WorldWideScience

Sample records for medulla oblongata

  1. Primary medulla oblongata teratomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was of an intraaxial medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma. Intraoperatively, the cystic component of the tumor was gray, gelatinous, and soft in consistency. The solid component was light pink, rubbery, and nodular in appearance, with an identifiable boundary. The lesion was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a mature teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient was supported with ventilator assistance and received a tracheotomy, but died of intracranial infection. The second case was in a 10-year-old boy with intermittent headache for 1 month. Radiographs revealed an exophytic cystic and solid lesion with dorsal involvement of the medulla oblongata. The lesion was predominantly solid, pinkish gray, tenacious, and moderately vascularized, with clearly delineated surgical dissection planes. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of immature teratoma. Total resection was achieved, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. He was alive without recurrence of the lesion or symptoms at 59 months after surgery. Resection of medulla oblongata teratoma is challenging, with inherent surgical risks that are contingent on the tumor growth pattern. Teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions. Chemotherapy has been suggested for immature teratomas. Long-term follow-up and larger studies of teratomas in unusual locations are required to improve practitioners' understanding of this disease's treatment and outcomes.

  2. Respiratory function after lesions in medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woischneck, Dieter; Kapapa, Thomas; Heissler, Hans E; Reissberg, Steffen; Skalej, Martin; Firsching, Raimund

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation of lesions of the brain as visualized in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the ability of spontaneous respiration. In a prospective concept, cranial MRI after traumatic brain injury or spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was performed in 250 subjects at an early stage. All MRI findings were correlated with respiratory conditions on the day of examination. Sedation was performed only to facilitate toleration of the artificial ventilation, as and when necessary. Spontaneous respiration could hence be registered clinically. Thirteen subjects (5.2%) had no spontaneous respiration. In these cases, a bilateral lesion of the distal medulla oblongata could be displayed. In four of these cases, no additional injuries of the brainstem were detected. These subjects awoke 2 days after the impact with tetraparesis and apnea. Combined lesions of the medulla oblongata and other brainstem regions were found in nine subjects. All these patients died without awakening. In the absence of a bilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata, spontaneous respiration was always possible. A unilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata was visualized in one patient who had the ability of spontaneous respiration. This work confirms the presence of autonomous respiratory centers within the caudal medulla oblongata that allows sufficient adequate respiration in coma. Respiration ceases in the presence of a bilateral lesion of this area.

  3. Primary extragonadal germinoma of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Tateishi, Akihiro; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Nakajo, Kazuya; Takahashi, Jun; Taki, Takuyu

    2012-06-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors rarely arise from the brain stem. In this report, the authors present a rare case of germinoma developing in the medulla oblongata. A 31-year-old woman complained of intractable hiccups, hoarseness, and swallowing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor located on the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata without any abnormalities in the pineal body and suprasellar regions. Histological diagnosis of surgically resected tumor was germinoma. Tumor cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase, c-kit, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4, cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigen in immunohistochemistry. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation to the residual tumor and cerebral ventricles. The patient is alive without recurrence 6 months after the surgery.

  4. Medulla Oblongata Hemorrhage and Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeske, Kevin T; Sarano, Maurice E; Fugate, Jennifer E; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-12-19

    Acute brain injury with strong surges of adrenergic outflow has resulted in takotsubo cardiomyopathy, but there are surprisingly few reports of takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intracranial hemorrhage, and none have been described from hemorrhage within the brainstem. We describe a patient with reverse and reversible cardiomyopathy following a hemorrhage in the lateral medulla oblongata. While it is limited in size, the location of the hemorrhage caused acute systolic failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 27% and vasopressor requirement for cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. There was full recovery after 7 days. Detailed case report. Hemorrhage into medulla oblongata pressor centers may result in acute, reversible, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, affirming the adrenergic origin of this condition.

  5. Astrocitary niches in human adult medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Dermengiu, Dan; Loreto, Carla; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Astrocytes are considered as neuromodulators of the CNS. Whereas experimental studies on astrocitary functions are gaining importance, the anatomy of the astrocitary niches in the human CNS has been overlooked. The study was performed on the brainstem of 10 adult cadavers. We aimed to determine astrocitary niches in the human medulla oblongata using immunohistochemical labeling with vimentin and also CD34 immunostaining to accurately diagnose associated microvessels. Niches rich in astrocytes were identified as follows: (a) the superficial layer of astrocytes, ventral and ventrolateral, in the rostral medulla oblongata; (b) the median raphe; (c) medullary nuclei: arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract; (d) the subependymal zone (SEZ, caudal medulla) and subventricular zone (SVZ, rostral medulla). Astrocytes were scarce in the ventrolateral medulla, and mostly present within the pyramidal tract and the olivary nucleus. Apart from the SEZ and SVZ, the brainstem niches of astrocytes mostly overlap those regions known to perform roles as central respiratory chemoreceptors. The astrocytes of the SEZ and SVZ, which are known as stem cell niches, are related to an increased microvascular density. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wijdicks, E; Atkinson, J; Okazaki, H

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.
A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. 
In conclusion, medulla oblong...

  7. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma in a male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Takashi; Ohtake, Makoto; Matsunaga, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Germinoma mainly occurs in the pituitary stalk, pineal region, and basal ganglia. Sex predominance of the tumor in males in the pineal region and basal ganglia is well known. Primary germinoma of the medulla oblongata is rare, with only eight reports, mostly in females. We report the second male patient with primary medulla oblongata germinoma, without chromosomal abnormality, who was successfully treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Germinoma of the medulla oblongata - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budohoski, Karol P; O'Donovan, Dominic G; Harris, Fiona; Santarius, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We describe a case of primary intracranial medulla oblongata germinoma in a 23-year-old female who presented with deteriorating balance and mobility. Imaging demonstrated an exophytic lesion arising from the dorsal medulla oblongata and extending into the fourth ventricle. The tissue sample was obtained via suboccipital craniotomy and a diagnosis of a primary medullary germinoma was made. The patient underwent whole craniospinal axis radiotherapy and remains well and recurrence-free at 1-year follow up.

  9. Primary germinoma in the medulla oblongata - case report - .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Takao; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Tomoko; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Date, Isao

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with a case of primary medulla oblongata germinoma manifesting as sleep apnea, aspiration pneumonia, and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a dorsal mass in the medulla oblongata with heterogeneous enhancement by gadolinium (Gd). Emergent biopsy and foramen magnum decompression with C1 laminectomy were performed because of rapid worsening of her symptoms. The histological diagnosis was germinoma. Subsequently she received chemoradiation therapy with subsequent amelioration of her neurological deficits and disappearance of enhancement on MR imaging with Gd. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. However, correct diagnosis and subsequent adequate chemoradiation therapy is possible by understanding the common characteristics of the disease. Germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midline medullary lesion in young patients, and biopsy should be considered.

  10. Hemiparesis caused by vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Phyo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Masayuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with progressive left hemiparesis due to the vascular compression of the medulla oblongata. Metrizamide CT cisternography revealed the left vertebral artery to be compressing and distorting the left lateral surface of the medulla. This compression was relieved surgically, and the symptoms improved postoperatively. Neurological and symptomatic considerations are discussed in relation to the topographical anatomy of the lateral corticospinal tract. (author)

  11. Astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Shin-ichiro; Sonobe, Makoto; Koshu, Keiji; Hirota, Shigeru; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kyoichi; Namiki, Tsuneo.

    1987-01-01

    A 22-year-old male was admitted to Mito National Hospital with complaints of persistent, progressive dysphagia, hoarseness, and numbness over his entire body. Neurological examination showed bilateral 7th, 9th, and 10th nerve paralysis, tetraparesis, sensory disturbance of the whole body, and hyper-reflexia of all extremities. Pale, low-density areas in the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord were detected by conventional computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed low-signal masses involving those areas and in the lower cervical cord. Suboccipital craniotomy exposed a solid, firm, well demarcated intramedullary tumor in the medulla oblongata. The tumor was removed en bloc and was histologically diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient's symptoms improved dramatically. Postoperative MRI revealed no residual tumor in the medulla oblongata or upper cervical cord. This case illustrates the value of preoperative MRI, which precisely delineates the location and extent of the tumor and greatly facilitates direct surgery of the medulla oblongata. (author)

  12. Correlation of anatomy and function in medulla oblongata infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C; Fink, G R; Möller-Hartmann, W; Nowak, D A

    2009-02-01

    A presentation of all aspects of the dorsolateral medulla oblongata syndrome is clinically very rare to find. In most cases patients present with fragmentary symptoms, e.g. ipsilateral axial lateropulsion, nystagmus, dysarthria, dysphagia or hemiataxia. However, the clinical presentation and lesion anatomy at the level of the medulla oblongata is still unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to correlate the functional deficit with structural MRI-data. We included thirteen patients (eight male, five female, mean age 65.5) with medulla oblongata infarction with clinically predominant ipsilateral axial lateropulsion and correlated clinical with structural deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion mapping demonstrated ipsilateral axial lateropulsion to result from lesions of the spinocerebellar tract, the inferior cerebellar peduncle or the inferior vestibular nucleus. Nystagmus was associated with lesions of the inferior vestibular nucleus, dissociated sensory loss with the spinothalamic tract and hemiataxia with the spinocerebellar tract. Correlating dysfunction and lesion anatomy is a promising approach to enhance our knowledge on medulla oblongata topography.

  13. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma within the medulla oblongata of a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, E T; Kube, S A; Jortner, B; Hager, D; Garman, R H

    2015-01-01

    A 13-week-old male intact Poodle mix dog developed an acute onset of vestibular ataxia, tetraparesis, and vomiting. The patient presented ambulatory, tetraparetic, and ataxic with a head tilt to the left and a disconjugate nystagmus (rotary nystagmus with fast phase to the right in right eye and vertical nystagmus in left eye). There were absent postural reactions in the left pelvic and left thoracic limbs and decreased right-sided postural reactions. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intra-axial mass within the left midcaudal medulla oblongata. On gross dissection, there was a left-sided neoplasm in the medulla oblongata with surrounding hemorrhage. The histologic findings indicated that the mass was a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. This tumor, an uncommon variant of an astrocytoma most often seen in children and young adult humans, has yet to be described in dogs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Surgical treatment for hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi Wu; Xu, Rong; Du, Zhuo Ying; Gao, Xiang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment of hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 18 patients who underwent surgery for hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata in the Neurosurgical Department of Huashan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was 13 males and five females. The main symptoms were headache, cervical pain, and dizziness. All patients had preoperative and postoperative examination by MRI. There were five cystic tumors and 13 solid tumors. Tumor diameter ranged from 1 to 4.3 cm (mean, 2.6 cm). Complete tumor resection was achieved in all patients, but one patient died. Embolization was done in three patients. According to McCormick scale, postoperative condition was worse in one patient, unchanged in 14 patients, and improved in three patients. In follow-up assessments, no surviving patients remained in a worse condition. Compared with the preoperative condition, 11 patients were unchanged, and six patients exhibited improvement. Tumor recurrence was not observed during follow-up. Surgery is the first-line treatment for symptomatic patients with hemangioblastomas in the medulla oblongata. Good results can be achieved for the cystic or small solid tumors. Large solid tumors remain a surgical challenge due to arteriovenous malformation-like vascularization. Preoperative embolization is useful for large solid tumors. For asymptomatic tumors, careful long-term observation or radiosurgery could be chosen.

  15. Medulla oblongata damage and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Mongin, Marie; Valabregue, Romain; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Ewenczyk, Claire; Poupon, Cyril; Debellemaniere, Eden; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2016-12-13

    To characterize medulla oblongata damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Parkinson disease (PD) and correlate it with dysfunction of the cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance. Fifty-two patients with PD and 24 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical examination and 3T MRI using 3D T1-weighted imaging and DTI. DTI metrics were calculated within manually drawn regions of interest. Heart rate variability was evaluated using spectral analysis of the R-R cardiac interval during REM and slow-wave sleep based on continuous overnight electrocardiographic monitoring. Respiratory frequency was measured in 30-second contiguous epochs of REM and slow-wave sleep. The relationships between imaging and cardiac variables were calculated using partial correlations followed by the multiple comparisons permutation approach. The changes in heart rate and respiratory frequency variability from slow-wave sleep to REM sleep in healthy controls were no longer detectable in patients with PD. There were significant increases in the mean (p = 0.006), axial (p = 0.006), and radial diffusivities (p = 0.005) in the medulla oblongata of patients with PD. In PD, diffusion changes were specifically correlated with a lower heart rate and respiratory frequency variability during REM sleep. This study provides evidence that medulla oblongata damage underlies cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance and respiratory dysfunction in patients with PD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Developmental exposure to paracetamol causes biochemical alterations in medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    The effect and safety of prenatal and early life administration of paracetamol - routinely used over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic medication on monoamines content and balance of amino acids in the medulla oblongata is still unknown. In this study we have determined the level of neurotransmitters in this structure in two-month old Wistar male rats exposed to paracetamol in the dose of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg b.w. (P15, n=10) during prenatal period, lactation and till the end of the second month of life. Control group received drinking water (Con, n=10). Monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids concentration in medulla oblongata of rats were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 60 postnatal day (PND60). This experiment shows that prenatal and early life paracetamol exposure modulates neurotransmission associated with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic system in medulla oblongata. Reduction of alanine and taurine levels has also been established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurochemistry of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Ruth L

    2009-11-01

    This review focuses on presympathetic neurons in the medulla oblongata including the adrenergic cell groups C1-C3 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the serotonergic, GABAergic and glycinergic neurons in the ventromedial medulla. The phenotypes of these neurons including colocalized neuropeptides (e.g., neuropeptide Y, enkephalin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, substance P) as well as their relative anatomical location are considered in relation to predicting their function in control of sympathetic outflow, in particular the sympathetic outflows controlling blood pressure and thermoregulation. Several explanations are considered for how the neuroeffectors coexisting in these neurons might be functioning, although their exact purpose remains unknown. Although there is abundant data on potential neurotransmitters and neuropeptides contained in the presympathetic neurons, we are still unable to predict function and physiology based solely on the phenotype of these neurons.

  18. Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations involving medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Lin, Sen; Hui, Xuhui; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) involving medulla oblongata is more difficult than the CMs in other sites because of the surrounding vital structures. However, the distinctive features and treatment strategies have not been well illustrated. Therefore, we enrolled a total of 19 patients underwent surgical treatment of CMs involving medulla oblongata in our hospital from August 2008 to August 2014. The clinical features, surgical management and clinical outcome of these patients were retrospectively analyzed, while our institutional surgical indications, approaches and microsurgical techniques were discussed. In our study, gross total resection was achieved in 17 patients and subtotal resection in 2. Two patients underwent emergency surgeries due to severe and progressive neurological deficits. The postoperative new-onset or worsened neurological deficits occurred in 6 patients. After a mean follow-up of 45.8±22.2months, the neurological status was improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 7. The mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was 2.58±1.26 preoperatively, 3.11±0.99 postoperatively and 1.84±1.42 at the recent follow-up, respectively. During the follow-up period, no rehemorrhage and recurrence occurred, and the residual lesions remained stable. We recommended surgical resection of symptomatic CMs involving medulla oblongata via optimal approaches, feasible entry zones and meticulous microsurgical techniques in attempting to achieve safe resection and favorable outcome. The clinical features, surgical indications, timing and microsurgical techniques of this special entity should be distinctive from the brainstem cavernous malformations in other sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical resection of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas: outcome and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, Lorenzo; Messerer, Mahmoud; Aghakhani, Nozar; David, Philippe; Herbrecht, Anne; Richard, Stéphane; Parker, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical outcome and complications of a single-center series of medulla oblongata (MO) hemangioblastomas. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of all medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas operated on at our institution between 1996 and 2015. All patients had a pre- and postoperative MRI and a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Patients were scored according to the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and McCormick Scale at the moment of admission, discharge and the last follow-up. Thirty-one surgical procedures were performed on 27 patients (16 females and 11 males). The mean age was 33 years, and 93 % of patients had von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease. Three patients experienced very complicated postoperative courses, with one case ending in the death of the patient. Two patients required tracheostomy. According to McCormick's classification, 7 (23 %) of the 31 operations resulted in aggravation and 23 (74 %) in no change. Considering the seven patients with aggravation at discharge, four patients (60 %) returned to their preoperative status, one (14 %) improved but remained below his preoperative McCormick grade and two (29 %) did not improve. At last follow-up, KPS was ameliorated in 53 %, stable in 40 % and worsened in 7 % of cases. Surgery of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas is a challenging procedure characterized by an acceptable morbidity. Transient morbidity is not negligible even if the long-term outcome is in most cases favorable. A compromised neurological condition seems to be the best predictor of unfavorable outcome.

