used as effective painkillers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also known to be a powerful pain modulator, but it remains unclear how it contributes to the glial activation inhibitor-based treatment. This study revealed the following results: (1) intrathecal administration of minocycline (a microglial activation inhibitor) could prevent mechanical allodynia during the initiation of SNL-induced neuropathic pain, and its action was associated with the elimination of BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; (2) the spinal injection of fluorocitrate (an astrocytic activation inhibitor) but not minocycline could reverse mechanical allodynia during the maintenance phase of SNL-induced pain, and its action was also related to a decrease in BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; and (3) treatment with TrkB/Fc (a BDNF-sequestering protein) had a similar effect during both the early development and maintenance periods. These results led to the following conclusions: (1) elevated BDNF expression in the dorsal horn was required to develop and maintain neuropathic pain; (2) minocycline could only prevent mechanical allodynia in the early stages, possibly by inhibiting BDNF release from microglia; and (3) fluorocitrate could reverse existing mechanical allodynia, and its action was associated with the inhibition of BDNF upregulation induced by astrocytic activation.

  15. Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn

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    Black Joel A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF, exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. Conclusions The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.

  16. Stimulation-induced expression of immediate early gene proteins in the dorsal horn is increased in neuropathy.

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    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain is described as a pain state caused by an injury or dysfunction of the nervous system, and could have clinical manifestations such as hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain. The development of neuropathic pain may depend on long-term forms of neuronal plasticity in the spinal cord (SC). Expression of the immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs) Arc, Zif268, and c-Fos are implicated in establishment of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by conditioning stimulation (CS) of primary afferent fibres. However, the impact of the neuropathic state (Bennett's model) on CS-induced expression of IEGPs has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 immunoreactivity prior to and after conditioning stimulation in animals with developed neuropathic pain, with sham operated, non-ligated controls. Twenty-four animals were divided equally into the neuropathic and non-neuropathic groups. Neuropathic pain was induced in all animals by conducting a loose ligation of the sciatic nerve with Chromic Catgut 4.0 sutures 7 days prior to conditioning stimulation or sham operation. The loose ligation was performed by placing sutures around the sciatic nerve compressing the nerve slightly just enough to reduce but not completely diminish the perineural circulation. A state of neuropathy was confirmed by a significant decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold measured by von Frey's fibres. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on transverse sections obtained from the L3-L5 segments of the SC at 2 and 6h post-CS and IEGP positive cells were counted in lamina I and II of the dorsal horn. During statistical analyses, the groups were compared by means of analysis of variance (univariate general linear model). If significant differences were found, each set of animals was compared with the sham group with post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test. Strikingly, all IEGPs exhibited a significant increase in

  17. Long-term actions of interleukin-1beta on delay and tonic firing neurons in rat superficial dorsal horn and their relevance to central sensitization.

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    Gustafson-Vickers, Sabrina L; Lu, Van B; Lai, Aaron Y; Todd, Kathryn G; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2008-12-17

    Cytokines such as interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) have been implicated in the development of central sensitization that is characteristic of neuropathic pain. To examine its long-term effect on nociceptive processing, defined medium organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord were exposed to 100 pM IL-1beta for 6-8 d. Interleukin effects in the dorsal horn were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Examination of the cultures with confocal Fluo-4 AM imaging showed that IL-1beta increased the change in intracellular Ca(2+) produced by exposure to 35-50 mM K+. This is consistent with a modest increase in overall dorsal horn excitability. Despite this, IL-1beta did not have a direct effect on rheobase or resting membrane potential nor did it selectively destroy any specific neuronal population. All effects were instead confined to changes in synaptic transmission. A variety of pre- and postsynaptic actions of IL-1beta were seen in five different electrophysiologically-defined neuronal phenotypes. In putative excitatory 'delay' neurons, cytokine treatment increased the amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSC's (sIPSC). These effects would be expected to increase dorsal horn excitability and to facilitate the transfer of nociceptive information. However, other actions of IL-1beta included disinhibition of putative inhibitory 'tonic' neurons and an increase in the amplitude of sIPSC's in 'delay' neurons. Since spinal microglial activation peaks between 3 and 7 days after the initiation of chronic peripheral nerve injury and these cells release IL-1beta at this time, our findings define some of the neurophysiological mechanisms whereby nerve-injury induced release of IL-1beta may contribute to the central sensitization associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  18. Long-term actions of interleukin-1β on delay and tonic firing neurons in rat superficial dorsal horn and their relevance to central sensitization

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    Ballanyi Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β have been implicated in the development of central sensitization that is characteristic of neuropathic pain. To examine its long-term effect on nociceptive processing, defined medium organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord were exposed to 100 pM IL-1β for 6–8 d. Interleukin effects in the dorsal horn were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging techniques. Results Examination of the cultures with confocal Fluo-4 AM imaging showed that IL-1β increased the change in intracellular Ca2+ produced by exposure to 35–50 mM K+. This is consistent with a modest increase in overall dorsal horn excitability. Despite this, IL-1β did not have a direct effect on rheobase or resting membrane potential nor did it selectively destroy any specific neuronal population. All effects were instead confined to changes in synaptic transmission. A variety of pre- and postsynaptic actions of IL-1β were seen in five different electrophysiologically-defined neuronal phenotypes. In putative excitatory 'delay' neurons, cytokine treatment increased the amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC and decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSC's (sIPSC. These effects would be expected to increase dorsal horn excitability and to facilitate the transfer of nociceptive information. However, other actions of IL-1β included disinhibition of putative inhibitory 'tonic' neurons and an increase in the amplitude of sIPSC's in 'delay' neurons. Conclusion Since spinal microglial activation peaks between 3 and 7 days after the initiation of chronic peripheral nerve injury and these cells release IL-1β at this time, our findings define some of the neurophysiological mechanisms whereby nerve-injury induced release of IL-1β may contribute to the central sensitization associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  19. Localization of cytochrome oxidase in the mammalian spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, with quantitative analysis of ventral horn cells in monkeys.

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    Wong-Riley, M T; Kageyama, G H

    1986-03-01

    The spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of mice, rats, cats, squirrel monkeys, and macaque monkeys were examined at both the light and electron microscopic levels for cytochrome oxidase activity. A similar histochemical pattern prevailed in all of the species examined. While the spinal gray exhibited a heterogeneous but consistent distribution of the enzyme, the white matter was only lightly stained. Highly reactive neurons were either singly scattered or aggregated into discrete clusters. The dorsal nucleus of Clarke, the lateral cervical nucleus (cat), the intermediolateral cell columns of the thoracic and upper lumbar levels, and selected groups of ventral horn neurons formed moderate to darkly reactive cell clusters, whereas fusiform and multipolar cells of Waldeyer in the marginal layer, small fusiform neurons in the ventral gray, funicular cells in the white matter, and ventral horn neurons of varying sizes tended to stand out against the neuropil as singly reactive neurons. At the electron microscopic level, reactive neurons were characterized by a greater packing density of darkly reactive mitochondria, while lightly reactive ones had fewer mitochondria, most of which showed very little reaction product. Reactive mitochondria were also found in the neuropil, mainly in dendritic profiles and some axon terminals. Glial cells, in general, were not very reactive. Ventral horn neurons from three macaque monkeys were measured for somatic areas and optical densities of cytochrome oxidase reaction product. A total of 1,770 neurons from representative sections of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cords of these animals were analyzed. The results indicated that the distribution of cell sizes as well as optical densities at every level of the cord fell on a continuum. Analysis of the regression coefficients revealed that the slopes were negative for all levels, indicating that there was a general inverse relationship between cell size and optical densities

  20. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes enhancing inhibitory transmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro.

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    Xie, Du-Jie; Uta, Daisuke; Feng, Peng-Yu; Wakita, Masahito; Shin, Min-Chul; Furue, Hidemasa; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2012-08-20

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Bath applied 5-HT (50 μM) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5 μM) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba(2+) (1 mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT(2A) receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) agonists. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT(2B

  1. Upregulation of calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit in dorsal horn contributes to spinal cord injury-induced tactile allodynia.

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    Kusuyama, Kazuki; Tachibana, Toshiya; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Okubo, Masamichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2018-01-31

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results not only in motor paralysis but also in the emergence of neuropathic pain (NeuP), both of which can impair the quality of life for patients with SCI. In the clinical field, it is well known that pregabalin, which binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 (α 2 δ-1) subunit has therapeutic effects on NeuP after SCI. A previous study has demonstrated that SCI increased α 2 δ-1 in the L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord of SCI rats by Western blot analysis and that the increase of α 2 δ-1 was correlated with tactile allodynia of the hind paw. However, the detailed feature of an increase in α 2 δ-1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn and the mechanism of pregabalin effect on SCI-induced NeuP have not been fully examined. This study aimed to examine the detailed distribution of α 2 δ-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord after thoracic SCI in rats and the correlation of the therapeutic effect of pregabalin in SCI rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent thoracic (T10) spinal cord contusion injury using the IH impactor device. Spinal cord injury rats received pregabalin (30 mg/kg) once a day for 2 weeks over a 4-week period after SCI. The mechanical threshold in the rat hind paw was measured over 4 weeks. Alpha-2-delta-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord and in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A significant reduction of the withdrawal threshold of mechanical stimuli to the hind paw was observed for 2 weeks and continued at least 4 weeks after SCI. In the control rats, expression of α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity was detected mainly in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn. Thoracic SCI significantly increased α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn 4 weeks after SCI; however, thoracic SCI did not affect the expression of α 2 δ-1 mRNA in the L4 and L5 DRGs. Meanwhile, the signal intensity of α 2

  2. Pulsed and continuous radiofrequency current adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion of the rat induces late cellular activity in the dorsal horn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, J. van; Louw, A.J. de; Joosten, E.A.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Honig, W.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Veening, J.G.; Vles, J.S.; Kleef, M. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed radiofrequency treatment has recently been described as a non-neurodestructive or minimally neurodestructive alternative to radiofrequency heat lesions. In clinical practice long-lasting results of pulsed radiofrequency treatment adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion for

  3. Allopregnanolone suppresses mechanical allodynia and internalization of neurokinin-1 receptors at the spinal dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahide; Fukuda, Taeko; Sato, Yasuhiro; Takasusuki, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    To identify a new strategy for postoperative pain management, we investigated the analgesic effects of allopregnanolone (Allo) in an incisional pain model, and also assessed its effects on the activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn. In experiment 1, 45 rats were assigned to Control, Allo small-dose (0.16 mg/kg), and Allo large-dose (1.6 mg/kg) groups (n = 15 in each). The weight bearing and mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the hind limb were measured before and at 2, 24, 48, and 168 h after Brennan's surgery. In experiment 2, 16 rats were assigned to Control and Allo (0.16 mg/kg) groups (n = 8 in each). The degree of spontaneous pain was measured using the grimace scale after the surgery. Activities of the primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord (L6) were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. In experiment 1, the withdrawal threshold of the Allo small-dose group was significantly higher than that of the Control group at 2 h after surgery. Intergroup differences in weight bearing were not significant. In experiment 2, intergroup differences in the grimace scale scores were not significant. Substance P release in the Allo (0.16 mg/kg) group was significantly lower than that in the Control group. Systemic administration of Allo inhibited mechanical allodynia and activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model. Allo was proposed as a candidate for postoperative pain management.

  4. Neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nocifensive reflex and operant responses to aversive cold after CFA inflammation.

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    Lemons, L L; Wiley, R G

    2012-08-02

    The spinal Neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is a potential target for development of new pain therapeutics. NPY and two of its receptors (Y1 and Y2) are found in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a key area of nociceptive gating and modulation. Lumbar intrathecal injection of (NPY) is antinociceptive, reducing hyper-reflexia to thermal and mechanical stimulation, particularly after nerve injury and inflammation. We have also shown that intrathecal injection of the targeted cytotoxin, Neuropeptide Y-sap (NPY-sap), is also antinociceptive, reducing nocifensive reflex responses to noxious heat and formalin. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of dorsal horn Y1R-expressing neurons in pain by destroying them with NPY-sap and testing the rats on three operant tasks. Lumbar intrathecal NPY-sap (1) reduced Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced hyper-reflexia on the 10°C cold plate, (2) reduced cold aversion on the thermal preference and escape tasks, (3) was analgesic to noxious heat on the escape task, (4) reduced the CFA-induced allodynia to cold temperatures experienced on the thermal preference, feeding interference, and escape tasks, and (5) did not inhibit or interfere with morphine analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors on the duration of central sensitization of rat dorsal horn neurons following injection of capsaicin

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    Fang Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. To explore the role of protein phosphatase in central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons following peripheral noxious stimulation, using electrophysiological recording techniques, we investigated the role of two inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid (OA, on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Central sensitization was initiated by injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of the left paw. A microdialysis fiber was implanted in the spinal cord dorsal horn for perfusion of ACSF and inhibitors of PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid. We found that in ACSF pretreated animals, the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli following capsaicin injection increased over a period of 15 min after injection and had mostly recovered by 60 min later. However, pre- or post-treatment with the phosphatase inhibitors, fostriecin or OA, significantly enhanced the effects of capsaicin injection by prolonging the responses to more than 3 hours. These results confirm that blockade of protein phosphatase activity may potentiate central sensitization of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord following capsaicin injection and indicate that protein phosphatase type 2A may be involved in determining the duration of capsaicin-induced central sensitization.

  6. Different forms of glycine- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons

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    Brichta Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in superficial (SDH and deep (DDH laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn receive sensory information from skin, muscle, joints and viscera. In both regions, glycine- (GlyR and GABAA-receptors (GABAARs contribute to fast synaptic inhibition. For rat, several types of GABAAR coexist in the two regions and each receptor type provides different contributions to inhibitory tone. Recent work in mouse has discovered an additional type of GlyR, (containing alpha 3 subunits in the SDH. The contribution of differing forms of the GlyR to sensory processing in SDH and DDH is not understood. Methods and Results Here we compare fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse (P17-37 SDH and DDH using patch-clamp electrophysiology in transverse spinal cord slices (L3-L5 segments, 23°C. GlyR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in 74% (25/34 and 94% (25/27 of SDH and DDH neurons, respectively. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in virtually all neurons in both regions (93%, 14/15 and 100%, 18/18. Several Gly- and GABAAR properties also differed in SDH vs. DDH. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude was smaller (37.1 ± 3.9 vs. 64.7 ± 5.0 pA; n = 25 each, decay time was slower (8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.3 ms, and frequency was lower (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 Hz in SDH vs. DDH neurons. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs had similar amplitudes (25.6 ± 2.4, n = 14 vs. 25. ± 2.0 pA, n = 18 and frequencies (0.21 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 Hz in both regions; however, decay times were slower (23.0 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ± 1.8 ms in SDH neurons. Mean single channel conductance underlying mIPSCs was identical for GlyRs (54.3 ± 1.6 pS, n = 11 vs. 55.7 ± 1.8, n = 8 and GABAARs (22.7 ± 1.7 pS, n = 10 vs. 22.4 ± 2.0 pS, n = 11 in both regions. We also tested whether the synthetic endocanabinoid, methandamide (methAEA, had direct effects on Gly- and GABAARs in each spinal cord region. MethAEA (5 μM reduced GlyR-mediated mIPSC frequency in SDH

  7. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli.

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    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Bell, Andrew M; Marin, Alina; Taylor, Rebecca; Boyle, Kieran A; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ∼14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of lamina II. Over 80% of the PPTA-positive cells lack the transcription factor Pax2 (which determines an inhibitory phenotype), and these account for ∼15% of the excitatory neurons in this region. They are different from the neurotensin, neurokinin B, or gastrin-releasing peptide neurons, although many of them contain somatostatin, which is widely expressed among superficial dorsal horn excitatory interneurons. We show that many of these cells respond to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli and to intradermal injection of pruritogens. Finally, we demonstrate that these cells can also be identified in a knock-in Cre mouse line (Tac1), although our findings suggest that there is an additional population of neurons that transiently express PPTA. This population of substance P-expressing excitatory neurons is likely to play an important role in the transmission of signals that are perceived as pain and itch.

  8. An N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated large, low-frequency, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in neonatal rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

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    Thomson, L M; Zeng, J; Terman, G W

    2006-09-01

    Examples of spontaneous oscillating neural activity contributing to both pathological and physiological states are abundant throughout the CNS. Here we report a spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current located in lamina I of the neonatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn. The spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is characterized by its large amplitude, slow decay time, and low-frequency. We demonstrate that post-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current, as it is inhibited by magnesium, bath-applied d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), or intracellular MK-801. The NR2B subunit of the NMDAR appears important to this phenomenon, as the NR2B subunit selective NMDAR antagonist, alpha-(4-hydroxphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-benzyl-1-piperidineethanol tartrate (ifenprodil), also partially inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current. Inhibition of spontaneous glutamate release by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5] enkephalin-ol (DAMGO) inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Marked inhibition of spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency by tetrodotoxin (TTX), but not post-synaptic N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium bromide (QX-314), suggests that the glutamate release important to the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is dependent on active neural processes. Conversely, increasing dorsal horn synaptic glutamate release by GABAA or glycine inhibition increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Moreover, inhibiting glutamate transporters with threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency and decay time. A possible functional role of this spontaneous NMDAR

  9. Tumor necrosis factor α modulates sodium-activated potassium channel SLICK in rat dorsal horn neurons via p38 MAPK activation pathway

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    Wang K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Jun-Ping Bao,2 Zhi-Yang Xie,1 Lu Chen,1 Bao-Yi Zhou,1 Xin-Hui Xie,2 Xiao-Tao Wu1,2 1Medical School of Southeast University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The dorsal horn (DH of the spinal cord is the integrative center that processes and transmits pain sensation. Abnormal changes in ion channel expression can enhance the excitability of pain-related DH neurons. Sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels are highly expressed particularly in the central nervous system; however, information about whether rat DH neurons express the SLICK channel protein is lacking, and the direct effects on SLICK in response to inflammation and the potential signaling pathway mediating such effects are yet to be elucidated. Here, using cultured DH neurons, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits the total outward potassium current IK and the KNa current predominantly as well as induces a progressive loss of firing accommodation. However, we found that this change in channel activity is offset by the p38 inhibitor SB202190, thereby suggesting the modulation of SLICK channel activity via the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor-α modulation of KNa channels does not occur at the level of SLICK channel gating but arises from possible posttranslational modification. Keywords: p38 MAPK, SLICK channel, neuropathic pain, dorsal horn, TNF-α

  10. TRPA1 in the spinal dorsal horn is involved in post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity: in vivo study using TNBS-treated rat model

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    Li Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qian Li,1,* Cheng-Hao Guo,2,* Mohammed Ali Chowdhury,1 Tao-Li Dai,1 Wei Han,1,3 1Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Pathology, Medical School of Shandong University, 3Laboratory of Translational Gastroenterology, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1 channel, a pain transducer and amplifier, is drawing increasing attention in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of TRPA1 in visceral nociception during post-inflammatory states is not well defined. Here, we explore the correlation between TRPA1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and persistent post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.Methods: We injected rats intracolonically with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or vehicle (n=12 per group. Post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. TRPA1 expression and distribution in the spinal cord and colon were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results: Animals exposed to TNBS had more abdominal contractions than vehicle-injected controls (P<0.05, which corresponded to a lower nociceptive threshold. Expression of TRPA1 in the SDH (especially in the substantia gelatinosa and the colon was significantly greater in the TNBS-treated group than in controls (P<0.05. In the SDH, the number of TRPA1-immunopositive neurons was 25.75±5.12 in the control group and 34.25±7.89 in the TNBS-treated group (P=0.023, and integrated optical density values of TRPA1 in the control and TNBS-treated groups were 14,544.63±6,525.54 and 22,532.75±7,608.11, respectively (P=0.041.Conclusion: Our results indicate

  11. Depression of presynaptic excitation by the activation of vanilloid receptor 1 in the rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by optical imaging

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    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we show that capsaicin (CAP depresses primary afferent fiber terminal excitability by acting on vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channels of primary afferent fibers in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP- and temperature-dependent manner using two optical imaging methods. First, transverse slices of spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye and the net excitation in the spinal dorsal horn was recorded. Prolonged treatment (>20 min with the TRPV1 channel agonist, CAP, resulted in a long-lasting inhibition of the net excitation evoked by single-pulse stimulation of C fiber-activating strength. A shorter application of CAP inhibited the excitation in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition was reversed within several minutes. This inhibition was Ca++-dependent, was antagonized by the TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ, and the P2X and P2Y antagonist, suramin, and was facilitated by the P2Y agonist, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP. The inhibition of excitation was unaffected by bicuculline and strychnine, antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors, respectively. Raising the perfusate temperature to 39°C from 27°C inhibited the excitation (-3%/°C. This depressant effect was antagonized by CPZ and suramin, but not by the P2X antagonist, 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP. Second, in order to record the presynaptic excitation exclusively, we stained the primary afferent fibers anterogradely from the dorsal root. CAP application and a temperature increase from 27°C to 33°C depressed the presynaptic excitation, and CPZ antagonized these effects. Thus, this study showed that presynaptic excitability is modulated by CAP, temperature, and ATP under physiological conditions, and explains the reported central actions of CAP. These results may have clinical importance, especially for the control of pain.

  12. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

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    Watanabe Masahiko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive primary afferents, we know little about their responses to noxious stimuli. In this study we have looked for phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in these neurons in response to different types of noxious stimulus applied to one hindlimb of anaesthetised rats. The stimuli were mechanical (repeated pinching, thermal (immersion in water at 52°C or chemical (injection of 2% formaldehyde. Results Five minutes after each type of stimulus we observed numerous cells with phosphorylated ERK (pERK in laminae I and IIo, together with scattered positive cells in deeper laminae. We found that virtually all of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons contained pERK after each of these stimuli and that in the great majority of cases there was internalisation of the NK1r on the dorsal dendrites of these cells. In addition, we also saw neurons in lamina III that were pERK-positive but lacked the NK1r, and these were particularly evident in animals that had had the pinch stimulus. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli.

  13. Study on the Mechanism Underlying the Regulation of the NMDA Receptor Pathway in Spinal Dorsal Horns of Visceral Hypersensitivity Rats by Moxibustion

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    L. D. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity is enhanced in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients. Treatment of IBS visceral pain by moxibustion methods has a long history and rich clinical experience. In the clinic, moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25 and Shangjuxu (ST37 acupoints can effectively treat bowel disease with visceral pain and diarrhea symptoms. To investigate the regulatory function of moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25 and Shangjuxu (ST37 acupoints on spinal cord NR1, NR2B, and PKCε protein and mRNA expression in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS visceral hypersensitivity rats, we did some research. In the study, we found that moxibustion effectively relieved the IBS visceral hyperalgesia status of rats. Analgesic effect of moxibustion was similar to intrathecal injection of Ro 25-6981. The expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in the spinal dorsal horns of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats increased. Moxibustion on the Tianshu and Shangjuxu acupoints might inhibit the visceral hypersensitivity, simultaneously decreasing the expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in spinal cord of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats. Based on the above experimental results, we hypothesized NR1, NR2B, and PKCε of spinal cord could play an important role in moxibustion inhibiting the process of central sensitization and visceral hyperalgesia state.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence of increased glycine receptor-mediated phasic and tonic inhibition by blockade of glycine transporters in spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons of adult mice

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    Misa Oyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the synaptic and/or extrasynaptic mechanisms underlying pain relief by blockade of glycine transporter subtypes GlyT1 and GlyT2, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices from adult mice, and the effects of NFPS and ALX-1393, selective GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors, respectively, on phasic evoked or miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs or mIPSCs were examined. NFPS and ALX-1393 prolonged the decay phase of eIPSCs without affecting their amplitude. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to record mIPSCs, NFPS and ALX-1393 induced a tonic inward current that was reversed by strychnine. Although NFPS had no statistically significant influences on mIPSCs, ALX-1393 significantly increased their frequency. We then further explored the role of GlyTs in the maintenance of glycinergic IPSCs. To facilitate vesicular release of glycine, repetitive high-frequency stimulation (HFS was applied at 10 Hz for 3 min during continuous recordings of eIPSCs at 0.1 Hz. Prominent suppression of eIPSCs was evident after HFS in the presence of ALX-1393, but not NFPS. Thus, it appears that phasic and tonic inhibition may contribute to the analgesic effects of GlyT inhibitors. However, reduced glycinergic inhibition due to impaired vesicular refilling could hamper the analgesic efficacy of GlyT2 inhibitors.

  15. TRPA1 in the spinal dorsal horn is involved in post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity: in vivo study using TNBS-treated rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Guo, Cheng-Hao; Chowdhury, Mohammed Ali; Dai, Tao-Li; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel, a pain transducer and amplifier, is drawing increasing attention in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of TRPA1 in visceral nociception during post-inflammatory states is not well defined. Here, we explore the correlation between TRPA1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and persistent post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity. We injected rats intracolonically with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) or vehicle (n=12 per group). Post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. TRPA1 expression and distribution in the spinal cord and colon were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Animals exposed to TNBS had more abdominal contractions than vehicle-injected controls ( P hypersensitivity in the rat and provides insight into potential therapeutic targets for the control of persistent visceral hypersensitivity.

  16. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors

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    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. PMID:27486104

  17. Pronociceptive and Antinociceptive Effects of Buprenorphine in the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn Cover a Dose Range of Four Orders of Magnitude

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    Gerhold, Katharina J.; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Honsek, Silke D.; Forsthuber, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Due to its distinct pharmacological profile and lower incidence of adverse events compared with other opioids, buprenorphine is considered a safe option for pain and substitution therapy. However, despite its wide clinical use, little is known about the synaptic effects of buprenorphine in nociceptive pathways. Here, we demonstrate dose-dependent, bimodal effects of buprenorphine on transmission at C-fiber synapses in rat spinal cord dorsal horn in vivo. At an analgesically active dose of 1500 μg·kg−1, buprenorphine reduced the strength of spinal C-fiber synapses. This depression required activation of spinal opioid receptors, putatively μ1-opioid receptors, as indicated by its sensitivity to spinal naloxone and to the selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine. In contrast, a 15,000-fold lower dose of buprenorphine (0.1 μg·kg−1), which caused thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in behaving animals, induced an enhancement of transmission at spinal C-fiber synapses. The ultra-low-dose buprenorphine-induced synaptic facilitation was mediated by supraspinal naloxonazine-insensitive, but CTOP-sensitive μ-opioid receptors, descending serotonergic pathways, and activation of spinal glial cells. Selective inhibition of spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs), putatively located on spinal astrocytes, abolished both the induction of synaptic facilitation and the hyperalgesia elicited by ultra-low-dose buprenorphine. Our study revealed that buprenorphine mediates its modulatory effects on transmission at spinal C-fiber synapses by dose dependently acting on distinct μ-opioid receptor subtypes located at different levels of the neuraxis. PMID:26134641

  18. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors.

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    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT 1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT 1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Reactive oxygen species enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons by activating TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.

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    Nishio, N; Taniguchi, W; Sugimura, Y K; Takiguchi, N; Yamanaka, M; Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Yamada, H; Miyazaki, N; Yoshida, M; Nakatsuka, T

    2013-09-05

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) in the spinal cord, such as chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI), is an incurable ailment. However, little is known about the spinal cord mechanisms underlying CNP. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized to play an important role in CNP of the spinal cord. However, it is unclear how ROS affect synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To clarify how ROS impact on synaptic transmission, we investigated the effects of ROS on synaptic transmission in rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), an ROS donor, into the spinal cord markedly increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in SG neurons. This t-BOOH-induced enhancement was not suppressed by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin. However, in the presence of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, t-BOOH did not generate any sEPSCs. Furthermore, in the presence of a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel antagonist (HC-030031) or a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist (capsazepine or AMG9810), the t-BOOH-induced increase in the frequency of sEPSCs was inhibited. These results indicate that ROS enhance the spontaneous release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto SG neurons through TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activation. Excessive activation of these ion channels by ROS may induce central sensitization in the spinal cord and result in chronic pain such as that following SCI. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

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    McCarson Kenneth E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  1. Chronic at-level thermal hyperalgesia following rat cervical contusion spinal cord injury is accompanied by neuronal and astrocyte activation and loss of the astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn.

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    Putatunda, Rajarshi; Hala, Tamara J; Chin, Jeannie; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-09-18

    Neuropathic pain is a form of pathological nociception that occurs in a significant portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. While many peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated in neuropathic pain, central sensitization of dorsal horn spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons is a major underlying substrate. Furthermore, dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis and chronic astrocyte activation play important underlying roles in persistent hyperexcitability of these superficial dorsal horn neurons. To date, central sensitization and astrocyte changes have not been characterized in cervical SCI-induced neuropathic pain models, despite the fact that a major portion of SCI patients suffer contusion trauma to cervical spinal cord. In this study, we have characterized 2 rat models of unilateral cervical contusion SCI that behaviorally result in chronic persistence of thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral forepaw. In addition, we find that STT neurons are chronically activated in both models when compared to laminectomy-only uninjured rats. Finally, persistent astrocyte activation and significantly reduced expression of the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn astrocytes are associated with both excitability changes in STT neurons and the neuropathic pain behavioral phenotype. In conclusion, we have characterized clinically-relevant rodent models of cervical contusion-induced neuropathic pain that result in chronic activation of both STT neurons and astrocytes, as well as compromise in astrocyte glutamate transporter expression. These models can be used as important tools to further study mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain post-SCI and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Painful Cervical Facet Joint Injury Is Accompanied by Changes in the Number of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses in the Superficial Dorsal Horn That Differentially Relate to Local Tissue Injury Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Meagan E; Crosby, Nathan D; Bulka, Ben A; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2017-06-15

    Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and postsynaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic. The cervical facet joints are susceptible to loading-induced painful injury, initiating spinal central sensitization responses. Although excitatory synapse plasticity has been reported in the superficial dorsal horn early after painful facet injury, whether excitatory and/or inhibitory synapse density is altered at a time when pain is maintained is unknown. Rats underwent either a painful C6/C7 facet joint distraction or sham surgery. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured and immunohistochemistry techniques for synapse quantification were used to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapse densities in the superficial dorsal horn at day 14. Logarithmic correlation analyses evaluated whether the severity of facet injury correlated with either behavioral or synaptic outcomes. Facet joint injury induces pain that is sustained until day 14 (P Injury severity is significantly correlated with pain at days 1 (P = 0.0011) and 14 (P = 0.0002), but only with inhibitory, not excitatory, synapse density (P = 0.0025) at day 14. This study demonstrates a role for structural plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the maintenance of facet-mediated joint pain, and that altered inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density correlates to the severity of painful joint injury. Understanding the functional consequences of this spinal structural plasticity is critical to elucidate mechanisms of chronic joint pain. N /A.