  20. Comment on Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Ali Fahir

    2014-01-01

    1. Gülşen S, Caner H. Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Me- dulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports. Balkan Med J 2013;30:442-4. 2. Talamás O, Del Brutto OH, García-Ramos G. Brain-stem tuberculoma. An analysis of 11 patients. Arch Neurol 1989;46:529-35. [CrossRef] 3. Gropper MR, Schulder M, Duran HL, Wolansky L. Cerebral tuberculo

  1. Sublaminar wire migration into the medulla oblongata: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziarz, Alex; Aref, Mohammed; Vinh, Brian; Mensinkai, Arun; Almenawer, Saleh A; Reddy, Kesava

    2017-06-01

    Atlantoaxial procedures have been developed in an effort to ensure solid C1-C2 fusion. However, techniques that involve sublaminar wiring have the potential for neural structure injury. We present the management of a patient who previously underwent Gallie fusion 10 years ago and is presenting with a dislodged titanium wire that has migrated into the medulla oblongata. A 52-year-old female patient known with rheumatoid arthritis presented with truncal ataxia and food regurgitation 10 years after undergoing a C1-C2 Gallie fusion. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed that a wire from her Gallie fusion procedure migrated into the medulla oblongata. The patient underwent foramen magnum decompression with C1 bilateral laminectomy, instrumentation, and removal of a migrated wire. Six months later, a CT scan showed that all occipital screws were pulled out. In the revision surgery, new occipital screws were placed with a resultant significant improvement in patient's gait postoperatively. Wire migration as a differential diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with neurological dysfunction who underwent surgical treatment with sublaminar wire fusion techniques.

  2. MRI Patterns of Isolated Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Schaefer, Pamela; Gonzalez, Gilberto; Rapalino, Otto

    2017-01-01

    Isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and high biopsy risk. Several individual case reports have been published, but a systematic descriptive study is lacking. Our study has three objectives that 1) provide a differential diagnosis, 2) describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and 3) propose a stepwise MRI-based approach to the isolated lesions of the medulla oblongata in nonstroke patients. We performed an institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of 34 consecutive cases of isolated medullary lesions from nonstroke causes identified from our imaging database between January 2000 and May 2015. Eleven were excluded due to lack of pretreatment or follow-up MRI. MR studies were reviewed by two blinded neuroradiologists. The diagnosis, demographic data, and MR findings were reported using frequencies and proportions. An MRI-based diagnostic algorithm was proposed. Most lesions were neoplasms (47%), followed by vascular malformations (15%), demyelinating/inflammatory lesions (15%), others (12%), unknown (8%), and infection (3%). Five MRI patterns were identified: 1) cystic lesion, 2) exophytic noncystic lesion, 3) intrinsic lesion with T2 hypointensity, 4) enhancing intrinsic lesion, and 5) nonenhancing intrinsic lesion. All showing patterns 1 and 2 were neoplasms or cysts. All showing pattern 3 were vascular malformations. Patterns 4 and 5 comprised of multiple etiologies. Neoplasms are the most common cause of isolated medullary lesions in nonstroke patients. Other differential diagnoses include vascular malformations, demyelinating/inflammatory lesions, and infections. A stepwise MRI-based approach can help differentiate between various etiologies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. [Successful microvascular decompression of the medulla oblongata for a case with respiratory failure: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, Motofumi; Nakahara, Yukiko; Kawashima, Masatou; Takase, Yukinori; Matsushima, Toshio

    2011-11-01

    We report a case of the medulla oblongata syndrome successfully treated by microvascular decompression surgery. The patient was a 75-year-old woman and had been suffering from gradual progressive dyspnea since July, 2009. Two month later, intubation and medial ventilator treatments were began because of severe respiratory problems. The central respiratory problems were considered in extensive testing by the physician. The head MR imaging showed that the left vertebral artery had markedly compressed the medulla oblongata. We thought that her respiratory problems were associated with this vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata. We performed the microvascular decompression surgery by left trans-condylar fossa approach. Her hypoventilation graduately improved after the surgery and she needed neither ventilator nor oxygen in several months. She is able to perform daily activities by herself. We report the case, and discuss the cause of respiratory problems especially by compression of the medulla oblongata.

  4. Primary medulla oblongata germinomas: two case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shuyu; Li, Da; Feng, Jie; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Junting; Zhang, Liwei

    2013-10-15

    An intracranial germinoma is a tumor that is sensitive to radiotherapy. As medulla oblongata germinomas are extremely rare, determining an accurate preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Two cases of medulla oblongata lesions were surgically treated, and a postoperative diagnosis of germinoma was determined in both of the cases. The tumor in one patient completely resolved after a treatment course consisting of surgical intervention, radiotherapy and chemotherapy; the other patient, who did not receive any type of adjuvant treatment after surgery, suffered from tumor relapse and died from pneumonia 8 months following surgery. A preoperative diagnosis of medulla oblongata germinoma is difficult because of the lack of specific clinical signs and symptoms. If the correct diagnosis is reached, patients can have a favorable prognosis with proper evaluation and treatment. An invasive operation can potentially lesion and impair the function of the medulla oblongata, which is fatal to the patient.

  5. Tuberculoma in the Medulla Oblongata and Medulla Spinalis: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system tuberculosis remains a prevalent problem in developing countries. Also, this disease has been an important problem in developed countries due to the increased incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system is seen in 10% of immunocompetent patients with primary tuberculosis. Case Report: We report two patients with tuberculoma in the central nervous system. The first case had a lesion located in the medulla oblongata, and the second case had a lesion in the medulla spinalis between the 5th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral level. Both of these patients underwent surgery. Conclusion: CNS tuberculomas may not always show typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs, but when a neurosurgeon encounters a brown-yellow rubber-like lesion that is easily extirpated from the glial tissue, tuberculoma should be considered; anti-tuberculous and corticosteroid therapy should be initiated as soon as possible to prevent meningitis and the immune-mediated destructive effects of tuberculosis on the CNS. Whether or not anti-tuberculous therapy is continued can be decided upon by following definitive pathologic diagnosis. PMID:25207157

  6. [Case of surgical treatment for giant hemangioblastoma in the dorsal medulla oblongata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoshima, Yuuta; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Shimoda, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Asano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Murata, Junichi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2012-03-01

    Hemangioblastoma in the medulla oblongata is a relatively rare tumor. We present the case of a giant hemangioblastoma occurring in the dorsal medulla oblongata. A 33-year-old man with no neurological symptoms was diagnosed with a hemangioblastoma in the dorsal medulla oblongata, and opted for observation in the outpatient department. After 22 months of observation time, MRI scans showed rapid local tumor progression and obstructive hydrocephalus. At this point, he presented with mild dysphagia as a preoperative neurological deficit. Total surgical removal of the tumor was performed after temporary ventricle drainage and preoperative embolization of the feeding artery. Postoperatively, he became fully conscious but developed bulbar palsy followed by tracheostomy. During the 12 months of postoperative follow-up, severe dysphagia was still present.

  7. An endodermal cyst mimicking an intra-axial tumor in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Mo; Ahn, Jung Yong; Kim, Sun Ho; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chang, Jong Hee

    2010-06-01

    Endodermal cysts, also known as enterogenous, neurenteric, foregut, epithelial, bronchogenic, or respiratory cysts, are rare benign lesions lined by columnar epithelium of a presumed endodermal origin. Endodermal cysts are rarely intracranial, but when this occurs, the cysts are frequently located in the posterior fossa with the most common locations being anterior to the brainstem and within the fourth ventricle. However, an endodermal cyst located in the medulla oblongata is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of a 23-year-old man with an endodermal cyst located in the medulla oblongata. Although rare, clinicians should be aware that this lesion is differentiated from other cystic lesions of the posterior fossa by the absence of a mural nodule. Total resection of endodermal cysts in the medulla oblongata is recommended, despite their location and adhesion to surrounding structures, due to its frequent recurrence.

  8. [Disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichirou

    2011-04-01

    We report the case of disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A 73-year-old man has a history of for metastatic lung tumor of the left tempral lobe. Although 3 surgeries and 4 radiotherapies were performed in the last 8 years, residual tumor grew slowly. He presented with intractable hiccups. His hiccups continued for 30 minutes, sometimes for 3 hours with obstruction of eating. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the dissemination of metastatic lung tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata and ventral surface of midbrain. Some literatures reported the patients with intractable hiccups caused by dorsal medullary lesions. Therefore, we thought that the small disseminated tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata caused the hiccups. Evaluation of dorsal medullay area by MR imaging is important to reveal the cause of intractable hiccups.

  9. Primary glioblastoma multiforme of medulla oblongata: Case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky P.; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Joo-Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common glial tumor of the adult brain. However, the primary GBM of medulla oblongata is a rarity. To the best of our knowledge, only four cases of GBM of medulla oblongata have been reported so far in the literature, and this is the second report of conventional GBM of the medulla oblongata in adults. We describe a case of 51-year-old female, who presented with a heterogeneous mass with exophytic feature located in the caudal brain stem that was approached and a near total tumor removal was achieved by median suboccipital route. A literature review with emphasis on anatomical location, radiological and histopathological findings, extent of tumor resectibility, and outcome is included. PMID:22639691

  10. Anhelation due to formation of tuberculomas at the medulla oblongata during chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojie; Zhong, Yangping; Bian, Xinchao; Fu, Shuanglin; Luo, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    Formation of tuberculoma is a rare response of neurotuberculosis in patients regularly and adequately treated with anti-tuberculous drugs. We report a 13-year-old girl with two tuberculomas which formed in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata during chemotherapy for tuberculous meningitis. The tuberculomas were both removed via a suboccipital midline approach and were demonstrated by pathological findings but the girl died of cardiac arrest that was thought to be caused by postoperative medulla oblongata oedema. In combination with a literature review, we discuss the clinical features and treatment options of brainstem tuberculomas.

  11. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with medulla oblongata dysplasia in a premature infant: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Na; Wei, Mei-Chen; Cui, Hong

    2018-04-01

    Medulla oblongata dysplasia is an extremely rare form of neurodevelopmental immaturity in premature infants. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants may be closely related to neurodevelopmental immaturity. We report a female premature infant who succumbed to intracranial hemorrhage caused by medulla oblongata dysplasia. The infant was born at 31 weeks gestation. The onset manifestation was symptomatic epilepsy associated with subependymal hemorrhage. Levetiracetam and sodium valproate were administered. During the hospitalization, hydrocephalus developed and the intracranial hemorrhage aggravated. The infant died on day 171 after birth. Early identification and prompt treatment should be emphasized. Clinicians should be aware of this condition, as it can potentially cause neonatal intracranial hemorrhage.

  12. Dyspnea and choking as presenting symptoms in primary medulla oblongata germinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chi-Man; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Jun-Yih; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chia-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem. It contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma is very rare and less than 20 cases have been reported in the English literature. A 22-year-old female without any particular past medical history presented to us in October 2012 with the chief complaint of dyspnea and frequent choking for 1 month. Neurological examination revealed lower cranial nerve palsies and nystagmus. Her brain computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a mass lesion at the dorsal surface of medulla oblongata with extension into the inferior fourth ventricle and foramen magnum. She underwent bilateral suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminoplasty with the grossly total resection of the tumor. The histological examination of the tumor proved germinoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was arranged. The latest brain MRI and whole spine MRI done 1 year after surgery showed neither residual nor recurrent tumor in the whole axis. She is regularly followed-up at our outpatient department and is doing well except having left vocal cord palsy, which occurred before surgery. Medulloblastoma, ependymoma, glioma, hemangioblastoma, and cavernous angioma are common intraaxial tumors in the medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle. Intracranial germ cell tumors originate from extragonadal seminal cells and have been found in 0.4-3.4% of patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Western countries, while the incidence is reported to be 5-8 times greater in Japan and the Far East. Although germinoma of medulla oblongata is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of medulla masses with fourth ventricle extension, especially in Asian population.

  13. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  14. Hox gene colinear expression in the avian medulla oblongata is correlated with pseudorhombomeric domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Faustino; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis

    2008-11-15

    The medulla oblongata (or caudal hindbrain) is not overtly segmented, since it lacks observable interrhombomeric boundaries. However, quail-chick fate maps showed that it is formed by 5 pseudorhombomeres (r7-r11) which were empirically found to be delimited consistently at planes crossing through adjacent somites (Cambronero and Puelles, 2000). We aimed to reexamine the possible segmentation or rostrocaudal regionalisation of this brain region attending to molecular criteria. To this end, we studied the expression of Hox genes from groups 3 to 7 correlative to the differentiating nuclei of the medulla oblongata. Our results show that these genes are differentially expressed in the mature medulla oblongata, displaying instances of typical antero-posterior (3' to 5') Hox colinearity. The different sensory and motor columns, as well as the reticular formation, appear rostrocaudally regionalised according to spaced steps in their Hox expression pattern. The anterior limits of the respective expression domains largely fit boundaries defined between the experimental pseudorhombomeres. Therefore the medulla oblongata shows a Hox-related rostrocaudal molecular regionalisation comparable to that found among rhombomeres, and numerically consistent with the pseudorhombomere list. This suggests that medullary pseudorhombomeres share some AP patterning mechanisms with the rhombomeres present in the rostral, overtly-segmented hindbrain, irrespective of variant boundary properties.

  15. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  16. [Damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xuefei; Ding, Yan; Nie, Zheng; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Li; Zheng, Yu

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to study the damage effects of chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata and to explore whether the damage is associated with oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and chronic hypoxia group. Medulla oblongata was obtained for the following methods of analyses. Nissl's staining was used to examine the Niss bodies of neurons in medullary respiratory related nuclei, biochemistry methods were utilized to examine oxidant stress damage induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and RT-PCR technique was used to study the influence of apoptosis induced by chronic hypoxia on medulla oblongata through analyzing the levels of Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA. The results showed the optical densities of Nissl's staining in pre-BötC, NA, NTS, FN, and 12N were significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). Bax mRNA expression had no obvious change and Bcl-2 mRNA expression significantly decreased in chronic hypoxia group in comparison with that in control group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that chronic hypoxia could bring about serious damage to medullary respiratory centers through aggravating oxidative stress and increasing cell apoptosis.

  17. Research on alteration of neurons in vagal nuclei in medulla oblongata in newborns with respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Shabani, Driton; Dacaj, Ramadan; Manxhuka, Suzana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Krasniqi, Shaip; Kurtishi, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal and axonal degenerative changes in motor vagal neurons (DMNV) and sensory vagal neurons (nTS) in the medulla oblongata in newborns were studied. Material was taken from the autopsies of newborns, live and dead newborns, in different gestational weeks (aborted, immature, premature and mature). 46 cases were studied. Material for research was taken from the medulla oblongata and lung tissue. Serial horizontal incisions were made in the medulla oblongata (± 4 mm), commencing from the obex, where the DMNV and nTS vagal nuclei were explored. Fixed cuttings in buffered formalin (10%) were used for histochemical staining. Serial cuttings were done with a microtome (7 µm). Pulmonary infections, being significant (p medulla oblongata in newborns in different gestational weeks are more emphasized in matures in comparison to aborted and immature (p < 0.05). Depending on the lifetime of dead newborns, neuronal morphological changes in vagus nerve nuclei are significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that pulmonary infections are often caused due to dramatic respiratory distress in newborns, while hypoxaemic changes in the population of vagus nerve neurons in respiratory distress are more emphasized in matures.

  18. Severe diffuse axon injury in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata following a concussion blow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Chen, Guang; Wei, Lai; Qian, Hong; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Dian; Lv, Junyao; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the axonal morphological changes and expression of both tau protein and β-APP following concussion to the medulla oblongata, in a rat model of chronic alcoholism. Fifty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into EtOH, EtOH-TBI and control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholic rats, rats were intragastrically given edible spirituous liquor twice daily. Rats also received a blow on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Morphological changes and expression of tau and β-APP proteins in the medulla oblongata were examined. (a) Nerve fibre thickening and twisting were observed in alcoholic rats, with nerve fibre changes becoming more significant following a concussion blow, which leads to some nerve fibres fracturing. (b) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nerve fibre myelin became loosened and displayed lamellar separation, which became more significant following concussion. (c) The integral optical density (IOD) sum value of β-APP of the EtOH-TBI group was lower than that in the EtOH group (P Chronic alcoholism caused nerve fibre and neuronal morphology damage in the rat medulla oblongata, with structural damage becoming more significant following concussion. (b) Concussion changed the expression of β-APP and tau protein in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata, suggesting that chronic alcoholism can lead to severe axonal injury following a concussion blow. (c) The effect of chronic alcoholism may be synergistic the concussion blow to promote animal injury and death.

  19. [A case of medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries presenting with spastic quadriplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takashi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Yamashita, Tamayo; Nagata, Shinji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 58-year-old man showing spastic paraparesis due to medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries. He noticed weakness of both legs and gait disturbance at the age of 58 years and his symptoms progressively worsened during the following several months. General physical findings were normal. Blood pressure was normal and there were no signs of arteriosclerosis. Neurological examination on admission revealed lower-limb-dominant spasticity in all four extremities, lower-limb weakness, hyperreflexia in all extremities with positive Wartenberg's, Babinski's and Chaddock's signs, mild hypesthesia and hypopallesthesia in both lower limbs, and spastic gait. Cranial nerves were all normal. Serum was negative for antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 antibody. Nerve conduction and needle electromyographic studies of all four limbs revealed normal findings. Cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were all normal. Brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries compressing the medulla oblongata. Neurovascular decompression of the right vertebral artery was performed because compression of the right side was more severe than that of the left side. Post-operative MRI revealed outward translocation of the right vertebral artery and relieved compression of the medulla oblongata on the right side. The patient's symptoms and neurological findings improved gradually after the operation. Bilateral pyramidal tract signs without cranial nerve dysfunction due to compression of the medulla oblongata by tortuous vertebral arteries are extremely rare and clinically indistinguishable from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Although we did not perform a genetic test for HSP, we consider that the spastic paraparesis and mild lower-limb hypesthesia were caused by compression of the medulla oblongata by bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries based on the post

  20. Chronic intermittent hypoxia promotes expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in adult rat medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingqiang; Nie, Lihong; Hu, Yajie; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Lian; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Zheng, Yu

    2013-12-01

    The present experiments were carried out to investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of rats and effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on its expression. Sprague Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into two groups, including control (Con) group and CIH group. The endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in medulla oblongata tissue homogenates was measured using the methylene blue assay method, 3MST mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. CIH elevated the endogenous H2S production in rat medulla oblongata (Pmedulla oblongata of rats and CIH promoted their expression (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N and Amb, but not in FN and NTS, were significantly increased in CIH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei and its expression can be up-regulated by CIH in adult rat, suggesting that 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in regulation of respiration and protection on medullary respiratory centers from injury induced by CIH. © 2013.

  1. Dorsally exophytic glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata in an adult presenting as 4th ventricular mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bettaswamy, Guru Prasad; Mehrotra, Anant; Jaiswal, Sushila; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are relatively rare in adults (medulla oblongata in a 55-year-old lady who presented with a 4th ventricular mass, and present a brief review of the literature. Till now, six cases of glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata have been reported. So, ours is the seventh such report. To the best of our knowledge, it also happens to be the sixth reported case of dorsally exophytic brainstem glioblastoma till date. PMID:28484537

  2. Autoradiographic localization of peptide YY and neuropeptide Y binding sites in the medulla oblongata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, R.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Robertson, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Peptide YY is a highly potent emetic when given intravenously in dogs. We hypothesized that the area postrema, a small brain stem nucleus that acts as a chemoreceptive trigger zone for vomiting and lies outside the blood-brain barrier, might have receptors that PYY would bind to, in order to mediate the emetic response. We prepared [ 125 I]PYY and used autoradiography to show that high affinity binding sites for this ligand were highly localized in the area postrema and related nuclei of the dog medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites in the rat medulla oblongata was very similar to that in the dog; the distribution of [ 125 I]PYY binding sites throughout the rat brain was seen to be similar to the distribution of [ 125 I]NPY binding sites

  3. A Case Involving Needles in the Medulla Oblongata, Cervical Spinal Cord, and Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Yu; Li, Da; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-10-01

    It is extremely rare to encounter intracranial foreign bodies caused by penetrating injuries other than gunshot wounds or low-velocity wounds. We present a case describing a 5-year-old girl with metallic foreign bodies in the medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord, and abdomen. The foreign bodies may have been there and remained silent for several years until the patient developed nausea and vomiting that persisted for 3 months. A craniotomy and a laparotomy were performed after a thorough discussion. Five pieces of metallic foreign bodies were removed, and the patient had a good outcome. Despite the precarious location of the needles in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord, this rare case supports the use of surgery to remove the foreign bodies.

  4. Autopsy case of undiagnosed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata complicated with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Motonori; Kondo, Takeshi; Morichika, Mai; Kuse, Azumi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A Japanese man in his 30s who had congenital cerebral palsy was found unresponsive in bed. His death was confirmed after resuscitation attempts. He had a history of occasional falling (despite the use of walking sticks and a wheelchair) owing to a slowly progressive gait disturbance, and had a medical examination without full neurological re-examination. Autopsy revealed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata, which was diagnosed as the cause of death. Although gangliocytoma is a well-differentiated benign tumor, the almost total replacement of the medulla oblongata by the tumor cells was assumed to result in ataxia via the olivocerebellar tract and secondary cerebellar atrophy, followed by central hypoventilation and death of the patient. The symptoms caused by gangliocytoma may be overlooked owing to long-standing cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Possible neuro-Sweet disease mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Chihiro; Esaki, Takanori; Ando, Maya; Furuya, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Mori, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of possible neuro-Sweet Disease (NSD) mimicking brain tumor in the medulla oblongata, manifesting as numbness in the bilateral upper and lower extremities, gait disturbance, dysarthria, and swallowing disturbance which gradually deteriorated over 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion in the medulla oblongata, extending to the upper cervical cord with rim enhancement by gadolinium. The preoperative diagnosis was brain tumor, such as glioma, or inflammatory disease. His neurological symptoms gradually deteriorated, so biopsy was performed through the midline suboccipital approach. Histological examination showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. Human leukocyte antigen typing showed Cw1 and B54 which strongly suggested possible NSD. Steroid pulse therapy was started after surgery and the clinical symptoms improved. Neurosurgeons should be aware of inflammatory disorders such as NSD mimicking brain tumor.

  6. Combined CMV- and HSV-1 brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2014-04-15

    We report a very rare case of a combined CMV- and HSV-1 isolated brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata in a patient with advanced HIV disease. Neither limbic nor general ventricular involvement was detected on neuroimaging. The case highlights the importance of testing for HSV-1 and CMV in HIV-infected patients presenting with an isolated brainstem syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crypto-rhombomeres of the mouse medulla oblongata, defined by molecular and morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Roca, Laura; Corral-San-Miguel, Rubén; Aroca, Pilar; Puelles, Luis; Marín, Faustino

    2016-03-01

    The medulla oblongata is the caudal portion of the vertebrate hindbrain. It contains major ascending and descending fiber tracts as well as several motor and interneuron populations, including neural centers that regulate the visceral functions and the maintenance of bodily homeostasis. In the avian embryo, it has been proposed that the primordium of this region is subdivided into five segments or crypto-rhombomeres (r7-r11), which were defined according to either their parameric position relative to intersomitic boundaries (Cambronero and Puelles, in J Comp Neurol 427:522-545, 2000) or a stepped expression of Hox genes (Marín et al., in Dev Biol 323:230-247, 2008). In the present work, we examine the implied similar segmental organization of the mouse medulla oblongata. To this end, we analyze the expression pattern of Hox genes from groups 3 to 8, comparing them to the expression of given cytoarchitectonic and molecular markers, from mid-gestational to perinatal stages. As a result of this approach, we conclude that the mouse medulla oblongata is segmentally organized, similarly as in avian embryos. Longitudinal structures such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, the hypoglossal motor nucleus, the descending trigeminal and vestibular columns, or the reticular formation appear subdivided into discrete segmental units. Additionally, our analysis identified an internal molecular organization of the migrated pontine nuclei that reflects a differential segmental origin of their neurons as assessed by Hox gene expression.

  8. Vagal afferents modulate cytokine-mediated respiratory control at the neonatal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Kannan V; Kc, Prabha; Hoxha, Zana; Mayer, Catherine A; Wilson, Christopher G; Martin, Richard J

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal sepsis and inflammation trigger lung and brain injury in preterm infants, and associated apnea of prematurity. We hypothesized that endotoxin exposure in the immature lung would upregulate proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the medulla oblongata and be associated with impaired respiratory control. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg) or saline was administered intratracheally to rat pups and medulla oblongatas were harvested for quantifying expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines. LPS-exposure significantly increased medullary mRNA for IL-1β and IL-6, and vagotomy blunted this increase in IL-1β, but not IL-6. Whole-body flow plethysmography revealed that LPS-exposed pups had an attenuated ventilatory response to hypoxia both before and after carotid sinus nerve transection. Immunochemical expression of IL-1β within the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema was increased after LPS-exposure. In summary, intratracheal endotoxin-exposure in rat pups is associated with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the medulla oblongata that is vagally mediated for IL-1β and associated with an impaired hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisem, Naomi J; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-12-26

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain.

  10. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisem, Naomi J.; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain

  11. [Surgical treatment of hemangioblastoma in medulla oblongata:a report of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Chen, Ju-xiang; Lu, Yi-cheng; Hu, Guo-han; Sun, Ke-hua; Ding, Xue-hua; Luo, Chun; Wu, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Tao; Lin, Jing

    2013-09-17

    To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnostic strategies and surgical techniques of hemangioblastoma (HB) in medulla oblongata. The clinical and radiological characteristics, therapeutic processes and outcomes of 12 HB cases treated at our department from 2002 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Headache, somatic numbness and limb muscle weakness were the major symptoms of oblongata HB. Magnetic resonance imaging before surgery revealed a total of 12 single tumors. Among these tumors, upper (n = 1), middle (n = 7) and lower (n = 4) parts of medulla oblongata were involved. The locations were surface (n = 9) and intramedullary (n = 3). Three tumors had cyst. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed on 5 cases and it revealed that the main blood supply arteries of tumors were branches of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).One case underwent pre-surgical embolism during angiography. Eleven tumors were totally resected and 1 was fulgurized.Symptoms improved (n = 8) and worsened (n = 2). And two patients died. All survivors were followed up for 3 months to 10 years and had a McCormick functional grading of I-II.One case relapsed 7 year later. For Cystic HB, small or medium sized substantial HB in middle and lower part of oblongata, surgical removal is often safe and symptoms may be lessened.It can be used as a first-line treatment. For large ( ≥ 3 cm) substantial HB or HB in upper part of oblongata, serious postoperative complications such as respiratory failure, neurogenic pulmonary edema or acute obstructive hydrocephalus may occur. Thus surgical resection should be prudently considered and possible consequences thoroughly discussed with the patients.

  12. Abscess of the medulla oblongata in a toddler: case report and technical considerations based on magnetic resonance imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoglou, Vasileios; D'Angelo, Luca; Koutzoglou, Michael; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2011-08-01

    We report a unique case of a toddler (the only one reported) successfully operated on for a medulla oblongata abscess and comment on the influence of neuroimaging modalities in the preoperative planning of the surgical approach. We report a case of a 20-month-old child with a solitary medulla oblongata abscess. The abscess appeared to be in close proximity to the anterior medulla oblongata, but preoperative planning based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography motivated us to try to remove this lesion through a midline suboccipital approach. The ventral medulla oblongata abscess was surgically removed via a telovelar approach. At the anterior wall of the 4th ventricle, a fenestration was made with pus release and evacuation of the cavity. The child was discharged 1 week later with an uneventful and full recovery. Modern imaging modalities of the nervous system can be very helpful in preoperative planning. Functional visualization of the nervous system provided by modern imaging techniques, such as the DTI tractography, can alter the classic topographic concept of surgical approach. In the case presented, approaching an anterior medulla oblongata abscess based on DTI tractography data, through a suboccipital midline transventricular approach, proved to be an effective and safe technique.

  13. Protective action of tetramethylpyrazine on the medulla oblongata in rats with chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Shu; Zheng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii Frantchat (Chuan Xiong), plays an important role in neuroprotection. However, the protective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata, the most important region of the brain for cardiovascular and respiratory control, during chronic hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata after chronic hypoxic injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, TMP group, chronic hypoxia group, and chronic hypoxia+TMP group. Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% (v/v) O₂) or normoxia for 6 h daily for 14 days. TMP (80 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation. Loss of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus were evaluated by Nissl staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured, and apoptosis was monitored using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The level of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was quantitatively measured by RT-PCR analysis. TMP protected Nissl bodies of neurons from injury in all nuclei observed, and reduced the loss of neurons in the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and the hypoglossal nucleus in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. TMP upregulated SOD activity and inhibited the increase in MDA content in the medulla oblongata of hypoxic rats. In addition, TMP decreased the rate of apoptosis index (the percentage of apoptotic cells against the total number of cells) in all medullary structures examined, excepting the nucleus ambiguus and inhibited the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA levels in the medulla oblongata following hypoxia. Our findings indicate that TMP may protect the medullary structures that are involved in

  14. Expression of the ghrelin receptor gene in neurons of the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Romke; Yin, Lei; Russo, Domenico; Furness, John B

    2013-08-15

    There is ambiguity concerning the distribution of neurons that express the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) in the medulla oblongata. In the current study we used a sensitive nonradioactive method to investigate GHSR mRNA distribution by in situ hybridization. Strong expression of the GHSR gene was confirmed in neurons of the facial nucleus (FacN, 7), the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), and the semicompact (but not compact) nucleus ambiguus (AmbSC and AmbC). In addition, expression of GHSR was found in other regions, where it had not been described before. GHSR-positive neurons were observed in the gustatory rostral nucleus tractus solitarius and in areas involved in vestibulo-ocular processing (such as the medial vestibular nucleus and the nucleus abducens). GHSR expression was also noted in ventral areas associated with cardiorespiratory control, including the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla, the (pre)-Bötzinger complex, and the rostral and caudal ventrolateral respiratory group. However, GHSR-positive neurons in ventrolateral areas did not express markers for cardiovascular presympathetic vasomotor neurons, respiratory propriobulbar rhythmogenic neurons, or sensory interneurons. GHSR-positive cells were intermingled with catecholamine neurons in the dorsal vagal complex but these populations did not overlap. Thus, the ghrelin receptor occurs in the medulla oblongata in 1) second-order sensory neurons processing gustatory, vestibulo-ocular, and visceral sensation; 2) cholinergic somatomotor neurons of the FacN and autonomic preganglionic neurons of the DMNX and AmbSC; 3) cardiovascular neurons in the DVC, Gi, and LPGi; 4) neurons of as yet unknown function in the ventrolateral medulla. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. In vitro research of the alteration of neurons in vagal core in medulla oblongata at asphyxic deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliti, Naim; Islami, Hilmi; Elezi, Nevzat; Shabani, Ragip; Abdullahu, Bedri; Dragusha, Gani

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to research the morphological changes of neurons in the vagus nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata in asphyxia related death cases. Morphological changes that were investigated were mainly in the dorsal motor respiratory center (DMRC), nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and nucleus ambigus (nA) in the medulla oblongata. In our research, the autopsy material from asphyxia related death cases was used from various etiologies: monoxide carbon (CO), liquid drowning, strangulation, electricity, clinical-pathological death, firing weapon, explosive weapon, sharp and blunt objects and death cases due to accident. The material selected for research was taken from medulla oblongata and lungs from all lobes. The material from the medulla oblongata and lungs was fixed in a 10% solution of buffered formalin. Special histochemical methods for central nervous system (CNS) were employed like: Cresyl echt violet, toluidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius. For stereometrical analysis of the quantitative density of the neurons the universal testing system Weibel M42 was used. The acquired results show that in sudden asphyxia related death cases, there are alterations in the nuclei of vagal nerve in form of: central chromatolysis, axonal retraction, axonal fragmentation, intranuclear vacuolization, cytoplasmic vacuolization, edema, condensation and dispersion of substance of Nissl, proliferation of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. The altered population of vagus nerve neurons does not show an important statistical significance compared to the overall quantity of the neurons in the nuclei of the vagus nerve (p<0.05).