  3. Enhancement by interleukin-1β of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents in adult rat spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Fujita, Tsugumi; Luo, Shi-Wen; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-03-28

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) released from spinal microglia plays an important role in the maintenance of acute and chronic pain states. However, the cellular basis of this action remains poorly understood. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we examined the action of IL-1β on AMPA- and NMDA-receptor-mediated currents recorded from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices which are key sites for regulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery. AMPA- and NMDA-induced currents were increased in peak amplitude by IL-1β in a manner different from each other in SG neurons. These facilitatory actions of IL-1β were abolished by IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist (IL-1ra), which by itself had no detectable effects on AMPA- and NMDA-induced currents. The AMPA- but not NMDA-induced current facilitated by IL-1β was recovered to control level 30 min after IL-1β washout and largely depressed in Na+-channel blocker tetrodotoxin-containing or nominally Ca2+-free Krebs solution. Minocycline, a microglia inhibitor, blocked the facilitatory effect of IL-1β on AMPA- but not NMDA-induced currents, where minocycline itself depressed NMDA- but had not any effects on AMPA-induced currents. IL-1β enhances AMPA and NMDA responses in SG neurons through IL-1R activation; the former but not latter action is reversible and due to an increase in neuronal activity in a manner dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and minocycline. It is suggested that AMPA and NMDA receptors are positively modulated by IL-1β in a manner different from each other; the former but not latter is mediated by a neurotransmitter released as a result of an increase in neuronal activity. Since IL-1β contributes to nociceptive behavior induced by peripheral nerve or tissue injury, the present findings also reveal an important cellular link between neuronal and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ thyroid cancer treatment. Bethesda, ... February 4, 2016. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ ...

  5. [Effects of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammatory site on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic hyperalgesia and neuropeptide Y expression in the spinal dorsal horn in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Qing; Wu, Bing; Hong, Yanguo; Hu, Wei

    2015-10-25

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released in inflammatory tissues plays a pivotal role in pain hypersensitivity. However, it is not clear whether 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues mediate this effect. The present study investigated the contribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery to chronic inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected subcutaneously in the hindpaw of rats. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin was given in the inflamed site. Paw withdrawal latency responding to heat or mechanical stimuli was measured. Expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was assayed using immunohistochemistry technique. The results showed that ketanserin administered in the inflamed site inhibited thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner (20, 40 and 80 µg) induced by the intraplantar injection of CFA. Ketanserin given once per day at a dose of 80 µg abolished heat hyperalgesia and also attenuated mechanical allodynia on the third day. CFA injection increased the expression of NPY in superficial laminae of the spinal cord, but not in the DRG. The local treatment of ketanserin completely inhibited CFA-induced increase in NPY expression in superficial laminae of the spinal cord. These results indicated that activation of 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues was involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pain and the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery could relieve pain hypersensitivity and normalize the cellular disorder in the spinal dorsal horn associated with pathological pain. The present study suggests that the peripheral 5-HT2A receptors can be a promising target for pharmaceutical therapy to treat chronic inflammatory pain without central nervous system side effects.

  6. Lack of evidence for sprouting of Aβ afferents into the superficial laminas of the spinal cord dorsal horn after nerve section

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, D.I.; Scott, D.T.; Todd, A.J.; Riddell, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The central arborizations of large myelinated cutaneous afferents normally extend as far dorsally as the ventral part of lamina II in rat spinal cord. Woolf et al. (1992) reported that after nerve injury some of these afferents sprouted into lamina I and the dorsal part of lamina II, and it has been suggested that this could contribute to allodynia associated with neuropathic pain. Part of the evidence for sprouting was on the basis of the use of cholera toxin B subunit as a selective tracer ...

  7. Distribution of α-synuclein in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in an autopsy cohort of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Nakano, Yuta; Uchino, Akiko; Nogami, Akane; Saito, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-09-15

    Lewy body-related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson's disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a general geriatric hospital. LBAS in the spinal cord was significantly associated with that in the lower brainstem regions that are directly connected to the spinal cord (i.e., the medullary reticular formation and locus ceruleus), but it was not associated with the olfactory bulb-amygdala system, which is not directly connected to the spinal cord, suggesting that the lower brainstem is a key structure regarding the spread of LBAS to the spinal cord. In the primary sensory neurons, most subjects with LBAS in the dorsal root ganglia had LBAS in the dorsal root, and all subjects with LBAS in the dorsal root also had LBAS in the dorsal horn, suggesting that LBAS spreads retrogradely from the axonal terminals of the dorsal horn to the somata of the dorsal root ganglia via the dorsal root. In the preganglionic sympathetic nerves, the LBAS in the sympathetic ganglia preceded that in the nucleus of the intermediolateral column of the thoracic cord, suggesting that LBAS spreads retrogradely through the preganglionic sympathetic nerves. LBAS in the spinal cord was associated with the lower regions of the brainstem, but not with the olfactory bulb or amygdala. LBAS may spread centrifugally along the primary sensory neurons, whereas it may spread centripetally along the preganglionic sympathetic nerves.

  8. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37, Yanglingquan (GB34, and Weizhong (BL40. Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury.

  9. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubes, inside a fetus’ kidneys. In a normal kidney , urine flows through these tubules as the kidney is being formed during a ... not fully understand the cause of medullary sponge kidney or why cysts form in the tubules during fetal development. Even though medullary sponge kidney ...

  10. Therapeutic effect of Tat-LK15-mediated the interference of siRNA with nNOS expression in the spinal dorsal horn on neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun RAO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of cell penetrating peptide Tat-LK15 mediating small interfering RNA (siRNA interference with the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in rat spinal dorsal horn on neuropathic pain. Methods The transfection reagent, Tat-LK15, was used to mediate the transfection of rat spinal dorsal horn (SDH neuronal cells with carboxyfluorescein (FAM, and then the transfection effect was observed under inverted fluorescence microscope. Fifty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: control group, sham operation group (sham group, neuropathic pain group (SNL group, Tat-LK15-nNOS siRNA group (TS group and Tat-LK15-NC siRNA group (TN group. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL, rats in control group did not receive operation and only the spinal nerve was exposed in sham group. Groups SNL, TS and TN were made into the models by SNL and implanted intrathecal catheter, intrathecal administration was performed from the 7th day after model establishment, and 10μl normal saline, 10μl TS complex (including 5μg siRNA and 10μl TN (including 5μg siRNA were injected intrathecally each day for 7 days. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL were measured at 1 day before (baseline and 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after model establishment. Then animals were sacrificed on the 14th day after the operation and the lumbar segment (L4-6 of the spinal cord was removed to detect the expressions of nNOS mRNA and protein using q-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Results Tat-LK15 effectively mediated FAM-siRNA into SDH neuronal cells. Compared with sham group, SNL significantly decreased PWMT and PWTL and increased expressions of nNOS mRNA and protein from the 3rd day (P<0.01, but there was no significant difference between the sham and control group. Tat-LK15-nNOS siRNA complex significantly increased PWMT and PWTL and down-regulated n

  11. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  12. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  13. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  14. magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos are ideal for probing the weak force because it is effectively the only force they feel. How were they made? Protons fired into a metal target produce a tangle of secondary particles. A magnetic horn like this one, invented by Simon Van der Meer, selected pions and focused them into a sharp beam. Pions decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber. A simple change of magnetic field direction on the horn flipped between focusing positively- or negatively-charged pion beams, and so between neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  15. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  16. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  17. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  18. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  19. The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Meziane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord integrate and relay sensory information to higher brain centers. These neurons are organized in specific laminae and different transcription factors are involved in their specification. The murine homeodomain Gbx1 protein is expressed in the mantle zone of the spinal cord at E12.5-13.5, correlating with the appearance of a discernable dorsal horn around E14 and eventually defining a narrow layer in the dorsal horn around perinatal stages. At postnatal stages, Gbx1 identifies a specific subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. We have generated a loss of function mutation for Gbx1 and analyzed its consequences during spinal cord development. Gbx1−/− mice are viable and can reproduce as homozygous null mutants. However, the adult mutant mice display an altered gait during forward movement that specifically affects the hindlimbs. This abnormal gait was evaluated by a series of behavioral tests, indicating that locomotion is impaired, but not muscle strength or motor coordination. Molecular analysis showed that the development of the dorsal horn is not profoundly affected in Gbx1−/− mutant mice. However, analysis of terminal neuronal differentiation revealed that the proportion of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn is diminished. Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement.

  20. Medullary Sponge Kidney on Retrograde Pyelography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Yi; Lin, Jih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    A woman aged 31 had recurrent urinary tract infection with bloody urine. A series image of medullary sponge kidney presented by intravenous urography (IVU) was detected dynamically by retrograde pyelography (RP). Other than ultrasonography and IVU, RP is also a reliable method to detect medullary sponge kidney. PMID:24855603

  1. Medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indridason, O S; Thomas, L; Berkoben, M

    1996-08-01

    Medullary sponge kidney is a developmental disorder characterized by ectatic and cystic malformation of the collecting ducts and tubules. Clinical manifestations include urinary tract infections, renal stones, and hematuria. It can be associated with other developmental disorders. A case of medullary sponge kidney associated with congenital hemihypertrophy, complicated by nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, is reported here.

  2. Prurigo Nodularis With Cutaneous Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horns are rare horny excrescences which occur in various dermatoses. We report a girl with prurigo nodularis who developed a horn on one of the nodules. This unique association has not been reported so far.

  3. Research progress of dorsal root entry zone lesioning for the treatment of pain after brachial plexus avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-jun LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA is a clinically common drug-refractory neuropathic pain. Overactive spontaneous potential due to deafferentation in the neurons of spinal dorsal horn is the main pathogenesis of pain after BPA. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ lesioning is one way that damages overactive spontaneous potential neurons in spinal dorsal horn through radio-frequency electrode or bipolar coagulation so as to achieve pain relief. Dorsal root entry zone lesioning is a safe and effective treatment approach for pain after BPA. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.014

  4. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  5. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Pradhan, S.A.; D'Cruz, A.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a biologically distinct form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid neoplasms. Twenty percent of MTC can occur in a familial setting either by itself or as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasm syndromes. A disciplined approach is necessary in the work-up of these patients to rule out coexistent endocrine tumors (pheochromocytomas and parathyroid). Cacitonin is a sensitive tumor marker secreted by MTC that is of prognostic value and important in the follow-up of patients. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a total thyroidectomy and centre compartment clearance being the minimum for patients without cervical adenopathy. Radiotherapy has a limited role and is only indicated as a palliative measure in patients with advanced/metastatic disease not amenable to surgery

  6. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... patients had some form of renal acidification defect; 8 had the distal type of renal tubular acidosis, 2 the complete and 6 the incomplete form. One patient had proximal renal tubular acidosis. These findings, which suggest that renal acidification defects play an important role in the pathogenesis...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  7. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  8. The Folded Horn Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, E. G.; Bowen, L. H.; Baum, C. E.; Prather, W. D.

    Antennas for radiating high-power mesoband (medium-bandwidth) electromagnetic signals are critical to the mission of upsetting electronics at a distance. When operated at frequencies of a few hundred megahertz, RF weapons require highly efficient antennas that can fit into a small volume. Most of the existing antennas, such as pyramidal horns, are too large to fit onto certain platforms of interest. To address this challenge, we investigate the folded horn, which has aperture dimensions of 0.5 × 2 wavelengths, and a depth of 1.5-2 wavelengths. This antenna has a nearly focused aperture field, due to a parabolic fold in the H-plane. We report here on the fabrication and testing of the first folded horn, operating at 3 GHz. After a number of iterations, we obtained a realized gain of at least 10 dBi over 3-5 GHz, an aperture efficiency of 80%, and a return loss below -10 dB over 2.8-3.35 GHz. This design could be adapted to high-voltages, and it could work well in a two-antenna array, with two antennas positioned back to back, driven by a differential source.

  9. Intraoperative neurophysiology of the conus medullaris and cauda equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothbauer, Karl F; Deletis, Vedran

    2010-02-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological techniques are becoming routine tools for neurosurgical practice. Procedures affecting the lumbosacral nervous system are frequent in adult and pediatric neurosurgery. This review provides an overview of the techniques utilized in cauda and conus operations. Two basic methodologies of intraoperative neurophysiological testing are utilized during surgery in the lumbosacral spinal canal. Mapping techniques help identify functional neural structures, namely, nerve roots and their respective spinal levels. Monitoring is referred to as the technology to continuously assess the functional integrity of pathways and reflex circuits. For mapping direct electrical stimulation of a structure within the surgical field and recording at a distant site, usually a muscle is the most commonly used setup. Sensory nerve roots or spinal cord areas can be mapped by stimulation of a distant sensory nerve or skin area and recording from a structure within the surgical field. Continuous monitoring of the motor system is done with motor evoked potentials. These are evoked by transcranial electrical stimulation and recorded from lower extremity and sphincter muscles. Presence or absence of muscle responses are the monitored parameters. To monitor the sensory pathways, sensory potentials evoked by tibial, peroneal, or pudendal nerve stimulation and recorded from the dorsal columns with a spinal electrode or as cortical responses from scalp electrodes are used. Amplitudes and latencies of these responses are measured for interpretation. The bulbocavernosus reflex, with stimulation of the pudendal nerve and recording from the external anal sphincter, is used for continuous monitoring of the reflex circuitry. The presence of absence of this response is the pertinent parameter monitored. Stimulation of individual dorsal nerve roots is used to identify those segments that generate spastic activity and which may be cut during selective dorsal rhizotomy

  10. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: medullary cystic kidney disease type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 Medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Pelizaeus-Merzbacher- ...

  12. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  13. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  14. Ondine's Curse in a Patient with Unilateral Medullary and Bilateral Cerebellar Infarctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Tzu Ho

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Central sleep apnea (CSA, also known as Ondine's curse (OC, is a phenomenon characterized by episodes of repeated apnea during sleep due to disorders of the central nervous system. We report a patient with CSA/OC due to right dorsolateral medullary and bilateral cerebellar infarctions that occurred in the clinical setting of right vertebral artery stenosis. Polysomnography (PSG showed repeated episodes of absence of nasal cannula flow accompanying cessation of thoracic and abdominal respiratory movements and a decline in blood oxygen saturation. The duration of apnea was as long as 12 seconds. Brain magnetic resonance (MR images showed acute infarctions involving the right dorsolateral medulla, bilateral cerebellar vermis and paramedian cerebellar hemispheres. MR angiography showed nonvisualization of the right vertebral artery. Transcranial Doppler sonography showed a high resistance flow profile in the right vertebral artery and normal flow patterns in the basilar artery and left vertebral artery. These findings suggest that the medullary and bilateral cerebellar infarcts were caused by stenosis/pseudo-occlusion of the right vertebral artery. Reduced respiratory afferent inputs to the dorsal respiratory group of medullary neurons, the nucleus tractus solitarius and reduced “automatic” components of the respiratory drive may play a role in the development of CSA/OC.

  15. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  16. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Schwannosis induced medullary compression in VACTERL syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2011-10-21

    A 7-year-old boy with a history of VACTERL syndrome was found collapsed in bed. MRI had shown basilar invagination of the skull base and narrowing of the foramen magnum. Angulation, swelling and abnormal high signal at the cervicomedullary junction were felt to be secondary to compression of the medulla. Neuropathologic examination showed bilateral replacement of the medullary tegmentum by an irregularly circumscribed cellular lesion which was composed of elongated GFAP\\/S 100-positive cells with spindled nuclei and minimal atypia. The pathologic findings were interpreted as intramedullary schwannosis with mass effect. Schwannosis, is observed in traumatized spinal cords where its presence may represent attempted, albeit aberrant, repair by inwardly migrating Schwann cells ofperipheral origin. In our view the compressive effect of the basilar invagination on this boy\\'s medulla was of sufficient magnitude to have caused tumoral medullary schwannosis with resultant intermittent respiratory compromise leading to reflex anoxic seizures.

  18. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  19. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia...

  20. Medullary breast carcinoma: anatomo-radiological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheus, Valeria Soares; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Djahjah, Maria Celia Resende; Koch, Hilton Augusto [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kestelman, Fabiola Procaci [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: msavaleria@yahoo.com

    2008-11-15

    To evaluate radiological findings in patients submitted to surgical treatment for medullary breast cancer at Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, correlating them with histological results. A retrospective descriptive study was developed with patients submitted to surgery at INCa, in the period from January 1997 to December 2006, for identifying the presence of medullary breast carcinoma and analyzing radiological findings. Among 21,287 patients diagnosed with carcinoma, 76 (0.357%) had typical medullary breast carcinoma. The age range of these patients was 32-81 years (mean = 59.1 years). Mammography demonstrated lesions in 19 of these patients, 17 (89.5%) of them with masses, and 2 with focal asymmetry. Among the patients with masses, 15 (88.1%) presented with high density and 2 (11.9%) with isodensity. Twelve patients presented sonographic findings, 11 (91.6%) of them with hypoechoic masses, and one with an anechoic mass with areas of cystic degeneration. Nodular mass was the predominant radiological finding (89.5%), 88.1% of them corresponding to masses with high density and circumscribed margins. Despite the radiological characteristics of benignity, a solid, fast growing, highly dense mass with circumscribed margins should be further investigated to confirm the diagnosis. (author)

  1. Medullary breast carcinoma: anatomo-radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheus, Valeria Soares; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Djahjah, Maria Celia Resende; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Kestelman, Fabiola Procaci

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate radiological findings in patients submitted to surgical treatment for medullary breast cancer at Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, correlating them with histological results. A retrospective descriptive study was developed with patients submitted to surgery at INCa, in the period from January 1997 to December 2006, for identifying the presence of medullary breast carcinoma and analyzing radiological findings. Among 21,287 patients diagnosed with carcinoma, 76 (0.357%) had typical medullary breast carcinoma. The age range of these patients was 32-81 years (mean = 59.1 years). Mammography demonstrated lesions in 19 of these patients, 17 (89.5%) of them with masses, and 2 with focal asymmetry. Among the patients with masses, 15 (88.1%) presented with high density and 2 (11.9%) with isodensity. Twelve patients presented sonographic findings, 11 (91.6%) of them with hypoechoic masses, and one with an anechoic mass with areas of cystic degeneration. Nodular mass was the predominant radiological finding (89.5%), 88.1% of them corresponding to masses with high density and circumscribed margins. Despite the radiological characteristics of benignity, a solid, fast growing, highly dense mass with circumscribed margins should be further investigated to confirm the diagnosis. (author)

  2. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanišić Marijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephronophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease complex refers to the genetic heterogeneous group of inherited tubulointerstital nephritis. Nephronophthisis comprises at last 3 clinical manifestations, has the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, appears early in life and is the most frequent inherited kidney disease that causes terminal renal failure in childhood, while medullary cystic kidney disease has the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, is less frequent, and terminal renal failure appears later in life. These two forms have similar clinical and morphological findings but extrarenal manifestations, the median ages of occurrence of terminal renal failure, and siblings presence help us distinguish these diseases. Case report. In this article we illustrated the case of a 20- years old patient with the suspicion of having complex nephornophthisis and medullary cystic kidney disease based upon mild renal failure, seen in routinely taken laboratory findings and bilateral cysts in corticomedullary region of the kidneys verified on abdominal ultrasound examination. Conclusion. This disease should rise suspicion in children or adolescents with progressive renal failure, a typical clinical manifestation, blood and urine samples results, bilateral cysts in the corticomedullary region of the kidneys seen during ultrasound examination of the kidneys and family inheritance.

  3. Peripheral nerve injury induces trans-synaptic modification of channels, receptors and signal pathways in rat dorsal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Zhang, Fang-Xiong; Huang, Fen; Lu, Yin-Jing; Li, Guo-Dong; Bao, Lan; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xu

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral tissue injury-induced central sensitization may result from the altered biochemical properties of spinal dorsal horn. However, peripheral nerve injury-induced modification of genes in the dorsal horn remains largely unknown. Here we identified strong changes of 14 channels, 25 receptors and 42 signal transduction related molecules in Sprague-Dawley rat dorsal spinal cord 14 days after peripheral axotomy by cDNA microarray. Twenty-nine genes were further confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Northern blotting, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These regulated genes included Ca2+ channel alpha1E and alpha2/delta1 subunits, alpha subunits for Na+ channel 1 and 6, Na+ channel beta subunit, AMAP receptor GluR3 and 4, GABAA receptor alpha5 subunit, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 and beta2 subunits, PKC alpha, betaI and delta isozymes, JNK1-3, ERK2-3, p38 MAPK and BatK and Lyn tyrosine-protein kinases, indicating that several signal transduction pathways were activated in dorsal spinal cord by peripheral nerve injury. These results demonstrate that peripheral nerve injury causes phenotypic changes in spinal dorsal horn. Increases in Ca2+ channel alpha2/delta1 subunit, GABAA receptor alpha5 subunit, Na+ channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both dorsal spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia indicate their potential roles in neuropathic pain control.

  4. Kamillo Horn und das Melodram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgarová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 229-237 ISSN 1212-1193. [Zdeněk Fibich, středoevropský skladatel konce 19. století. Olomouc, 19.05.2010–21.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Kamillo Horn * concert melodrama Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - an unusual case of hyalinizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm occurring in sporadic and familial patterns. A rare variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma shows microscopic features similar to hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of thyroid. Detection of this variant requires a high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical confirmation by ...

  6. MR imaging of medullary streaks in osteosclerosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Park, Tae Soo; Song, Ho Taek; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki

    2000-01-01

    We present a case of medullary sclerosis of the appendicular skeleton in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency for whom MR imaging findings were characteristic. T1- and T2-weighted MR images showed multiple vertical lines (medullary streaks) of low signal intensity in the metaphyses and diaphyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia

  7. OCTREOTIDE FOR MEDULLARY-THYROID CARCINOMA ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMID, WM; DULLAART, RPF

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma associated diarrhoea can be disabling. A 75-yr-old man with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and refractory diarrhoea is described. Subcutaneous administration of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, 100-mu-g thrice daily, resulted in a sustained improvement in

  8. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  9. Renal medullary carcinoma with an ophthalmic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ibilibor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC is a rare, aggressive primary renal malignancy that classically occurs in adolescent males with sickle cell trait and universally presents with metastatic disease at presentation. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a young man with likely ophthalmic metastasis. We also review relevant literature available to date. The patient is a 20-year-old African-American male with a past medical history significant to for sickle cell trait who presented to the University Medical Center with cough and the right eye pain for 1 month as well as painless gross hematuria for 1 week. A chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a 7 cm hypodense right renal mass with bilateral hilar adenopathy, and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A renal biopsy was performed and showed RMC. Ophthalmic exam revealed the right retinal hemorrhage concerning for a metastatic lesion. Palliative chemotherapy was offered to the patient, however, he and his family chose to enroll in hospice care considering his poor prognosis. He subsequently passed away 33 days after presentation. To our knowledge, there is only one other case of ophthalmic metastasis in a patient with metastatic RMC. Thus, we present this case to contribute to current literature regarding orbital metastasis in this largely fatal disease.

  10. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  11. Double lumbosacral lipomas of the dorsal and filar types associated with OEIS complex: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, So; Morioka, Takato; Hashiguchi, Kimiaki; Samura, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Miyagi, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Takeshi; Sasaki, Tomio

    2009-10-01

    A female baby was born at 37 weeks and 6 days gestation by vaginal delivery with omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, and imperforate anus, indicating the presence of OEIS complex, a rare combination of defects consisting of omphalocele (O), exstrophy of the cloaca (E), imperforate anus (I), and spinal deformity (S), associated with lumbosacral lipoma. The most common associated spinal deformity is terminal myelocystocele, and spinal lipoma is rare. Constructive interference in steady-state magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed double lipomas, a dorsal-type lipoma, located dorsal to the low-lying conus medullaris, and a filar-type lipoma, revealed by a thickened and fatty filum terminale. After recovery from abdominogenital repairs, debulking of the dorsal-type lipoma and untethering of the spinal cord by sectioning of the filar-type lipoma were performed at the age of 14 months. Neurosurgical treatment for occult spinal dysraphism should be undertaken after recovery from the initial series of major abdominogenital procedures.

  12. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH, the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs.

  13. Carcinoma medular do rim Renal medullary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Guilherme de Oliveira Salles

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente de 24 anos, portador de traço falciforme, com imagem sólida no rim direito, submetido a nefrectomia radical que revelou tumor, cujo exame anatomopatológico permitiu o diagnóstico de carcinoma medular do rim. Os autores discutem aspectos dessa neoplasia, tais como freqüência, patogênese, apresentação clínica, histopatologia e evolução.We report the case of a 24-year-old patient who presented a left kidney tumor that was diagnosed as a medullary renal cell carcinoma. The following aspects of this neoplasia are discussed in this communication: frequency, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological findings, differential diagnosis and follow-up.

  14. Roentgenological findings of histiocytic medullary reticulosis in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong; Lim, Jae Hoon; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1981-01-01

    Histiocytic medullary reticulosis, known as malignant histiocytosis, is a disorder characterized by a systemic proliferation of morphologically abnormal histiocytes with prominent erythrophagocytosis. Fever, wasting, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia are the main clinical pictures. Prognosis is very poor and invariably die within several months. Authors present radiological findings of pulmonary involvement in 5 cases of histologically proven histiocytic medullary reticulosis. The findings are progressive interstitial, alveolar or mixed infiltrations, small amount of pleural effusion, hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node enlargement and cardiomegaly. Histiocytic medullary reticulosis should be borne in mind in differential diagnosis of any patient who has unexplainable above radiological findings

  15. Conus medullaris dermoid tumour. Uncommon presentation of conus medullaris dermoid as an exophytic mass lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an extremely uncommon case dorsally exophytic conus dermoid in a three-years old boy, who underwent meningocele repair locate at lumbosacral region at an age of one month. The boy presented with low backache and difficulty in passing urine. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of spine revealed presence of a large exophytic mass located dorsally in the conus and the features suggestive of dermoid. He underwent surgical intervention during surgery lesion was dorsally exophytic containing cheesy material with hairs, excision of dermoid along capsule was carried our successfully. Pertinent literature and management of exophytic conus dermoid is discussed briefly.

  16. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  17. Introduction to European comments on "Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzab, Barbara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Guest Editors of Thyroid Research supplement devoted to medullary thyroid cancer present the history on how the discussion about "Medullary Thyroid Cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association" was initiated and subsequently widely commented before and during European Thyroid...... Association - Cancer Research Network Meeting in Lisbon. It is explained why it has been decided to publish the manuscripts within the supplement - to document voices from the discussion and popularize them....

  18. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  19. Non-communicating Rudimentary Uterine Horn Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Upadhyaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confi rmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation. Here, we report three cases of pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of the uterus in different periods of gestation, their outcome and a review of the available literature. Keywords: Mullerian anomalies, non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy, surgical management.

  20. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Horn growth patterns in Alpine chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlatti, Luca; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Imperio, Simona

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of horn growth may provide important information about the allocation of metabolic resources to secondary sexual traits. Depending on the selective advantages offered by horn size during intra- and inter-specific interactions, ungulates may show different investment in horn development, and growth variations within species may be influenced by several parameters, such as sex, age, or resource availability. We investigated the horn growth patterns in two hunted populations of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) in the Central Italian Alps. We tested the role of individual heterogeneity on the growth pattern and explored the variation in annulus length as a function of different factors (sex, age, hunting location, cohort). We then investigated the mechanisms underlying horn growth trajectories to test for the occurrence of compensatory or recovery growth and their potential differences between sexes and populations. Annulus length varied as a function of sex, age of individuals and, marginally, hunting location; no effect of cohort or individual heterogeneity was detected. Male and female chamois showed compensatory horn growth within the first 5½ years of life, though the partial convergence of horn trajectories in chamois suggests that this mechanisms would best be described as 'recovery growth'. Compensation rates were greater in males than in females, while only compensatory growth rates up to 2½ years of age were different in the two populations. Besides confirming the sex- and age-dependent pattern of horn development, our study suggests that the mechanism of recovery growth supports the hypothesis of horn size as a weakly selected sexual trait in male and female chamois. Furthermore, the greater compensation rates in horn growth shown by male chamois possibly suggest selective effects of hunting on age at first reproduction, while different compensation rates between populations may suggest the occurrence of some plasticity in resource

  2. Uptake of I-131 MIBG by medullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Sakahara, H.

    1985-01-01

    I-131 MIBG scans are useful for the localization of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with high catecholamine levels. Recently the authors have found that medullary thyroid cancer also showed an uptake of I-131 MIBG in both primary neck tumors and metastatic sites. Up to now scintigraphic studies were performed in 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy was done at 24 and 48 hours after the administration of 0.5 mCi of I-131 MIBG, thyroid uptake of dissociated I-131 being prevented by Lugol's solution. Four out of 5 cases were familial type and uptake of I-131 MIBG was similarly observed in medullary thyroid cancer as well as in pheochromocytoma. Bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer was also detected with I-131 MIBG. However, one case of sporadic form was negative with I-131 MIBG, whereas there was a high uptake of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: a newly developed radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid cancer, visualizing a different uptake mechanism of both reagents (J Nucl Med 25: 323-325, 1984). After adrenalectomy high uptake of I-131 MIBG was still observed in medullary thyroid cancer, in spite of normal catecholamine levels. The tumor to blood ratio was estimated in vivo to be about several hundreds at 24 hours after the administration. These cells are of neural crest origin and the mechanism of uptake of I-131 MIBG may not be related to the catechamine uptake mechanism. This paper concludes that I-131 MIBG is useful not only for the localization but also for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, as preliminary performed in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

  3. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  4. 12MW Horns Rev experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    The 12MW project with the full title ‘12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore’ has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis...... relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting...... profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported....

  5. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  6. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bouvy, Willem H.; Razoux Schultz, Tom B.; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Five participants were scanned twice, to assess the robustness and reproducibility of manual and automated vein detection. Additionally, the method was evaluated on 24 participants to demonstrate its application. Deep medullary veins were assessed within an automatically created region-of-interest around the lateral ventricles, defined such that all veins must intersect it. A combination of vesselness, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding located individual veins, which were quantified by counting and computing (3-D) density maps. Visual assessment was time-consuming (2 h/scan), with an intra-/inter-observer agreement on absolute vein count of ICC = 0.76 and 0.60, respectively. The automated vein detection showed excellent inter-scan reproducibility before (ICC = 0.79) and after (ICC = 0.88) visually censoring false positives. It had a positive predictive value of 71.6 %. Imaging at 7 T allows visualization and quantification of deep medullary veins. The presented method offers fast and reliable automated assessment of deep medullary veins. (orig.)

  7. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  8. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  9. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  10. Sudden death after medullary infarction—A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Jen Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in a stable medullary infarction case frequently induces legal problems. Currently, the etiology of the most reported cases are not known because autopsy is rare. Here, we report one female patient with medullary infarction who experienced a sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study. The blood flow changes on the MRI indicated that her death resulted from the sudden collapse of systemic circulation. Dysautonomia, or sudden respiratory arrest resulting from brainstem dysfunction, was suspected. In this report, we present her cranial MRI findings and discuss the possible pathophysiology after reviewing the relevant literature. We also recommend certain tests for patients with medullary infarction to prevent the risk of sudden unexpected deaths.

  11. Synchronous multifocal medullary and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma detected by elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudounarakis, Eleftherios; Karatzanis, Alexander; Chatzidakis, Alkiviadis; Tzardi, Maria; Velegrakis, George

    2014-01-01

    A few cases of concomitant medullary and papillary carcinoma in the same thyroid nodule have been described in the literature. However, the presence of multiple foci of both types of malignancy in the same gland is very rare. A 39 year-old female with multiple thyroid nodules, elevated serum calcitonin levels and elastographic findings suggestive of thyroid malignancy, underwent total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection. Histology revealed the presence of one focus of medullary and one focus of papillary carcinoma on each thyroid lobe. Subsequently, the patient underwent treatment with radioactive iodine. This is the third case of synchronous multifocal medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma reported in the literature. Several theories for the simultaneous development of these malignant entities have been proposed. Ultrasound elastography can be a useful, noninvasive tool in the assessment of thyroid nodules. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Next steps in propositional horn contraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available not opted for this choice.) Our start- ing point for defining Horn e-contraction is in terms of Del- grande’s definition of e-remainder sets. Definition 3.1 (Horn e-Remainder Sets) For a belief setH , X ∈ H ↓e Φ iff (i) X ⊆ H , (ii) X 6|= Φ, and (iii...) for every X ′ s.t. X ⊂ X ′ ⊆ H , X ′ |= Φ. We refer to the elements of H ↓eΦ as the Horn e-remainder sets of H w.r.t. Φ. It is easy to verify that all Horn e-remainder sets are belief sets. Also, H ↓eΦ = ∅ iff |= Φ. We now proceed to define selection...

  13. Pediatric Periocular Keratin Horns: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Amun; Shafi, Fariha; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet

    There are very few published cases of periocular keratin horns that have been reported in children. This study reports 2 pediatric cases of periocular keratin horns. The authors describe a 7-year-old male child who developed a keratin horn on the right lower eyelid and a 16-year-old female who developed a caruncular keratin horn. Both cases underwent excision biopsy, and subsequent histology confirmed that there was no evidence of malignancy. However, on the basis of the current evidence in adults and the difficulty in drawing firm conclusions from the small number of reported pediatric cases, the authors suggest that these lesions should be carefully managed due to the possibility of premalignant or malignant change at the base of the lesion.

  14. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metres.

  15. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  16. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  17. Modulation of AMPA excitatory postsynaptic currents in the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by insulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špicarová, Diana; Paleček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2010), s. 305-311 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA ČR GA305/09/1228; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pain * synaptic modulation * insulin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.215, year: 2010

  18. Conus Medullaris Arachnoid Cyst Presenting as Cauda Equina Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Salman; Afsar, Afifa; Qadeer, Mohsin

    2017-01-01

    Intradural arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of spinal cord and nerve root compression. Primarily, they are present in the thoracic region posteriorly. We report a 25-year-old man who had an intradural arachnoid cyst at the level of conus medullaris presenting with cauda equina syndrome, which is very rare.

  19. Is renal medullary carcinoma the seventh nephropathy in sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Previous studies had enlisted renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) as the seventh nephropathy in sickle cell disease (SCD). Clinical experience has contradicted this claim and this study is targeted at refuting or supporting this assumption. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of RMC and describe other renal ...

  20. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  1. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC...

  2. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....

  3. The rams horn in western history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  4. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  5. RARE PRESENTATION OF RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill Harbhajan K, Grover Suparna, Chhabra Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a rare occurrence for the rudimentary horn of uterus to harbour a pregnancy and the usual outcome is devastating leading to a spontaneous rupture in second trimester with the patient presenting in shock with massive intra-peritoneal haemorrhage and if appropriate management is not instituted in time it may lead to high rate of mortality. We report an unusual case of rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy who presented as a chronic ectopic with an adnexal mass and surprisingly with no sign of shock. Diagnosis is often difficult in such a situation which puts the treating gynaecologist in dilemma. High clinical suspicion supplemented with radiological findings helped clinch the diagnosis and laparotomy was performed followed by resection of the rudimentary horn to prevent future complications.

  6. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (based on a convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  7. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  8. Ectopic pregnancy in non communicating rudimentary horn of uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Soomro, N.

    2001-01-01

    Rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy occurs very infrequently in gynecological practice. A case of rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy, managed with salvage of the patient, is presented here in this report. (author)

  9. Horn's Biologically Active Substances - Can We Replace Horns of Critically Endangered Species (Saiga) by Horns of More Abundant Animals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Romanov, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-11 ISSN 2210-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biologically active compounds * horn * rhinoceros * saiga * traditional Chinese medicine Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  10. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A c...

  11. Computed tomography of the temporal horns at Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, U.; Vogel

    1989-01-01

    In the literature there are different opinions referring to the involvement of the temporal lobes or horns at Alzheimer's disease. Conventionally computed tomogram of the head does not include the temporal horn in its full length. A simple method to demonstrate the temporal horns after cranial computer tomography is described. It allows the evaluation of temporal lobe and temporal horn if questionable alterations at Alzheimer's disease are to be discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as cutaneous horn in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not the horn itself, which is just dead keratin, but rather the nature of the underlying disease, although the horns are usually benign and that's why the case is reported. Keywords: Cutaneous horn; Cornu cutaneum; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes Mellitus. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol. 4 (2) 2006: pp. 86-91 ...

  13. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed after failed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... horn does not communicate with the uterus; in “class IIc” the rudimentary horn does not have a cavity, ... the endometrium in the rudimentary horn is rarely functional and is not always synchronous with the ... scan, a useful radiologic tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgical treatment in uncertain cases.

  14. Cysticercosis of conus medullaris: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Neurocysticercosis" - involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by taenia solium, is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the CNS. However, spinal involvement by neurocysticercosis is uncommon. Spinal intramedullary cysticercosis involving the conus medullaris is an uncommon clinical condition, which may mimic an intramedullary tumor and can lead to irreversible neurological deficits if untreated. Here, we report a 31-year-old male patient with cysticercosis in the conus medullaris of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined round intramedullary lesion at D12-L1 vertebral levels, which was homogeneously hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI with peripheral edema. Since the patient had progressive neurological deficits, surgery was performed to decompress the spinal cord. Histopathology examination of the removed lesion proved it to be cysticercosis. In this report, we also discuss the principles of diagnosis and treatment of intramedullary cysticercosis in combination with literature review.

  15. Medullary carcinoma arising in a thyroid with Hashimoto's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L M; Weinberg, D S; Warhol, M J

    1983-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a large goiter and on pathologic examination was found to have both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. To our knowledge, this is the first well-documented case of the coexistence of these two entities in the same patient in the English literature. The association of Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid is reviewed and its relevance discussed.

  16. Modified dorsal root entry zone lesioning for intractable pain relief in patients with root avulsion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) lesioning has been the most effective surgical treatment for the relief of intractable pain due to root avulsion injury, but residual pain and a decrease in pain relief in the follow-up period have been reported in 23%-70% of patients. Based on pain topography in the most recent studies on neuropathic pain, the authors modified the conventional DREZ lesioning procedure to improve clinical outcomes. The presumed rationale for this procedure is to eliminate the spontaneous discharges of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn as well as wide dynamic range neurons in the deep spinal dorsal horn. METHODS Ten patients with avulsion-related pain underwent surgery between 2011 and 2015. The surgical procedure was described and postoperative pain relief was assessed as follows: excellent (residual pain never exceeded 3 on the visual analog scale [VAS] without medication), good (residual pain never exceeded 5 on the VAS with medication), and poor (residual pain was greater than 5 with medication). Specific perioperative complications were assessed. RESULTS The aim of this surgical procedure was to destroy the deeper layers of the posterior horn of spinal gray matter, which was in contrast to the procedures of Nashold and Sindou, which were to destroy the superficial layers. All patients achieved excellent (n = 7, pain relief without medication) or good (n = 3, pain relief with medication) pain relief postoperatively, and the recurrence of pain was not reported in any patients (median 29 months after surgery, range 12-64 months). Nine patients (90%) achieved complete pain relief (a score of 0 or 1 on the VAS) with or without medication. No surgical site complications such as infection or CSF leakage were noted. No motor deficit was observed in any patient. A sensory deficit was observed in 2 patients and disappeared within 1 month in 1 patient. New pain at the adjacent level of DREZ lesioning was observed in 3 patients and

  17. Gemelligraviditet i et horn af bicorn uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus is associated with early foetal loss and extremely preterm delivery. A patient with dichorionic twins in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus was admitted in week 24 + 6 with preterm labour. Long-term treatment with a combination of tocolytics, atosiban and diclofenac inhibited...

  18. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES, WITH SPECIAL. REFERENCE TO THE EXAMPLES OF THOMSON'S AND GRANT'S GAZELLES. FRITZ R. WALTHER. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A & M University,. College Station, Texas 77843. ABSTRACT. An attempt has been ...

  19. Population dynamics of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three maize varieties and two storage seasons on the population dynamics of Prostephanus truncates (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were observed in the traditional `Ewe' barn in the field. Two local varieties, Dzolokpuita and Abutia and an improved variety, Abeleehi, were stored with the husk on ...

  20. The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele | Horn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele. A Horn, S Dix-Peek, S Mears, EB Hoffman. Abstract. Despite improvement in antenatal care and screening, myelomeningocele remains the most common congenital birth defect, with a reported incidence of 1 - 2.5/1000 patients in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  1. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the key components of the CNGS facility is the system of magnetic lenses, known as horns, which are to point the pions and kaons that will decay into muons and muon-neutrinos in the direction of the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Positioned at the end of the target, which produces the pions and kaons, the system comprises two of these horns. The first focuses the positively charged pions and kaons, which have an energy of approximately 35 GeV, and defocuses the negative particles. Unfortunately, it has a tendency to cause excessive deflection of particles that have energies of less than 35 GeV and insufficient deflection of those with energies of more than 35 GeV. These negative effects are corrected by the second horn (also known as the reflector), which is positioned 40 metres from the first. Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metre...

  2. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as a Predominantly Cystic Mass on Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Ah Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hyun [Gangnam MizMedi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most medullary thyroid carcinomas show suspicious malignant features such as hypoechogenicity, a spiculated margin and/or intranodular calcifications, which are well known features of papillary carcinoma. We report here on a case of medullary carcinoma that was seen as a predominantly cystic thyroid mass on ultrasonography. This type of case is not common in the literature and we discuss the way to diagnose a medullary thyroid carcinoma

  3. Multiple fracture of medullary tube during intramedullary nailing of long bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakharia, M R; Lehto, S A; Mohler, D G

    2000-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is an accepted treatment for the fixation of femoral and tibial shaft fractures. There is a low but significant incidence of intraoperative complications during intramedullary nailing. During this procedure, a medullary tube may be used to exchange the bent olive-tipped reaming guidewire for the straight guidewire. A review of the literature found only one report of a fracture of the medullary tube. Two cases in which the medullary tube fractured into multiple pieces are presented.

  4. Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons Mediate CO2-Induced Arousal from Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Haleigh R; Leibold, Nicole K; Rappoport, Daniel A; Ginapp, Callie M; Purnell, Benton S; Bode, Nicole M; Alberico, Stephanie L; Kim, Young-Cho; Audero, Enrica; Gross, Cornelius T; Buchanan, Gordon F

    2018-02-21

    Arousal from sleep in response to CO 2 is a critical protective phenomenon. Dysregulation of CO 2 -induced arousal contributes to morbidity and mortality from prevalent diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the critical nature of this protective reflex, the precise mechanism for CO 2 -induced arousal is unknown. Because CO 2 is a major regulator of breathing, prevailing theories suggest that activation of respiratory chemo- and mechano-sensors is required for CO 2 -induced arousal. However, populations of neurons that are not involved in the regulation of breathing are also chemosensitive. Among these are serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) that comprise a component of the ascending arousal system. We hypothesized that direct stimulation of these neurons with CO 2 could cause arousal from sleep independently of enhancing breathing. Dialysis of CO 2 -rich acidified solution into DRN, but not medullary raphe responsible for modulating breathing, caused arousal from sleep. Arousal was lost in mice with a genetic absence of 5-HT neurons, and with acute pharmacological or optogenetic inactivation of DRN 5-HT neurons. Here we demonstrate that CO 2 can cause arousal from sleep directly, without requiring enhancement of breathing, and that chemosensitive 5-HT neurons in the DRN critically mediate this arousal. Better understanding mechanisms underlying this protective reflex may lead to interventions to reduce disease-associated morbidity and mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although CO 2 -induced arousal is critical to a number of diseases, the specific mechanism is not well understood. We previously demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) neurons are important for CO 2 -induced arousal, as mice without 5-HT neurons do not arouse to CO 2 Many have interpreted this to mean that medullary 5-HT neurons that regulate breathing are important in this arousal mechanism. Here we found that direct application of CO 2

  5. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    -down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  6. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  7. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  8. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-02-10

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and oviposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  9. Actively adjustable step-type ultrasonic horns in longitudinal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Guo, Hao; Xu, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Actively adjustable longitudinal step-type ultrasonic horns are proposed and studied. The horn is composed of a traditional ultrasonic horn and piezoelectric material. In practical applications, this kind of step-type ultrasonic horn is mechanically excited by an ultrasonic transducer and the piezoelectric material is connected to an adjustable electric impedance. In this research, the effects of the electric impedance and of the location of the piezoelectric material on the performance of the horn are studied. It is shown that when the electric resistance is increased, the resonance frequency of the horn is increased; the displacement magnification is increased when the piezoelectric material is located in the large end and decreased when the piezoelectric material is located in the small end of the horn. The displacement magnification for the piezoelectric material in the large end is larger than that for the piezoelectric material in the small end of the horn. Some step-type ultrasonic horns are designed and manufactured; the resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are measured by means of POLYTEC Laser Scanning vibrometer. It is shown that the theoretical resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are in good agreement with the measured results. It is concluded that by means of the insertion of the piezoelectric material in the longitudinal horn, the horn performance can be adjusted by changing the electric impedance and the location of the piezoelectric material in the horn. It is expected that this kind of adjustable ultrasonic horns can be used in traditional and potential ultrasonic technologies where the vibrational performance adjustment is needed.

  10. LS1 Report: Thank you magnetic horn!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Antimatter Decelerator (AD) have been receiving beams since the beginning of this week. There is a crucial element at the heart of the chain that prepares the antiproton beam: the so-called magnetic horn, a delicate piece of equipment that had to be refurbished during LS1 and that is now showing just how well it can perform.   View from the top of the target and horn trolley, along the direction of the beam. Antiprotons for the AD are produced by smashing a beam of protons from the PS onto an iridium target. However, the particles produced by the nuclear interactions are emitted at very wide angles; without a focussing element, all these precious particles would be lost. “A magnetic horn is placed at the exit of the target to focus back a large fraction of the negative particles, including antiprotons, parallel to the beam line and with the right momentum,” explains Marco Calviani, physicist in the EN Department and the expert in charge of the AD targe...

  11. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2010-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC m...... by testing of non-tumor tissue from patients with known hereditary MTC. This study shows that genetic testing of archival MTC material is technically possible and might be a way of identifying patients with previously not recognized hereditary MTC....

  12. Is thyroidectomy necessary in RET mutations carriers of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Torring, H; Godballe, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results and consequences of genetic testing in a family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are described. METHODS: In the screening of relatives, serum calcitonin is replaced by RET mutation analysis that was performed in families suspected of hereditary medullary th...

  13. Effect of biotin supplementation on claw horn growth in young, clinically healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco; Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Atayde, Ingrid Bueno; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; de Moura, Maria Ivete; Goulart, Daniel Silva

    2010-06-01

    The effects of orally administered biotin supplementation on the growth of claw horn in young, clinically healthy cattle were analyzed. Twelve, 1-year-old Girolando cattle were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5 mg of diluted powdered biotin (GI) or a control treatment (GII) for 40 consecutive days. Cattle in the GI group showed an average hoof growth of 11.3 +/- 0.72 mm, while those in GII had an average hoof growth of 7.2 +/- 0.78 mm. The results confirmed the positive effect of biotin supplementation on the growth of angle and length of the dorsal hoof wall, hoof sole length, and on resistance to wearing, in young cattle extensively managed.

  14. Bilateral Medial Medullary Stroke: A Challenge in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Torabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare type of stroke, with catastrophic consequences. Early diagnosis is crucial. Here, I present a young patient with acute vertigo, progressive generalized weakness, dysarthria, and respiratory failure, who initially was misdiagnosed with acute vestibular syndrome. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that was done in the acute phase was read as normal. Other possibilities were excluded by lumbar puncture and MRI of cervical spine. MR of C-spine showed lesion at medial medulla; therefore a second MRI of brain was requested, showed characteristic “heart appearance” shape at diffusion weighted (DWI, and confirmed bilateral medial medullary stroke. Retrospectively, a vague-defined hyperintense linear DWI signal at midline was noted in the first brain MRI. Because of the symmetric and midline pattern of this abnormal signal and similarity to an artifact, some radiologists or neurologists may miss this type of stroke. Radiologists and neurologists must recognize clinical and MRI findings of this rare type of stroke, which early treatment could make a difference in patient outcome. The abnormal DWI signal in early stages of this type of stroke may not be a typical “heart appearance” shape, and other variants such as small dot or linear DWI signal at midline must be recognized as early signs of stroke. Also, MRI of cervical spine may be helpful if there is attention to brainstem as well.

  15. MR imaging of medullary compression due to vertebral metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooms, G.C.; Mathurin, P.; Maldague, B.; Cornelis, G.; Malghem, J.; Demeure, R.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to assess the value of MR imaging for demonstrating medullary compression due to vertebral metastases in cancer patients clinically suspected of presenting with that complication. Twenty-five consecutive unselected patients were studied, and the MR imaging findings were confirmed by myelography, CT, and/or surgical and autopsy findings for each patient. The MR examinations were performed with a superconducting magnet (Philips Gyroscan S15) operating at 0.5-T. MR imaging demonstrated the metastases (single or multiple) mainly on T1- weighted images (TR = 0.45 sec and TE = 20 msec). Soft-tissue tumoral mass and/or deformity of a vertebral body secondary to metastasis, compressing the spinal cord, was equally demonstrated on T1- and heavily T2-weighted images (TR = 1.65 sec and TE = 100 msec). In the sagittal plane, MR imaging demonstrated the exact level of the compression (one or multiple levels) and its full extent. In conclusion, MR is the first imaging modality for studying cancer patients with clinically suspected medullary compression and obviates the need for more invasive procedures

  16. Application and Research of Ultrasonic Horn in Ultrasonic Ranging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Xiaotao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that echo signal is hard to recognize caused by ultrasonic energy’s overquick dispersion and attenuation, a kind of ultrasonic horn is designed. According to the acoustic theory analysis, the ultrasonic horn can increase its radiation energy by improving impedance matching. The ultrasonic horn can make the directivity of sound source sharper and energy more centralized because of the large outlet. The simulation calculation and experiment results prove the effectiveness of ultrasonic horn to improve the scope of ultrasonic ranging.

  17. More on Descriptive Complexity of Second-Order HORN Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shiguang; Zhao, Xishun

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns Gradel's question asked in 1992: whether all problems which are in PTIME and closed under substructures are definable in second-order HORN logic SO-HORN. We introduce revisions of SO-HORN and DATALOG by adding first-order universal quantifiers over the second-order atoms in the bodies of HORN clauses and DATALOG rules. We show that both logics are as expressive as FO(LFP), the least fixed point logic. We also prove that FO(LFP) can not define all of the problems that are i...

  18. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves de Almeida

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group. The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon, respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control. The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33 and from 3 to 11 (group G100. However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.

  19. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fabiana Alves; Alari, Fernando de Oliveira; Seno, Maria Conceição Zocoller; de Lima, Marco Monteiro; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Chiquitelli Neto, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.

  20. Wave propagation inside the Agbo horn | Nwachukwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comparable to that of modern horns and other musical instruments in emitting harmonious vibrations of even and odd harmonics when excited. This investigation has further shown that the “agbo” horns can be used for fourier analysis and amplitude modulation. They also have characteristics similar to violin, piano, oboe, ...

  1. AFP Algorithm and a Canonical Normal Form for Horn Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Majdoddin, Ruhollah

    2014-01-01

    AFP Algorithm is a learning algorithm for Horn formulas. We show that it does not improve the complexity of AFP Algorithm, if after each negative counterexample more that just one refinements are performed. Moreover, a canonical normal form for Horn formulas is presented, and it is proved that the output formula of AFP Algorithm is in this normal form.

  2. Contraction core for horn belief change: preliminary report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors continue recent investigations into belief change for Horn logic. The main contribution is a result which shows that the construction method for Horn contraction for belief sets based on infraremainder sets, as recently...

  3. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work ...

  4. The natural horn as an efficient sound radiating system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the locally made horn are efficient sound radiating systems and are therefore excellent for sound production in local musical renditions. These findings, in addition to the portability and low cost of the horns qualify them to be highly recommended for use in music making and for other purposes ...

  5. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and ...

  6. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Targeted Therapies and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Pinchot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies. The natural history of MTC is characterized by early lymph node and distant metastases, making complete surgical cure often impossible. Conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation have been largely ineffective in altering the natural history of MTC. Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to affect symptom control and reduce tumor burden in patients with widely disseminated disease. Here, we review several pathways which have been shown to be vital in MTC tumorigenesis and focus on the pathways of interest for which targeted drug therapies are currently being developed.

  7. 2012 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Voskoboynikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Distant metastases are the main cause of death in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC. These 21 recommendations focus on MTC patients with distant metastases and a detailed followup protocol of patients with biochemical or imaging evidence of disease, selection criteria for treatment, and treatment modalities, including local and systemic treatments based on the results of recent trials. Asymptomatic patients with low tumor burden and stable disease may benefit from local treatment modalities and can be followed up at regular intervals of time. Imaging is usually performed every 6–12 months, or at longer inter vals of time depending on the doubling times of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels. Patients with symptoms, large tumor burden and progression on imaging should receive systemic treatment. Indeed, major progress has recently been achieved with novel targeted therapies using kinase inhibitors directed against RET and VEGFR, but further research is needed to improve the outcome of these patients.

  8. Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: experimental and modeling studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Kett, Michelle M.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Abdelkader, Amany; Layton, Anita T.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Evans, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension (Po2) of urine in the bladder could be used to monitor risk of acute kidney injury if it varies with medullary Po2. Therefore, we examined this relationship and characterized oxygen diffusion across walls of the ureter and bladder in anesthetized rabbits. A computational model was then developed to predict medullary Po2 from bladder urine Po2. Both intravenous infusion of [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin and infusion of NG-nitro-l-arginine reduced urinary Po2 and medullary Po2 (8–1...

  9. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  10. Giant cutaneous horn in an African woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A cutaneous horn is a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Though grossly resembling an animal horn, it lacks a bony core. These lesions have been well described in Caucasian patients, as well as in a number of Arabic and Asian patients. Case presentation A young female presented with a large 'horn' of five-year duration, arising from a burn scar. Excision and scalp reconstruction were performed. Histology was reported as verrucoid epidermal hyperplasia with cutaneous horn. Conclusion This may be the first documentation of this lesion in a black African. Although likely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatologic lesions. Up to 40% of cutaneous horns occur as part of a premalignant or malignant lesion, and surgical extirpation with histological examination is thus more important than the curiosity surrounding these lesions.

  11. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  13. Distribution of horn flies on individual cows as a percentage of the total horn fly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, J H; Steelman, C D; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; George, J E

    2003-10-20

    Twenty-three mixed-breed herd cows were phenotyped for their ability to serve as a suitable host for Haematobia irritans, the horn fly. Based upon consistent observations within the lower quartile or upper quartile of individual fly counts, four cows were phenotyped as low carriers and five cows were phenotyped as high carriers of horn flies. The cows designated as low carriers consistently carried levels of flies below the economic threshold. However, during a period of fly population explosion, low carriers harbored flies well above the economic threshold. Although the number of flies counted on these low carrying cattle increased as the population increased, the relative percentage of the population that they carried changed very little. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this observation, and future studies are suggested.

  14. Medullary lesion revealed by MRI in a case of MS with respiratory arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, A.; Yamanouchi, H.; Murata, M.; Nagura, H.; Kuzuhara, S.; Toyokura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A 66-year-old MS patient who suffered respiratory arrest followed by complete remission is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a medullary lesion. Clinicoradiological relationships are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Gerard

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

  16. Procalcitonin Levels Predict Clinical Course and Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Martin A.; Meier, Christian; Radimerski, Tanja; Iten, Fabienne; Kraenzlin, Marius; Mueller-Brand, Jan; de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Kema, Ido P.; Links, Thera P.; Mueller, Beat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin has been well established as an important marker of sepsis and systemic infection. The authors evaluated the diagnostic and predictive value of calcitonin and its prohormone procalcitonin in medullary thyroid cancer. METHODS: The authors systematically explored the ability

  17. Definitions of traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.M.; Meent, H. van de; Curt, A.; Starremans, B.; Hosman, A.J.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review. OBJECTIVES: Conus medullaris syndrome (CMS) and cauda equina syndrome (CES) are well-known neurological entities. It is assumed that these syndromes are different regarding neurological and functional prognosis. However, literature concerning spinal trauma is

  18. Horn belief change: A contraction core

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available e-contractions. The argument is based on the observation that the convexity result for full propositional logic [2, Proposition 2.1] does not hold for Horn logic. Example 1 Let H = CnHL(fp! q; q ! rg). Then, for the e- contraction of H with p ! r..., and the Failure postulate. (H e 6) If 2 H n (H ’), then there exists an X s.t.T (H?e’) X H and X 6j= ’, but X [ f g j= ’ (H e 7) If j= ’, then H e ’ = H (Failure) (H e 6) resembles the Relevance postulate for base contraction. Also, it is an unusual...

  19. On the origin of Ammon's horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-10-01

    Greek and Roman worship of their gods and myths go back to Ancient Egyptian times. Images engraved in Greco-Roman coinage range from references to the assassination of Caesar and legendary stories like the arrival of a snake shaped demi-god Aesculapius to save the Romans from the plague, to invocations of major deities including Apollo the physician or Ammon the protector. Depicted with the horns of a ram, Ammon was adopted by the Greeks as an epithet of Zeus and later incorporated by the Romans as Jupiter. References to the cult of Ammon appear on tetradrachms minted for Alexander The Great and on provincial Roman coins struck under Claudius. It is thrilling to hold a coin depicting Marcus Aurelius with Salus on the reverse and think that it could have been handed to Galen in payment for his services. However, it is rare to find figures other than rulers on coins and the physician of Pergamum is no exception. Inspired by the Renaissance school of Padua, French anatomists in the Enlightenment (Garengeot in 1742 and Flurant in 1752) continued reviving ancient myths and named the curve-shaped-inner portion of the temporal lobe Ammon's horn. Outstanding scholars who studied this primitive structure of the brain included Lorente de Nó and his mentor Cajal, whose portrait appeared on fifty-pesetas notes issued in 1935. As primary sources of great archaeological and artistic value, Greco-Roman coins provide information about the origins of the myths and gods of classical antiquity and continue to inspire the arts and sciences to this day. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. AT2 receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT1-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT2-receptor activation appears to blunt AT1-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension.We tested the effects of AT1- and AT2-recept...