  16. In Vitro Research of the Alteration of Neurons in Vagal Core in Medulla Oblongata at Asphyxic Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Haliti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the morphological changes of neurons in the vagus nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata in asphyxia related death cases. Morphological changes that were investigated were mainly in the dorsal motor respiratory center (DMRC, nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS and nucleus ambigus (nA in the medulla oblongata. In our research, the autopsy material from asphyxia related death cases was used from various etiologies: monoxide carbon (CO, liquid drowning, strangulation, electricity, clinical-pathological death, firing weapon, explosive weapon, sharp and blunt objects and death cases due to accident. The material selected for research was taken from medulla oblongata and lungs from all lobes. The material from the medulla oblongata and lungs was fixed in a 10% solution of buffered formalin. Special histochemical methods for central nervous system (CNS were employed like: Cresyl echt violet, toluidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius. For stereometrical analysis of the quantitative density of the neurons the universal testing system Weibel M42 was used. The acquired results show that in sudden asphyxia related death cases, there are alterations in the nuclei of vagal nerve in form of: central chromatolysis, axonal retraction, axonal fragmentation, intranuclear vacuolization, cytoplasmic vacuolization, edema, condensation and dispersion of substance of Nissl, proliferation of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. The altered population of vagus nerve neurons does not show an important statistica! significarne compared to the overall quantity of the neurons in the nuclei of the vagus nerve (p<0,05.

  17. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  18. Surgical management of medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas in one institution: an analysis of 62 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Zhang, Yuekang; Hui, Xuhui; You, Chao; Yuan, Fang; Chen, Wenjing; Zhang, Si

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system are highly vascularized benign tumors. When the tumors are located in the medulla oblongata, intraoperative bleeding can make the surgical procedure very difficult. Preoperative embolism has been performed in cases of hemangioblastoma in recent decades. However, the complications of the embolization can result in fatal consequences, especially when the lesions are located in the brainstem. In recent years, selectively blocking the suspicious feeding arteries of the tumors during operation in conjunction with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring has been performed in the Department of Neurosurgery at the West China Hospital. The purpose of this study is to review all cases that underwent this surgical management and to evaluate their outcomes. Between 2003 and 2014, 62 patients (36 female and 26 male, mean age 35.6 years) underwent microsurgery resection of 67 medulla oblongata hemangioblastomas. The suspicious feeding arteries were identified preoperatively by CTA or DSA. During the operation, the suspicious feeding arteries were blocked selectively by motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring (SEP). Based on the retrospectively review of the clinical records and outpatient long-term follow-up visits, their clinical courses were analyzed. Functional outcomes were evaluated according to the classification of McCormick and the Karnofsky Performance Scale. The maximum tumor diameter ranged from 0.8 to 5.1 cm (mean, 2.9 cm). Total tumor resection was achieved in 60 patients. Sixty-one tumors were removed en bloc, and the other six were resected in a piecemeal fashion. The mean follow-up period was 47 months. During the follow-up period, 34 patients remained neurologically stable, 27 patients recovered to a better status and 16 patients developed new transient neurological dysfunction. One patient died. Karnofsky performance scale scores were 100 in 14 patients (22.9%), 90 in 18

  19. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  20. Intractable hiccup as the presenting symptom of cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Min-Young; Jung, Shin

    2014-06-01

    A case of intractable hiccup developed by cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata is reported. There have been only five previously reported cases of medullary cavernoma that triggered intractable hiccup. The patient was a 28-year-old man who was presented with intractable hiccup for 15 days. It developed suddenly, then aggravated progressively and did not respond to any types of medication. On magnetic resonance images, a well-demarcated and non-enhancing mass with hemorrhagic changes was noted in the left medulla oblongata. Intraoperative findings showed that the lesion was fully embedded within the brain stem and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. The hiccup resolved completely after the operation. Based on the presumption that the medullary cavernoma may trigger intractable hiccup by displacing or compression the hiccup arc of the dorsolateral medulla, surgical excision can eliminate the symptoms, even in the case totally buried in brainstem.

  1. [The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and neuronal no synthase in rat medulla oblongata nuclei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsuba, A E

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of nitroxide ergic neurons in the medulla oblongata nuclei in Wistar rats (n = 8) was studied histochemically (NADPH-diaphorase) and using immunohistochemistry with an antiserum against neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). NADPH-diaphorase activity was found in large and small neurons of the sensory, autonomic and motor nuclei. The latter were especially rich in the cells demonstrating the activity of the enzyme. Unlike NADPH-diaphorase, nNOS in the corresponding nuclei was always detected in the fewer number of neurons, predominantly of small sizes. The sensory nuclei (nucleus of solitary tract, reticular parvocellular and lateral nuclei, spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve) contained 1.5-3 times more nNOS neurons than in motor nuclei. In some nuclei (nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nerve nucleus), containing numerous NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons, immunoreactive cells were particularly rare.

  2. [A Case of an Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Metastasis in the Medulla Oblongata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Ayaka; Takano, Yoshinao; Honda, Michitaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Tada, Takeshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Fukushima, Daizo; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Sato, Atai; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Teranishi, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    A desmoplastic small round cell tumor(DSRCT)is a very rare malignant tumor that mainly occurs in the intra-abdominal cavity in young adults.This neoplasm has an extremely poor prognosis, with a clinical course characterized by rapid progression and metastasis.We present a 31-year-old man who presented with chief complaints of dysphagia, ataxic gait, and hoarseness.He first underwent surgical resection of a tumor in the medulla oblongata; however, the lesion was suspected to be a metastatic neoplasm.Following a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal DSRCT with multiple metastatic lesions.He received multidisciplinary treatment including debulking surgery for the primary lesion; radiotherapy for metastatic lesions in the brain, abdomen, and cervical lymph nodes; hepatic artery embolization for liver metastasis; and systemic chemotherapy.The patient died of progressive disease 17 months after the initial diagnosis.

  3. Distribution of angiotensin converting enzyme in sheep hypothalamus and medulla oblongata visualized by in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, S.Y.; McKinley, M.J.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic mapping of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in sheep brain using the specific ACE inhibitor, 125 I-351A, revealed very high densities of binding in large blood vessels and choroid plexus. In the a very high density of labelling occurred in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence and a high density in the subfornical organ and moderate density in supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, arcuate and paraventricular nuclei. All fiber tracts were unlabelled. In the medulla oblongata, a very high density of binding was detected in the area postrema and a high density in the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; a moderate density was found in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal tract and the inferior olivary nucleus

  4. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by GABA in the rostral parapyramidal area of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2014-05-16

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoxia-induced increases in serotonin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the medulla oblongata of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Ryosuke; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia induces respiratory responses in mammals and serotonergic neurons in the medulla oblongata participate in respiratory control. However, the morphological changes in serotonergic neurons induced by hypoxia have not yet been examined and respiratory controls of serotonergic neurons have not been clarified. We herein investigated the distribution of immunoreactivity for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the medulla oblongata of control rats and rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia (10% O 2 ). We also examined the medulla oblongata by multiple immunofluorescence labeling for 5-HT, neurokinin 1 receptors (NK1R), a marker for some respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC), and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), a marker for catecholaminergic neurons. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in the raphe nuclei was higher in rats exposed to hypoxia than in control rats. The number of 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers significantly increased in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 1-6h of hypoxia, caudal ventrolateral medulla of rats exposed to 2-6h of hypoxia, and lateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve of rats exposed to 1-2h of hypoxia. Multiple immunofluorescence labeling showed that 5-HT-immunoreactive nerve fibers were close to NK1R-immunoreactive neurons in ventrolateral medulla and to DBH-immunoreactive neurons in the medulla. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons partly regulate respiratory control under hypoxic conditions by modulating the activity of NK1R-expressing and catecholaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Value of Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Involvement Detected with Conventional MRI for Prediction of Outcome in Children with Enterovirus 71-related Brainstem Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Zhou, Yongjin; Cui, Shihan; Song, Jiawen; Ye, Peipei; Xiang, Wei; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yiping; Yan, Zhihan; Ye, Xinjian

    2018-04-05

    Brainstem encephalitis is the most common neurologic complication after enterovirus 71 infection. The involvement of brainstem, especially the dorsal medulla oblongata, can cause severe sequelae or death in children with enterovirus 71 infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in children with enterovirus 71-related brainstem encephalitis (EBE) by using conventional MRI and to evaluate the value of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in outcome prediction. 46 children with EBE were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 1.5 Tesla MR examination of the brain. The disease distribution and clinical data were collected. Dichotomized outcomes (good versus poor) at longer than 6 months were available for 28 patients. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the MRI-confirmed dorsal medulla oblongata involvement resulted in improved clinical outcome prediction when compared with other location involvement. Of the 46 patients, 35 had MRI evidence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement, 32 had pons involvement, 10 had midbrain involvement, and 7 had dentate nuclei involvement. Patients with dorsal medulla oblongata involvement or multiple area involvement were significantly more often in the poor outcome group than in the good outcome group. Logistic regression analysis showed that dorsal medulla oblongata involvement was the most significant single variable in outcome prediction (predictive accuracy, 90.5%), followed by multiple area involvement, age, and initial glasgow coma scale score. Dorsal medulla oblongata involvement on conventional MRI correlated significantly with poor outcomes in EBE children, improved outcome prediction when compared with other clinical and disease location variables, and was most predictive when combined with multiple area involvement, glasgow coma scale score and age.

  7. Progressive adult primary glioblastoma in the medulla oblongata with an unmethylated MGMT promoter and without an IDH mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Sabit, Hemragul; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Shioto; Ooi, Akishi; Sato, Hiroshi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2013-07-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with dizziness followed by gait disturbance and loss of appetite. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed that a lesion located in the medulla oblongata, appearing as hyperintense on T2-weighted image and with slight enhancement area, appeared in the ventral aspect of the mass on T1-weighted MR imaging with gadolinium. It was diagnosed as high-grade brain-stem glioma and the patient underwent chemoradiotherapy. However, she died 18 days after treatment, and autopsy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was glioblastoma (GBM) with unmethylated O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter and wild isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene. We report an extremely short clinical course of adult GBM in medulla oblongata with genetic analysis and present a review of the literature.

  8. Glutamate requires NMDA receptors to modulate alpha2 adrenoceptor in medulla oblongata cultured cells of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho da Silva, Sergio; Carrettiero, Daniel C; Chadi, Débora R F

    2014-04-03

    α2 Adrenoceptors (α2-ARs) are important in regulating the central control of blood pressure in medulla oblongata. However, it is unclear how this receptor is modulated by different receptors, especially the glutamatergic. In the present study, we studied the influence of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors over the α2-ARs in cultured cells of the medulla oblongata of newborn rats. For this purpose, the protein level of the α2-ARs was assessed after administration to the cultured cells of glutamate (glu), the agonists NMDA and kainate (KA), the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 and the KA receptor antagonist DNQX. Results indicate that the α2-AR protein levels were increased after the treatments with glu and NMDA, and the addition of MK801 to this treatment thwarted this increase. Notwithstanding the fact that KA did not alter the receptor protein level, the combined treatment of DNQX with glu prevented the α2-AR protein modulation. In conclusion, the present study suggests that ionotropic glutamatergic receptors could be related to the α2-AR protein regulation in the medulla oblongata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. c-Kit expression in somatosensory nuclei of lower medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Elena; Mărdărescu, Mariana; Lazăr, M; Rusu, M C; Ion, Daniela Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase signal-transduction pathways play critical roles in regulating nociception. The c-kit receptor contributes to pain regulation in the spinal cord and is present on both peripheral and central terminals. Expression of c-kit was demonstrated in human trigeminal and spinal ganglia. However, the brainstem expression of c-kit was overlooked. We aimed to evaluate it by immunohistochemistry, on eight samples of human lower medulla oblongata. We used two clones of CD117/c-kit antibodies, from different manufacturers, and neurofilament antibodies. Positive expression of CD117/c-kit was found within the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the gracilis, cuneate, and lateral cuneate nuclei, and within the olivary complex. CD117/c-kit positive interstitial networks of these nuclei were positively labeled with neurofilaments. CD117/c-kit labeled the olivary neurons, but not the magnocellular neurons of the trigeminal, gracilis and cuneate nuclei. c-kit interstitial systems of brainstem could play so an important role for the functional status along the somatosensory neural circuits.

  10. The unique organization of filamentous actin in the medullary canal of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bai-Hong; Guo, Chun-Yan; Xiong, Tian-Qing; Chen, Ling-Meng; Li, Yan-Chao

    2017-04-01

    In the central canal, F-actin is predominantly localized in the apical region, forming a ring-like structure around the circumference of the lumen. However, an exception is found in the medulla oblongata, where the apical F-actin becomes interrupted in the ventral aspect of the canal. To clarify the precise localization of F-actin, the fluorescence signals for F-actin were converted to the peroxidase/DAB reaction products in this study by a phalloidin-based ultrastructural technique, which demonstrated that F-actin is located mainly in the microvilli and terminal webs in the ependymocytes. It is because the ventrally oriented ependymocytes do not possess well-developed microvilli or terminal web that led to a discontinuous labeling of F-actin in the medullary canal. Since spinal motions can change the shape and size of the central canal, we next examined the cytoskeletons in the medullary canal in both rats and monkeys, because these two kinds of animals show different kinematics at the atlanto-occipital articulation. Our results first demonstrated that the apical F-actin in the medullary canal is differently organized in the animals with different head-neck kinemics, which suggests that the mechanic stretching of spinal motions is capable of inducing F-actin reorganization and the subsequent cell-shape changes in the central canal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with and without medulla oblongata lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Bingjun; Dai, Yongqiang; Kang, Zhuang; Lu, Ciyong; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2014-05-01

    Brainstem involvement, especially the medulla oblongata (MO), has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively and compare clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of NMOSDs with and without MO lesions. A total of 170 patients with NMOSDs were enrolled, including 44 patients with MO lesions and 126 patients without MO lesions. Clinical features, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging findings among these patients were assessed. MO lesions were found in 25.9 % of the NMOSDs patients. The mean duration was 13 months. Patients with MO lesions had a higher Annualized relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Score Scale. Headache, dizziness, nystagmus, dysarthria, intractable hiccup and nausea, choking cough or dysphagia, movement disorders, and neuropathic pain were more common in MO lesion patients. Patients with MO lesions were more frequently complicated with thyroid diseases. Multiple brain involvement, More importantly, Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis were more frequently found in patients with MO lesions. MO lesions might be a symbol of more severe neurologic deficits and worse prognosis of NMOSDs.

  12. [Effects of intrauterine cigarette smoking exposure on expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li-Hong; Hu, Ya-Jie; Li, Xian-Ke; Xue, Lian; Jia, Qing-Yi; Yang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats and effects of intrauterine cigarette exposure on its expression. Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, control group and cigarette smoke exposure group (n = 8). 3MST mRNA and protein expression in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats were analysed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, and the expression of 3MST in the neurons of respiratory-related nuclei in medulla oblongata of neonatal rats was investigated with immunohistochemical technique. The RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that 3MST mRNA and protein were expressed in the medulla oblogata of neonatal rats and intrauterine cigarette exposure promoted their expression (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3MST existed in the neurons of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), hypoglossal nucleus (12N), ambiguous nucleus (Amb), facial nucleus (FN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in control group of the animals and the mean optical densities of 3MST-positive neurons in the pre-BötC, 12N, Amb and FN, but not NTS, were significantly increased in cigarette smoke exposure group (P < 0.05). 3MST exists in the neurons of medullary respiratory nuclei of neonatal rats and its expression can be up-regulated by intrauterine cigarette exposure, suggesting that the 3MST-H2S pathway may be involved in protection of medullary respiratory centers against injury induced by intrauterine cigarette exposure.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 dependant pathway contributes to protection by tetramethylpyrazine against chronic hypoxic injury on medulla oblongata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Gong, Yanju; Dai, Liqun; Zheng, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii (Chuan Xiong) has been proved to protect the medulla oblongata from chronic hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of TMP are associated with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) dependant pathway in adult rats. The morphological changes of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (12N), the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) were investigated by Nissl staining; the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect; some apoptosis parameters, Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA, were tested; and the double immunochemistry staining of active caspase-3/NeuN was performed. Meanwhile, the HO-1 protein expression and heme oxygenase (HO) activity were examined. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to further confirm the effect of HO-1. We found that TMP ameliorated the neuron loss in 12N, Amb and NTS, the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content, the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA of medulla oblongata (Pmedulla oblongata in the rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabinoid receptor activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata evokes cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetised rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padley, James R; Li, Qun; Pilowsky, Paul M; Goodchild, Ann K