  1. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  2. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of the spongy medullary keratin of structurally coloured feather barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, R. O.; Torres, R.; Williamson, S.; Dyck, J.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted two-dimensional (2D) discrete Fourier analyses of the spatial variation in refractive index of the spongy medullary keratin from four different colours of structurally coloured feather barbs from three species of bird: the rose-faced lovebird, Agapornis roseicollis (Psittacidae), the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittacidae), and the Gouldian finch, Poephila guttata (Estrildidae). These results indicate that the spongy medullary keratin is a nanostructured tissue that functions as an array of coherent scatterers. The nanostructure of the medullary keratin is nearly uniform in all directions. The largest Fourier components of spatial variation in refractive index in the tissue are of the appropriate size to produce the observed colours by constructive interference alone. The peaks of the predicted reflectance spectra calculated from the 2D Fourier power spectra are congruent with the reflectance spectra measured by using microspectrophotometry. The alternative physical models for the production of these colours, the Rayleigh and Mie theories, hypothesize that medullary keratin is an incoherent array and that scattered waves are independent in phase. This assumption is falsified by the ring-like Fourier power spectra of these feathers, and the spacing of the scattering air vacuoles in the medullary keratin. Structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by constructive interference of coherently scattered light waves from the optically heterogeneous matrix of keratin and air in the spongy medullary layer.

  3. Clinical study of 12 cases of medullary carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Higaki, Nagato; Nakamura, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare type breast cancer, and shows peculiar clinical features. In a series of 460 cases of breast cancer operated on at the hospital from 1975 to 2004, twelve (2.6%) cases were diagnosed as medullary carcinoma of the breast by postoperative pathological study. When the specimens from the twelve tumors were reevaluated according to the Ridolfi's subtype classification, six tumors were classified into typical medullary carcinoma (TMC) and the remaining six tumors into atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC). On mammography these tumors were visualized as homogeneously enhancing oval masses without calcification and the boundary was comparatively well-defined. US demonstrated well-defied masses with a heterogeneous, hypoechoic texture and with reinforcement of posterior echoes. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 33.3% in medullary carcinomas which was not significantly different from that of infiltrative ductal carcinomas experienced during the same period. The rate of a positivity of a hormone receptor was 8.3% in medullary carcinomas which was low in predominance in comparison with that of infiltrative ductal carcinomas. The positive rate for a HER2/neu (above2+) by the IHC method was 58%. An average observation period is 11 years, and all patients are alive. (author)

  4. Decreased GABAA receptor binding in the medullary serotonergic system in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbelt, Kevin G; Paterson, David S; Belliveau, Richard A; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Haas, Elisabeth A; Stanley, Christina; Krous, Henry F; Kinney, Hannah C

    2011-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the medulla oblongata help regulate homeostasis, in part through interactions with the medullary serotonergic (5-HT) system. Previously, we reported abnormalities in multiple 5-HT markers in the medullary 5-HT system of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), suggesting that 5-HT dysfunction is involved in its pathogenesis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that markers of GABAA receptors are decreased in the medullary 5-HT system in SIDS cases compared with controls. Using tissue receptor autoradiography with the radioligand H-GABA, we found 25% to 52% reductions in GABAA receptor binding density in 7 of 10 key nuclei sampled of the medullary 5-HT system in the SIDS cases (postconceptional age [PCA] = 51.7 ± 8.3, n = 28) versus age-adjusted controls (PCA = 55.3 ± 13.5, n = 8) (p ≤ 0.04). By Western blotting, there was 46.2% reduction in GABAAα3 subunit levels in the gigantocellularis (component of the medullary 5-HT system) of SIDS cases (PCA = 53.9 ± 8.4, n = 24) versus controls (PCA = 55.3 ± 8.3, n = 8) (56.8% standard in SIDS cases vs 99.35% in controls; p = 0.026). These data suggest that medullary GABAA receptors are abnormal in SIDS infants and that SIDS is a complex disorder of a homeostatic network in the medulla that involves deficits of the GABAergic and 5-HT systems.

  5. Do egg-laying crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) archosaurs form medullary bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, M H; Elsey, R M; Dacke, C G; Horner, J R; Lamm, E-T

    2007-04-01

    It is beyond question that Mesozoic dinosaurs, like Aves and Crocodylia, are archosaurs. However, within the archosaurian clade, the origin and distribution of some major features are less clear, particularly with respect to reproductive physiology. Medullary bone, a highly mineralized, bony reproductive tissue present in the endosteal cavities of all extant egg-laying birds thus far examined, has recently been reported in Tyrannosaurus rex. Its presence or absence in extant crocodilians, therefore, may shed light on the timing of its evolutionary appearance. If medullary bone is present in all three taxa, it arose before the three lineages diverged. However, if medullary bone arose after this divergence, it may be present in both extinct dinosaurs and birds, or in birds only. If present in extinct dinosaurs and birds, but not crocodilians, it would indicate that it arose in the common ancestor of this clade, thus adding support to the closer phylogenetic relationship of dinosaurs and birds relative to crocodilians. Thus, the question of whether the crocodilian Alligator mississippiensis forms medullary bone during the production of eggs has important evolutionary significance. Our examination of long bones from several alligators (two alligators with eggs in the oviducts, one that had produced eggs in the past but was not currently in reproductive phase, an immature female and an adult male) shows no differences on the endosteal surfaces of the long bones, and no evidence of medullary bone, supporting the hypothesis that medullary bone first evolved in the dinosaur-bird line, after the divergence of crocodilians from this lineage.

  6. Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandin in the maintenance of cortical and renal medullary blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I Gomez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in anesthetized dogs to evaluate the relative participation of prostaglandins (PGs and nitric oxide (NO in the maintenance of total renal blood flow (TRBF, and renal medullary blood flow (RMBF. It was hypothesized that the inhibition of NO should impair cortical and medullary circulation because of the synthesis of this compound in the endothelial cells of these two territories. In contrast, under normal conditions of perfusion pressure PG synthesis is confined to the renal medulla. Hence PG inhibition should predominantly impair the medullary circulation. The initial administration of 25 µM kg-1 min-1 NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester produced a significant 26% decrease in TRBF and a concomitant 34% fall in RMBF, while the subsequent inhibition of PGs with 5 mg/kg meclofenamate further reduced TRBF by 33% and RMBF by 89%. In contrast, the initial administration of meclofenamate failed to change TRBF, while decreasing RMBF by 49%. The subsequent blockade of NO decreased TRBF by 35% without further altering RMBF. These results indicate that initial PG synthesis inhibition predominantly alters the medullary circulation, whereas NO inhibition decreases both cortical and medullary flow. This latter change induced by NO renders cortical and RMBF susceptible to a further decrease by PG inhibition. However, the decrease in medullary circulation produced by NO inhibition is not further enhanced by subsequent PG inhibition.

  7. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  8. Everard Home, John Hunter, and cutaneous horns: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondeson, J

    2001-08-01

    A cutaneous horn is a protrusion from the skin made up of cornified material. These horns can be derived from a variety of epidermal lesions, both benign and malignant. This historical article reviews a number of early instances of cutaneous horns, some reported in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Danish anatomist Thomas Bartholin was the first to have a correct theory of the ethiology of these horny growths, and the English surgeons John Hunter and Everard Home confirmed his findings in the late 18th century.

  9. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Rafiei, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. Sex Med 2014;2:182–185.

  10. RET proto oncogene mutation detection and medullary thyroid carcinoma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Marjan Zarif; Sheikholeslami, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. The medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is one of the most aggressive forms of thyroid malignancy,accounting for up to 10% of all types of this disease. The mode of inheritance of MTC is autosomal dominantly and gain of function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are well known to contribute to its development. MTC occurs as hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) forms. Hereditary MTC has syndromic (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, B; MEN2A, MEN2B) and non-syndromic (Familial MTC, FMTC) types. Over the last two decades, elucidation of the genetic basis of tumorigenesis has provided useful screening tools for affected families. Advances in genetic screening of the RET have enabled early detection of hereditary MTCs and prophylactic thyroidectomy for relatives who may not show any symptom sof the disease. In this review we emphasize the main RET mutations in syndromic and non syndromic forms of MTC, and focus on the importance of RET genetic screening for early diagnosis and management of MTC patients, based on American Thyroid Association guidelines and genotype-phenotype correlation.

  11. Advances and controversies in the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Vargas, Carla Vaz Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) comprises approximately 4% of all malignant thyroid neoplasms. Although the majority of patients have a good prognosis, a subgroup of patients develops progressive disease and requires systemic therapy. Here, we focused on the current MTC therapeutic approaches and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of molecular targeted therapies. Targeted molecular therapies that inhibit RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors involved in angiogenesis have been shown to improve progression-free survival in patients with advanced MTC. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, have been approved for the treatment of progressive or symptomatic MTC, and several others have exhibited variable efficacy. No tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been shown to improve survival. Although no definitive recommendation can currently be made, cumulative data indicate that knowledge of the tumor mutational profile may facilitate improvements in targeted therapy for MTC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of progressive MTC. Nevertheless, it is not clear who will benefit the most from therapy, and the decision regarding when and how to initiate the treatment should be made based on the patient's medical history and tumor behavior. Hopefully, in the near future, molecular profiling of MTC can be used to determine the most effective molecular therapeutic target.

  12. Muscular metastasis heralding medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdha Tekaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC commonly metastasizes locally to the cervical lymph nodes and distantly to the liver, lungs and bones. Metastatic involvement of the muscles is extremely rare. We reported an unusual case of undiagnosed MTC presenting with symptoms related to metastatic lesions of the brachoradialis and the gluteus medius muscles. A 53-year-old man consulted for a painful mass of the right forearm and atrophy of the quadriceps. Ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous collection in the forearm. Computed tomographic scan showed a mass in the right lung, an enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes and solid masses in the right gluteus medius and the left iliopoas muscle extending to the left iliac bone. Pulmonary biopsies displayed findings consistent with metastatic MTC. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the right arm swelling revealed a lesion with the same calcitonin immunostaining patterns as the lung metastasis. The diagnosis of multiple metastases (lung, muscle and bone of MTC is established. The patient has received local radiation therapy and was planned for chemotherapy. Muscular metastases from MTC are rare and although their prognosis is poor, local treatment may be worthwhile.

  13. Targeted Therapy for Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Priya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS. The management of residual, recurrent, or metastatic disease till a few years ago was re-surgery with local measures such as radiation. Chemotherapy was used with marginal benefit. The development of targeted therapy has brought in a major advantage in management of such patients. Two drugs—vandetanib and cabozantinib—have been approved for use in progressive or metastatic MTC. In addition, several drugs acting on other steps of the molecular pathway are being investigated with promising results. Targeted radionuclide therapy also provides an effective treatment option with good quality of life. This review covers the rationale of targeted therapy for MTC, present treatment options, drugs and methods under investigation, as well as an outline of the adverse effects and their management.

  14. Cutaneous horn and thermal keratosis in erythema AB igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Apra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46 - year - old Kashmiri lady developed erythema ab igne on both legs. She subsequently developed multiple keratoses and a cutaneous horn in the involved skin. An uncommon association of these three clinical conditions is being presented.

  15. Application of TEM horn antenna in radiating NEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Yongguang; Wang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a small radiating nuclear electromagnetic pulse simulator with fast rise time, we have investigated the application of TEM horn antenna in this kind of simulator. The TEM horn antenna is excitated by the integral double exponential pulse. Farfield response in time domain is analyzed based on the step response formula which is derived from the equivalent transmission line model of TEM horn antenna. Principle of antenna parameters selection is determined. The results of numerical calculation give a show of the radiation waveform and some problems. Then experiments are implemented and results are compared with the radiation waveforms generated by double exponential pulse excitation. It suggests that the TEM horn antenna can be used as radiating antenna in the NEMP simulator, which can radiate double-exponent-like pulse with the integral double exponential pulse as excitation. Meanwhile, impedance loading can improve farfield waveforms and enhance the low-frequency radiating ability of antenna.

  16. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    increased over time the use of Ventral Graft and decreased the use of dorsal graft [7]. From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach ... seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a similar rate of fistula with both ventral and dorsal grafting. The disadvantage of the dorsal approach is that it ...

  17. Attempts to conduct fatigue analysis of horn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozien, Marek S.; Nieslony, Adam

    2018-01-01

    In the article, the problem of estimating the lifespan of the magnetic lens' (horns) structure, is discussed. Due to pulse-type excitation by current flow, the relatively broad frequency band of stress component function is obtained. Moreover, due to repetition, the problem of pulse resonance can be obtained. The fatigue life prediction is done on the spectral attempt. The analysis was performed for two types of horn structures: the CERN NuFACT one and the EUROnu designed one.

  18. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan F. Khazaal; Haider Th. Salim Alrikabi; Anwar N. Mohammed Ali; Kadhim A. Neamah; Ali S. Shanan

    2017-01-01

    Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding). The assembled ante...

  19. Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: experimental and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Kett, Michelle M.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Abdelkader, Amany; Layton, Anita T.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension (Po2) of urine in the bladder could be used to monitor risk of acute kidney injury if it varies with medullary Po2. Therefore, we examined this relationship and characterized oxygen diffusion across walls of the ureter and bladder in anesthetized rabbits. A computational model was then developed to predict medullary Po2 from bladder urine Po2. Both intravenous infusion of [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin and infusion of NG-nitro-l-arginine reduced urinary Po2 and medullary Po2 (8–17%), yet had opposite effects on renal blood flow and urine flow. Changes in bladder urine Po2 during these stimuli correlated strongly with changes in medullary Po2 (within-rabbit r2 = 0.87–0.90). Differences in the Po2 of saline infused into the ureter close to the kidney could be detected in the bladder, although this was diminished at lesser ureteric flow. Diffusion of oxygen across the wall of the bladder was very slow, so it was not considered in the computational model. The model predicts Po2 in the pelvic ureter (presumed to reflect medullary Po2) from known values of bladder urine Po2, urine flow, and arterial Po2. Simulations suggest that, across a physiological range of urine flow in anesthetized rabbits (0.1–0.5 ml/min for a single kidney), a change in bladder urine Po2 explains 10–50% of the change in pelvic urine/medullary Po2. Thus, it is possible to infer changes in medullary Po2 from changes in urinary Po2, so urinary Po2 may have utility as a real-time biomarker of risk of acute kidney injury. PMID:27385734

  20. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Haas

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  1. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  2. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  3. TRPV1 receptors contribute to mediate paclitaxel-induced c-Fos expression in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalynovska, Nataliia; Adámek, Pavel; Paleček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 549-532 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11138S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15279; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : c-Fos * paclitaxel * TRPV1 * neuropathy * spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  4. Fifth ventricle: an unusual cystic lesion of the conus medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardo, G; Ruggeri, F; De Cerchio, L; Floris, R; Lunardi, P

    2005-06-01

    Cystic dilatation of the fifth ventricle on its own is an extremely rare pathological event in adults whose pathogenesis is uncertain. The authors describe a personal case of 'fifth ventricle' and review the pertinent literature. To emphasize the importance of including the fifth ventricle in differential diagnosis of lesions of the conus medullaris to ensure proper treatment. Italy. A 30-year-old woman was referred to us for recurrent low back pain. The patient was assessed by clinical, electrophysiological (motor evoked potential, somatosensorial evoked potential and electromyography of the perineal and lower limb muscles) and urodynamic investigations as well as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar-sacral segment with and without gadolinium enhancement, subsequently extended to the entire vertebral column and brain. Follow-up consisted of periodic clinical evaluation and lumbar-sacral MRI after 1 and 2 years. General physical examination, electrophysiological and urodynamic investigations were all negative, confirming the subjective nature of the patient's symptoms. Lumbar-sacral MRI demonstrated the presence of a cyst lesion containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which did not enhance after gadolinium, compatible with the diagnosis of the terminal ventricle. By extending the MRI investigation to the entire vertebral column and brain, it was possible to exclude an association with other malformations of the central nervous system. Clinical and radiological follow-up confirmed the nonevolutive nature of the lesion 1 and 2 years later. The lack of clinical symptoms and the stability of the radiological situation at 1 and 2 years follow-up motivated our choice of conservative treatment.

  5. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero, Sheila Lindsay, Insoo Suh, Menno R. Vriens, Elham Khanafshar, Wen T. Shen, Jessica Gosnell, Electron Kebebew, Quan-Yang Duh, Orlo H. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC commonly presents with lymph node (LN metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC. Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease.Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test.Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46% met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041. Of those 11 patients, 9 (82% had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36% of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014. Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection.

  6. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Marlon A; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H

    2011-04-08

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection.

  7. Medullary Thyroid Cancer: It is a pain in the neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Marlon A.; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R.; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T.; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection. PMID:21509150

  8. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (pRAIT) in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Ansquer, Catherine; Drui, Delphine; Mirallié, Eric; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Barbet, Jacques; Goldenberg, David M; Chatal, Jean-François

    2012-06-01

    Prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) varies from long- to short-term survival, based on prognostic factors, such as serum calcitonin doubling time (Ct DT). Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (pRAIT) is a novel targeted radionuclide therapy, using a bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb) and a radiolabeled bivalent hapten, designed to improve the therapeutic index and to deliver increased tumor-absorbed doses to relatively radioresistant solid tumors. Pretargeting has demonstrated a more favorable therapeutic index and clinical efficacy than directly labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) MAb in preclinical MTC models. Moreover, two phase I/II clinical trials assessing anti-CEA × anti-DTPA-indium BsMAb (murine F6x734 and chimeric hMN14x734) with (131)I-di-DTPA-indium showed encouraging therapeutic results in progressive, metastatic, MTC patients, with an improved survival in intermediate- and high-risk (pre-pRAIT Ct DT, <2 years) patients, as compared to contemporaneous untreated patients (median overall survival, 110 months vs 61 months; P < 0.030). pRAIT efficacy has been recently confirmed in a prospective multicenter phase II study assessing hMN14x734 and (131)I-di-DTPA-indium in rapidly progressive MTC patients. New pRAIT compounds are now available with fully humanized, recombinant, trivalent BsMAb (anti-CEA TF2) and histamine-succinyl-glutamine (HSG) peptides. The HSG peptide allows easy and stable labeling with different radiometals, such as (177)Lu or (90)Y beta-emitters having favorable physical features for pRAIT or (68)Ga and (18)F positron-emitters, allowing the development of a highly sensitive and specific immuno-positron emission tomography method in MTC or other CEA-positive tumors.

  9. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in rapidly progressing, metastatic, medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Oudoux, Aurore; Goldenberg, David M; Chatal, Jean-François; Barbet, Jacques

    2010-02-15

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients with localized residual disease and/or distant metastases may survive for several years or rapidly progress and die of their disease. Thus, highly reliable prognostic factors are needed for an early distinction between high-risk patients who need to be treated and low-risk patients who warrant a watch-and-wait approach. Calcitonin doubling time is an independent predictor of survival, with a high predictive value in a population of patients who have not normalized their calcitonin, even after repeated surgery. Several imaging methods should be proposed for patients with abnormal residual calcitonin levels persisting after complete surgery: ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for neck exploration, and CT for chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to have an advantage over CT for the detection of liver metastases from endocrine tumors. Moreover, MRI appears to be a sensitive imaging technique for detecting the spread of MTC to bone/bone marrow. 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/CT could be used for staging patients with progressive MTC, with possible prognostication by standard uptake value quantification. For systemic treatment of patients with rapidly progressing metastatic MTC, chemotherapy is not considered a valid therapeutic option. It is too early to evaluate the potential effectiveness of multikinase inhibitors, although interesting results of phase 2 studies have shown a transient stabilization in 30% to 50% of patients. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy has been the only innovative treatment modality convincingly showing some survival benefit when compared with a historical untreated control group. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  10. Neural control of adrenal medullary and cortical blood flow during hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslow, M.J.; Jordan, D.A.; Thellman, S.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hemorrhagic hypotension produces an increase in adrenal medullary blood flow and a decrease in adrenal cortical blood flow. To determine whether changes in adrenal blood flow during hemorrhage are neurally mediated, the authors compared blood flow responses following adrenal denervation (splanchnic nerve section) with changes in the contralateral, neurally intact adrenal. Carbonized microspheres labeled with 153 Gd, 114 In, 113 Sn, 103 Ru, 95 Nb or 46 Se were used. Blood pressure was reduced and maintained at 60 mmHg for 25 min by hemorrhage into a pressurized bottle system. Adrenal cortical blood flow decreased to 50% of control with hemorrhage in both the intact and denervated adrenal. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased to four times control levels at 15 and 25 min posthemorrhage in the intact adrenal, but was reduced to 50% of control at 3, 5, and 10 min posthemorrhage in the denervated adrenal. In a separate group of dogs, the greater splanchnic nerve on one side was electrically stimulated at 2, 5, or 15 Hz for 40 min. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased 5- to 10-fold in the stimulated adrenal but was unchanged in the contralateral, nonstimulated adrenal. Adrenal cortical blood flow was not affected by nerve stimulation. They conclude that activity of the splanchnic nerve profoundly affects adrenal medullary vessels but not adrenal cortical vessels and mediates the observed increase in adrenal medullary blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension

  11. Neglected dorsal dislocation of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaravati Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the scaphoid is very rare. A 45-year old male, industrial worker reported two and half months after injury with wrist pain and swelling on the dorsum of left wrist. He was diagnosed as neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid. Proximal row carpectomy with capsular interposition was done stabilizing the distal carpus on the radius using Kirschner wires. At-12 months follow-up the patient had good wrist function and was satisfied with the outcome of the treatment. We hereby report this neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid in view of rarity and discuss the various options for management.

  12. Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.

    2005-12-15

    The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer

  13. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins 1/2 localize to dorsal root ganglia and excitatory spinal neurons and are regulated by nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ming Dong; Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Hsueh, Brian

    2014-01-01

    /2 neurons are much more abundant in DRGs than the Ca2+-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and secretagogin) studied to date. In the spinal cord, the NECAB1/2 distribution is mainly complementary. NECAB1 labels interneurons and a plexus of processes in superficial layers of the dorsal horn......Neuronal calcium (Ca2+)-binding proteins 1 and 2 (NECAB1/2) are members of the phylogenetically conserved EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein superfamily. To date, NECABs have been explored only to a limited extent and, so far, not at all at the spinal level. Here, we describe the distribution, phenotype....... In the dorsal horn, most NECAB1/2 neurons are glutamatergic. Both NECAB1/2 are transported into dorsal roots and peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerve injury reduces NECAB2, but not NECAB1, expression in DRG neurons. Our study identifies NECAB1/2 as abundant Ca2+-binding proteins in pain-related DRG neurons...

  14. The Main Symptoms in Dorsal Sleep Apnea - Hypopnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Alexandra POP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OSAHS is a chronic, multifactorial disease, accompanied by significant and complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OSAHS and dorsal AHI in order to improve early diagnosis of dorsal sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. There were significant statistical differences between: the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without excessive daytime sleepiness as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with excessive daytime sleepiness; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without snoring as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with snoring; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without restless sleep as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with restless sleep; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without dyspnea as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with dyspnea; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without night sweats as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with night sweats; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without irritability as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with irritability and the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without nightmares as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with nightmares. Through this study we highlighted that excessive daytime sleepiness and snoring are prevalent symptoms in dorsal OSAHS. The presence of these symptoms in patients with sleep disorders may improve early diagnosis and the choice of an appropriate treatment for dorsal sleep apnea- hypopnea syndrome, thus participating in improving the patient’s life quality

  15. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - an unusual case of hyalinizing trabecular adenoma - like variant (encapsulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusmita Jena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm occurring in sporadic and familial patterns. A rare variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma shows microscopic features similar to hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of thyroid. Detection of this variant requires a high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical confirmation by calcitonin positivity. We present a 36 years old female patient with a thyroid nodule, which, on microscopy, displayed an encapsulated tumor with elongated cells arranged in trabecular pattern separated by hyalinized fibrous septae simulating a hyalinizing trabecular adenoma. Also present were spindle cells arranged in an organoid fashion. Most of the cells showed salt and pepper chromatin pattern. The lesion was negative for amyloid but showed diffuse calcitonin positivity indicative of a tumor of C-cell origin i.e. medullary carcinoma of thyroid – hyalinizing trabecular variant.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling is necessary for expansion of medullary microvessels during postnatal kidney development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robdrup Tinning, Anne; Jensen, Boye L; Johnsen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    for the development of the renal medullary microcirculation. Endothelial cell-specific immunolabeling of kidney sections from rats showed immature vascular bundles at postnatal day (P) 10 with subsequent expansion of bundles until P21. Medullary VEGF protein abundance coincided with vasa recta bundle formation....... In human fetal kidney tissue, immature vascular bundles appeared early in the third trimester (GA27-28) and expanded in size until term. Rat pups treated with the VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor vandetanib (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) from P7 to P12 or P10 to P16 displayed growth retardation and proteinuria....... Stereological quantification showed a significant reduction in total length (386 ± 13 vs. 219 ± 16 m), surface area, and volume of medullary microvessels. Vascular bundle architecture was unaffected. ANG II-AT1A/1B (-/-) mice kidneys displayed poorly defined vasa recta bundles whereas mice with collecting duct...

  17. Panmedullary edema with inferior olivary hypertrophy in bilateral medial medullary infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Miyashita, Fumio; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare type of stroke with poor outcomes. Inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy results from a pathologic lesion in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. The relationship between inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and the medullary lesion is obscure. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 autopsy case with unilateral medial medullary infarction that was associated with ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy has been reported. We describe a rare case with acute infarction in the bilateral medial medulla oblongata accompanied by subacute bilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and panmedullary edema. The hypertrophy appeared to have been caused by local ischemic damage to the termination of the central tegmental tract at the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  19. An Unexpected Near Term Pregnancy in a Rudimentary Uterine Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made.

  20. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  1. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  2. Neuroradiological evaluation of dorsal cyst malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Hayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Okudera, Toshio.

    1988-01-01

    We discussed six cases with dorsal cyst malformations listing their neuroradiological observations and proposed to differentiate between the holosphere and hemisphere as defined by Yokota (1984). The cases were divided into holospheric and hemispheric groups depending on the continuity of their frontal lobe midlines. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were placed in the holospheric group because of their unseparated frontal lobe sbeneath the partially formed anterior interhemispheric fissures. Cases 4, 5 and 6 were grouped in the hemisphere due to the completion of the interhemispheric fissures. There has been a tendency in recent years for most cases of cerebral malformations having an endogenous dorsal cyst with monoventricular configuration to be diagnosed as holoprosencephaly. However, we believe that only patients who have a dorsal cyst in the holospheric brain should be included, and the others in the hemispheric brain, which is capable of completing hemispheric cleavage, should not. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying the holospheric state in the dorsal cyst malformations for diagnosing holoprosencephaly. (author)

  3. Unusual Metastasis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma to the Breast: A Cytological and Histopathological Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Parul; Gandhi, Jatin S; Sharma, Anila; Gupta, Manoj; Choudhary, Partha S

    2018-01-01

    Breast metastases are a relatively rare condition and account for approximately 0.5-2% of all breast tumors. Recognition of metastatic tumors in the breast is important because it would prevent unnecessary mutilating surgery and would lead to appropriate treatment of the primary tumor. Breast metastases from medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) are very rare with only 21 reported cases in the literature. Some MTCs mimic primary invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast histopathologically and radiologically, making the distinction between the two diagnostically challenging. We present the case of a 45-year-old female presenting with a lump breast, which was later found out to be metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid.

  4. Transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medullary pyramids: incidence in the healthy term newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Andreis, I A; Vino, L; Fanos, V

    1999-01-01

    A screening program was performed on 1881 clinically healthy term newborns, aimed at detecting eventual pathological conditions not diagnosed during pregnancy. Seventy-three cases of transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medullary pyramids were observed, involving one or both kidneys with either sectorial or diffuse pattern. None of the neonates examined had evidence of renal dysfunction and follow-up ultrasound scans demonstrated complete resolution of the sonographic picture. Medullary hyperechogenicity is not rare in healthy term newborns (3.9%); it presents rapid resolution and should be considered in differential diagnosis of pathological conditions.

  5. Is thyroidectomy necessary in RET mutations carriers of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Torring, H; Godballe, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results and consequences of genetic testing in a family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are described. METHODS: In the screening of relatives, serum calcitonin is replaced by RET mutation analysis that was performed in families suspected of hereditary medullary...... thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In 4 of 10 families, mutation in exon 10 was found in codon 611. RESULTS: One hundred fifty persons belonging to 30 families were tested, of which 10 families were carriers of RET mutation in exon 10. In 1 of these families with MTC only, 2 brothers were gene carriers of a RET...

  6. Shear wave elastography in medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elastography (SWE is a modern method for the assessment of tissue stiffness. There has been a growing interest in the use of this technique for characterizing thyroid focal lesions, including preoperative diagnostics. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of SWE in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC diagnostics. Materials and methods: A total of 169 focal lesions were identifi ed in the study group (139 patients, including 6 MTCs in 4 patients (mean age: 45 years. B-mode ultrasound and SWE were performed using Aixplorer (SuperSonic, Aix-en-Provence, with a 4–15 MHz linear probe. The ultrasound was performed to assess the echogenicity and echostructure of the lesions, their margin, the halo sign, the height/width ratio (H/W ratio, the presence of calcifi cations and the vascularization pattern. This was followed by an analysis of maximum and mean Young’s (E modulus values for MTC (EmaxLR, EmeanLR and the surrounding thyroid tissues (EmaxSR, EmeanSR, as well as mean E-values (EmeanLRz for 2 mm region of interest in the stiffest zone of the lesion. The lesions were subject to pathological and/or cytological evaluation. Results: The B-mode assessment showed that all MTCs were hypoechogenic, with no halo sign, and they contained micro- and/ or macrocalcifi cations. Ill-defi ned lesion margin were found in 4 out of 6 cancers; 4 out of 6 cancers had a H/W ratio > 1. Heterogeneous echostructure and type III vascularity were found in 5 out of 6 lesions. In the SWE, the mean value of EmaxLR for all of the MTCs was 89.5 kPa and (the mean value of EmaxSR for all surrounding tissues was 39.7 kPa Mean values of EmeanLR and EmeanSR were 34.7 kPa and 24.4 kPa, respectively. The mean value of EmeanLRz was 49.2 kPa. Conclusions: SWE showed MTCs as stiffer lesions compared to the surrounding tissues. The lesions were qualifi ed for fi ne needle aspiration biopsy based on B-mode assessment. However, the diagnostic algorithm

  7. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will describe the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. We will describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This will include the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  8. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. The authors describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This includes the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  9. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  10. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  11. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

  12. A ruptured rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus at 18 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76000 pregnancies. Rupture of the horn in pregnancy is considered the most serious and common complication of rudimentary horns. The investigation of choice is considered to be magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Evaluation of renal tract ...

  13. Proximal Tubular Injury in Medullary Rays Is an Early Sign of Acute Tacrolimus Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Cosner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus (FK506 is one of the principal immunosuppressive agents used after solid organ transplantations to prevent allograft rejection. Chronic renal injury induced by tacrolimus is characterized by linear fibrosis in the medullary rays; however, the early morphologic findings of acute tacrolimus nephrotoxicity are not well characterized. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 is a specific injury biomarker that has been proven to be useful in the diagnosis of mild to severe acute tubular injury on renal biopsies. This study was motivated by a patient with acute kidney injury associated with elevated serum tacrolimus levels in whom KIM-1 staining was present only in proximal tubules located in the medullary rays in the setting of otherwise normal light, immunofluorescent, and electron microscopy. We subsequently evaluated KIM-1 expression in 45 protocol and 39 indicated renal transplant biopsies to determine whether higher serum levels of tacrolimus were associated with acute segment specific injury to the proximal tubule, as reflected by KIM-1 staining in the proximal tubules of the cortical medullary rays. The data suggest that tacrolimus toxicity preferentially affects proximal tubules in medullary rays and that this targeted injury is a precursor lesion for the linear fibrosis seen in chronic tacrolimus toxicity.

  14. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p

  15. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert

    Subramanian HH, Holstege G. Midbrain and medullary control of postinspiratory activity of the crural and costal diaphragm in vivo. J Neurophysiol 105: 2852-2862, 2011. First published March 30, 2011; doi:10.1152/jn.00168.2011.-Studies on brain stem respiratory neurons suggest that eupnea consists of

  16. Kidney Involvement in Systemic Calcitonin Amyloidosis Associated With Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Timco; Niedlich-den Herder, Cindy; Stegeman, Coen A.; Links, Thera P.; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Diepstra, Arjan

    A 52-year-old woman with widely disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma developed nephrotic syndrome and slowly decreasing kidney function. A kidney biopsy was performed to differentiate between malignancy-associated membranous glomerulopathy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced focal segmental

  17. Fewer Cancer Reoperations for Medullary Thyroid Cancer After Initial Surgery According to ATA Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Hans H. G.; Meijer, Johannes A. A.; Zandee, Wouter T.; Kramp, Kelvin H.; Sluiter, Willem; Smit, Johannes W.; Kievit, Job; Links, Thera P.; Plukker, John Th M.

    Surgery is still the only curative treatment for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). We evaluated clinical outcome in patients with locoregional MTC with regard to adequacy of treatment following ATA guidelines and number of sessions to first intended curative surgery in different hospitals. We reviewed

  18. Comparison of three radiolabelled peptide analogues for CCK-2 receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Fröberg (Alida); M. de Jong (Marion); B.A. Nock (Berthold); W.A.P. Breeman (Wouter); J.L. Erion (Jack); T. Maina (Theodosia); M. Verdijsseldonck (Marion); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); A. van der Lugt (Aad); P.P.M. Kooij (Peter); E.P. Krenning (Eric)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Analogous to somatostatin receptors, CCK-2 receptors might be viable targets for radionuclide scintigraphy and/or radionuclide therapy. Several

  19. Disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma despite early thyroid surgery in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-2A syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; Aronson, D. C.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; van de Wetering, M. D.; Wiersinga, W. M.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Vulsma, T.

    2005-01-01

    A 5 1/2-year-old boy, with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2A syndrome, was evaluated for presence of MEN-2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). DNA diagnostics confirmed MEN-2A. Basal (360 ng/L) and pentagastrin stimulated (430 ng/L) calcitonin (CT) levels were slightly

  20. Biochemical markers in the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Kema, Ido P.; Breukelman, Henk; van der Veer, Eveline; Wiggers, Theo; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2006-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) shares biochemical features with other neuroendocrine tumors but the particular characteristics are largely unexplored. We investigated the biochemical neuroendocrine profile of MTC and whether specific markers could be useful in follow-up. In addition to the standard

  1. Taking into care metastatic medullary compressions; Prise en charge des compressions medullaires metastatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, C.; Feuvret, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-10-15

    As between 5 and 14 per cent of patients suffering from cancer will suffer from a metastatic medullary compression which severely impacts the vital and functional prognostic, the authors proposes an overview of the different techniques used to take these compressions into care: surgery, radiotherapy and cortico-therapy. They describe their positive and negative impacts. Short communication

  2. A Rare Case of Painful Trigeminal Neuropathy Secondary to Lateral Medullary Infarct: Neuroimaging and Electrophysiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Tang; Lo, Chung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Chu; Tu, Min-Chien

    2015-06-01

    To report a rare case of painful trigeminal neuropathy after lateral medullary infarct and probe its underlying pathogenesis on the basis of neuroimaging and electrophysiological study. A 45-year-old man presented acute onset of unsteady gait followed by paroxysmal and electric shock-like headache in the distribution of ophthalmic branch of left trigeminal nerve in 2 days. Neurological examinations showed hypoesthesia in the distribution of mandibular branch of left trigeminal nerve and left appendicular ataxia. Muscle powers and deep tendon reflexes were normal. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct within the left cerebellum and middle portion of dorsolateral medulla. Vascular compression at the root entry zone of trigeminal nerve was excluded. Painful trigeminal neuropathy secondary to lateral medullary infarct was diagnosed. Ancillary blink reflex study 3 days after the stroke event showed abnormal late responses (R2), either ipsilateral or contralateral, after stimulation of left supraorbital nerve, suggesting left medullary lesion. Followup study 3 weeks later demonstrated normalization in absolute latencies of bilateral late responses, in line with remission of pain paroxysms on low-dose gabapentin treatment. Painful trigeminal neuropathy attributed to lateral medullary infarct is a unique disease entity. Ophthalmic branch involvement, coexisting sensory deficits, absence of triggers, and rapid evolvement and remission are its characteristics. Our neuroimaging study delineated ischemic stroke pathology within descending tract and spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. Serial electrophysiological studies provide evidences supporting ephaptic transmission as the main pathogenesis concordant with dynamics of neuropathic pain and therapeutic implications.

  3. Vandetanib in advanced medullary thyroid cancer: review of adverse event management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Enrique; Kreissl, Michael C; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2013-01-01

    Vandetanib has recently demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Given the potential for long-term vandetanib therapy in this setting, in addition to treatment for disease-related symptoms, effective ...

  4. Impacts of nitric oxide and superoxide on renal medullary oxygen transport and urine concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Aurélie; Layton, Anita T.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the reciprocal interactions among oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide (O2−) and their effects on medullary oxygenation and urinary output. To accomplish that goal, we developed a detailed mathematical model of solute transport in the renal medulla of the rat kidney. The model represents the radial organization of the renal tubules and vessels, which centers around the vascular bundles in the outer medulla and around clusters of collecting ducts in the inner medulla. Model simulations yield significant radial gradients in interstitial fluid oxygen tension (Po2) and NO and O2− concentration in the OM and upper IM. In the deep inner medulla, interstitial fluid concentrations become much more homogeneous, as the radial organization of tubules and vessels is not distinguishable. The model further predicts that due to the nonlinear interactions among O2, NO, and O2−, the effects of NO and O2− on sodium transport, osmolality, and medullary oxygenation cannot be gleaned by considering each solute's effect in isolation. An additional simulation suggests that a sufficiently large reduction in tubular transport efficiency may be the key contributing factor, more so than oxidative stress alone, to hypertension-induced medullary hypoxia. Moreover, model predictions suggest that urine Po2 could serve as a biomarker for medullary hypoxia and a predictor of the risk for hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. PMID:25651567

  5. Closing the medullary canal after retrograde nail removal using a bioabsorbable bone plug: technical tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, T.; Vogels, L. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple technique for closure of the intra-articular opening after the removal of a retrograde femur nail. With the use of a gelatine bioabsorbable bone plug the medullary canal is closed, reducing leakage of blood and cancellous bone particles from the bone into the knee joint

  6. Clinico-pathological and prognostic findings on 27 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabsi, Azza; El Amine El Hadj, Olfa; Goucha, Aida; Said, Gritli; Laabidi, Besma; Gamoudi, Amor

    2017-02-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor accounting for less than 10% of thyroid neoplasm. This tumor is characterized by important histological polymorphism which makes morphological diagnosis difficult and immunohistochemical study often necessary. We aim to perform a retrospective review of clinical and pathological characteristics of medullary carcinoma. We will discuss the place of immunohistochemistry in the positive diagnosis and as a prognostic factor. patients with thyroid medullary carcinoma diagnosed in department of pathology at carcinologic institute between 1998 and 2013 were retrospectively included. Clinic, radiologic and prognostic variables were assessed. Slides were reviewed for all the patients with confirmed tumors. Twenty-seven patients with CMT were identified. The average age was 55 years with predominance of males. The average consultation time was 16 months. The most common presentation symptom was a cervical lymph node. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 23 patients. Tumor was nodular and unique in 22 cases. The average size was 2.1 cm. CMT was of mixed type containing both medullary and papillary compound in four cases. Amyloid substance was present and abundant in 21cases. Positive staining for calcitonin was observed in 16 cases. Distant metastasis or metastatic lymph nodes was observed in eight cases with an average period of 42 months. Radiotherapy was performed in fifteen cases and two patients received chemotherapy. In the absence of amyloid deposits, immunohistochemical staining with calcitonin is useful to confirm the diagnosis. The prognosis of this entity is more pejorative than papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate and metastatic medullary compression. A retrospective study of 22 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Kvist, E; Hjortberg, P

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study of 709 patients with prostatic cancer was carried out. Twenty-two developed medullary cord compression (an incidence of 3%). All but two of the 22 patients were treated by radiation and 10 had additional hormonal treatment. Ten had some benefit from the treatment, but only 2...

  8. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow during modest saline loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, M; Vafaee, M; Braad, P E

    2012-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow (RMBF) is considered an important element of sodium homeostasis, but the experimental evidence is incongruent. Studies in anaesthetized animals generally support the concept in contrast to measurements in conscious animals. We hypothesized that saline-induced natriuresis...

  9. Application of difference gel electrophoresis to the identification of inner medullary collecting duct proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffert, J.D.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Chou, C.L.; Knepper, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present a standardized approach to purification of native inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells from rat kidney for proteomic analysis and apply the approach to identification of abundant proteins utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with

  10. VAC Therapy Direct to the Medullary Cavity for Chronic Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Satoshi; Tsuji, Shigeyoshi; Iwai, Takao; Hamada, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) is useful for difficult wound beds, although sites where bleeding or infection is expected are usually regarded as problematic for this therapy. This report outlines the treatment of chronic tibial osteomyelitis (Cierny- Mader type III) due to mixed infection with Nocardia spp and Bacteroi- des fragilis by postoperative VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity, followed by wound coverage with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous skin flap. A 64-year-old man developed chronic left tibial os- teomyelitis after a work injury. The nonviable tissues were debrided, including a sequestrum. Nocardia spp and B. fragilis were isolated from surgical bone specimens, and chronic tibial osteomyelitis due to mixed infection was diagnosed. Postoperatively, VAC therapy was performed directly to the open medullary cavity of the tibia and sub- sequently covered the residual soft tissue defect with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. The authors could not find any English literature on VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity combined with transplantation of a myocutaneous flap for osteomyelitis. Nocardia spp can cause a variety of infections, among which osteomyelitis occupies a relatively small percentage. This case raises the possibil- ity of treating chronic tibial osteomyelitis caused by mixed infection with Nocardia spp and B. fragilis by applying postoperative VAC ther- apy directly to the medullary cavity and covering the residual wound with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap.

  11. 77 FR 47011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... reclassify the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened under the... the status of the straight-horned markhor. This proposal constitutes our 12-month finding on the...

  12. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  13. AT(2) receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-02-01

    1. Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT(1)-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT(2)-receptor activation appears to blunt AT(1)-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension. 2. We tested the effects of AT(1)- and AT(2)-receptor blockade on basal cortical and medullary laser Doppler flux (CLDF and MLDF), and on responses to renal arterial infusion of Ang II, in rats with 2 kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) hypertension and sham-operated controls. Studies were carried out in thiobutabarbital (175 mg kg(-1), i.p.) anaesthetised rats, 4 weeks after clipping, or sham surgery (n=6 in each of eight groups). 3. Candesartan (10 microg kg(-1) h(-1), intravenous (i.v.)) reduced mean arterial pressure ( approximately 17%) and increased CLDF ( approximately 24%), similarly in both sham and 2K1C rats, but did not significantly affect MLDF. PD123319 (1 mg kg(-1) h(-1), i.v.) increased basal MLDF (19%) in 2K1C but not sham rats, without significantly affecting other variables. 4. In sham rats, renal arterial infusion of Ang II (1-100 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) dose dependently decreased CLDF (up to 44%), but did not significantly affect MLDF. These effects were markedly blunted in 2K1C rats. After PD123319, Ang II dose dependently increased MLDF (up to 38%) in sham but not 2K1C rats. Candesartan abolished all effects of Ang II, including those seen after PD123319. 5. Our data indicate that AT(1) receptors mediate medullary vasodilatation, which is opposed by AT(2)-receptor activation. In 2K1C hypertension, AT(2)-receptor activation tonically constricts the medullary circulation.

  14. Lateral medullary infarction with cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction: an unusual presentation with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tridu R; Decker, Barbara; Fries, Timothy J; Tunguturi, Ajay

    2018-01-24

    We report an unusual case of lateral medullary infarction presenting with orthostatic hypotension with pre-syncope without vertigo or Horner's syndrome. Case report with review of the literature. A 67-year-old man presented with pre-syncope and ataxia without vertigo. Initial brain CT and MRI were normal. Neurological evaluation revealed right-beating nystagmus with left gaze, vertical binocular diplopia, right upper-extremity dysmetria, truncal ataxia with right axial lateropulsion, and right-facial and lower extremity hypoesthesia. Bedside blood pressure measurements disclosed orthostatic hypotension. He had normal sinus rhythm on telemetry and normal ejection fraction on echocardiogram. A repeat brain MRI disclosed an acute right dorsolateral medullary infarct. Autonomic testing showed reduced heart rate variability during paced deep breathing, attenuated late phase II and phase IV overshoot on Valsalva maneuver, and a fall of 25 mmHg of blood pressure at the end of a 10-min head-up tilt with no significant change in heart rate. These results were consistent with impaired sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular reflexes. He was discharged to acute rehabilitation a week later with residual right dysmetria and ataxia. Lateral medullary infarctions are usually reported as partial presentations of classical lateral medullary syndrome with accompanying unusual symptoms ranging from trigeminal neuralgias to hiccups. Pre-syncope from orthostatic hypotension is a rare presentation. In the first 3-4 days, absence of early DWI MRI findings is possible in small, dorsolateral medullary infarcts with sensory disturbances. Physicians should be aware of this presentation, as early diagnosis and optimal therapy are associated with good prognosis.

  15. Spontaneous Rupture of Gravid Horn of Bicornuate Uterus at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of a 28 year old secondigravida with uterus bicornis unicollis who had spontaneous rupture of one of the uteri in pregnancy, had excision of one horn of the double uterus and was able to carry a subsequent pregnancy to term and achieve a live birth. The literature on double uterus was also reviewed.

  16. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  17. Acute Renal Failure Following the Saharan Horned Viper (Cerastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) is a common snake in the sandy and rocky regions in the south of Morocco. Although nearly all snakes with medical relevance can induce acute renal failure (ARF), it's unusual except with bites by some viper species. ARF has very rarely been reported following ...

  18. Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of Borno State, Nigeria. M Goni, IM Sulumbe, M Sabo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.141-144. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks | Dhar | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till ...

  20. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work carried out during Phase I ... Extrants. Rapports. Towards Developing a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa: Developing Responses to Human (In) Security-Phase Two ...

  1. Generation of microbubbles from hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuta, Toshinori; Suzuki, Ryodai; Nakao, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that microbubbles with diameters of less than 100μm can be easily generated by using a hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn. Consecutive images of bubbles obtained by using high-speed and high-resolution cameras reveal that a capillary wave is formed on the gas-liquid interface under weak ultrasonic irradiation and that the wave head is detached in the form of bubbles by the fragmentation of the interface as the power of ultrasonic irradiation increases. Moreover, consecutive images of the bubble interface obtained by an ultra-high-speed camera indicate that the breakup of bubbles oscillating harmonically with the ultrasonic irradiation generates many microbubbles that are less than 100μm in diameter. With regard to the orifice diameter of the horn end, we found that its optimum value varies with the ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is small, the capillary wave generated from the horn end easily propagates all over the gas-liquid interface, thereby starting the generation of microbubbles at a lower ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is large, the capillary wave is attenuated because of viscosity and surface tension. Hence, in this case, microbubble generation from the horn requires a higher ultrasonic power input. Furthermore, the maximum yield of microbubbles via primary and secondary bubble generation can be increased by increasing the gas flow rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion temperature profiles in the horns of the plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma sheet horns are the low-altitude extensions of the plasma sheet that lie poleward of the plasmasphere and equatorward of the tail lobes. Within the horns, magnetic field lines of increasing geomagnetic latitudes map to increasing distances into the downtail plasma sheet. Plasma data from the fast plasma experiment on ISEE 2 have been analyzed for 11 outbound crossings of the horns in the premidnight sector of the magnetosphere at typical altitudes of 2-4 R(E). These crossings typically occurred on time scales of less than 1 hour, providing almost instantaneous snapshots of plasma gradients within the horns. Ion temperatures observed during these crossings generally decreased by a factor of four to eight as magnetic field lines of increasing geomagnetic latitude were traversed. If we make the reasonable assumption that the ion temperatures are constant along the field lines within the plasma sheet, then this result implies that the ion temperatures in the downtail plasma sheet also commonly decrease by this same factor over the radial range extending from the inner edge of the plasma sheet at the plasmapause boundary to the outer edge at a neutral line in the distant tail.

  3. Brain, memory and development : the imprint of Gabriel Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Malcolm W; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is dedicated to the memory of Sir Gabriel Horn, who died on 2nd August 2012. In his impressive career that spanned more than 50 years (Bolhuis and Johnson, 2012; Brown, 2013), Horn’s contributions to cognitive neuroscience consistently

  4. Book Review Winnicott's children By Ann Horn and Monica Lanyado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Book Review Winnicott's children. By Ann Horn and Monica Lanyado (2012). Rod Anderson. Abstract. Routledge, London and New York 206 pages. Paperback, ISBN 978-0-415-67291-7. ZAR 503.00

  5. Learning to recognize horn and whistle sounds for humanoid robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, N.; Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of several state-of-the-art algorithms for real-time sound classification on a NAO robot are evaluated, to determine how accurate they are at distinguishing horn and whistle sounds in both optimal conditions, and a noisy environment. Each approach uses a distinct

  6. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  7. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; deMenocal, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March-May "long rains" season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September-November "short rains" season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

  8. Issues in treating depression in primary care | Horn | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues in treating depression in primary care. NR Horn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  9. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

    2000-05-01

    The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.

  10. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  11. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....

  12. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....

  13. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I.; Skov, H.; Henriksen, Oluf D.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  14. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  15. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  16. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  17. Identification of microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-09-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of cattle. The parasitism of horn flies interferes with cattle feeding, thus reducing weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aims of this study were to identify microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to characterize microorganism prevalence using real-time RT-PCR. Seven unigenes containing 24 ESTs were homologous to infectious agents. Microorganisms identified in partially fed female horn flies ESTs included Nora virus (3 unigenes; 8 ESTs), Wolbachia endosymbionts (3 unigenes; 3 ESTs), and Mycobacterium bovis (1 unigene; 13 ESTs). These results expanded the repertoire of microorganisms that could cause persistent infections or be mechanically transmitted by horn flies and support further studies on the role of horn flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico.

  18. Ruptured Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 19 Weeks with Previous Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done.

  19. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P fly count differed (P horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P fly count were associated with decreases (P fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments.

  20. Clinical relevance of18F-FDG PET and18F-DOPA PET in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H.G. Verbeek (Hans H.); J.T. Plukker (John); K.P. Koopmans (Klaas Pieter); J. de Groot (Jan); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); A.C. Muller Kobold (Anneke); A.N.A. van der Horst-Schrivers (Anouk); A.H. Brouwers (A.); T.P. Links (Thera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe transition from stable to progressive disease is unpredictable in patients with biochemical evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) doubling times are currently the most reliable markers for progression, but for accurate

  1. Clinical Relevance of F-18-FDG PET and F-18-DOPA PET in Recurrent Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Hans H. G.; Plukker, John T. M.; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Links, Thera P.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from stable to progressive disease is unpredictable in patients with biochemical evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) doubling times are currently the most reliable markers for progression, but for accurate determination, serial

  2. Dorsal forearm muscles: US anatomy Pictorial Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precerutti, M.; Garioni, E.; Ferrozzi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal compartment of the forearm contains nine muscles: four belong to the superficial group (extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris and anconeus) and five to the deep group (supinator, abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indices). Of these nine muscles the following details are considered: origin, course, distal insertion and their anatomical connection with those structures which are most often affected by pathologies. The radiologist must have a thorough knowledge of this complex topographic anatomy in order to perform ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and correctly interpret the images. PMID:23396199

  3. Tone and call responses of units in the auditory nerve and dorsal medullary nucleus of Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2007-01-01

    Hz with approximately 500 Hz in 3 dB bandwidth. SRs range from 0 to 80 (n.VIII) and 0 to 73 spikes/s (DMN). Nerve and DMN units of all CFs follow click rates in natural calls, spike, double spikes, or bursts. Spike times correlate closely with click...

  4. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  5. Unusual metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma to the breast: A cytological and histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Tanwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast metastases are a relatively rare condition and account for approximately 0.5–2% of all breast tumors. Recognition of metastatic tumors in the breast is important because it would prevent unnecessary mutilating surgery and would lead to appropriate treatment of the primary tumor. Breast metastases from medullary thyroid cancer (MTC are very rare with only 21 reported cases in the literature. Some MTCs mimic primary invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast histopathologically and radiologically, making the distinction between the two diagnostically challenging. We present the case of a 45-year-old female presenting with a lump breast, which was later found out to be metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid.

  6. Life threatening medullary injury following adenoidectomy and local anesthetic infiltration of the operative bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Eli; Halberthal, Michael; Goldsher, Dorit; Golz, Avishai; Bar-Joseph, Gad

    2009-02-01

    To draw attention to a rare, life threatening complication of a rather common procedure, namely medullary injury following adenoidectomy and local anesthetic infiltration of the operative bed. Case report. A tertiary pediatric critical care unit. A healthy 7-year-old girl underwent adenoidectomy and local anesthetic infiltration of the adenoid bed with lidocaine and adrenaline. In the recovery room, nystagmus, dysarthria, dyspnea, inability to cough and right hemiparesis were noticed. Because of her inability to remove secretions tracheal intubation was performed, followed by severe, life threatening respiratory failure. Tracheal intubation, hemodynamic support, prolonged mechanical ventilation, nitric oxide, and tracheostomy. In children, local anesthetic infiltration of the adenoid bed may cause life-threatening medullary injury and its routine use should be re-considered.

  7. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L.; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B.; Gagel, Robert F.; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Methods: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. Results: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. Conclusions: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice. PMID:25810047

  8. [A case of solitary ectopic medullary carcinoma in the right submandibular region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikutake, Takashi; Hosaka, Seiji; Fujita, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Shunji

    2013-11-01

    A 77-year-old woman consulted our hospital because of an indolent mass in the right submandibular region, which developed approximately 4 months previously. Ultrasonography revealed a 19.5×9.2 mm homogeneous low echoic mass in the submandibular region and a 9.8×3.1 mm low echoic mass in the left thyroid lobe. Blood examinations revealed high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin. Analysis of the cytological specimens obtained from the submandibular tumors indicated class IV disease. First, we resected the mandibular tumor for diagnosis, and the specimen showed medullary carcinoma. Later, the patient underwent left thyroid lobe resection. The pathological diagnosis was adenomatous goiter. We report a rare case of ectopic medullary carcinoma in the right mandibular region.

  9. The potential value of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, U.; Bihl, H.; Frank-Raue, K.; Raue, F.; Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Buhr, H.J.; Guzman, G.; Inst. de Neurocirugia, Investigationes Cerebrales 'Dr Asenjo' Santiago

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study, ten patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (markedly elevated calcitonin levels) were investigated by means of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with 111 In-pentetreotide. Scintigraphically, 30 sites of pathological uptake were found, mostly located in the neck and upper mediastinum. So far, 18 suspected tumour sites underwent histological examination and 14 of them could be verified as metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The remaining four putative tumour lesions turned out to be false positive scintigraphic findings caused by chronic inflammation and somatostatin receptor positive tumours other than MTC. We conclude that SRS is a promising imaging modality for localization of MTC recurrence and may thus make a contribution to better management of this patient group. (Author)

  10. 17β-Estradiol modulates cell proliferation of medullary cords during ovarian differentiation of the Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Vázquez-Gómez, Alma; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Montaño, Luis Manuel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2017-11-15

    In turtles undergoing temperature sex determination (TSD), bipotential gonads express Sox9 in medullary cords at both female- (FPT) and male-producing temperatures (MPT). Subsequently, when the sex fate of medullary cords becomes dimorphic, at FPT, Sox9 is downregulated, whereas at MPT, its expression is maintained. Medullary cords in the ovary turn into ovarian lacuna, whereas in the testis they differentiate as seminiferous cords. When embryos of Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle are incubated at MPT and treated with estradiol, Sox9 expression persists in the medullary cords in the form of tiny ovotestis-like formations. The perturbed development of the treated gonads is due to a significant decrease in the number of proliferating cells. This suggests that the disturbed effect caused by exogenous estradiol may be due to a conflict between the gene networks regulated by temperature and the increased level of endogenous estrogens, induced by the treatment. Here, we decided to use fadrozole and fulvestrant, an aromatase inhibitor and an estrogen-receptor antagonist, respectively, to provide insights into the role played by endogenous estrogens in regulating the cell proliferation of the two main gonadal compartments: the medullary cords and the cortex. Comparing cell proliferation patterns, our current results suggest that the endogenous estrogens are involved in determining the sex fate of medullary cords, by repressing proliferation. Interestingly, our results showed that endogenous estradiol levels are unnecessary for the thickening of the ovarian cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziz Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  12. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Kaziz; Hazem, Ben Ghozlen; Yadh, Zitoun; Faouzi, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  13. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  14. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....

  15. Ultrasensitive displacement sensor based on tunable horn-shaped resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Wu, Jiong; Yu, Le; Yang, Helin; Huang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel double-deck displacement sensor with a high linearity based on tunable horn-shaped resonators. The designed sensor included two substrate layers etched with copper metallization in various shapes. When the upper trip-type resonator layer has a relative displacement to the bottom horn-shaped resonator layer, the resonance frequency of the sensor is redshift. High sensitivity of the sensor is around 207.2 MHz mm‑1 with 4 mm linear dynamic range. We fabricate the sample of the proposed displacement sensor, in addition the simulated results are verified by experiment. The proposed displacement sensor is appropriate for using MEMS technology in further miniaturization.

  16. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    -religious extremists. Such securitization approaches imposed terror and counter terror warfare on peaceful civil society efforts (Kaldor, 2013). In the Horn of Africa, Africans fight each other in proxy wars apparently sponsored by external actors. The approach therefore undermined civic constituents trying to re......This paper discusses foreign aid complexities and understanding the war on terrorism. In the past decade the US strategically integrated foreign aid with the fight against extremism, particularly in war torn regions like the Horn of Africa. In analysing the Somali case the paper contends the 911......-state actors such as warlord militias and religious extremists. Such fragmented conflicting factions- most of them without clear national vision and project- have since received external aid. By instrumentally focusing and dealing with such divisive elements, donor countries aimed and hoped for potentially...

  17. Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Skoura, Evangelia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease. Evidence Acquisition: There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conve...

  18. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeyro, Pablo; Vieson, Miranda D; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moon-Larson, Martha; Saunders, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the gross, histological, and immunohistochemical features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pulmonary metastases in a young dog. Sheets of pleomorphic cells supported by fibrous stroma characterized the primary mass, while metastatic nodules had a neuroendocrine pattern. Despite differing histologic features, all masses showed marked immunoreactivity against calcitonin and multiple neuroendocrine markers consistent with MTC. Although MTC is a well-recognized entity, it may be difficult to distinguish this mass from other thyroid neoplasms, necessitating immunohistochemical characterization.