    2003-01-01

    The nature of the cardiorespiratory effects mediated by cannabinoids in the hindbrain is poorly understood. In the present study we investigated whether cannabinoid receptor activation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (RVLM) affects cardiovascular and/or respiratory function. Initially, we looked for evidence of CB1 receptor gene expression in rostral and caudal sections of the rat ventrolateral medulla (VLM) using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Second, the potent cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN55,212-2 (0.05, 0.5 or 5 pmol per 50 nl) and HU-210 (0.5 pmol per 50 nl) or the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM281 (1 pmol per 100 nl) were microinjected into the RVLM of urethane-anaesthetised, immobilised and mechanically ventilated male Sprague–Dawley rats (n=22). Changes in splanchnic nerve activity (sSNA), phrenic nerve activity (PNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in response to cannabinoid administration were recorded. The CB1 receptor gene was expressed throughout the VLM. Unilateral microinjection of WIN55,212-2 into the RVLM evoked short-latency, dose-dependent increases in sSNA (0.5 pmol; 175±8%, n=5) and MAP (0.5 pmol; 26±3%, n=8) and abolished PNA (0.5 pmol; duration of apnoea: 5.4±0.4 s, n=8), with little change in HR (P<0.005). HU-210, structurally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), evoked similar effects when microinjected into the RVLM (n=4). Surprisingly, prior microinjection of AM281 produced agonist-like effects, as well as significantly attenuated the response to subsequent injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.5 pmol, n=4). The present study reveals CB1 receptor gene expression in the rat VLM and demonstrates sympathoexcitation, hypertension and respiratory inhibition in response to RVLM-administered cannabinoids. These findings suggest a novel link between CB1 receptors in this region of the hindbrain and the central cardiorespiratory effects of cannabinoids. The extent to which these

  15. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  16. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Hicham; Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada; Harders, Frank; Varona, Luis; Serrano, Carmen; Acín, Cristina; Badiola, Juan J; Bossers, Alex; Bolea, Rosa

    2012-08-16

    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood. Determining the variations in the transcriptome in the early phases of the disease might clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of the prion-induced pathology and allow for the development of new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. This study is the first to focus on the identification of genes regulated during the preclinical phases of natural scrapie in the ovine medulla oblongata (MO) and the association of these genes with prion deposition, astrocytosis and spongiosis. A custom microarray platform revealed that 86 significant probes had expression changes greater than 2-fold. From these probes, we identified 32 genes with known function; the highest number of regulated genes was included in the phosphoprotein-encoding group. Genes encoding extracellular marker proteins and those involved in the immune response and apoptosis were also differentially expressed. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-associated brain lesions. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression of some of the regulated genes, thus showing the reliability of the microarray hybridization technology. Genes involved in protein and metal binding and oxidoreductase activity were associated with prion deposition. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding proteins with oxidoreductase and phosphatase activity, and the expression of spongiosis was related to genes encoding extracellular matrix components or transmembrane transporters. This is the first genome-wide expression study performed in naturally infected sheep with preclinical scrapie. As in previous studies, our findings confirm the close relationship between scrapie and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. [Neurovascular compression of the medulla oblongata: a rare cause of secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nádas, Judit; Czirják, Sándor; Igaz, Péter; Vörös, Erika; Jermendy, György; Rácz, Károly; Tóth, Miklós

    2014-05-25

    Compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata is one of the rarely identified causes of refractory hypertension. In patients with severe, intractable hypertension caused by neurovascular compression, neurosurgical decompression should be considered. The authors present the history of a 20-year-old man with severe hypertension. After excluding other possible causes of secondary hypertension, the underlying cause of his high blood pressure was identified by the demonstration of neurovascular compression shown by magnetic resonance angiography and an increased sympathetic activity (sinus tachycardia) during the high blood pressure episodes. Due to frequent episodes of hypertensive crises, surgical decompression was recommended, which was performed with the placement of an isograft between the brainstem and the left vertebral artery. In the first six months after the operation, the patient's blood pressure could be kept in the normal range with significantly reduced doses of antihypertensive medication. Repeat magnetic resonance angiography confirmed the cessation of brainstem compression. After six months, increased blood pressure returned periodically, but to a smaller extent and less frequently. Based on the result of magnetic resonance angiography performed 22 months after surgery, re-operation was considered. According to previous literature data long-term success can only be achieved in one third of patients after surgical decompression. In the majority of patients surgery results in a significant decrease of blood pressure, an increased efficiency of antihypertensive therapy as well as a decrease in the frequency of highly increased blood pressure episodes. Thus, a significant improvement of the patient's quality of life can be achieved. The case of this patient is an example of the latter scenario.

  18. Microneurosurgery in combination with endovascular embolisation in the treatment of solid haemangioblastoma in the dorsal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Liang, Chuansheng; Wang, Yunjie; Guo, Zongze; Li, Bo; Qiu, Bo; Li, Xinguo; Wen, Zhifeng; Pan, Qichen

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the treatment of solid haemangioblastomas in the dorsal medulla oblongata using microneurosurgery in combination with endovascular embolisation. Clinical data from 11 patients with solid haemangioblastomas in the dorsal medulla oblongata who were treated with endovascular embolisation followed by microneurosurgery were analysed retrospectively. Clinical results were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale. The patients were preoperatively evaluated by neuroimaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). General anaesthesia was induced, the patients were tracheally intubated, and the abnormal vessels were embolised. Surgery to resect the haemangioblastoma was conducted after the blood-clotting index returned to normal levels (generally one month after the interventional treatment). Embolisation was accomplished in all 11 patients. DSA analysis revealed that most of the tumour vessels and tumour stains disappeared without any complications. The haemangioblastomas were completely resected. None of the patients received blood transfusion or died during surgery. The neurological deficit was reduced or eliminated in 10 patients, but 1 patient died after experiencing an acute myocardial infarction on the tenth postoperative day. No recurrence occurred during follow-up in patients who underwent total tumour resection. Postoperative grades using the modified Rankin scale were improved in all 10 patients. However, several complications occurred, including communicating hydrocephalus, incision infection, pneumonia and cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the incision. Notably, normal perfusion pressure breakthrough (NPPB) did not develop during or after endovascular embolisation or surgery. Preoperative endovascular embolisation is a safe and effective adjunct treatment. Employing this treatment, solid haemangioblastomas in the dorsal medulla oblongata can be safely and completely resected

  19. IN VITRO EXAMINATION OF ONTOGENESIS OF DEVELOPING NEURONAL CELLS IN VAGAL NUCLEI IN MEDULLA OBLONGATA IN NEWBORNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Bexheti, Sadi; Behluli, Ibrahim; Šukalo, Aziz; Raka, Denis; Koliqi, Rozafa; Haliti, Naim; Dauti, Hilmi; Krasniqi, Shaip; Disha, Mentor

    2008-01-01

    The development of neuron cells in vagal nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata was studied in vitro in live newborns and stillborns from different cases. Morphological changes were studied in respiratory nuclei of dorsal motor centre (DMNV) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in medulla oblongata. The material from medulla oblongata was fixated in 10μ buffered formalin solution. Fixated material was cut in series of 10μ thickness, with starting point from obex in ± 4 mm thickness. Special histochemical and histoenzymatic methods for central nervous system were used: cresyl echt violet coloring, tolyidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius coloring. In immature newborns (abortions and immature) in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) population stages S1, S2, S3 are dominant. In neuron population in vagal sensory nuclei (NTS) stages S1, S2 are dominant. In more advanced stages of development of newborns (premature), in DMNV stages S3 and S4 are seen and in NTS stages S2 and S3 are dominant. In mature phase of newborns (maturity) in vagal nucleus DMNV stages S5 and S6 are dominant, while in sensory nucleus NTS stages S4 and S5 are dominant. These data suggest that neuron population in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) are more advanced in neuronal maturity in comparison with sensory neuron population of vagal sensory nucleus NTS. This occurrence shows that phylogenetic development of motor complex is more advanced than the sensory one, which is expected to take new information’s from the extra uterine life after birth (extra uterine vagal phenotype) PMID:19125713

  20. Compression of the medulla oblongata and acute respiratory failure caused by rupture of a thrombosed large aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanahashi, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A 65-year-old female presented with an extremely rare case of a ruptured thrombosed large aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in which a local hematoma compressed the medulla oblongata and caused acute respiratory failure. She first presented with dizziness, general fatigue, and nausea 2 months before admission. She was hospitalized for intense general fatigue, nausea, and occipitalgia. Computed tomography and T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous lesion around the right cerebello-medullary cistern. Angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm of the right AICA. Asphyxia occurred 4 days after admission and the patient underwent an emergency operation. No subarachnoid hematoma was present, but a hematoma around the ruptured portion markedly compressed the medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata was adequately decompressed after subtotal removal of the aneurysm. The patient's respiratory status and consciousness level recovered after the operation.

  1. Hemorrhagic Onset of Hemangioblastoma Located in the Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Presenting with Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy and Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Gekka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a case of dorsal medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma with fourth ventricular hemorrhage. A 23-year-old female developed sudden consciousness disturbance, and CT revealed hemorrhage in all cerebral ventricles and a hyperdense mass in the cisterna magna. Although the reddish tumor located in the dorsal medulla oblongata was successfully removed, she suffered from severe tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE because of baroreflex failure and damage to the solitary tract nuclei. After intensive care for 12 weeks following surgery, she was discharged without any neurological or radiological deficits. Pathogenesis of TTC/NPE is discussed in this paper.

  2. Hemorrhagic onset of hemangioblastoma located in the dorsal medulla oblongata presenting with tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and neurogenic pulmonary edema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kazumata, Ken; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Motegi, Hiroaki; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present a case of dorsal medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma with fourth ventricular hemorrhage. A 23-year-old female developed sudden consciousness disturbance, and CT revealed hemorrhage in all cerebral ventricles and a hyperdense mass in the cisterna magna. Although the reddish tumor located in the dorsal medulla oblongata was successfully removed, she suffered from severe tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) because of baroreflex failure and damage to the solitary tract nuclei. After intensive care for 12 weeks following surgery, she was discharged without any neurological or radiological deficits. Pathogenesis of TTC/NPE is discussed in this paper.

  3. A sudden death case of laryngocele accompanied by infarction of the dorso-lateral portion of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, T; Naito, T; Hayashi, Y; Hashimoto, S; Sugiyama, S

    1999-12-01

    A 70-year-old man, who had a laryngeal tumor discovered by otolaryngological examination during admission for suspicion of facial nerve paralysis was found dead in his bed on the seventh hospital day. Clinical doctors aspirated a large amount of mucous sputum from his larynx during their attempt at resuscitation. Although the direct cause of death was clinically unknown, an autopsy revealed an internal type laryngocele, a type of laryngeal cyst, in the right larynx and infarction of the left dorso-lateral portion of the medulla oblongata. Suffocation resulted from mucous sputum filling his larynx, which had been narrowed by a laryngocele from the right, in an unfortunate association with movement disturbance of the left larynx caused by the infarction of the left dorso-lateral portion of the medulla oblongata. We assumed this to be the direct cause of death, because the heart and lungs showed no remarkable changes that could be ascribed to it. This case offers important suggestions concerning the risks of suffocation due to laryngeal cysts, especially in patients with complications.

  4. Stimulation of renal afferent fibers leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Erika E; Martins, Beatriz S; Milanez, Maycon I O; Lopes, Nathalia R; de Melo, Jose F; Pontes, Roberto B; Girardi, Adriana C; Campos, Ruy R; Bergamaschi, Cássia T

    2017-05-01

    Presympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) including the adrenergic cell groups play a major role in the modulation of several reflexes required for the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone and blood pressure (BP). Moreover, sympathetic vasomotor drive to the kidneys influence natriuresis and diuresis by inhibiting the cAMP/PKA pathway and redistributing the Na + /H + exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) to the body of the microvilli in the proximal tubules. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of renal afferents stimulation on (1) the neurochemical phenotype of Fos expressing neurons in the medulla oblongata and (2) the level of abundance and phosphorylation of NHE3 in the renal cortex. We found that electrical stimulation of renal afferents increased heart rate and BP transiently and caused activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the RVLM and non-TH neurons in the NTS. Additionally, activation of the inhibitory renorenal reflex over a 30-min period resulted in increased natriuresis and diuresis associated with increased phosphorylation of NHE3 at serine 552, a surrogate for reduced activity of this exchanger, in the contralateral kidney. This effect was not dependent of BP changes considering that no effects on natriuresis or diuresis were found in the ipsilateral-stimulated kidney. Therefore, our data show that renal afferents leads to activation of catecholaminergic and non-catecholaminergic neurons in the medulla oblongata. When renorenal reflex is induced, NHE3 exchanger activity appears to be decreased, resulting in decreased sodium and water reabsorption in the contralateral kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Connexin hemichannel-mediated CO2-dependent release of ATP in the medulla oblongata contributes to central respiratory chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; id Bihi, Rachid; Eason, Robert; Spyer, K Michael; Dicke, Nikolai; Willecke, Klaus; Marina, Nephtali; Gourine, Alexander V; Dale, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Arterial , a major determinant of breathing, is detected by chemosensors located in the brainstem. These are important for maintaining physiological levels of in the blood and brain, yet the mechanisms by which the brain senses CO2 remain controversial. As ATP release at the ventral surface of the brainstem has been causally linked to the adaptive changes in ventilation in response to hypercapnia, we have studied the mechanisms of CO2-dependent ATP release in slices containing the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. We found that CO2-dependent ATP release occurs in the absence of extracellular acidification and correlates directly with the level of . ATP release is independent of extracellular Ca2+ and may occur via the opening of a gap junction hemichannel. As agents that act on connexin channels block this release, but compounds selective for pannexin-1 have no effect, we conclude that a connexin hemichannel is involved in CO2-dependent ATP release. We have used molecular, genetic and immunocytochemical techniques to demonstrate that in the medulla oblongata connexin 26 (Cx26) is preferentially expressed near the ventral surface. The leptomeninges, subpial astrocytes and astrocytes ensheathing penetrating blood vessels at the ventral surface of the medulla can be loaded with dye in a CO2-dependent manner, suggesting that gating of a hemichannel is involved in ATP release. This distribution of CO2-dependent dye loading closely mirrors that of Cx26 expression and colocalizes to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells. In vivo, blockers with selectivity for Cx26 reduce hypercapnia-evoked ATP release and the consequent adaptive enhancement of breathing. We therefore propose that Cx26-mediated release of ATP in response to changes in is an important mechanism contributing to central respiratory chemosensitivity. PMID:20736421

  6. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Noradrenaline concentration and turnover in nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata at two stages in the development of renal hypertension in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, H.J.L.M.; Kloet, E.R. de; Versteeg, D.H.G.; Jong, Wybren de

    1980-01-01

    The noradrenaline concentration and the α-methyl-para-tyrosine (α-MPT)-induced disappearance of noradrenaline were determined in several nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata of renal hypertensive rats (two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension). A decreased α-MPT-induced disappearance of

  8. Maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated to oxidative disruption at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Alves, José L; de Oliveira, Jéssica M D; Ferreira, Diorginis J S; Barros, Monique A de V; Nogueira, Viviane O; Alves, Débora S; Vidal, Hubert; Leandro, Carol G; Lagranha, Cláudia J; Pirola, Luciano; da Costa-Silva, João H

    2016-12-01

    Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation predisposes the adult offspring to sympathetic overactivity and arterial hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, dysregulation of the oxidative balance has been proposed as a putative trigger of neural-induced hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the oxidative status at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata and maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension. Wistar rat dams were fed a control (normal protein; 17% protein) or a low protein ((Lp); 8% protein) diet during pregnancy and lactation, and male offspring was studied at 90 days of age. Direct measurements of baseline arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in awakened offspring. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutamatergic receptors (Grin1, Gria1 and Grm1) and GABA(A)-receptor-associated protein like 1 (Gabarapl1). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, CAT and SOD activities were examined in ventral and dorsal medulla. Lp rats exhibited higher ABP. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2, GPx and Gabarapl1 were down regulated in medullary tissue of Lp rats (Pmedulla. Taken together, our data suggest that maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated with medullary oxidative dysfunction at transcriptional level and with impaired antioxidant capacity in the ventral medulla. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Surgical Application of the Suboccipital Subtonsillar Approach to Reach the Inferior Half of Medulla Oblongata Tumors in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán, Alejandra T; Campero, Alvaro; Hernández, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Medulla oblongata (MO) tumors are uncommon in adults. Controversies about their treatment arise regarding the need for histological diagnosis in this eloquent area of the brain, weighing benefits of a reliable diagnosis, and the potential disadvantages of invasive procedures. As a broader variety of pathological findings could be found in this localization, the accurate histopathological definition could not only allow an adequate therapy but also can prevent the disastrous consequences of empiric treatments. There are few publications about their surgical management and all belongs to small retrospective cohorts. In this scenario, we are reporting two patients with exophytic or focal lesions in the inferior half of the medulla, who underwent surgery by suboccipital midline subtonsillar approach. This approach was not specifically described to reach MO before, and we found that the lesions produced a mild elevation of the tonsils providing a wide surgical view from the medulla to the foramen of Luchska laterally, and up to the middle cerebellar peduncle, offering a wide and safe access.

  10. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  11. Autonomic dysfunction elicited by a medulla oblongata injury after fourth ventricle tumor surgery in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gallego, A; Andrade-Andrade, I; Dawid-Milner, M S; Domínguez-Páez, M; Romero-Moreno, L; González-García, L; Carrasco-Brenes, A; Segura-Fernández-Nogueras, M; Ros-López, B; Arráez-Sánchez, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old male patient with a recurrent fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma who developed severe arterial hypertension and blood pressure lability during and after surgery. A punctual bilateral lesion located within mid dorsal medulla oblongata caused by both infiltration and surgical resection was observed in postoperative MRI. Three years later, the patient remained neurologically stable but the family referred the presence of a chronic tachycardia as well as palpitations and sweating with flushing episodes related to environmental stress. On autonomic evaluation, an increase in sympathetic outflow with tachycardia together with orthostatic hypotension caused by baroreceptor reflex dysfunction was observed. We postulate that a bilateral injury to both nuclei of the solitary tract may have caused central dysautonomia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microvascular decompression surgery for vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata: 3 cases with respiratory failure and/or dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yukiko; Kawashima, Masatou; Matsushima, Toshio; Kouguchi, Motofumi; Takase, Yukinori; Nanri, Yusuke; Yakusiji, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that brainstem dysfunction may be caused by vascular compression of the medulla oblongata (MO). However, only a limited number of reports have found microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery to be an effective treatment for symptomatic patients with MO dysfunction, such as essential hypertension, pyramidal tract signs, dysphagia, and respiratory failure. This report describes 3 patients with vertebral artery compression of MO who presented with respiratory failure and/or dysphagia. MVD surgery using the transcondylar fossa approach was effective in relieving patient symptoms. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of symptomatic vertebral artery compression of MO remain unclear, we should recognize that MVD surgery is effective for selected patients with brainstem dysfunction. The transcondylar fossa approach and the stitched sling retraction technique are appropriate in MVD surgery to relieve vertebral artery compression of MO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in parasympathetic system in medulla oblongata in male pigs in the course of tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszek, Alicja; Kiczak, Liliana; Bania, Jacek; Krupa, Paweł; Pasławska, Urszula; Zacharski, Maciej; Janiszewski, Adrian; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Zyśko, Dorota; Ardehali, Hossein; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Autonomic imbalance constituting a fundamental feature of heart failure (HF) has been assessed mainly at the periphery. Changes in the functioning of autonomic centers in the brain remain unclear. We investigated the molecular elements of parasympathetic system, i.e. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and enzymes metabolizing acetylcholine (acetylcholinesterase, AChE, choline acetyltransferase, ChAT) in medulla oblongata (MO) of male pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. The mRNA levels of AChE, ChAT, α7nAChR and X-box binding protein 1 (spliced form, XBP1s) in MO were analyzed using qPCR, AChE and ChAT activities using spectrophotometry, proteasome activity using fluorometry, and the protein level of α7nAChR using Western blotting. The development of systolic HF was accompanied by an increase in circulating catecholamines, a decrease in the AChE and α7nAChR mRNA in MO, an increase in AChE activity (all pmedulla oblongata during the progression of systolic non-ischemic heart failure in male pigs, indicating a functional link between MO and heart in HF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra- and Extramedullary Dumbbell-Shaped Schwannoma of the Medulla Oblongata: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Ni, Ming; Liu, Wei-Ming; Jia, Wang; Jia, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2017-02-01

    Brainstem intramedullary schwannomas (ISs) are extremely rare. Various theories have been suggested to explain its origin. It was first speculated that ISs arise from the region where the nerve roots lose their sheaths on penetrating the pia mater. Later, it was further predicted that ISs would contain both intra- and extramedullary parts and would be shaped like a dumbbell. However, no cases reported previously can support this assumption adequately. A 40-year-old woman presented with constant cervical pain, accompanied by progressive weakness of upper extremities and glove distribution numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a rare intra- and extramedullary dumbbell-shaped lesion of the medulla oblongata, which was partially removed via a midline suboccipital craniectomy. Histologic and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. Routine imaging performed 20 months after the initial resection revealed a regrowth of the intramedullary part, which was subsequently partially removed through a far-lateral approach, with symptoms alleviated. At 2-year follow-up, there continued to be no radiologic or clinical evidence of regrowth. To date and to our knowledge, there are only 16 reported cases of brainstem ISs, none of which contained both intra- and extramedullary components. We believe this is the first report of dumbbell schwannoma of the medulla oblongata with adequate radiologic evidence. The relevant literature is reviewed, and an assumption has been proposed that dumbbell or surfacing ISs arising near entry zones of sensory nerves, mixed cranial nerves, or ventral root may originate from the aberrant Schwann cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p medulla. PMID:15212423

  17. A Case of Adult-Onset Alexander Disease Featuring Severe Atrophy of the Medulla Oblongata and Upper Cervical Cord on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Tadahiro; Ito, Shoichi; Kanai, Kazuaki; Masuda, Saeko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Adult-onset Alexander disease (AOAD) has been increasingly recognized since the identification of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene mutation in 2001. We report on a 56-year-old man who was genetically confirmed as AOAD with the glial fibrillary acidic protein mutation of p.M74T. He developed spastic tetraparesis, sensory disturbances in four limbs, and mild cognitive impairment without apparent dysarthria and dysphagia. The case was characterized by severe atrophy of the medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord with intramedullary signal intensity changes on magnetic resonance imaging. While AOAD is diverse in clinical presentation, the peculiar magnetic resonance imaging findings of marked atrophy of the medulla oblongata and cervical cord are thought to be highly suggestive of the diagnosis of AOAD. PMID:23185175

  18. Role of the medulla oblongata in normal and high arterial blood pressure regulation: the contribution of Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, Sergio L; Campos, Ruy R; Colombari, Eduardo; Sato, Mônica A; Bergamaschi, Cássia M; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Lopes, Oswaldo U

    2009-09-01

    Several forms of experimental evidence gathered in the last 37 years have unequivocally established that the medulla oblongata harbors the main neural circuits responsible for generating the vasomotor tone and regulating arterial blood pressure. Our current understanding of this circuitry derives mainly from the studies of Pedro Guertzenstein, a former student who became Professor of Physiology at UNIFESP later, and his colleagues. In this review, we have summarized the main findings as well as our collaboration to a further understanding of the ventrolateral medulla and the control of arterial blood pressure under normal and pathological conditions.

  19. Vagotomy decreases the neuronal activities of medulla oblongata and alleviates neurogenic inflammation of airways induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of HCl in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Hui; Chen, Fagui; Gu, Dachuan; Sun, Lejia; Zhang, Weitao; Fan, Linfeng; Lin, Yong; Dong, Rong; Lai, Kefang

    2017-12-20

    Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). Substance P was examined by IHC and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). Airway microvascular permeability was detected by evans blue dye (EBD) fluorescence. Inflammation of airway was observed in the trachea and bronchi after chronic HCl perfusion into the lower esophagus, and was alleviated after unilateral vagotomy. C-fos expression in the medulla oblongata was lower in the vagotomy group compared to the sham control and sham groups. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-li), concentration and microvascular leakage in airway were lower in the vagotomy group than that in the other groups. Our results suggest that vagotomy improved neurogenic inflammation of airways and decreased neuronal activities, the afferent nerves and neurons in medulla oblongata may be involved in neurogenic inflammation of airways mediated by esophageal-bronchial reflex.

  20. Restoration of the efferent phase of the sneeze reflex after regression of an Arnold-Chiari malformation with compression of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songu, Murat; Can, Nazan; Gelal, Fazil

    2013-01-01

    The precise location of the sneeze center in the human brain has not been definitively identified. The aim of this report is to contribute to the effort to detect its location. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who presented to our outpatient clinic for evaluation of an inability to sneeze. In an attempt to trigger the afferent (nasal) phase of the sneeze reflex, we first applied a cotton swab and later a silver nitrate stick to the patient's nasal mucosa. Once that was accomplished, we observed that the patient could not complete the efferent (expiratory) phase of the sneeze reflex, and thus he did not sneeze. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that his cerebellar tonsils extended approximately 10 mm inferiorly through the foramen magnum, which represented a type I Arnold-Chiari malformation. The tonsils were noted to have compressed the posterolateral portion of the medulla oblongata. At follow-up 21 months later, we noted that the patient was able to sneeze spontaneously as well as with nasal stimulation. Repeat MRI revealed that the Arnold-Chiari malformation had undergone a spontaneous partial regression, which resulted in relief of the compression of the medulla oblongata. We believe that the patient's earlier inability to sneeze might have been attributable to the compression of the medulla oblongata by the cerebellar tonsils and that the site of the compression might represent the location of his sneeze center.

  1. Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma in the Medulla Oblongata: Molecular Biological Analyses Including H3F3A Mutation of Histone H3.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekawa, Ken; Nakamura, Hideo; Shinojima, Naoki; Takezaki, Tatsuya; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Unlike in children, brain stem gliomas in adult are rare and still poorly understood. In addition, most adult brain stem gliomas result predominantly in the pons and are less often found in the medulla oblongata. Here, we report a case of an adult glioma in the medulla oblongata and its molecular biological features. A 46-year-old male presented with gait disturbance, paresthesia, and dysphagia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a diffuse hyper-intensive lesion in the medulla oblongata on a T 2 -weighted image without gadolinium contrast enhancement. We performed an open biopsy and the lesion was pathologically diagnosed as a diffuse astrocytoma. Molecular biological analyses revealed the absence of histone H3.3 mutation (H3F3A K27M), and presence of methylation of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and a mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1). The patient received local radiotherapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. The patient's symptoms were ameliorated, and MRI showed no tumor growth at 6 months after the initial treatment. Biopsy for brain stem lesions is generally thought to have risk of complications, but if performed minimally, it is useful to diagnose and determine treatment strategy. Obtaining patient characteristics and molecular biological features will provide insight towards therapeutic treatment for adult brain stem gliomas.

  2. Protein kinase A mediates adenosine A2a receptor modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation in cultured cells from medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Joao Paulo Pontes; Almeida, Marina Gomes; Castilho-Martins, Emerson Augusto; Costa, Maisa Aparecida; Fior-Chadi, Debora Rejane

    2014-08-01

    Synaptic transmission is an essential process for neuron physiology. Such process is enabled in part due to modulation of neurotransmitter release. Adenosine is a synaptic modulator of neurotransmitter release in the Central Nervous System, including neurons of medulla oblongata, where several nuclei are involved with neurovegetative reflexes. Adenosine modulates different neurotransmitter systems in medulla oblongata, specially glutamate and noradrenaline in the nucleus tractussolitarii, which are involved in hypotensive responses. However, the intracellular mechanisms involved in this modulation remain unknown. The adenosine A2a receptor modulates neurotransmitter release by activating two cAMP protein effectors, the protein kinase A and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. Therefore, an in vitro approach (cultured cells) was carried out to evaluate modulation of neurotransmission by adenosine A2a receptor and the signaling intracellular pathway involved. Results show that the adenosine A2a receptor agonist, CGS 21680, increases neurotransmitter release, in particular, glutamate and noradrenaline and such response is mediated by protein kinase A activation, which in turn increased synapsin I phosphorylation. This suggests a mechanism of A2aR modulation of neurotransmitter release in cultured cells from medulla oblongata of Wistar rats and suggest that protein kinase A mediates this modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization and characterization of angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme in the human medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A M; Chai, S Y; Clevers, J; McKinley, M J; Paxinos, G; Mendelsohn, F A

    1988-03-08

    Angiotensin II receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme distributions in the human medulla oblongata were localised by quantitative in vitro autoradiography. Angiotensin II receptors were labelled with the antagonist analogue 125I-[Sar1, Ile8] AII while angiotensin converting enzyme was labelled with 125I-351A, a derivative of the specific converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril. Angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme are present in high concentrations in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, the rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus, and in a band connecting the dorsal and ventral regions. In the rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus, angiotensin II receptors are distributed in a punctate pattern that registers with neuronal cell bodies. The distribution and density of these cell bodies closely resemble those of catecholamine-containing neurones mapped by others. In view of the known interactions of angiotensin II with both central and peripheral catecholamine-containing neurons of laboratory animals, the current anatomical findings suggest similar interactions between these neuroactive compounds in the human central nervous system. The presence of angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin converting enzyme in the nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, and rostral and caudal ventrolateral reticular nucleus demonstrates sites for central angiotensin II to exert its known actions on vasopressin release and autonomic functions including blood pressure control. These data also suggest a possible interaction between angiotensin II and central catecholeminergic systems.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling and Association with Prion-Related Lesions in the Medulla Oblongata of Symptomatic Natural Scrapie Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali, Hicham; Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada; Harders, Frank; Varona, Luis; Lyahyai, Jaber; Zaragoza, Pilar; Pumarola, Martí; Badiola, Juan J.; Bossers, Alex; Bolea, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases remains unclear. Examining transcriptome variations in infected versus control animals may highlight new genes potentially involved in some of the molecular mechanisms of prion-induced pathology. The aim of this work was to identify disease-associated alterations in the gene expression profiles of the caudal medulla oblongata (MO) in sheep presenting the symptomatic phase of natural scrapie. The gene expression patterns in the MO from 7 sheep that had been naturally infected with scrapie were compared with 6 controls using a Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) custom designed 4×44K microarray. The microarray consisted of a probe set on the previously sequenced ovine tissue library by CVI and was supplemented with all of the Ovis aries transcripts that are currently publicly available. Over 350 probe sets displayed greater than 2-fold changes in expression. We identified 148 genes from these probes, many of which encode proteins that are involved in the immune response, ion transport, cell adhesion, and transcription. Our results confirm previously published gene expression changes that were observed in murine models with induced scrapie. Moreover, we have identified new genes that exhibit differential expression in scrapie and could be involved in prion neuropathology. Finally, we have investigated the relationship between gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-related lesions, including prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis. In this context, the potential impacts of these gene expression changes in the MO on scrapie development are discussed. PMID:21629698

  5. Mutated PET117 causes complex IV deficiency and is associated with neurodevelopmental regression and medulla oblongata lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, G H; Visser, G; Baertling, F; Wintjes, L T; Wolters, V M; van Montfrans, J; de Kort, G A P; Nikkels, P G J; van Hasselt, P M; van der Crabben, S N; Rodenburg, R J T

    2017-06-01

    The genetic basis of the many progressive, multi systemic, mitochondrial diseases that cause a lack of cellular ATP production is heterogeneous, with defects found both in the mitochondrial genome as well as in the nuclear genome. Many different mutations have been found in the genes encoding subunits of the enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system. In addition, mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the assembly of these complexes are known to cause mitochondrial disorders. Here we describe two sisters with a mitochondrial disease characterized by lesions in the medulla oblongata, as demonstrated by brain magnetic resonance imaging, and an isolated complex IV deficiency and reduced levels of individual complex IV subunits. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the gene encoding Pet117, a small protein that has previously been predicted to be a complex IV assembly factor. PET117 has not been identified as a mitochondrial disease gene before. Lentiviral complementation of patient fibroblasts with wild-type PET117 restored the complex IV deficiency, proving that the gene defect is responsible for the complex IV deficiency in the patients, and indicating a pivotal role of this protein in the proper functioning of complex IV. Although previous studies had suggested a possible role of this protein in the insertion of copper into complex IV, studies in patient fibroblasts could not confirm this. This case presentation thus implicates mutations in PET117 as a novel cause of mitochondrial disease.

  6. CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Llaudet, Enrique; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2.