  19. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeyro, Pablo; Vieson, Miranda D.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Moon-Larson, Martha; Saunders, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the gross, histological, and immunohistochemical features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pulmonary metastases in a young dog. Sheets of pleomorphic cells supported by fibrous stroma characterized the primary mass, while metastatic nodules had a neuroendocrine pattern. Despite differing histologic features, all masses showed marked immunoreactivity against calcitonin and multiple neuroendocrine markers consistent with MTC. Although MTC is a well-recognized enti...

  20. The influence of calcineurin inhibitors on renal medullary microcirculation: a novel approach to nephrotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Mark Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506), have revolutionized solid organ transplantation with their unprecedented ability to increase graft and patient survival. However, they have a plethora of unwanted side effects, of which nephrotoxicity is predominant. Renal cortical blood flow is majorly suppressed with administration of CsA and FK506, however the impact of these drugs on medullary blood flow is still unclear. \\ud It was previously thought that ren...

  1. Role of the Oxytocin Receptor Expressed in the Rostral Medullary Raphe in Thermoregulation During Cold Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Yuko; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Otsuka, Ayano; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Sato, Keisuke; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent papers have reported that oxytocin (Oxt) and the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) may be involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. We therefore suspected the Oxt/Oxtr system to be involved in energy homeostasis. In previous studies, we found a tendency toward obesity in Oxtr-deficient (Oxtr ?/?) mice, as well as impaired thermoregulation when these mice were exposed to cold conditions. In the present study, we observed the expression of Oxtr in the rostral medullary raphe (RMR), th...

  2. The heart of the matter: Acute quadriplegia with respiratory paralysis - bilateral medial medullary infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinicoradiologic correlate of bilateral medial medullary infarction is described. This is a rare clinical entity of vertebrobasilar stroke syndrome with catastrophic consequences and a poor functional prognosis. Since the initial symptom is quadriplegia, the clinical diagnosis without neuroimaging can be challenging with a potential for misdiagnosis as Guillain–Barré syndrome or brainstem encephalitis in the early stages. The teaching neuroimage of the “heart appearance” sign is revisited.

  3. Lateral Medullary Ischemic Infarct Caused by Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taimur Malik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA aneurysms are rare. The most common complication of intracranial aneurysms is rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ischemic infarct, although more common in giant thrombosed aneurysms, is a very rare manifestation of small intracranial aneurysms. Here we describe a patient who presented with lateral medullary acute infarction associated with an ipsilateral, small (4 × 3.5 mm, unruptured and non-thrombosed PICA aneurysm.

  4. Medullary nephrocalcinosis and pancreatic calcifications demonstrated by ultrasound and CT in infants after treatment with ACTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, H.P.; Hanefield, F.; Kaufmann, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    Thirteen patients who had undergone prolonged adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms or encephalopathy were examined with sonography. Nine patients were seen to have appearances characteristic of medullary nephrocalcinosis. Five patients also showed a homogeneously increased echogenicity of the whole pancreas on sonography, and one of these showed increased density on computed tomography. Density measurements were in the range of calcific arterial within the papillae and pancreatic tissue. On abdominal survey radiographs, even in retrospect, no calcifications could be recognized.

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate and metastatic medullary compression. A retrospective study of 22 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Kvist, E; Hjortberg, P

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study of 709 patients with prostatic cancer was carried out. Twenty-two developed medullary cord compression (an incidence of 3%). All but two of the 22 patients were treated by radiation and 10 had additional hormonal treatment. Ten had some benefit from the treatment, but only 2...... of 19 regained their ability to walk. The need for immediate diagnosis and treatment is stressed....

  6. Irreducible tibial pilon fracture caused by incarceration of the fibula in the tibial medullary canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellanti, Prasad; Hammad, Yassir; Kosutic, Damir; Grieve, Philip P

    2012-01-01

    Fractures can be irreducible for several reasons, including soft tissue or bone fragment interposition. We report an unusual fracture configuration of a comminuted tibial pilon fracture in which the distal fibular shaft fragment was occupying the medullary canal of the proximal tibial shaft fragment and inhibiting reduction and fixation. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in a published study. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  8. The magnetic horn being installed in the CNGS target chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic system that focuses the beam of particles arising from the graphite target of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso project (CNGS) has been installed in its final position in the tunnel.The CNGS secondary beam magnetic system consists of two elements: the horn and the reflector, both acting as focusing lenses for the positively-charged pions and kaons produced by proton interactions in the target.

  9. Understanding recent eastern Horn of Africa rainfall variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Brant; Hoerling, Martin P.; Funk, Christopher C.; Blade, Ileana; Dole, Randall M.; Allured, Dave; Quan, Xiaowei; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations and sea surface temperature (SST)-forced ECHAM5 simulations are examined to study the seasonal cycle of eastern Africa rainfall and its SST sensitivity during 1979–2012, focusing on interannual variability and trends. The eastern Horn is drier than the rest of equatorial Africa, with two distinct wet seasons, and whereas the October–December wet season has become wetter, the March–May season has become drier.

  10. Dorsal-Ventral Patterning and Neural Induction in Xenopus Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    De Robertis, Edward M.; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    We review the current status of research in dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning in vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on recent work on Xenopus, which provides a paradigm for vertebrate development based on a rich heritage of experimental embryology. D-V patterning starts much earlier than previously thought, under the influence of a dorsal nuclear β-Catenin signal. At mid-blastula two signaling centers are present on the dorsal side: The prospective neuroectoderm expresses bone morphogenetic protei...

  11. Factors affecting neurological outcome in traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingwell, Stephen P; Curt, Armin; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe the relevant factors that influence neurological outcomes in patients who sustain traumatic conus medullaris injuries (CMIs) and cauda equina injuries (CEIs). Despite the propensity for spinal trauma to affect the thoracolumbar spine, few studies have adequately characterized the outcomes of CMIs and CEIs. Typically the level of neural axis injury is inferred from the spinal level of injury or the presenting neurological picture because no study from the spinal literature has specifically evaluated the location of the conus medullaris with respect to the level of greatest canal compromise. Furthermore, the conus medullaris is known to have a small but important variable location based on the spinal level. Patients with a CMI will typically present with variable lowerextremity weakness, absent lower-limb reflexes, and saddle anesthesia. The development of a mixed upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron syndrome may occur in patients with CMIs, whereas a CEI is a pure lower motor neuron injury. Many treatment options exist and should be individualized. Posterior decompression and stabilization offers at least equivalent neurological outcomes as nonoperative or anterior approaches and has the additional benefits of surgeon familiarity, shorter hospital stays, earlier rehabilitation, and ease of nursing care. Overall, CEIs and CMIs have similar outcomes, which include ambulatory motor function and a variable persistence of bowel, bladder, and potentially sexual dysfunctions.

  12. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Patients With Dysphagia With Medullary Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Zhao-Bo; Zhu, Xiao; Fan, Wen-Guo; Pu, Li-Jun; Chu, Lei; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) acting on the sensory input or motor muscle in treating patients with dysphagia with medullary infarction. Prospective randomized controlled study. Department of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Patients with dysphagia with medullary infarction (N=82). Participants were randomized over 3 intervention groups: traditional swallowing therapy, sensory approach combined with traditional swallowing therapy, and motor approach combined with traditional swallowing therapy. Electrical stimulation sessions were for 20 minutes, twice a day, for 5d/wk, over a 4-week period. Swallowing function was evaluated by the water swallow test and Standardized Swallowing Assessment, oral intake was evaluated by the Functional Oral Intake Scale, quality of life was evaluated by the Swallowing-Related Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) Scale, and cognition was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age, sex, duration, MMSE score, or severity of the swallowing disorder (P>.05). All groups showed improved swallowing function (P≤.01); the sensory approach combined with traditional swallowing therapy group showed significantly greater improvement than the other 2 groups, and the motor approach combined with traditional swallowing therapy group showed greater improvement than the traditional swallowing therapy group (Pdysphagia and improves quality of life for patients with dysphagia with medullary infarction. A sensory approach appears to be better than a motor approach. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome: diffusion-weighted imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, O.; Calli, C.; Yunten, N.; Kocaman, A.; Sirin, H. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome. Thirteen patients with Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome were examined with conventional and echoplanar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit. MR examinations were obtained in the acute or subacute stage of clinical syndrome, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was considered to be positive for infarction when an increase in signal was seen on b = 1000 s/mm2 images in the posterolateral medullary localization. DWIs were positive in 12 patients in the acute or subacute stages of this clinical syndrome. A false-negative result was obtained in only one patient examined within the first day, 10 h after onset of the symptoms. In the visual evaluation of the DWI, the contrast between normal and infarcted brainstem area was better in the high b-value images than in the apparent diffusion coefficient map images. DWI is a valuable technique for examining patients presenting with the signs and symptoms of Wallenberg's syndrome and high b-value images can provide complementary data to T2-weighted images. However, because most of our case group were in either the acute or subacute stage, true sensitivity of the method in the hyperacute stage of the syndrome remains unclear.

  14. Prominent deep medullary veins: a predictive biomarker for stroke risk from transient ischemic attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Xu, Zhihua; Li, Hongyi; Cai, Xiaonan; Chang, Cancan; Yang, Benqiang

    2018-05-01

    Background Deep medullary veins (DMVs) are a biomarker of severity and prognosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, their clinical significance remains unclear in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Purpose To determine whether prominent deep medullary veins (PDMVs) are a predictive biomarker for stroke risk after TIA. Material and Methods Clinical and imaging data of 49 patients with TIA and 49 sex- and age-matched controls were studied. PDMVs were defined as DMVs with a score of 3 (TDMVs) or asymmetric DMVs (ADMVs), and the relationship between PDMVs and clinical features was analyzed. The DMV score based on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) ranged from 0 (not visible) to 3 (very prominent) and was calculated for both hemispheres separately. A different score in each hemisphere was defined as ADMVs and an equal score was defined as symmetric DMVs. The asymmetry and score of DMVs were compared between the two groups and with respect to the time from TIA onset to imaging analysis. Results Agreement between neuroradiologists for the DMV asymmetry/score on SWI was excellent. The frequency of ADMVs and TDMVs was significantly higher in patients with TIA than controls ( P  0.05); PDMVs were not correlated with age, blood pressure, or diabetes. However, PDMVs were associated with the ABCD2 score (≥4), clinical symptoms, and duration of TIA (≥10 min). Conclusion Prominent deep medullary veins is a predictive biomarker for the risk of stroke in many patients having suffered from TIA.

  15. Measles--Horn of Africa, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) regions have set goals for measles elimination by 2020 and 2015, respectively. The two WHO regions include AFR member states Ethiopia and Kenya, and EMR member state Somalia. All three countries are in the Horn of Africa, where measles remains endemic, with periodic outbreaks despite efforts to achieve elimination goals. This report describes outbreaks that occurred in the Horn of Africa during 2010-2011. The outbreaks were exacerbated by a complex humanitarian emergency in Somalia, with an influx of an estimated 600,000 refugees into camps in Kenya and Ethiopia near the borders with Somalia. During 2010-2011, a total of 9,756 measles cases were reported in Ethiopia and 2,566 in Kenya, with wide age distributions, and 16,135 were reported in Somalia, with 78% occurring among children aged response immunization (ORI) strategies were implemented; however, outbreaks continued. To reach AFR and EMR measles elimination targets, uniform high coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) must be achieved and maintained in Horn of Africa countries, including in refugee camps.

  16. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan F. Khazaal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding. The assembled antenna subjected to two types of tests to evaluate its performance. The first one is the test by two port network analyzer to point out S & Z parameters, input resistance, and the voltage standing wave ratio of the horn, while the second test was done using un-echoic chamber to measure the gain, side lobes level and the half power beam width. The results of testing come nearly as a theoretical value of the most important of antenna parameters, like; gain, side lobe level, -3 dB beam width, return loss and voltage standing wave ratio "VSWR", input Impedance.

  17. Role of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in mediating hypertension in response to chronic renal medullary endothelin type B receptor blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S Speed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The renal medullary endothelin (ET-1 system plays an important role in the control of sodium excretion and arterial pressure (AP through the activation of renal medullary ET-B receptors. We have previously shown that blockade of endothelin type B receptors (ET-B leads to salt-sensitive hypertension through mechanisms that are not fully understood. One possible mechanism is through a reduction in renal medullary production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE. 20-HETE, a metabolite of arachidonic acid, has natriuretic properties similar to ET-B activation. While these findings suggest a possible interaction between ET-B receptor activation and 20-HETE production, it is unknown whether blockade of medullary ET-B receptors in rats maintained on a high sodium intake leads to reductions in 20-HETE production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of increasing sodium intake from low (NS = .8% to high (HS = 8% on renal medullary production of 20-HETE in the presence and absence of renal medullary ET-B receptor antagonism was examined. Renal medullary blockade of ET-B receptors resulted in salt sensitive hypertension. In control rats, blood pressure rose from 112.8±2.4 mmHg (NS to 120.7±9.3 mmHg (HS. In contrast, when treated with an ET-B receptor blocker, blood pressure was significantly elevated from 123.7±3.2 (NS to 164.2±7.1 (HS. Furthermore, increasing sodium intake was associated with elevated medullary 20-HETE (5.6±.8 in NS vs. 14.3±3.7 pg/mg in HS, an effect that was completely abolished by renal medullary ET-B receptor blockade (4.9±.8 for NS and 4.5±.6 pg/mg for HS. Finally, the hypertensive response to intramedullary ET-B receptor blockade was blunted in rats pretreated with a specific 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that increases in renal medullary production of 20-HETE associated with elevating salt intake may be, in part, due to ET-B receptor activation within the renal

  18. AT2 receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT1-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT2-receptor activation appears to blunt AT1-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension. We tested the effects of AT1- and AT2-receptor blockade on basal cortical and medullary laser Doppler flux (CLDF and MLDF), and on responses to renal arterial infusion of Ang II, in rats with 2 kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) hypertension and sham-operated controls. Studies were carried out in thiobutabarbital (175 mg kg−1, i.p.) anaesthetised rats, 4 weeks after clipping, or sham surgery (n=6 in each of eight groups). Candesartan (10 μg kg−1 h−1, intravenous (i.v.)) reduced mean arterial pressure (∼17%) and increased CLDF (∼24%), similarly in both sham and 2K1C rats, but did not significantly affect MLDF. PD123319 (1 mg kg−1 h−1, i.v.) increased basal MLDF (19%) in 2K1C but not sham rats, without significantly affecting other variables. In sham rats, renal arterial infusion of Ang II (1–100 ng kg−1 min−1) dose dependently decreased CLDF (up to 44%), but did not significantly affect MLDF. These effects were markedly blunted in 2K1C rats. After PD123319, Ang II dose dependently increased MLDF (up to 38%) in sham but not 2K1C rats. Candesartan abolished all effects of Ang II, including those seen after PD123319. Our data indicate that AT1 receptors mediate medullary vasodilatation, which is opposed by AT2-receptor activation. In 2K1C hypertension, AT2-receptor activation tonically constricts the medullary circulation. PMID:15678096

  19. Identification of Early RET+ Deep Dorsal Spinal Cord Interneurons in Gating Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian; Miao, Xuerong; Liang, Lingli; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Olson, William; Fleming, Michael S; Ma, Minghong; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Luo, Wenqin

    2016-01-01

    The gate control theory (GCT) of pain proposes that pain- and touch-sensing neurons antagonize each other through spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) gating neurons. However, the exact neural circuits underlying the GCT remain largely elusive. Here, we identified a new population of deep layer DH (dDH) inhibitory interneurons that express the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret neonatally. These early RET+ dDH neurons receive excitatory as well as polysynaptic inhibitory inputs from touch- and/or pain-sensing afferents. In addition, they negatively regulate DH pain and touch pathways through both pre- and postsynaptic inhibition. Finally, specific ablation of early RET+ dDH neurons increases basal and chronic pain, whereas their acute activation reduces basal pain perception and relieves inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Taken together, our findings uncover a novel spinal circuit that mediates crosstalk between touch and pain pathways and suggest that some early RET+ dDH neurons could function as pain “gating” neurons. PMID:27545714

  20. Interlimb Dynamic after Unilateral Focal Lesion of the Cervical Dorsal Corticospinal Tract with Endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther A. Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Handedness is one of the most recognized lateralized behavior in humans. Usually, it is associated with manual superiority regarding performance proficiency. For instance, more than 90% of the human population is considered more skilled with the right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere, than with the left. However, during the performance of bimanual tasks, the two hands usually assume asymmetric roles, with one hand acting on objects while the other provides support, stabilizing the object. Traditionally, the role of the two hands is viewed as fixed. However, several studies support an alternate view with flexible assignments for the two hands depending on the task. The supporting role of the hand depends on a closed loop pathway based on proprioceptive inputs from the periphery. The circuit’s efferent arm courses through the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST in rodents and terminate on spinal cord interneurons which modulate the excitability of motoneurons in the ventral horn. In the present work, we developed an experimental model of unilateral lesion targeting the cervical dCST with microinjections of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1 to evaluate the degree of flexibility of forelimb assignment during a food manipulation task. Our results show that just 3 days after unilateral corticospinal tract (CST injury in the cervical region, rats display severe motor impairment of the ipsilateral forepaw together with a remarkable reversal of motor assignment between the forelimbs.

  1. Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the dorsal root ganglion contribute to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, A M; Gist, A C; Zhang, H; Kosturakis, A K; Dougherty, P M

    2018-03-15

    Activation of innate immune mechanisms within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn has been shown to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain including paclitaxel-related chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Here we tested whether similar mechanisms are generalizable to oxaliplatin-induced CIPN. After a single intraperitoneal injection of 3mg/kg oxaliplatin, mechanical withdrawal threshold and the expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor, CCR2 in the DRG were measured by behavioral testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, respectively. Mechanical responsiveness increased from the first day after oxaliplatin injection and persisted until day 15, the last day of this experiment. IHC showed that the expression of CCL2/CCR2 started to increase by 4hrs after oxaliplatin treatment, was significantly increased at day 4, and then both signals became normalized by day15. Co-treatment with intrathecal anti-CCL2 antibodies prevented the development of oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyper-responsiveness, and transiently reversed established hyperalgesia when given 1 week after chemotherapy. This is the first study to demonstrate CCL2/CCR2 signaling in a model of oxaliplatin-related CIPN; and it further shows that blocking of this signal can attenuate the development of oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Activation of innate immune mechanisms may therefore be a generalized basis for CIPN irrespective of the specific class of agent.

  2. A Giant Cutaneous Horn Projecting from Verrucous Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Dipesh; Ranjan, Shashi; Issar, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is conical shape of compact keratin that resembles a miniature animal horn. Though morphologically similar to horns in animals they are histologically very different from them. It is a circumscribed, conical, hyperkeratotic dense protrusion with epithelial cornification above the skin surface in response to a wide range of underlying benign and malignant pathological changes. Though benign, a cutaneous horn holds the potential to be premalignant or malignant. In India till now six cases has been reported with cutaneous horn at various unusual sites. We report a unique case of 52-year-old woman with a giant cutaneous horn at left oral commissure with underlying verrucous carcinoma of left buccal mucosa which is a very rare location for such lesion. Considering its malignant potential, adequate therapy requires wide excision with a tumour-free margin of at least 1 cm, particularly in the facial region where the incidence of malignancy is higher. PMID:28511519

  3. Medullary raphe nuclei activate the lumbosacral defecation center through the descending serotonergic pathway to regulate colorectal motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Naitou, Kiyotada; Horii, Yuuki; Shimaoka, Hiroki; Horii, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Yamada, Akihiro; Furue, Hidemasa; Shiina, Takahiko; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal motility is regulated by two defecation centers located in the brain and spinal cord. In previous studies, we have shown that administration of serotonin (5-HT) in the lumbosacral spinal cord causes enhancement of colorectal motility. Because spinal 5-HT is derived from neurons of the medullary raphe nuclei, including the raphe magnus, raphe obscurus, and raphe pallidus, we examined whether stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei enhances colorectal motility via the lumbosacral defecation center. Colorectal pressure was recorded with a balloon in vivo in anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei failed to enhance colorectal motility. Because GABAergic neurons can be simultaneously activated by the raphe stimulation and released GABA masks accelerating actions of the raphe nuclei on the lumbosacral defecation center, a GABA A receptor antagonist was preinjected intrathecally to manifest excitatory responses. When spinal GABA A receptors were blocked by the antagonist, electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei increased colorectal contractions. This effect of the raphe nuclei was inhibited by intrathecal injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2 (5-HT 2 ) and type 3 (5-HT 3 ) receptor antagonists. In addition, injection of a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor in the lumbosacral spinal cord augmented the raphe stimulation-induced enhancement of colorectal motility. Transection of the pelvic nerves, but not transection of the colonic nerves, prevented the effect of the raphe nuclei on colorectal motility. These results demonstrate that activation of the medullary raphe nuclei causes augmented contractions of the colorectum via 5-HT 2 and 5-HT 3 receptors in the lumbosacral defecation center. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have shown that electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei causes augmented contractions of the colorectum via pelvic nerves in rats. The effect of the medullary raphe nuclei on colorectal motility is

  4. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  5. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros,Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig,Thelma Maria; Gomes,Alberto; Koller,Wilson Werner; Furlong,John; Girão,Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro,Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco,Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper,Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga,Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira,Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the a...

  6. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    OpenAIRE

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livest...

  7. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  8. Selective dorsal column stimulation in SCS, using conditioning pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    2004-01-01

    A system and method is described for preferentially stimulating dorsal column fibers while avoiding stimulation of dorsal root fibers. The invention applies hyperpolarizing (anodic) pre-pulses (HPP) and depolarizing (cathodic) pre-pulses (DPP) to neural tissue, such as spinal cord tissue, through a

  9. Selective dorsal column stimulation in SCS, using conditioning pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    2003-01-01

    A system and method is described for preferentially stimulating dorsal column fibers while avoiding stimulation of dorsal root fibers. The invention applies hyperpolarizing pre-pulses and depolarizing pre-pulses to neural tissue, such as spinal cord tissue, through a lead placed over the spinal cord

  10. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences ... Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal ... The obvious dorsal indentation observed is most probably due to the inflammatory response of the surgical wound.

  11. Body Scars and Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as Indicators Interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Peponocephala electra) and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Injuries on the dorsal region (especially the dorsal fin) were characterised and related to fisheries or intra-/inter-specific interactions (with sharks and other cetacean species). The results suggest interactions with fisheries involving the ...

  12. Transcription profiling provides insights into gene pathways involved in horn and scurs development in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Sigrid A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of horns are evident in cattle - fixed horns attached to the skull and a variation called scurs, which refers to small loosely attached horns. Cattle lacking horns are referred to as polled. Although both the Poll and Scurs loci have been mapped to BTA1 and 19 respectively, the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes is unknown, and so far, no candidate genes regulating these developmental processes have been described. This study is the first reported attempt at transcript profiling to identify genes and pathways contributing to horn and scurs development in Brahman cattle, relative to polled counterparts. Results Expression patterns in polled, horned and scurs tissues were obtained using the Agilent 44 k bovine array. The most notable feature when comparing transcriptional profiles of developing horn tissues against polled was the down regulation of genes coding for elements of the cadherin junction as well as those involved in epidermal development. We hypothesize this as a key event involved in keratinocyte migration and subsequent horn development. In the polled-scurs comparison, the most prevalent differentially expressed transcripts code for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, which were up regulated in scurs tissues relative to polled. Conclusion For this first time we describe networks of genes involved in horn and scurs development. Interestingly, we did not observe differential expression in any of the genes present on the fine mapped region of BTA1 known to contain the Poll locus.

  13. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a history of an uneventful vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitin; Yadav, Nitin; Koshiya, Darshan; Jhanwar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event with an estimated incidence of 1 in 76,000 to 1 in 1,40,000 pregnancies. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn has a high incidence of obstetric and gynecological complications. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is one of the most dreaded complications, which can have grave consequences for both mother and fetus. In the majority of the cases, it is detected after rupture of the horn, usually during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. An ultrasonographic diagnosis made prior to rupture of the rudimentary horn may prevent this catastrophic outcome. We report a case of a G2 P1 L1 with a ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy at 16 weeks of gestation that was misdiagnosed as a pregnancy in the left uterine horn of a bicornuate uterus on prior prenatal ultrasound. The patient presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A diagnosis of ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy was made on the basis of emergency ultrasound and was later confirmed on laparotomy. The left rudimentary horn along with the ipsilateral fallopian tube was excised.

  14. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  15. Species identification of rhinoceros horns using the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Huang, Li-Hung; Tsai, Li-Chin; Kuo, Yi-Chen; Meng, Hsien-Huei; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2003-09-09

    Material suspected of originating from species of Rhinoceros is frequently seized by forensic organizations investigating trade in endangered species. At present identification of the species is possible by DNA sequencing of the material, such as powdered rhinoceros horns. The unambiguous identification of rhino products using a 402 bp fragment of cytochrome b gene was investigated. This DNA sequence may not only assist in the identification of the unknown sample, but can be used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of rhinoceros species. Sequences of suspect rhinoceros horns were compared with the sequences registered in GenBank. The maximum value of genetic distance among white rhinoceros was 0.0176, and 0.0333 among black rhinoceros. In the comparison among rhinoceros species, the greatest genetic distance was between black and Indian rhinoceros (0.1564). The rhinoceros sequences extracted from GenBank and 13 samples in this study were clustered and separated from other mammals. Holstein cow was used as an out-group and was clustered with cattle in the phylogenetic tree. The results of this phylogenetic study also showed that there were four major branches among rhinoceros species from a common origin. The amplification of the 402 bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was found to be able to detect rhinoceros DNA even in the ratio of 1:19 with Holstein cow DNA. In the initial identification of species from unknown powdered material, all the unknown samples were found to be from rhinoceroses. In phylogenetic analysis, the results supported the morphological hypothesis. The method used in this study can be applied in the identification of processed products of rhinoceros horns, such as sculptures, daggers, powders or even mixture powdered prescriptions.

  16. Fiscal year 1996 groundwater sampling for the Horn Rapids Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, C.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    The Horn Rapids Landfill is contained within the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit immediately north of Richland, Washington. The landfill is a 20 hectare size area and was placed on the National Priorities List in July 1989. The landfill was used primarily to dispose of office and construction waste, asbestos, sewage sludge, and fly ash. The remedial investigation/feasibility study for the operable unit identified some polychlorinated biphenol-contaminated soil in the landfill. The operable unit record of decision included excavation of the PCB-contaminated soil and placing a soil cap over the landfill in April 1995

  17. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply...... that decomposition by tree dimension is a potentially useful proof technique. We also investigate the use of existing automatic proof tools to prove some interesting properties about dimension(s) of feasible derivation trees of a given program....

  18. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions

  20. Endothelin receptor A antagonism attenuates renal medullary blood flow impairment in endotoxemic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fenhammar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor that contributes to renal microcirculatory impairment during endotoxemia and sepsis. Here we investigated if the renal circulatory and metabolic effects of endothelin during endotoxemia are mediated through activation of endothelin-A receptors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized experimental study was performed with anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs subjected to Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion for five hours. After two hours the animals were treated with the selective endothelin receptor type A antagonist TBC 3711 (2 mg⋅kg(-1, n = 8 or served as endotoxin-treated controls (n = 8. Renal artery blood flow, diuresis and creatinine clearance decreased in response to endotoxemia. Perfusion in the cortex, as measured by laser doppler flowmetry, was reduced in both groups, but TBC 3711 attenuated the decrease in the medulla (p = 0.002. Compared to control, TBC 3711 reduced renal oxygen extraction as well as cortical and medullary lactate/pyruvate ratios (p<0.05 measured by microdialysis. Furthermore, TBC 3711 attenuated the decline in renal cortical interstitial glucose levels (p = 0.02 and increased medullary pyruvate levels (p = 0.03. Decreased creatinine clearance and oliguria were present in both groups without any significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that endothelin released during endotoxemia acts via endothelin A receptors to impair renal medullary blood flow causing ischemia. Reduced renal oxygen extraction and cortical levels of lactate by TBC 3711, without effects on cortical blood flow, further suggest additional metabolic effects of endothelin type A receptor activation in this model of endotoxin induced acute kidney injury.

  1. Chronological changes of blink reflex and MRI in a patient with lateral medullary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hirotsune; Amano, Keiichi; Tanikawa, Tatsuya; Kawabatake, Hiroko; Kubo, Osami; Kitamura, Koichi; Ono, Yuko

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the brainstem pathways of bilateral late reflexes (R2) of electrically elicited blink reflex have been well established. An afferent delay or block of the late reflexes is closely related to a lesion of the lateral medullary portion. The chronological alteration of blink reflex (BR) was studied to compare with radiological abnormalities on MRI in a patient with lateral medullary infarction on the right side. A diagnosis of Wallenberg syndrome was made clinically and location of the lesion was identified in detail by MRI. The infarcted region which was well demonstrated as an increased intensity area on SE images obtained 52 days after the onset of symptoms was much smaller than that on SE as well as on IR image 21 days after the onset of symptoms. Therefore, it was concluded that more than half of the increased intensity area on the SE images obtained 21 days after the onset of symptoms recovered from the condition of being extremely damaged by ischemia on the right lateral medullary portion in this patient. On the other hand, in the initial BR 26 days after the onset of symptoms, the late reflexes (R2) were consistently absent bilaterally when the affected side (right) was stimulated and normal when the normal side (left) was stimulated. This type of BR abnormality is compatible with an afferent block of late reflexes (R2). The early reflex (R1) was normal on either side. Whereas in the second BR at 55 days after the onset of symptoms, the late reflexes turned to be normal in latency when the right side was stimulated. This recovery of late reflexes after the stimulation of the supraorbital nerve on the affected side was thought to be relevant to the part of disappearance of increased intensity area on the SE images obtained 52 days after the onset of symptoms. (J.P.N.)