  7. The serotonergic anatomy of the developing human medulla oblongata: implications for pediatric disorders of homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Haynes, Robin L; Rognum, Ingvar J; Paterson, David S

    2011-07-01

    The caudal serotonergic (5-HT) system is a critical component of a medullary "homeostatic network" that regulates protective responses to metabolic stressors such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hyperthermia. We define anatomically the caudal 5-HT system in the human medulla as 5-HT neuronal cell bodies located in the raphé (raphé obscurus, raphé magnus, and raphé pallidus), extra-raphé (gigantocellularis, paragigantocellularis lateralis, intermediate reticular zone, lateral reticular nucleus, and nucleus subtrigeminalis), and ventral surface (arcuate nucleus). These 5-HT neurons are adjacent to all of the respiratory- and autonomic-related nuclei in the medulla where they are positioned to modulate directly the responses of these effector nuclei. In the following review, we highlight the topography and development of the caudal 5-HT system in the human fetus and infant, and its inter-relationships with nicotinic, GABAergic, and cytokine receptors. We also summarize pediatric disorders in early life which we term "developmental serotonopathies" of the caudal (as well as rostral) 5-HT domain and which are associated with homeostatic imbalances. The delineation of the development and organization of the human caudal 5-HT system provides the critical foundation for the neuropathologic elucidation of its disorders directly in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal medulla oblongata volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ing-Luen; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Yang, Ming-Jie; Yen, Ming-Shyen

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of the fetal medulla oblongata volume (MOV) and blood flow might be important in the evaluation of fetal brain growth. We used three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS) to assess the fetal MOV and blood flow index in normal gestation. The relationships between these parameters were further analyzed. We assessed the total volume and blood flow index of the fetal MO in normal pregnancies using a 3DPDUS (Voluson 730 Expert). The true sagittal plane over the fetal occipital area was measured by a 3D transabdominal probe to scan the fetal MO under the power Doppler mode. Then, we quantitatively assessed the total volume of the fetal MOV, mean gray area (MG), vascularization index (VI), and flow index (FI). A total of 106 fetuses, ranging from 19 weeks to 39 weeks of gestation, were involved in our study. The volume of the fetal MO was highly positively correlated with gestational age [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.686, p < 0.0001]. The MG was negatively correlated with gestational age [r = -0.544, p < 0.0001). VI and FI showed no significant correlation with gestational age (p = 0.123 and p = 0.219, respectively). 3DPDUS can be used to assess the fetal MOV and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicated that fetal MOV and blood flow correlated significantly with the advancement of gestational age. This information may serve as reference data for further studies of the fetal brain and blood flow under abnormal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Characteristics of intraoperative abnormal hemodynamics during resection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor located on the dorsal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Makoto; Kajiwara, Koji; Yoshikawa, Koichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal hemodynamics during extirpation of a para-medulla oblongata (MO) tumor is common and may be associated with direct vagal stimulation of the medullary circuit. However, resection of tumors on the dorsal MO may also induce hemodynamic instability without direct vagal stimulus. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of hemodynamic instability unrelated to vagal stimulus during dissection of an intra-fourth ventricular tumor with attachment to the dorsal MO. A retrospective analysis was performed in 13 patients. Abnormal hemodynamics were defined as a > 20% change from the means of the intraoperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Relationships of intraoperative hemodynamics were evaluated with various parameters, including the volume of the MO. Six patients (46.2%) had intraoperative hypertension during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The maximum MAP and HR in these patients were significantly greater than those in patients with normal hemodynamics (116.0 ± 18.0 mmHg versus 85.6 ± 6.5 mmHg; 124.3 ± 22.8 bpm versus 90.5 ± 14.7 bpm). All six cases with abnormal hemodynamics showed hemodynamic fluctuation during separation of the tumor bulk from the dorsal MO. The preoperative volume of the MO in these patients was 1.11 cc less than that in patients with normal hemodynamics, but the volume after tumor resection was similar in the two groups (5.23 cc and 5.12 cc). This suggests that the MO was compressed by the conglutinate tumor bulk, with resultant fluctuation of hemodynamics. Recognition of and preparation for this phenomenon are important for surgery on a tumor located on the dorsal MO.

  10. Successful Treatment with Microvascular Decompression Surgery of a Patient with Hemiparesis Caused by Vertebral Artery Compression of the Medulla Oblongata: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jibin; Sun, Hongtao; Diao, Yunfeng; Niu, Xuegang; Wang, Hang; Wei, Zhengjun; Yuan, Fei

    2017-12-01

    There are few reports on hemiparesis caused by vascular medullary compression, which can occur because of dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar arterial system. In this article, we report a case of vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata in a 67-year-old woman. The patient was hypertensive, and she developed hemiparesis and intermittent spasms over 5 years. These spasms had worsened during the last year. Cranial nerve magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the medulla oblongata by the left vertebral artery. A motor evoked potential (MEP) examination showed abnormal conduction of MEPs of bilateral toe abductors. The patient underwent microvascular decompression surgery under general anesthesia through a retrosigmoid keyhole approach. This operation led to relief of vascular compression and symptomatic improvement. Our case suggests that detailed history, imaging studies, and electrophysiologic studies help lead to a correct and early diagnosis of hemiparesis caused by vascular compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Microvascular decompression surgery improves patient symptoms, and intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring helps to avoid injury to important adjacent nerves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Physiological prion and activity of plasma membrane Na+,K(+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the medulla oblongata cells of rats of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushkevych, M V; Vlizlo, V V; Martyn, Iu V

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of immunohistochemical analysis of the rat medulla tissue the localization of physiological prion has been established. Specifically, in rats aged one month they are placed in the gray matter near the bodies of neurons and mikrohliocytes and in animals of six and thirty months--in olive kernel core and upward path bodies. Physiological prion is localized along the nerve processes and is absent in the neuron bodies. In the medulla oblongata of animals aged six months its amount is the highest compared to animals of other age. The activity of plasma membrane ATPases in this tissue decreases with age, the content of sodium and calcium ions increases, while that of potassium is almost unchanged.

  12. Physiological prion and activity of plasma membrane Na(+,K(+- and Ca(2+-ATPase in the medulla oblongata of rats of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kushkevych

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of immunohistochemical analysis of the rat medulla tissue the localization of physiological prion has been established. Specifically, in rats aged one month they are placed in the gray matter near the bodies of neurons and mikrohliocytes and in animals of six and thirty months – in olive kernel core and upward path bodies. Physiological prion is localized along the nerve processes and is absent in the neuron bodies­. In the medulla oblongata of animals aged six months its amount is the highest compared to animals of other age. The activity of plasma membrane ATPases in this tissue decreases with age, the content of sodium and calcium ions increases, while that of potassium is almost unchanged.

  13. Activation of Akt/FKHR in the medulla oblongata contributes to spontaneous respiratory recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, M S; Bauer, S; Darlot, F; Muscatelli, F; Kastner, A; Gauthier, P; Matarazzo, V

    2014-09-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), patients and animals may exhibit some spontaneous functional recovery which can be partly attributed to remodeling of injured neural circuitry. This post-lesion plasticity implies spinal remodeling but increasing evidences suggest that supraspinal structures contribute also to the functional recovery. Here we tested the hypothesis that partial SCI may activate cell-signaling pathway(s) at the supraspinal level and that this molecular response may contribute to spontaneous recovery. With this aim, we used a rat model of partial cervical hemisection which injures the bulbospinal respiratory tract originating from the medulla oblongata of the brainstem but leads to a time-dependent spontaneous functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. We first demonstrate that after SCI the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is activated in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, resulting in an inactivation of its pro-apoptotic downstream target, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/FOXO1A). Retrograde labeling of medullary premotoneurons including respiratory ones which project to phrenic motoneurons reveals an increased FKHR phosphorylation in their cell bodies together with an unchanged cell number. Medulla infusion of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, prevents the SCI-induced Akt and FKHR phosphorylations and activates one of its death-promoting downstream targets, Fas ligand. Quantitative EMG analyses of diaphragmatic contractility demonstrate that the inhibition of medulla PI3K/Akt signaling prevents spontaneous respiratory recovery normally observed after partial cervical SCI. Such inhibition does not however affect either baseline contractile frequency or the ventilatory reactivity under acute respiratory challenge. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of supraspinal cellular contribution to the spontaneous respiratory recovery after partial SCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe asthma with markedly increased asbestos of 2 types & TXB2, and markedly reduced acetylcholine, DHEA & drug uptake in parts of upper lungs, & similar abnormalities at respiratory & cardiac center of medulla oblongata: complete elimination of this asthma within 15 days using one optimal dose of astragalus & application of strong red light & EMF neutralizer on respiratory centers of abnormal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Henoch, Avraham; Shimotsuura, Yasuhira; Duvvi, Harsha; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ohki, Motomu

    2009-01-01

    When the window of an Asbestos-contaminated room from a broken ceiling was opened wide, A 73 year-old male physician of Oriental origin, who was sitting in the next room, suddenly developed a severe asthma attack, which did not stop by the use of a hand-held Albuterol inhaler. Temporary relief was obtained only by using a Compressor-Nebulizer (Inspiration 626 with Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083%). During the attack, abnormal areas were discovered at the upper lobes of both lungs, where Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was markedly increased to 500 ng (BDORT units) (the rest of the lung had about 2.5 ng), 2 types of Asbestos (Chrysotile and Crocidolite) were abnormally increased to 0.120-0.135 mg, (BDORT units) Acetylcholine was markedly reduced to 0.5 ng (the rest of the lung was low, about 100 ng), DHEA was extremely reduced to 1 ng (the rest of the lung had about 52 ng), and telomere was less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g). Bacterial & viral infections were also present in these abnormal areas, but no antibiotics entered the abnormal parts of the lungs. Therefore, one optimal dose of Astragalus was given once, which resulted in a rapid continuous excretion of large amounts of the above 2 types of Asbestos & TXB2 in urine & sputum, and Asthma symptoms reduced slightly in severity. Additional acupuncture & shiatsu given on all the known acupuncture points for lung disease only created slight, temporary improvement. Then, the respiratory & cardiac center of the Medulla Oblongata was found to have similar abnormalities as the lungs. Therefore, 100 mW output of Light Emitting Diode of red spectra (650 nm center spectrum) was projected on the abnormal area of the medulla oblongata on the back of the head. This resulted drug uptake of on and off and significantly reduced difficulty of breathing. Additional application of the EMF Neutralizer on the abnormal area of the Medulla Oblongata for 3 hours resulted in continuous drug uptake and complete disappearance of asthma. As a

  15. [Effect of electric acupuncture on the expression of NgR in the cerebral cortex, the medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord of hypertensive rats after cerebral infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Feng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yan-Gui; Li, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xue-Wen; Meng, Di; Cheng, Nan-Fang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the effect of electric acupuncture (EA) on the Nogo receptors (NgR) protein expression in the cerebral cortex, the medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP) with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) at different time points, and to investigate its possible mechanisms for remote-organ injury of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The RHRSP model was duplicated in male SPF grade SD rats. Then the MCAO model was prepared by a thread stringing method. Rats were divided into the hypertension group,the sham-operation group, the MCAO group, the EA group, and the sham-acupoint group by random number table method, 60 in each group. Rats in the MCAO group only received MCAO reperfusion treatment. Those in the sham-operation group only received surgical trauma. Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) were needled in the EA group, once daily for a total of 28 days.The needles were acupunctured at the skin one cun distant from Baihui (DU20) and Dazhui (DU14) and then the same EA treatment was performed in the sham-acupoint group. At day 1, 7, 14, 28 after treatment, six rats were executed from each group, and their right cortex and medulla oblongata, and the left spinal cord were isolated. The infarct volume was detected by Nissl's staining method. The NgR expression was detect by Western blot. (1) In the cortex area: compared with the hypertension group,the NgR expression increased in the MCAO group at day 1,7,14,and 28 after MCAO (P 0.05). At day 7, 14,and 28 after MCAO, the NgR expression decreased in the EA group (P 0.05). (2) In the medulla oblongata area: compared with the hypertension group, the NgR expression was equivalent in the sham-operation group. the MCAO group,the EA group, and the sham-acupoint group at 1 day after MCAO (P > 0.05). At day 7.14, and 28 after MCAO, the NgR expression increased in the MCAO group (P 0.05). (3) In the spinal cord area: compared with the

  16. Variation in anisotropy and diffusivity along the medulla oblongata and the whole spinal cord in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y; Shi, L; Hui, S C N; Wang, D; Deng, M; Chu, W C W; Cheng, J C Y

    2014-08-01

    Disturbed somatosensory evoked potentials have been demonstrated in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (but this functional delay was found to originate above the C5-6 level, while the lower cord level was unaffected). Together with MR imaging observation of tonsillar ectopia and a relatively tethered cord, we hypothesized that there is disturbed mean diffusivity integrity along the spinal cord. In this study, advanced DTI was used to evaluate whether there was underlying decreased WM integrity within the brain stem and spinal cord in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and any relationship to cerebellar tonsillar ectopia. Clinical impact on balance testing was also correlated. Thirteen girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with right thoracic curves were compared with 13 age-matched healthy girls. DTI of the brain and whole spinal cord was performed. ROIs were manually defined for the medulla oblongata and along each intervertebral segment of the cord. Mean values of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were computed at the defined regions. Between-group comparisons were performed by 1-way ANOVA. Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy values and increased mean diffusivity values were found at the medulla oblongata and C1-2, C2-3, C3-4, and C4-5 segments in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis compared with healthy subjects. No significant difference was found in the lower cord levels. Significant correlation was found between the tonsillar level and fractional anisotropy value at the C4-5 level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis only. The findings from this study are in agreement with previous findings showing abnormal somatosensory evoked potential readings occurring only above the C5-6 level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; these findings might partially explain the pathophysiology of the neural pathway involved. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Pinelli, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10). Many ependymal cells around the lining of the fourth ventricle, both facial and vagus nerves and dorsal root ganglion, were intensely labeled with NADPH-d. Most strikingly the NADPH-d activity was seen in small and large sized motoneurons in both medial and lateral motor neuron columns on the right and left sides of the brain. This is the largest stained group observed from the caudal rhombencephalon up to the level of radix dorsalis 10 in the spinal cord. The neurons were either oval or elongated in shape with long processes and showed significant variation in the nuclear and cellular diameter. A massive NADPH-d activity in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves implied an important role of this enzyme in the neuronal signaling as well as in the modulation of motor functions in the peripheral nervous systems of the amphibians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Paterson, David S.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Dan Zaharie, S.; Hewlett, Richard H.; Dempers, Johan J.; Burger, Elsie; Wadee, Shabbir; Schubert, Pawel; Wright, Colleen; Sens, Mary Ann; Nelsen, Laura; Randall, Bradley B.; Tran, Hoa; Geldenhuys, Elaine; Elliott, Amy J.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2016-01-01

    The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval ≤100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study. PMID:27634962

  19. Evaluation of PRNP Expression Based on Genotypes and Alleles of Two Indel Loci in the Medulla Oblongata of Japanese Black and Japanese Brown Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msalya, George; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Ohno, Shotaro; Okamoto, Shin; Kawabe, Kotaro; Minezawa, Mitsuru; Maeda, Yoshizane

    2011-01-01

    Background Prion protein (PrP) level plays the central role in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. Increasing the level of PrP decreases incubation period for this disease. Therefore, studying the expression of the cellular PrP or at least the messenger RNA might be used in selection for preventing the propagation of BSE and other prion diseases. Two insertion/deletion (indel) variations have been tentatively associated with susceptibility/resistance of cattle to classical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the expression of each genotype at the two indel sites in Japanese Black (JB) and Japanese Brown (JBr) cattle breeds by a standard curve method of real-time PCR. Five diplotypes subdivided into two categories were selected from each breed. The two cattle breeds were considered differently. Expression of PRNP was significantly (p0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that the del/del genotype or at least its del allele may modulate the expression of PRNP at the 23-bp locus in the medulla oblongata of these cattle breeds. PMID:21611160

  20. [Functional morphology of the vagus nerve nuclei changes in the medulla oblongata (N. Ambiguus, N. Dorsalis), induced by influenza a (H(3)N(I)) in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogiashvili, L; Abashidze, T; Tsagareli, Z; Dgebuadze, M; Kvachadze, T

    2012-12-01

    Morphological changes of the brain cortex IV-V layers, the structures of n. ambiguus, n. dorsalis and n. vagus ganglia on the model of influenza virus A strains (H3NI) MLD50 in number 50 microns intranasal inoculation in mice aged 6-8 weeks were studied. For assessment of virus-induced pathology 2 series of experiments were carried out. Electron microscopy, morphometric and histological methods, including by Nissl stain were used. LD dose, daily loss of body weight with access to the so-called "endpoint" determined previously. Experimental period from 48 hours to 12 days. It is shown that in n.vagus stem structures in the medulla oblongata (n. dorsalis, n. ambiguus) have the mosaic and the polymorphic nature of the changes - signs of influenza virus cytotropic effect, such as swelling, vacuolation, chromatolysis, less pyknosis and hyperchromatosis. In the period of the greatest weight loss and expressed «endpoint» irreversible changes in the stem structures associated with n. vagus - apoptotic nuclei and neurons massive edema, lipofuscin accumulation have taken place. Results of the study suggest that the parasympathetic nervous system (n. vagus) may be one of the possible route of influenza A virus (H3NI) genomic structures transnerval invasion in the central nervous system during experimental infection.