  2. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  6. Histamine-induced increases in cyclic AMP levels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, P. D.; Thomson, K. A.; Jachno, K.; Johnston, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of histamine on cellular cyclic AMP levels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been studied. 2. Histamine (0.3-30 microM) increased cyclic AMP levels transiently, with a maximal response after 5 min, a smaller response after 20 min, and no increase seen after 80 or 180 min. The EC50 at 5 min was approximately 2 microM. Histamine had no effect on cyclic AMP release from the cells over 5 min, but increased it after 90 min. 3. The cyclic AMP response to 5 microM histamin...

  7. Conus medullaris syndrome due to an intradural disc herniation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Kshitij

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old male patient developed acute paraplegia due to conus medullaris compression secondary to extrusion of D12-L1 disc. After negative epidural examination intraoperatively, a durotomy was performed and an intradural disc fragment was excised. Patient did not regain ambulatory status at two-year follow-up. Intraoperative finding of negative extradural compression, tense swollen dura and CSF leak from ventral dura should alert the surgeon for the possibility of intradural disc herniation. A routine preoperative MRI is misleading and a high index of suspicion helps to avoid a missed diagnosis.

  8. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  9. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S.; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P.; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A.

    2016-01-01

    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27200201

  10. Horner’s Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Mastronikolis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Horner’s syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner’s syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature.

  11. Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1998-01-01

    A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An 18 FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the 18 FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

  12. Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H. [Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Centre, New York (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An {sup 18}FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the {sup 18}FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

  13. LPS-induced suppression of gastric motility relieved by TNFR:Fc construct in dorsal vagal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Gerlinda E; Tovar, C Amy; Rogers, Richard C

    2002-09-01

    Our previous studies suggested that the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may act within the neural circuitry of the medullary dorsal vagal complex (DVC) to affect changes in gastric function, such as gastric stasis, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. The definitive demonstration that endogenously generated TNF-alpha is capable of affecting gastric function via the DVC circuitry has been impeded by the lack of an antagonist for TNF-alpha. The present studies used localized central nervous system applications of the TNF-adsorbant construct (TNFR:Fc; TNF-receptor linked to the Fc portion of the human immunoglobulin IgG1) to attempt to neutralize the suppressive effects of endogenously produced TNF-alpha. Gastric motility of thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats was monitored after systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce TNF-alpha production. Continuous perfusion of the floor of the fourth ventricle with TNFR:Fc reversed the potent gastroinhibition induced by LPS, i.e., central thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced increases in motility were not inhibited. This disinhibition of gastric stasis was not seen after intravenous administration of similar doses of TNFR:Fc nor ventricular application of the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin. These results validate our previous studies that suggest that circulating TNF-alpha may act directly within the DVC to affect gastric function in a variety of pathophysiological states.

  14. Subjective Visual Vertical and Horizontal Abnormalities in a Patient with Lateral Medullary Syndrome-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation of persistent vertigo in post infarct patients is very important as the management depends on whether the cause is purely of central origin or due to associated vestibular affliction.   Case Report: A patient with left sided dorsolateral medullary syndrome and persistent vestibular symptoms was evaluated. Vestibular test battery showed abnormal smooth pursuit, bilateral hyperactive caloric responses, and abnormal dynamic subjective visual vertical and dynamic subjective visual horizontal tests.   Conclusion:  Dorsolateral medullary infarctions (Wallenberg’s syndrome typically cause a central vestibular tonus imbalance in the roll plane with ipsilateral deviations of perceived vertical orientation. The SVV and SVH tests may have a role in localizing the pathology in a patient with lateral medullary syndrome.

  15. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  16. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge; Ebbesen, I.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-03-01

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  17. Identification and mechanism of regulation of the zebrafish dorsal determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fu-I; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard

    2011-09-20

    In vertebrates, the animal-vegetal axis is determined during oogenesis and at ovulation, the egg is radially symmetric. In anamniotes, following fertilization, a microtubule-dependent movement leads to the displacement of maternal dorsal determinants from the vegetal pole to the future dorsal side of the embryo, providing the initial breaking of radial symmetry [Weaver C, Kimelman D (2004) Development 131:3491-3499]. These dorsal determinants induce β-catenin nuclear translocation in dorsal cells of the blastula. Previous work in amphibians has shown that secreted Wnt11/5a complexes, regulated by the Wnt antagonist Dkk-1, are required for the initiation of embryonic axis formation [Cha et al. (2009) Curr Biol 29:1573-1580]. In the current study, we determined that the vegetal maternal dorsal determinant in fish is not the Wnt11/5a complex but the canonical Wnt, Wnt8a. Translation of this mRNA and secretion of the Wnt8a protein result in a dorsal-to-ventral gradient of Wnt stimulation, extending across the entire embryo. This gradient is counterbalanced by two Wnt inhibitors, Sfrp1a and Frzb. These proteins are essential to restrict the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway to the dorsal marginal blastomeres by defining the domain where the Wnt8a activity gradient is above the threshold value necessary for triggering the canonical β-catenin pathway. In summary, this study establishes that the zebrafish maternal dorsal determinant, Wnt8a, is required to localize the primary dorsal center, and that the extent of this domain is defined by the activity of two maternally provided Wnt antagonists, Sfrp1a and Frzb.

  18. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm.

  19. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  20. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  1. Giant scalp cutaneous horn in black Malawian adult: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histology showed compacted keratin lying on a craten form base with papillomatosis and cutenous horn formation. No evidence of malignancy. Conclusion: Clinicians in our environment should be aware of the fact that Cutenous horn or cornu cutaneum does exist in black African populations and should be thought of when ...

  2. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  3. Application of impedance boundary conditions to numerical solution of corrugated circular horns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskander, K; Shafai, L; Frandsen, Aksel

    1982-01-01

    An integral equation method is used to formulate the problem of scattering by rotationally symmetric horn antennas. The excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitesimal dipole antenna, while the secondary field is obtained by assuming anisotropic impedance boundary conditions on the horn surfa...

  4. Modelling of horn-type loudspeakers for outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A waveguide oriented numerical simulation model for horn loudspeakers has been developed. The model is able to predict the output from horns with square openings under general conditions. The primary resonance of the driver is included in the simulations and comparison with measurements on two ho...

  5. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  6. The involvement of medullary reticular formation in the hypotensive effect of extracts from seeds of Cassia tora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S H; Koo, A; Li, K M

    In pentobarbital anesthetized rats, the medial portion of the medullary reticular formation has been identified to be directly involved in the hypotensive effect of extracts from the seeds of Cassia tora. This conclusion was drawn from the observed decrease in arterial blood pressure following local injection of extracts of this herb into this reticular site and from its inability to promote hypotension when the same reticular site has been electrolytically lesioned. The role of the medullary reticular formation in the Cassia tora-induced hypotension was suggested to be one which modulates the basic cardiovascular reflexes, favoring a decrease in vasomotor tone.

  7. Managing the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) using an electric walk-through fly trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D W; Stringham, S M; Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Poore, M H; Meier, A

    2002-10-01

    An electric walk-through fly trap was evaluated for the management of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), on dairy cattle in North Carolina over 2 yr. The trap relies on black lights and electrocution grids to attract and kill flies that are brushed from the cattle passing through. During the first season, horn fly densities were reduced from >1,400 to flies per animal. Horn fly density averaged 269.2 +/- 25.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap twice daily, and 400.2 +/- 43.5 on the control group during the first year. The second year, seasonal mean horn fly density was 177.3 +/- 10.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap compared with 321.1 +/- 15.8 on the control group. No insecticides were used to control horn flies during this 2-yr study.

  8. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp. PMID:24700037

  9. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Holderman, Christopher J.; Wood, Lois A.; Geden, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Phillip E.

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies....

  10. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  11. Influence of Bisphosphonate Treatment on Medullary Macrophages and Osteoclasts: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Daniela Escudero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates are widely used for treating diverse bone pathologies. They are anticatabolic drugs that act on osteoclasts inhibiting bone resorption. It remains unknown whether the mechanism of action is by decreasing osteoclast number, impairing osteoclast function, or whether they continue to effectively inhibit bone resorption despite the increase in osteoclast number. There is increasing evidence that bisphosphonates also act on bone marrow cells like macrophages and monocytes. The present work sought to evaluate the dynamics of preosteoclast fusion and possible changes in medullary macrophage number in bisphosphonate-treated animals. Healthy female Wistar rats received olpadronate, alendronate, or vehicle during 5 weeks, and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU on day 7, 28, or 34 of the experiment. Histomorphometric studies were performed to study femurs and evaluate: number of nuclei per osteoclast (N.Nu/Oc; number of BrdU-positive nuclei (N.Nu BrdU+/Oc; percentage of BrdU-positive nuclei per osteoclast (%Nu.BrdU+/Oc; medullary macrophage number (mac/mm2 and correlation between N.Nu/Oc and mac/mm2. Results showed bisphosphonate-treated animals exhibited increased N.Nu/Oc, caused by an increase in preosteoclast fusion rate and evidenced by higher N.Nu BrdU+/Oc, and significantly decreased mac/mm2. Considering the common origin of osteoclasts and macrophages, the increased demand for precursors of the osteoclast lineage may occur at the expense of macrophage lineage precursors.

  12. Renal medullary carcinoma: sonographic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ali E-mail: drkhan@primedia.co.uk; Thomas, Nigel; Costello, Brandon; Jobling, Louis; Kretser, Dan de; Broadfield, Emma; O' Shea, Sarah

    2000-07-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a recently described, highly aggressive tumour, occurring predominantly in young patients of African descent with sickle cell trait (SCT). All have been metastatic at surgery. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy do not appear to alter the course of the disease. The survival time is very short. Presentation is usually with haematuria, abdominal pain and weight loss. Forty-nine patients have been reported from the USA, of these 47 were African/Americans. The reports have mostly appeared in pathology journals. On review of the imaging findings reported in the radiological journals, it becomes apparent that it is possible for a radiologist to suggest a specific diagnosis in the appropriate demographic and clinical setting. Here the first British patient of Afro-Caribbean decent in whom a pre-operative diagnosis was suggested on the imaging findings of a centrally located renal pelvic tumour, encasing the pelvis on a background of SCT in a 28-year-old is described. It is expected that a high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting may lead to earlier diagnosis, treatment and survival of patients. The patient is alive and reasonably well 9 months after surgery. The full range of imaging findings in renal medullary carcinoma are described.

  13. FSP1(+) fibroblast subpopulation is essential for the maintenance and regeneration of medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Chenming; Liang, Zhanfeng; Li, Hongran; Chen, Lin; Luo, Haiying; Zhang, Hongmei; Ding, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoning; Qin, Zhihai; Zhao, Yong

    2015-10-08

    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) form a 3-dimentional network supporting thymocyte development and maturation. Besides epithelium and thymocytes, heterogeneous fibroblasts are essential components in maintaining thymic microenvironments. However, thymic fibroblast characteristics, development and function remain to be determined. We herein found that thymic non-hematopoietic CD45(-)FSP1(+) cells represent a unique Fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP1)(-)fibroblast-derived cell subset. Deletion of these cells in FSP1-TK transgenic mice caused thymus atrophy due to the loss of TECs, especially mature medullary TECs (MHCII(high), CD80(+) and Aire(+)). In a cyclophosphamide-induced thymus injury and regeneration model, lack of non-hematopoietic CD45(-)FSP1(+) fibroblast subpopulation significantly delayed thymus regeneration. In fact, thymic FSP1(+) fibroblasts released more IL-6, FGF7 and FSP1 in the culture medium than their FSP1(-) counterparts. Further experiments showed that the FSP1 protein could directly enhance the proliferation and maturation of TECs in the in vitro culture systems. FSP1 knockout mice had significantly smaller thymus size and less TECs than their control. Collectively, our studies reveal that thymic CD45(-)FSP1(+) cells are a subpopulation of fibroblasts, which is crucial for the maintenance and regeneration of TECs especially medullary TECs through providing IL-6, FGF7 and FSP1.

  14. [Medullary carcinoma experience in breast oncology unit of Hospital Juarez Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Hernández-Rubio, Angela; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; García, Rebeca Gil; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario; Herrera-Torre, Analy

    2014-01-01

    Medullary breast cancer is a rare type, considered of good prognosis. To know the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population attended in the Hospital Juarez de Mexico, to know if they are alike to described worldwide and if the treatments proposed internationally are applicable for this hospitable center. We performed a retrospective analysis. Reviewing the records with histopathologic diagnosis of medullary breast cancer from February 1993 to February 2011. Finding 41 patients in the oncology unit of the institution. We report an incidence of 3.04%, originating in 11 Mexican States, with a low to middle socioeconomic level in 39.02%. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 50 years. No family history was reported but some patients had medical history for type 2 diabetes, hypertension and previous breast cancer. 63.41% were menopausal. The average clinical size of the tumor was 58 mm. The 63% of the cases were located in the left breast. The 53.1% were clinical stages I and II, 46.3% were clinical stages III and in 9.6% of the cases primary tumor could not be assessed. Only 47% of the patients had positive axillary lynph nodes at diagnosis. The inmunohistochemestry was only reported in 14 of the 41 patients, according to the molecular classification of breast cancer: 8 were triple negative, 2 luminal A, 1 luminal B and 3 Her2neu. The Mexican population presents epidemiological and clinical characteristics similar to those patients described in other studies worldwide.

  15. Interest of MIBG scintigraphy in screening for pheochromocytoma in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, F.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Megnigbeto, A.; Tenenbaum, F.; Leclere, J.; Travagli, J.P.; Gardet, P.; Parmentier, C.

    1995-01-01

    Adrenal medullary disease (AMD) is clinically silent in most patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). During 16 years, a series of 174 MTC patients was screened yearly for AMD. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans were performed in 54 cases (21 at diagnosis and 33 during the follow up of MTC) either systematically (43 cases) or in patients with biological or ultrasonographic signs of AMD (11 cases). AMD was discovered in ten patients: five patients were already known to have a type II multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-2); in five patients previously considered as having either a sporadic (four cases) or a familial type of isolated MTC (one case), the occurrence of AMD led to diagnose a MEN-2 a syndrome. In three cases, AMD was bilateral. MIBG scan were performed in nine of the ten patients with AMD. No false positive MIBG scan was observed in the series. All patients with positive MIBG scan had either elevated excretion of catecholamines and derivates. MIBG scan had a sensitivity of 0.9 and specificity of 1. MIBG should not be used as a screening test. In particular, MIBG scan should not be performed systematically neither at diagnosis nor during follow-up. But, in cases with suspicion of AMD, it provides important complementary functional information. (authors). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2012-12-11

    Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.

  17. The effects of selection for size in cattle on horn fly population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; Brown, C J; McNew, R W; Gbur, E E; Brown, M A; Tolley, G

    1996-04-01

    Statistically significant differences were observed in the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., on Angus cows having significantly different frame sizes. Angus cows, averaging horn flies than Angus cows that measured 112.5-117.5 cm, 117.5-120 cm, 120-126 cm and > 126 cm in height at the hip. The Angus I cows ( 126 cm). The estimated heritability (h2) of horn fly resistance was 0.43 +/- 0.07 and 0.95 +/- 0.31 for 1989 and 1990, respectively. Horn fly counts on the Angus I herd ( horn flies per cow (PBV = 26.9 flies per cow in 1989) and from 75.9 (PBV = -29.1) to 134.5 (PBV = 29.5) flies per cow in 1990. Angus I bulls had PBV = -23.7 to 13.4 and from -26.5 to 14.75 in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The Angus II cows had horn fly counts that ranged from 159.6 (PBV of -23.5) to 208.1 (PBV of 25) per cow in 1989 and from 232.3 (PBV of -56.2) to 378.7 (PBV of 90) per cow in 1990. Angus II bulls had PBVs that ranged from -17.1 to 18.9 in 1989 and from -28.1 to 48.8 in 1990. The Angus I cows had significantly (P horn flies (mean of 63.8 horn flies per m2) than the small, medium or large Angus II cows (mean of 129.4, 149.6 and 145.5 horn flies per m2, respectively). The data indicated that some specific factor(s) associated with cow size contribute(s) to innate resistance of cattle to the horn fly.

  18. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  19. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn... regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations? (a)(1) Notwithstanding any... sounded, or installation of wayside horns within quiet zones, this part does not preclude the sounding of...

  20. 78 FR 73173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened With Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened. We propose to combine the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and the Kabul markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros) into...

  1. Dorsal defect on a multi-partite patella: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Salvado, E.; Ramos, A.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Centre de Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Coincidence of dorsal defect on a multipartite patella constitutes a rare cause of anterior knee pain in the first decades of life. Imaging findings of this uncommon symptomatic skeletal variant are discussed, with emphasis on MR features. (orig.)

  2. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  3. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective.

  4. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  5. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  6. Geology of outer Horns Rev, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Joern B.; Gravesen, P.; Lomholt, S. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In 2006, Dong Energy initiated the development of the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the North Sea. In order to evaluate and map the characteristics of the surface features of the sea bed and to characterise the subsurface in the wind farm area, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey of the area. The survey utilised a variety of instruments: sparker, side-scan sonar, marine caesium magnetometer and a multibeam echo-sounder. In addition, information on the subsurface sediments was obtained by cone penetration tests (CPT) and by drilling to 30-50 m below the sea bottom. Geological correlation of the CPT results with the other survey results was extremely complicated but was required in order to understand the architecture of the ice marginal glaciotectonic complex. Information on the geology is crucial for evaluation of the geotechnical problems of the region. (au)

  7. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  8. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  9. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  10. Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling times as prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a structured meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Johannes A. A.; le Cessie, Saskia; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Kievit, Job; Schoones, Johannes W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the management of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), calcitonin doubling time (dt) has gained interest as an independent predictor of recurrence and survival. To perform a structured meta-analysis of the diagnostic value of calcitonin dt, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) dt and the

  11. Lateral medullary syndrome following injury of the vestibular pathway to the core vestibular cortex: Diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Jung Won

    2018-02-05

    The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is a core region of vestibular input into regions of the cortex. The vestibular nuclei have reciprocal connections with the PIVC. However, little is known about injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC in patients with dorsolateral medullary infarctions. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated injury of the neural connections between the vestibular nuclei and the PIVC in patients with typical central vestibular disorder. Eight consecutive patients with lateral medullary syndrome and 10 control subjects were recruited for this study. To reconstruct the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC, we defined the seed region of interest (ROI) as the vestibular nuclei of the pons and the target ROI as the PIVC. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume were measured. The core vestibular pathway to the PIVC showed significantly lower tract volume in patients compared with the control group (p0.05). In conclusion, injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC was demonstrated in patients with lateral vestibular syndrome following dorsolateral medullary infarcts. We believe that analysis of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC using DTT would be helpful in evaluating patients with lateral medullary syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. (18)F-Dihydroxyphenylalanine PET in patients with biochemical evidence of medullary thyroid cancer : Relation to tumor differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas P.; de Groot, Jan Willem B.; Plukker, John T. M.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kema, Ido P.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Jager, Pieter L.; Links, Thera P.

    Curative treatment for recurrent medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), diagnosed by rising serum calcitonin, is surgery, but tumor localization is difficult. Therefore, the value of (18)F-dihy-droxyphenylanaline PET ((18)F-DOPA PET), (18)F-FDG PET, (99m)Tc-V-di-mercaptosulfuricacid (DMSA-V) scintigraphy,

  13. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czepczynski, Rafal; Parisella, Maria Gemma; Kosowicz, Jerzy; Mikolajczak, Renata; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Gryczynska, Maria; Sowinski, Jerzy; Signore, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Several new somatostatin analogues have been developed for the diagnosis and therapy of different tumours. Since somatostatin receptors are often over-expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of scintigraphy with the somatostatin

  14. Incorporation of radioactive sulfate (Na235SO4) by mouse adrenal medullary cells as shown by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munhoz, C.O.G.; Merzel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary radioautographic results, observed in the adreno-medullary cells of mice injected with radiosulfate, suggested that the cells might synthetize sulfur-containing compounds. Only further studies could make-clear if sulfate groups are linked to carbohydrate molecules and/or chromaffin granules [pt

  15. Effects of early horn growth on reproduction and hunting mortality in female chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2011-03-01

    1. Environmental conditions during early development can affect the growth patterns of vertebrates, influencing future survival and reproduction. In long-lived mammals, females that experience poor environmental conditions early in life may delay primiparity. In female bovids, annual horn growth increments may provide a record of age-specific reproduction and body growth. Horn length, however, may also be a criterion used by hunters in selecting animals to harvest, possibly leading to artificial selection. 2. We studied three populations of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the western Alps to explore the relationships between female horn length and early growth, age of primiparity and age-specific reproduction. We also compared the risk of harvest to reproductive status and horn length. 3. Early horn growth was positively correlated with body mass in pre-reproductive females and with reproduction in very young and senescent adults. Females with strong early horn growth attained primiparity at an earlier age than those with weak early growth. Horn length did not affect hunter selection, but we found a strong hunter preference for nonlactating females. 4. Our research highlights the persistent effects of early development on reproductive performance in mammals. Moderate sport harvests are unlikely to affect the evolution of phenotypic traits and reproductive strategies in female chamois. A policy of penalizing hunters that harvest lactating females, however, may increase the harvest of 2-year-old females, which have high reproductive potential. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  16. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  17. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  18. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig, Thelma Maria; Gomes, Alberto; Koller, Wilson Werner; Furlong, John; Girão, Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro, Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco, Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper, Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga, Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira, Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the active ingredient present in most insecticide products for horn fly control in Brazil, was detected in 98.46% of the populations, with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 2.5 to 719.9. Resistance to permethrin (RRs horn fly populations, with frequencies greater than 87% in all regions of the country. The status of susceptibility of horn fly populations in Brazil to insecticides can be characterized by high susceptibility to OPs and widespread resistance to pyrethroids, potentially compromising the efficacy of pyrethroid products in most cases. Although some partial results have previously been presented, a general picture of horn fly susceptibility in Brazil is presented here for the first time.

  19. Effect of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) control on growth and reproduction of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Foil, L D; MacKay, A J; Franke, D E; Sanson, D W; Wyatt, W E

    2003-10-01

    The influence of horn fly control with commercially available ear tags was studied on beef replacement heifers (n = 670) for growth and reproductive performance. The study was conducted at five sites in Louisiana over 3 yr. Heifers used were yearling replacement females that were exposed to fertile bulls during a limited spring breeding season that coincided with the horn fly season. In mid to late May of each year, heifers were randomly assigned to one of two horn fly treatments: untreated and treated for horn fly control. The trial continued each year until September or October at the end of fly season. Pregnancy status was determined by rectal palpation. Horn fly populations were controlled on the treated heifers at moderate levels (84%). Total weight gain of treated heifers was 14% greater than for untreated heifers. Horn fly treatment had no effect on pregnancy rate (78% and 75% for untreated and treated heifers, respectively). Treatment differences for weight gain were of greater magnitude for heifers failing to conceive than for heifers that became pregnant. Weight gains of nonpregnant treated heifers were 33% greater than for nonpregnant untreated heifers, whereas weight gains of pregnant treated heifers were 8% greater than for pregnant untreated heifers. In conclusion, horn fly control on yearling beef replacement heifers improved weight gain but had no effect on first exposure reproduction.

  20. Obstetric morbidity and the diagnostic dilemma in pregnancy in rudimentary horn: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Seema; Keepanasseril, Anish; Rohilla, Meenakshi; Bagga, Rashmi; Kalra, Jaswinder; Jain, Vanita

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy in rudimentary horn of uterus, a form of ectopic gestation, is associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite the recent advances in the ultrasonography, diagnosis of cornual pregnancy still remains elusive; with confirmatory diagnosis usually made during laparotomy. The aim of the present study is to analyze the obstetric implications and the diagnostic dilemma of rudimentary horn pregnancy. Records of women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn, during the years 2004 to 2008, managed in a referral hospital in northern India; were reviewed for their diagnostic difficulties and the associated morbidity. During the four year study period, rudimentary horn pregnancies accounted for 12 pregnancies. Non communicating horn accounted for 75% of the cases. The mean age of women at presentation was 26 +/- 5.11 years and the period of gestation at diagnosis varied between 10 and 34 weeks. Preruputure diagnosis was possible only in two cases and sensitivity of ultrasonographic diagnosis was 33.3%. Laprotomy with excision of rudimentary horn and salpingectomy was done in all cases. Multiple blood transfusions were required in 83.3% of women. Management of pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn continues to be a challenge to this day. Maintaining a higher degree of alertness, especially in high risk groups by emergency staff is required to prevent the morbidity, as they may present with acute uterine rupture in pregnancy.

  1. MR imaging of displaced meniscal tears of the knee. Importance of a 'disproportional posterior horn sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Shih, T.T.F.; Huang, K.M.; Li, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears associated with displaced fragments are clinically significant. We propose the 'disproportional posterior horn sign' as a supportive criterion to identify a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment on MR imaging studies. If the meniscal posterior horn in the central portion appears larger than that in the peripheral section, it is considered positive for 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. Material and Methods: MR images obtained in 42 patients with 43 lesions, confirmed to have displaced meniscal tears, were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of the 'disproportional posterior horn sign', as well as the other known signs. Results: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' was seen in 9 (20.9%) of 43 lesions, including 1 lateral discoid meniscal tear, 5 lateral meniscal tears and 3 medial meniscal tears. Five of them also had other signs of a displaced meniscal fragment. However, the remaining 4 cases only exhibited the 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. For the other MR signs, the 'absent bow tie sign' was detected in 40 (93%) of 43 lesions, the 'flipped meniscus sign' in 27 (62.8%) of 43 lesions, the 'double posterior cruciate ligament sign' in 17 (39.5%) of 43 lesions and the 'notch fragment sign' in 22 (51.2%) of 43 lesions. Conclusion: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' is helpful in demonstrating a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment, especially when other characteristic signs are unremarkable or absent

  2. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  3. Sonographic assessment of normal renal parenchymal and medullary pyramid thicknesses among children in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Akpan, V.P.; Nwadike, I.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal medullary pyramid thickness (MPT) are important renal size parameters. This study was aimed at establishing normograms for RPT and MPT with respect to age and somatometric parameters among children. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in Enugu, Nigeria between May 2013 and April 2014. The subjects were 512 children aged 1–17 years scanned with ultrasound equipment with 3.5 MHz and 5 MHz curvilinear transducers. The RPT was measured perpendicularly to the long axis of the kidney from the medullary papilla to the renal capsule and MPT was measured from the apex to the base of the medullary pyramid on the same plane. The age and somatometric parameters of the subjects were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD of RPT and MPT for the right kidney were 12.62 ± 1.67 mm and 7.10 ± 0.92 mm and the left kidney were 12.81 ± 1.7 and 7.23 ± 0.94 mm respectively. There was a significant difference between the right and left RPT and MPT (p < 0.05). The right and left RPT correlated strongly with age, body surface area (BSA), height, and weight but moderately with body mass index (BMI). A moderate positive correlation was observed between MPT and age, BSA, height, and weight. However, a weak correlation was observed between MPT and BMI. Conclusion: Normograms of RPT and MPT in relation to age could be useful for grading hydronephrosis in children. - Highlights: • Sonography of RPT and MPT at the anterior longitudinal axis of the kidney is simple. • RPT and MPT Measurements are reliable within and between experienced sonographers. • No significant gender differences in RPT and MPT values exist in this study. • Significant differences exist between the right and left RPT and MPT measurements. • Normative values of RPT and MPT in relation to age in children are useful.

  4. Effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissues in rat embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Homayoon Sadraie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspirin is the drug of the century, and is a multifunctional drug and one of the most prescribed drugs in the world. Aspirin is a safe drug at low doses but also it has life-threatening side effects when administered at high doses. This study investi-gates the effects of aspirin on renal cortical and medullary tissue in rat embryos.Methods: In this study, 30 pregnant female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Control group with no intervention, sham group received 2 ml distilled water (as a sol-vent of aspirin received from days 8 to 20 of pregnancy, and four experimental groups received different doses of 75, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aspirin by gavage. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on the twenty days of pregnancy and the fetuses were removed. Weight of the fetuses and placenta and Crown-Rump length were measured. Fetal kid-neys were fixed in formalin processed, sectioned and stained with Hematoxylin- Eosin. Thickness of renal cortical and medullary tissue by using a Motic hardware and soft-ware system were measured and recorded. A significance level of 0.05 was predeter-mined for all statistical analyses.Results: No apparent fetal anomalies were observed in experimental groups. In addi-tion, no significant differences were shown in the mean of fetal weight, placental weight, mean of Crown-Rump length in experimental groups 75, 200 and 300 mg/kg compared to control and sham groups. Mean fetal and placental weight in experimental group 100 significantly increased compared to control and sham groups. Mean ratio of renal cortex to renal medulla in experimental group 75, 100 and 300 were significantly decreased compared to control and sham groups (respectively P= 0.03, P= 0.013, P= 0.03.Conclusion: It seems that maternal use of aspirin during pregnancy can not cause fetal abnormalities. However, it can cause some changes in renal cortical and medullary tis-sue of rat embryos.

  5. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D; Heekin, Andrew M; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  6. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhahianambi Palavesam

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  7. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji University of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ryung [Sungae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of < 2400 gm with gestation between 30 and 35 weeks, 6 cases had a birth weight of > 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment.

  8. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jeong Joo; Jung, Myung Ja; Kim, Eun Ryung

    2005-01-01

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment

  9. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insulation Coordination of Arcing Horns on HVDC Electrode Lines: Protection Performance Evaluation, Influence Factors and Improvement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arcing horns are widely used in high voltage overhead lines to protect insulator strings from being destroyed by the free burning arcs caused by lightening faults. In this paper, we focus on the insulation coordination of arcing horns on the electrode lines of a 5000 MW, ±800 kV high voltage direct current (HVDC system. The protection performance of arcing horns are determined by the characteristics of not only the external system but also the fault arc. Therefore, the behaviors and characteristics of long free burning arcs are investigated by the experiments at first. In order to evaluate the protection performance of arcing horns, the static stability criterion U-I characteristic method is introduced. The influence factors on the protection performance of arcing horns are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the improvement methods for the protection performance of arcing horns are proposed, and the diversified configuration strategy of arcing horns is recommended for cost saving.

  11. Survival, ovarian development and bloodmeal size for the horn fly Haematobia irritans irritans reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, K

    2000-06-01

    Horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were reared in vitro using cattle, pig, horse, rabbit, sheep, goat or chicken blood. The highest survival, bloodmeal size and rate of ovarian development were recorded for both female and male flies fed cattle blood. Flies fed pig, rabbit, sheep and goat blood showed intermediate survival. Flies fed chicken blood showed the lowest survival rates, ingested the smallest bloodmeals and did not develop ovaries. The relationship between dietary factors and host specificity of the horn fly, and the efficiency of vertebrate blood source of several animals for laboratory colonization of horn fly are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of alternative tactics for management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Simpson, R B; Rorie, R W; Phillips, J M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2003-06-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the efficacy of tactics that could be used to manage populations of insecticide-resistant horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.). Insecticide spray, spot-on or pour-on formulations and two IGRs in bolus formulation, 1.3- and 3.2-ha pasture rotations on different rotation schedules, 0-50% Brahman breeding, selected fly-resistant cows, and a mechanical trap were evaluated singly and in combination. Concentration-mortality tests indicated that horn flies collected from cows used in the current study were significantly less susceptible to diazinon, coumaphos, and methoxychlor than horn flies from cows at the same locations previously used to determine baseline susceptibility. During the 3-yr study at the Southeast Research and Extension Center (SEREC), the IGR-bolus significantly reduced (P management treatments. All tactics and tactic-combinations used at SWREC on cattle having no Brahman breeding failed to significantly reduce insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. However, the combination of Brahman breeding with the IGR-Bolus and mechanical trap significantly reduced horn fly numbers and resulted in significant increases in calf weaning weight. In addition, mean horn fly numbers decreased significantly as the percentage Brahman breeding increased with 50% Brahman breeding reducing horn fly numbers by 140 flies per cow. No significant difference was found between the mean fly numbers on the fly-resistant purebred group and the cows that had no Brahman breeding but received the IGR-Bolus or used the mechanical trap. The use of synergized zeta-cypermethrin pour-on treatment successfully complimented the use of IGR-bolus and mechanical traps in reducing insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. Neither 1.3- nor 3.2-ha size paddocks and stocking rates used in the rotation graze regimens at SEREC and SWREC, respectively, significantly reduced horn fly numbers when compared with continuously grazed paddocks. Data indicated the

  13. [Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and complex nephronophtisis medullary cystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Reseach during the past decade has led to the discovery that defects in some proteins that localize to primary cilia or the basal body are the main contributors to renal cyst development. Autosomal recessive polycystic disease and nephronophthisis- medullary cystic kidney disease are named ciliopathies. The cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that is found on most mammalian cells. Cilia-mediated hypothesis has evolved into the concept of cystogenesis, cilia bend by fluid initiate a calcium influx that prevents cyst formation. Cilia might sense stimuli in the cell enviroment and control cell polarity and mitosis. A new set of pathogenic mechanisms in renal cystic disease defined new therapeutic targets, control of intracellular calcium, inhibition of cAMP and down regulation cannonical Wnt signaling.

  14. A role for radiotherapy in the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Call

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma\t(MTC\tare\tlargely\tunknown. Retrospective review of data from patients with MTC, diagnosed from June 1, 1970, through December 31, 2007. Overall survival and locoregional tumor control rates were calculated. Seventeen patients had adjuvant or palliative EBRT delivered to 41 sites. Six patients initially had adjuvant EBRT (median, 60.80 Gy; none had relapse in the treated area. Five patients with locoregional recurrence after surgery were treated (median, 59.40 Gy, and durable disease control was achieved in 3. Twelve patients received palliative EBRT to 29 sites of metastatic disease (median, 30.00 Gy, which provided sustained symptom relief at 45% of sites. Five- and ten- year overall survival rates were 44% and 19%, respectively. Adjuvant EBRT may be most effective for prevention of locoregional recurrence. EBRT may provide sustained control of advanced, metastatic disease in select patients.

  15. Smoldering medullary thyroid carcinoma liver metastasis 37 years after resection of an organ-confined tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Kevin M; Ali, Syed Z; Erozan, Yener S; Olson, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon thyroid tumor that usually behaves aggressively. After resection, serological surveillance for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is used to prompt a radiographic search for metastatic disease. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with a large liver metastasis 37 years after she underwent thyroidectomy for organ-confined MTC. Her clinical course over that time showed a smoldering pattern in which she was symptom free until presentation even though her serum calcitonin and CEA concentrations were elevated for 17 years, and a small equivocal radiographic lesion in the liver was detected 10 years prior to presentation. Cytopathology from an ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of the hepatic lesion was diagnostic for metastatic MTC. This case highlights the ability for smoldering residual MTC to suddenly transform to aggressive biological behavior after a long period of clinical remission. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND PROSPECTS OF CHEMORADIOTHERAPY FOR MEDULLARY THYROID CANCER (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pimonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is characterized by the most aggressive course among differentiated thyroid carcinomas and is accompanied by early and extensive metastasis. Up to 60 % of patients with MTC already have disseminated forms of the disease (stage III– IV by the moment of diagnosis. Overall five-year and ten-year survival of patients with MTC is 85–89 and 73–75 %, respectively, whereas five-year survival rate in patients with stage III–IV MTC is significantly lower and does not exceed 5–10 %. Therefore, treatment of disseminated forms of MTC is an extremely important problem in clinical oncology. The article gives an overview of Russian and foreign publications on the effectiveness of radiation and drug therapy for generalized MTC. Particular attention is paid to modern promising treatment strategies used for this category of patients, such as radionuclide therapy of bone metastases and targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  17. RET mutations in a large indian family with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a tumor arising from the para follicular (C cells of the thyroid gland and can occur either sporadically or as part of an inherited syndrome. A proportion of these cases carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the RET (REarranged during Transfection proto-oncogene. Screening for these mutations in the affected patients and the carriers ′′at risk′′ which includes the first-degree relatives is of utmost importance for early detection and prompt treatment including prophylactic thyroidectomy in cases that harbor these mutations. Results: This report presents details of screening and subsequent follow-up of a large Indian family, where the index case was found to carry p.Cys634Ser mutation involving exon 11 of the RET gene. These data are of value considering the paucity of information within the region in context of screening large families affected by these mutations.

  18. Comparison of dorsal and volar approaches to the proximal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jessica D; White, Jeffery A; Johnson, Anthony E; Blair, James A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Proximal radius exposure may be acquired by either the dorsal or volar approach depending on surgical requirements. The dorsal approach is traditionally recommended for fracture fixation of the proximal radius because of theoretically improved exposure and because the dorsal aspect of the bone is the tensile surface. The posterior interosseous nerve can be visualized and protected using this approach. The volar approach is preferred for biceps repair and boasts a distal extensile approach with adequate soft tissue coverage. Impingement on the bicipital tuberosity and biceps tendon, in addition to positioning on the compression side of the bone, makes the anterior or anterolateral position for plate placement less desirable. The goal of this study was to quantify and compare in a cadaver model the area of bone exposed using both approaches. We hypothesized that equivalent exposures can be obtained and the posterior interosseous nerve can be identified with either the Thompson or Henry approach. Standard dorsal and volar approaches were performed on 10 fresh-frozen adult cadaveric upper-limb specimens. Cross-sectional area of exposure was quantified from digital photographs using software. The 2 approaches did not result in a significant difference in area exposed. Depending on case requirements, either the dorsal or volar approach will provide adequate exposure to the proximal radius. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Thrombostasin isoform frequency in a Central Texas field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untalan, Pia M; Pruett, John H; Atteberry, Heather N; Steelman, C Dayton

    2006-12-20

    Thrombostasin is an anti-thrombin factor that plays a role in successful feeding of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. It has been isolated and characterized from saliva, and polymorphisms in the gene coding sequence have been previously reported. In the present study, the thrombostasin gene was analyzed from 60, field-collected flies from Camp Stanley, Texas and the allele and genotype frequencies were compared with previously published data for an Alabama field collection and a Texas in vitro colony-reared collection. Significant differences in genotype frequency and extent of genotypic diversity observed between the Alabama and Camp Stanley field collections may be attributable to host genetic differences. In addition, bull calves that were phenotyped as either high- or low-carriers were parasitized by horn flies that displayed a significantly different genotype distribution, supporting a possible explanation for horn fly host selection behavior, as evidenced by thrombostasin sequence analysis of 95 additional horn flies collected from respective hosts.

  20. Giant Cutaneous Horn Overlying A Verruca at an Uncommon Site: Medical Marvel vs Superstitious Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva, Karthik Kathladka; Ali, Puttur Sainuddin Mohammed Ameer; Pinto, Malcolm; Rao, Srikar; Rai, Arvind Shivram

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous horn has been a matter of discussion to mankind since time immemorial and a subject of fascination for the layman. There have been instances where certain groups saw it with angst and disgust, with a person having a large cutaneous horn on an exposed area getting a dismal look. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a giant cutaneous horn over his left gluteal region. Cutaneous horns more commonly present in the sun-exposed areas. In our case it has presented in an uncommon site. The patient had delayed and denied medical treatment due to his superstitious beliefs, after having sought advice from faith healers leading to progression of the disease. This case has been presented for its giant size (rare variety), its location being over the gluteal region (photo-protected site) and its benign histopathology suggestive of wart in spite of the giant size.

  1. First Trimester Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Unruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancies in Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Akdağ Cırık

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a woman with unicornuate uterus with non-communicating uterine horn is a considerably rare condition with an incidence of one in 100.000 cases. Fertilization occurs by transperitoneal migration of sperm and, uterine rupture is a considerably frequent complication of those pregnancies. Therefore, early diagnosis is of great importance due to the potential risk of maternal mortality. Herein, we present two cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography in the first trimester, and treated with laparoscopic approach. These two patients attended the hospital in the sixth and twelfth gestational weeks respectively, and the first case was misdiagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy in the emergency unit. After detailed transvaginal ultrasonographic examination, a gestational sac separate from the uterus and surrounded by myometrium was seen and the final diagnosis was the rudimentary horn pregnancy. The diagnosis was also confirmed after laparoscopy in both cases, and the patients underwent excision of the rudimentary horn.

  2. Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa: Winning the War on Terror with Information Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    ...) to win the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Horn of Africa. Because of the mission, the resources available to the task force, and the nature of the conflict, the command chose a COA that uses Information Operations (IO...

  3. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  4. Report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annemarie, Peen Rodt; Tvilling, Johannes; Zartsdahl, Peter Horne

    Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions.......Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions....

  5. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Forneris,Natalia; Otero,Gabriel; Pereyra,Ana; Repetto,Gustavo; Rabossi,Alejandro; Quesada-Allué,Luis; Basso Abraham,Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobiairritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobiairritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobiairritans, as previously described using...

  6. Case Report of Ruptured Non-Communicating Right Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy: An Acute Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hasnura Che Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered.

  7. Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Todd C.; Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more sus...

  8. [The dorsal nerve of the clitoris: surgical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaya, V; Aubin, A; Rogez, J-M; Douard, R; Delmas, V

    2014-03-01

    To describe the course of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) to better define its anatomy in the human adult and to help surgeons to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures. An extensive review of the current literature was done on Medline via PubMed by using the following keywords: "anatomie du clitoris", "anatomy of clitoris", "nerf dorsal du clitoris", "dorsal nerve of clitoris", "réparation clitoridienne", "transposition clitoridienne", "surgery of the clitoris", "clitoridoplasty". This review analyzed dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction and immuno-histochemical studies. The DNC comes from the pudendal nerve. He travels from under the inferior pubis ramus to the posterosuperior edge of the clitoral crus. The DNC reappears under the pubic symphysis and enters the deep component of the suspensory ligament. He runs on the dorsal face of the clitoral body at 11 and 1 o'clock. Distally, he gives many nervous ramifications, runs along the tunica and enters the glans. The NDC might be surgically injured (i) under the pubic symphysis, at the union of the two crus of clitoris and (ii) on the dorsal surface of the clitoral body. The pathway of the DNC on the dorsal face of the clitoris permits to approach the ventral face of the clitoris without risk of iatrogenic injuries. The distance between the pubic symphysis and the DNC implies that the incision should be done just under the pubic symphysis. Distally, the dissection of the DNC next the glands appears as dangerous and impossible, considering that the DNC is too close to the glandular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  10. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the pancreatic neck, body, and tail. Our case report is the second case of a dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis in a young male patient.

  11. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja A. Pillai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingooophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management.

  12. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  13. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Jesse K.; Khanna, Geetika [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mullen, Elizabeth A. [Children' s Hospital Boston/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Cajaiba, Mariana M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, Ethan A. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Servaes, Sabah [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Geller, James I. [University of Cincinnati, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ehrlich, Peter F. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cost, Nicholas G. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Aurora, CO (United States); Dome, Jeffrey S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Fernandez, Conrad V. [Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2017-11-15

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare renal malignancy of childhood. There are no large series describing the imaging appearance of renal medullary carcinoma in children. To characterize the clinical and imaging features of pediatric renal medullary carcinoma at initial presentation. We retrospectively analyzed images of 25 pediatric patients with renal medullary carcinoma enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group renal tumors classification, biology and banking study (AREN03B2) from March 2006 to August 2016. Imaging findings of the primary mass, and patterns of locoregional and distant spread were evaluated in correlation with pathological and surgical findings. Median age at presentation was 13 years (range: 6-21 years), with a male predominance (3.2:1). The overall stage of disease at initial presentation was stage 1 in 1, stage 2 in 2 and stage 4 in 22. Maximum diameter of the primary renal mass ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 cm (mean: 6.6 cm) with a slight right side predilection (1.5:1). Enlarged (>1 cm short axis) retroperitoneal lymph nodes were identified at initial staging in 20/25 (80%) cases, 10 of which were histologically confirmed while the others did not undergo surgical sampling. Enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum (14/25; 56%) and supraclavicular regions (4/25; 16%). Metastatic disease was present in the lungs in 19/25 (76%) and liver in 6/25 (24%). The pattern of lung metastases was pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: 10 cases (9 bilateral, 1 unilateral), pulmonary nodules with indistinct margins: 6 cases, pulmonary nodules with distinct margins: 2 cases, while 1 case had pulmonary nodules with both indistinct and distinct margins. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis was pathologically confirmed in 4/10 cases. All cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis had associated enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults presents at an advanced local and distant stage in the

  14. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Jesse K.; Khanna, Geetika; Mullen, Elizabeth A.; Cajaiba, Mariana M.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Ethan A.; Servaes, Sabah; Geller, James I.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Cost, Nicholas G.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare renal malignancy of childhood. There are no large series describing the imaging appearance of renal medullary carcinoma in children. To characterize the clinical and imaging features of pediatric renal medullary carcinoma at initial presentation. We retrospectively analyzed images of 25 pediatric patients with renal medullary carcinoma enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group renal tumors classification, biology and banking study (AREN03B2) from March 2006 to August 2016. Imaging findings of the primary mass, and patterns of locoregional and distant spread were evaluated in correlation with pathological and surgical findings. Median age at presentation was 13 years (range: 6-21 years), with a male predominance (3.2:1). The overall stage of disease at initial presentation was stage 1 in 1, stage 2 in 2 and stage 4 in 22. Maximum diameter of the primary renal mass ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 cm (mean: 6.6 cm) with a slight right side predilection (1.5:1). Enlarged (>1 cm short axis) retroperitoneal lymph nodes were identified at initial staging in 20/25 (80%) cases, 10 of which were histologically confirmed while the others did not undergo surgical sampling. Enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum (14/25; 56%) and supraclavicular regions (4/25; 16%). Metastatic disease was present in the lungs in 19/25 (76%) and liver in 6/25 (24%). The pattern of lung metastases was pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: 10 cases (9 bilateral, 1 unilateral), pulmonary nodules with indistinct margins: 6 cases, pulmonary nodules with distinct margins: 2 cases, while 1 case had pulmonary nodules with both indistinct and distinct margins. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis was pathologically confirmed in 4/10 cases. All cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis had associated enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults presents at an advanced local and distant stage in the

  15. Imaging of renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jesse K; Mullen, Elizabeth A; Cajaiba, Mariana M; Smith, Ethan A; Servaes, Sabah; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Geller, James I; Ehrlich, Peter F; Cost, Nicholas G; Dome, Jeffrey S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Khanna, Geetika

    2017-11-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare renal malignancy of childhood. There are no large series describing the imaging appearance of renal medullary carcinoma in children. To characterize the clinical and imaging features of pediatric renal medullary carcinoma at initial presentation. We retrospectively analyzed images of 25 pediatric patients with renal medullary carcinoma enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group renal tumors classification, biology and banking study (AREN03B2) from March 2006 to August 2016. Imaging findings of the primary mass, and patterns of locoregional and distant spread were evaluated in correlation with pathological and surgical findings. Median age at presentation was 13 years (range: 6-21 years), with a male predominance (3.2:1). The overall stage of disease at initial presentation was stage 1 in 1, stage 2 in 2 and stage 4 in 22. Maximum diameter of the primary renal mass ranged from 1.6 to 10.3 cm (mean: 6.6 cm) with a slight right side predilection (1.5:1). Enlarged (>1 cm short axis) retroperitoneal lymph nodes were identified at initial staging in 20/25 (80%) cases, 10 of which were histologically confirmed while the others did not undergo surgical sampling. Enlarged lymph nodes were also identified in the mediastinum (14/25; 56%) and supraclavicular regions (4/25; 16%). Metastatic disease was present in the lungs in 19/25 (76%) and liver in 6/25 (24%). The pattern of lung metastases was pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: 10 cases (9 bilateral, 1 unilateral), pulmonary nodules with indistinct margins: 6 cases, pulmonary nodules with distinct margins: 2 cases, while 1 case had pulmonary nodules with both indistinct and distinct margins. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis was pathologically confirmed in 4/10 cases. All cases with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis had associated enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Renal medullary carcinoma in children and young adults presents at an advanced local and distant stage in the

  16. PROJECTIONS FROM THE ROSTRAL PARVOCELLULAR RETICULAR-FORMATION TO PONTINE AND MEDULLARY NUCLEI IN THE RAT - INVOLVEMENT IN AUTONOMIC REGULATION AND OROFACIAL MOTOR CONTROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; COPRAY, JCVM; LIEM, RSB; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The efferent connections of the rostral parvocellular reticular formation to pontine and medullary nuclei in the rat were studied with anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Dense innervations from the rostral parvocellular reticular formation were found in the mesencephalic

  17. Textural Poaching Twin Peaks: The Audrey Horne Sweater Girl GIFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to widen the lens of analysis of participatory culture inspired by long-arc serials like Twin Peaks. It considers GIF creation as a form of textural poaching, a new reception practice involving skimming off and repurposing top-of-the-mind content: the most arresting elements of costuming, set design, and dialogue. This behavior has become more popular as more series rely on textural storytelling and are filled with moments of excess that feel separate from the story. After an introduction to GIFs and GIF creation, it contrasts the impression of the character and series conveyed by Audrey Horne GIFs and the actual dynamics in the “Audrey’s Dance” scene. It establishes that Audrey’s look is most visually aligned with the Sweater Girl type, but as an allusive characterization it creates excess and calls attention to itself. Part of the “cool pop” reputation of the series may stem from the wider circulation of iconic moments of excess especially given that the GIFs detach the images from the series’ uneven storytelling and its challenging surrealist sensibility.

  18. Tsirelson bounds for generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Quantum theory imposes a strict limit on the strength of nonlocal correlations. It only allows for a violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality up to the value 2√(2), known as Tsirelson's bound. In this paper, we consider generalized CHSH inequalities based on many measurement settings with two possible measurement outcomes each. We demonstrate how to prove Tsirelson bounds for any such generalized CHSH inequality using semidefinite programming. As an example, we show that for any shared entangled state and observables X 1 ,...,X n and Y 1 ,...,Y n with eigenvalues ±1 we have | 1 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 2 >+ 3 Y 2 >+···+ n Y n >- 1 Y n >|≤2n cos[π/(2n)]. It is well known that there exist observables such that equality can be achieved. However, we show that these are indeed optimal. Our approach can easily be generalized to other inequalities for such observables

  19. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  20. Metamorphosis and gonad maturation in the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alicia L; Forneris, Natalia S; Filiberti, Adrián; Argaraña, Carlos E; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development of the imago within the puparium. The progression of germline cell divisions in immature gonads was analyzed from the beginning of the third larval instar (48 hours after egg hatch) until imago ecdysis. In the developing male larval gonad, meiosis began 72 hours after egg hatch, whereas in females oogonia were premeiotic at 72 hours. Meiosis was not detected in females until the mid-pharate adult stage, 120 hours after puparium formation. Therefore, gonad maturation in females appears to be delayed 144 hours with respect to that in males. In the stages within the puparium, the timing of germline cell division events was correlated with the progress of pigmentation of the eyes and cuticle as external markers.

  1. New acoustical technology of sound absorption based on reverse horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong Yan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Song Hua; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Zi Ting

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel reverse horn’s sound-absorption mechanism and acoustic energy focusing mechanism for low-frequency broadband are presented. Due to the alternation of the reverse horn’s thickness, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure propagated in the structure changes, which results in growing energy focused in the edge and in the reverse horn’s tip when the characteristic length is equal to or less than a wavelength and the incident wave is compressed. There are two kinds of methods adopted to realize energy dissipation. On the one hand, sound-absorbing materials are added in incident direction in order to overcome the badness of the reverse horn’s absorption in high frequency and improve the overall high-frequency and low-frequency sound-absorption coefficients; on the other hand, adding mass and film in its tip could result in mechanical energy converting into heat energy due to the coupled vibration of mass and the film. Thus, the reverse horn with film in the tip could realize better sound absorption for low-frequency broadband. These excellent properties could have potential applications in the one-dimensional absorption wedge and for the control of acoustic wave.

  2. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  3. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Presence of a nail in the medullary canal; is it enough to prevent femoral neck shortening in trochanteric fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoon, Han Kuk; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Presence of a cephalomedullary nail (CMN) in the medullary canal has been thought as advantageous in the control of femoral neck shortening (FNS) and lag screw sliding in trochanteric fracture compared to extramedullary fixation system. However, researches on the factors that influence the degree of FNS after cephalomedullary nailing are lacking. We observed 95 patients (mean age, 75±2.8 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with a CMN, and evaluated the relationship between FNS and patient factors including age, gender, fracture type (AO/OTA), bone mineral density, medullary canal diameter, canal occupancy ratio (COR=nail size/canal diameter), and tip-apex distance using initial, immediate postoperative, and follow-up radiography. Univariate regression analyses revealed that the degree of FNS was significantly correlated with fracture type (A1 versus A3, pfracture type (pfracture.

  5. Impact of F DOPA-PET on therapeutic decision in endocrine tumours: digestive tumours, medullary thyroid cancer or pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Kerrou, K.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Nataf, V.; Balard, M.; Talbot, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    FDOPA-PET has been proposed for a decade in oncology, in particular in endocrine tumours. To the best of our knowledge, only one impact rate has been reported: 31% in 17 patients with digestive carcinoid tumours. We did a questionnaire survey to evaluate this impact reported by the referring clinician in 87 patients who had FDOPA PET due to digestive carcinoid tumour or another type of digestive endocrine tumour or a medullary thyroid cancer or a pheochromocytoma. The response rate to the survey was 87%. The overall impact of FDOPA PET on patient's management was 36%. Its value was greater for digestive carcinoid tumour and for medullary thyroid cancer; the number of patients with pheochromocytoma is still limited. In the other digestive endocrine tumours, a change in patient management was less frequent and FDOPA PET should be performed when the other examinations are inconclusive. (author)

  6. A case of thyroid medullary carcinoma with multiple painful bone metastases successfully treated with strontium-89 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Chiya; Kamigaki, Shunji; Arai, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukio; Fukunaga, Mutsumi; Ichida, Wakako; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old man was diagnosed as thyroid medullary carcinoma with multiple bone metastases. He underwent total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph node dissection. After one year, the pain from his bone lesions was becoming severe. To relieve the pain, he was administered opioids and external-beam radiation therapy. However, he continued to have substantial multiple bone pain. We used combination therapy of strontium-89 chloride for the treatment of widespread multiple bone pain and external-beam radiation therapy for localized pain. That combination therapy was effective and improved the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. We used strontium-89 chloride four times within one year, and no serious side effects occurred during therapy. Our thoroughly investigated case suggests that strontium-89 therapy is one of the effective and safe therapies for patients with painful bone metastases of thyroid medullary carcinoma. (author)

  7. Topography of the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox is the most common Canidae of South America. In general, its diet varies according to the season and inhabited region. In this study, the medullary cone of the crab-eating fox was described because of interests in comparative anatomy, with the goal of providing information that could assist in epidural anesthesia, which cannot be efficiently practiced without knowledge of this anatomical region. We investigated an adult male from the Bauxite Mine (Paragominas, PA, which was dissected in the lumbosacral region. The medullary cone was 10.13 cm long; the base began at the L6 and the apex was at the S3. Considering that the specimen studied had nine lumbar and four sacral vertebrae, we conclude that the sacrococcygeal region is probably the most suitable place for epidural anesthesia.

  8. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Radiology; Berg-Johnsen, J. [The National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-07-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases.

  9. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small-bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small-bowel obstruction ...

  10. Upright or dorsal? childbirth positions among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women gave birth in the squatting position. Home delivery was the norm, and this was usually supervised either by the matriarch of the household or by a traditional birth attendant.[9,10]. Over the years, however, the utilization of these indigenous childbirth positions has been substantially eroded by the dorsal and lithotomy ...

  11. The right dorsal premotor mosaic: Organization, functions, and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genon, S.; Li, H.; Fan, L.; Müller, V.I.; Cieslik, E.C.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Reid, A.T.; Langner, R.; Grefkes, C.; Fox, P.T.; Moebus, S.; Caspers, S.; Amunts, K.; Jiang, T.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a connectivity-based parcellation using meta-analytic approach applied to PMd coactivations. We

  12. Dorsal striatal dopamine, food preference and health perception in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, D.L.; Aarts, E.; Dang, L.C.; Greer, S.M.; Jagust, W.J.; D'Esposito, M.

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related

  13. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  14. The split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C H; Dietrich, R B; Pais, M J; Demos, D S; Pribram, H F

    1993-01-01

    Split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that may be associated with meningomyelocele or meningocele, and genitourinary anomalies. This case presented with an additional finding of bladder exstrophy, raising the possibility of a relationship between this syndrome and the OEIS complex.

  15. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  17. The role of dorsal columns pathway in visceral pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2004), s. S125-S130 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/03/0752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dorsal columns * myelotomy * cancer pain Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  18. Syntabulin, a motor protein linker, controls dorsal determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Hideaki; Rothhämel, Sophie; Shimizu, Takashi; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Marlow, Florence L; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    In amphibian and teleost embryos, the dorsal determinants (DDs) are believed to be initially localized to the vegetal pole and then transported to the prospective dorsal side of the embryo along a microtubule array. The DDs are known to activate the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby promote the expression of genes that induce the dorsal organizer. Here, by identifying the locus of the maternal-effect ventralized mutant tokkaebi, we show that Syntabulin, a linker of the kinesin I motor protein, is essential for dorsal determination in zebrafish. We found that syntabulin mRNA is transported to the vegetal pole during oogenesis through the Bucky ball (Buc)-mediated Balbiani body-dependent pathway, which is necessary for establishment of animal-vegetal (AV) oocyte polarity. We demonstrate that Syntabulin is translocated from the vegetal pole in a microtubule-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that Syntabulin regulates the microtubule-dependent transport of the DDs, and provide evidence for the link between AV and dorsoventral axis formation.

  19. Neuromuscular diversity in archosaur deep dorsal thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, S M

    1994-01-01

    The living members of the clade Archosauria, crocodilians and birds, differ markedly in the morphology of their deep dorsal thigh muscles. To investigate whether this diversity is accompanied by differences in motor pattern and muscle function, the hindlimbs of representative archosaurs were studied by electromyography and cineradiography during terrestrial locomotion. In a crocodilian, Alligator, the iliofemoralis and pubo-ischio-femoralis internus part 2 are both active during the swing phase of the stride cycle. This appears to be the primitive motor pattern for archosaurs. There are four avian homologues of these muscles in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida. These are primarily active in the propulsive phase (iliotrochantericus caudalis and iliotrochantericus medius), the swing phase (iliotrochantericus cranialis) and a speed-dependent combination of the propulsive and/or swing phases (iliofemoralis externus). Differences between Alligator and Numida in the number and attachment of deep dorsal muscles are associated with dissimilar motor patterns and functions. Evolutionary modifications of neuromuscular control must be recognized when evaluating avian locomotor history, but are rarely considered by paleontologists. Even within the deep dorsal thigh muscles of Numida, developmentally and anatomically similar muscles are active out-of-phase. Therefore, although the actions of two adjacent muscles appear equivalent, their functions may differ dramatically. The diversity of deep dorsal thigh muscles in modern birds may be a good model for studying the relationship between activity pattern and peripheral morphology.

  20. Offshore wind farms in the local environment - an examination at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraadet - en undersoegelse ved Horns Rev Havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm was built in 2002. A presentation is made of a sociological, qualitative survey on the local community's reception of the offshore wind farm. The survey aims at identifying attitudes towards the farm before and after the construction, with a view to identifying possible changes in attitudes, and explain the reasons for these (ml)