  1. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Guo, Ruichen; Zhao, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons participate in the modulation of the LCR. The LCR was elicited by the infusion of KCl-HCl solution into the laryngeal lumen of adult rats in the experimental group, whereas the control group received the same surgery but no infusion. In comparison, the number of regions of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) that were activated by the LCR significantly increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), the loose formation of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL), the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG), the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR), the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt), the Bötzinger complex (Böt), the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5), and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb) bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL) showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic), and 70.87% of neurons with FLI in the ROb were serotoninergic. Our data demonstrated the distribution of medullary nuclei that were activated by the LCR, and further demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons of the SolDL and serotoninergic neurons of the ROb were activated by the LCR, indicating the potential central pathway of the LCR.

  2. Localization and function of the Kv3.1b subunit in the rat medulla oblongata: focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Mark L; Atkinson, Lucy; Milligan, Carol J; Morris, Neil P; Lewis, David I; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.1 confers fast firing characteristics to neurones. Kv3.1b subunit immunoreactivity (Kv3.1b-IR) was widespread throughout the medulla oblongata, with labelled neurones in the gracile, cuneate and spinal trigeminal nuclei. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), Kv3.1b-IR neurones were predominantly located close to the tractus solitarius (TS) and could be GABAergic or glutamatergic. Ultrastructurally, Kv3.1b-IR was detected in NTS terminals, some of which were vagal afferents. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings from neurones near the TS revealed electrophysiological characteristics consistent with the presence of Kv3.1b subunits: short duration action potentials (4.2 ± 1.4 ms) and high firing frequencies (68.9 ± 5.3 Hz), both sensitive to application of TEA (0.5 mm) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 30 μm). Intracellular dialysis of an anti-Kv3.1b antibody mimicked and occluded the effects of TEA and 4-AP in NTS and dorsal column nuclei neurones, but not in dorsal vagal nucleus or cerebellar Purkinje cells (which express other Kv3 subunits, but not Kv3.1b). Voltage-clamp recordings from outside-out patches from NTS neurones revealed an outward K+ current with the basic characteristics of that carried by Kv3 channels. In NTS neurones, electrical stimulation of the TS evoked EPSPs and IPSPs, and TEA and 4-AP increased the average amplitude and decreased the paired pulse ratio, consistent with a presynaptic site of action. Synaptic inputs evoked by stimulation of a region lacking Kv3.1b-IR neurones were not affected, correlating the presence of Kv3.1b in the TS with the pharmacological effects. PMID:15528247

  3. Distribution of Fos-Like Immunoreactivity, Catecholaminergic and Serotoninergic Neurons Activated by the Laryngeal Chemoreflex in the Medulla Oblongata of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    Full Text Available The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR induces apnea, glottis closure, bradycardia and hypertension in young and maturing mammals. We examined the distribution of medullary nuclei that are activated by the LCR and used immunofluorescent detection of Fos protein as a cellular marker for neuronal activation to establish that the medullary catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons participate in the modulation of the LCR. The LCR was elicited by the infusion of KCl-HCl solution into the laryngeal lumen of adult rats in the experimental group, whereas the control group received the same surgery but no infusion. In comparison, the number of regions of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI that were activated by the LCR significantly increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC, the loose formation of the nucleus ambiguus (AmbL, the rostral ventral respiratory group (RVRG, the ventrolateral reticular complex (VLR, the pre-Bötzinger complex (PrBöt, the Bötzinger complex (Böt, the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SP5, and the raphe obscurus nucleus (ROb bilaterally from the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, 12.71% of neurons with FLI in the dorsolateral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (SolDL showed tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-ir, catecholaminergic, and 70.87% of neurons with FLI in the ROb were serotoninergic. Our data demonstrated the distribution of medullary nuclei that were activated by the LCR, and further demonstrated that catecholaminergic neurons of the SolDL and serotoninergic neurons of the ROb were activated by the LCR, indicating the potential central pathway of the LCR.

  4. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did...... dendrites of labelled neurons, suggesting monosynaptic connections between the rVRG and these nuclei.......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...

  5. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...... not label neurons in distant structures. Several brainstem ipsi- and contralateral structures were found to project to the rVRG, but three major respiratory-related structures, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the parabrachialis medialis and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (PB/KF) and the caudal VRG, which...

  6. The role of GαO-mediated signaling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in cardiovascular reflexes and control of cardiac ventricular excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Richard; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Gourine, Alexander V; Tinker, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The heart is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the autonomic nervous system with inhibitory signaling mechanisms recruited in both limbs. The aim of this study was to determine the role of inhibitory heterotrimeric G proteins in the central nervous mechanisms underlying autonomic control of the heart and its potential role in arrhythmogenesis. Mice with conditional deletion of the inhibitory heterotrimeric G protein GαO in the presympathetic area of the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) were generated to determine the role of GαO-mediated signalling in autonomic control and electrophysiological properties of the heart. GαO deletion within the RVLM was not associated with changes in heart rate (HR) or the arterial blood pressure at rest (home cage, normal behavior). However, exposure to stressful conditions (novel environment, hypoxia, or hypercapnia) in these mice was associated with abnormal HR responses and an increased baroreflex gain when assessed under urethane anesthesia. This was associated with shortening of the ventricular effective refractory period. This phenotype was reversed by systemic beta-adrenoceptor blockade, suggesting that GαO depletion in the RVLM increases central sympathetic drive. The data obtained support the hypothesis that GαO-mediated signaling within the presympathetic circuits of the RVLM contributes to the autonomic control of the heart. GαO deficiency in the RVLM has a significant impact on cardiovascular responses to stress, cardiovascular reflexes and electrical properties of the heart. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their associaition with prion-related lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filali, H.; Martin-Burriel, I.; Harders, F.; Varona, L.; Serrano, C.; Acín, C.; Badiola, J.J.; Bossers, A.; Bolea, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood. Determining the variations in the transcriptome in the early phases of the disease might clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of the prion-induced pathology and allow for the development of new

  9. Experimental study of essential hypertension related to neurovascular compression established by fixation of balloon at the left lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jialin; Xu Jianrong; Luo Qizhong; Zhang Xiaohua; Li Shanquan; Chen Kemin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible mechanisms of neurogenic hypertension. Methods: With the guide of modern imaging, the hypertensive animal model of pulsatile neurovascular compression was established by fixation of balloon at the entry zone of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata. Blood pressure and heart rate data were collected at preoperation and one hour, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks of postoperation. Results: The results showed that SBP at postoperation rose by 27.3%, 26.1%, 25.4% and 27.4%, respectively; DBP rose by 18.8%, 20.8%, 20.0% and 20.2%, respectively; MAP rose by 24.2%, 24.1%, 23.2% and 24.8%, respectively; HR rose by 34.9%, 26.7%, 26.9% and 26.1% respectively. Statistically, SBP, DAP, MAP and HR of postoperation significantly increased compared with that of preoperation in hypertension group (F = 9.044, 12,679, 11.306, 16.536, P 0.05). Conclusion: Essential hypertension may by caused by neurovascular compression of ninth and tenth cranial nerves of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata at the REZ

  10. Aedes aegypti Larvicidal Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Maytenus oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Seindé; Nirma, Charlotte; Falkowski, Michael; Dusfour, Isabelle; Boulogne, Isabelle; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Coke, Maïra; Azam, Didier; Girod, Romain; Moriou, Céline; Odonne, Guillaume; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Eparvier, Véronique

    2017-02-24

    Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a β-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.

  11. Neuroanatomic Relationships between the GABAergic and Serotonergic Systems in the Developing Human Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Paterson, David S.; Rivera, Keith D.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Amino butyric (GABA) critically influences serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the raphé and extra-raphé of the medulla oblongata. In this study we hypothesize there are marked changes in the developmental profile of markers of the human medullary GABAergic system relative to the 5-HT system in early life. We used single- and double-label immunocytochemistry and tissue receptor autoradiography in 15 human medullae from fetal and infant cases ranging from 15 gestational weeks to 10 postnatal months, and compared our findings with an extensive 5-HT-related database in our laboratory. In the raphé obscurus, we identified two subsets of GABAergic neurons using glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) immunostaining: one comprised of small, round neurons; the other, medium, spindle-shaped neurons. In three term medullae cases, positive immunoflorescent neurons for both tryptophan hydroxylase and GAD65/67 were counted within the raphé obscurus. This revealed approximately 6% of the total neurons counted in this nucleus expressed both GAD65/67 and TPOH suggesting co-production of GABA by a subset of 5-HT neurons. The distribution of GABAA binding was ubiquitous across medullary nuclei, with highest binding in the raphé obscurus. GABAA receptor subtypes α1 and α3 were expressed by 5-HT neurons, indicating the site of interaction of GABA with 5-HT neurons. These receptor subtypes and KCC2, a major chloride transporter, were differentially expressed across early development, from mid-gestation (20wks) and thereafter. The developmental profile of GABAergic markers changed dramatically relative to the 5-HT markers. These data provide baseline information for medullary studies of human pediatric disorders, such as sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:19926534

  12. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Prion Pathology in Medulla Oblongata-Possible Routes of Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Diego; Ferrari, Sergio; Gelati, Matteo; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Mariotto, Sara; Monaco, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most frequent human prion disorder, is characterized by remarkable phenotypic variability, which is influenced by the conformation of the pathologic prion protein and the methionine/valine polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene. While the etiology of sCJD remains unknown, it has been hypothesized that environmental exposure to prions might occur through conjunctival/mucosal contact, oral ingestion, inhalation, or simultaneous involvement of the olfactory and enteric systems. We studied 21 subjects with definite sCJD to assess neuropathological involvement of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and other medullary nuclei and to evaluate possible associations with codon 129 genotype and prion protein conformation. The present data show that prion protein deposition was detected in medullary nuclei of distinct sCJD subtypes, either valine homozygous or heterozygous at codon 129. These findings suggest that an "environmental exposure" might occur, supporting the hypothesis that external sources of contamination could contribute to sCJD in susceptible hosts. Furthermore, these novel data could shed the light on possible causes of sCJD through a "triple match" hypothesis that identify environmental exposure, host genotype, and direct exposure of specific anatomical regions as possible pathogenetic factors.

  13. Gene expression profiling en association with prion-related lesions in the medulla oblongata of symptomatic natural scrapie animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filali, H.; Martin-Burriel, I.; Harders, F.; Varona, L.; Lyahyai, J.; Zaragoza, P.; Pumarola, M.; Badiola, J.J.; Bossers, A.; Bolea, R.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases remains unclear. Examining transcriptome variations in infected versus control animals may highlight new genes potentially involved in some of the molecular mechanisms of prion-induced pathology. The aim of this work was to identify

  14. Mutated PET117 causes complex IV deficiency and is associated with neurodevelopmental regression and medulla oblongata lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, G. Herma; Visser, G.; Baertling, F.; Wintjes, L. T.; Wolters, V. M.; van Montfrans, J.; de Kort, G. A.P.; Nikkels, P. G.J.; van Hasselt, P. M.; van der Crabben, S. N.; Rodenburg, Richard J. T.

    2017-01-01

    The genetic basis of the many progressive, multi systemic, mitochondrial diseases that cause a lack of cellular ATP production is heterogeneous, with defects found both in the mitochondrial genome as well as in the nuclear genome. Many different mutations have been found in the genes encoding

  15. KCC2-mediated regulation of respiration-related rhythmic activity during postnatal development in mouse medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Akihito; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Arata, Akiko; Konishi, Shiro; Fukuda, Atsuo; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2015-03-19

    GABA acts as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system but as excitatory neurotransmitter during early postnatal development. This shift in GABA's action from excitation to inhibition is caused by a decrease in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), which in turn is caused by changes in the relative expression levels of the K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and the Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) proteins. Previous studies have used slices containing the medullary pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) to record respiration-related rhythmic activity (RRA) from the hypoglossal nucleus (12 N). The role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of medullary RRA neonatally, however, is yet to be determined. Here, we examined how GABA and chloride co-transporters contribute to RRA during development in the 12 N where inspiratory neurons reside. We recorded extracellular RRA in medullary slices obtained from postnatal day (P) 0-7 mice. RRA was induced by soaking slices in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing 8mM-K(+). Application of GABA significantly increased the frequency of RRA after P3, whereas application of a KCC2 blocker (R (+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-indenyl-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (DIOA)) significantly decreased the frequency of RRA after P1. In addition, dense KCC2 immunolabeling was seen in the superior longitudinalis (SL) of the 12 N, which is responsible for retraction of the tongue, from P0 and P7. These results indicate that GABA administration can increase RRA frequency during the first week following birth. This in turn suggests that decreasing [Cl(-)]i levels caused by increasing KCC2 levels in the 12 N could play important roles in regulating the frequency of RRA during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase reveals a novel neuronal phenotype in the mouse medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Edwards, Ian J; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2015-12-01

    GABAergic and cholinergic systems play an important part in autonomic pathways. To determine the distribution of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine in areas involved in autonomic control in the mouse brainstem, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurones, combined with choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurones were observed throughout the brainstem. A small number of cells contained both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP. Such double labelled cells were observed in the NTS (predominantly in the intermediate and central subnuclei), the area postrema, reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus. All ChAT-IR neurones in the area postrema contained GAD67-GFP. Double labelled neurones were not observed in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or hypoglossal nucleus. Double labelled ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP cells in the NTS did not contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity, whereas those in the reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus did. The function of these small populations of double labelled cells is currently unknown, however their location suggests a potential role in integrating signals involved in oromotor behaviours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata of the female golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J; Gerrits, PO; Holstege, G

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed brainstem-spinal pathways involved in the generation of receptive behavior in hamster and cat, and the enormous influence of estrogen on these pathways. The present study gives an overview of the location of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons (ER-alpha-IR) in

  18. Acute reductions in blood flow restricted to the dorsomedial medulla induce a pressor response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Hidefumi; Bhuiyan, Mohammad E R; Gouraud, Sabine S; Takagishi, Miwa; Hatada, Atsutoshi; Kohsaka, Akira; Paton, Julian F R; Maeda, Masanobu

    2011-08-01

    The brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a pivotal region for regulating the set-point of arterial pressure, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. Based on evidence that the NTS exhibits O2-sensing mechanisms, we examined whether a localized disturbance of blood supply, resulting in hypoxia in the NTS, would lead to an acute increase in arterial pressure. Male Wistar rats were used. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and after specific branches of superficial dorsal medullary veins were occluded; we assumed these were drainage vessels from the NTS and would produce stagnant hypoxia. Hypoxyprobe-1, a marker for detecting cellular hypoxia in the post-mortem tissue, was used to reveal whether vessel occlusion induced hypoxia within the NTS. Following vessel occlusion, blood flow in the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata including the NTS region showed an approximately 60% decrease and was associated with hypoxia in neurons located predominantly in the caudal part of the NTS as revealed using hypoxyprobe-1. Arterial pressure increased and this response was pronounced significantly in both magnitude and duration when baroreceptor reflex afferents were sectioned. These results suggest that localized hypoxia in the NTS increases arterial pressure. We suggest this represents a protective mechanism whereby the elevated systemic pressure is a compensatory mechanism to enhance cerebral perfusion. Whether this physiological mechanism has any relevance to neurogenic hypertension is discussed.

  19. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine adrenal medulla localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.; Chambon, C.; Valat, C.; Baulieu, F.; Itti, R.; Pourcelot, L.; Besnard, J.C.; Huguet, F.; Narcisse, G.; Viel, C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of uptake of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) by the adrenal glands, autoradiographic and pharmacologic studies were performed in mice and dogs receiving radioiodinated mIBG. In mice, on macroautoradiography of whole body section 48 h after 125 I-mIBG, most of the radioactivity was focused in the adrenal glands. On microautoradiography, silver grains were exclusively located in the adrenal medulla. Time counting after phenoxybenzamine, cocaine, and desipramine treatment resulted in 45%, 35%, and 0% inhibition of mIBG uptake, respectively. Tissue counting and scintigraphic studies demonstrated a more than 50% mIBG release from the adrenal glands. These data indicate the high affinity of mIBG for adrenal medulla and suggest that the mIBG and catecholamine uptake mechanisms are onlt partially the same. (orig.)

  20. Architecture of the human renal inner medulla and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guojun; Rosen, Seymour; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-10-01

    The architecture of the inner stripe of the outer medulla of the human kidney has long been known to exhibit distinctive configurations; however, inner medullary architecture remains poorly defined. Using immunohistochemistry with segment-specific antibodies for membrane fluid and solute transporters and other proteins, we identified a number of distinctive functional features of human inner medulla. In the outer inner medulla, aquaporin-1 (AQP1)-positive long-loop descending thin limbs (DTLs) lie alongside descending and ascending vasa recta (DVR, AVR) within vascular bundles. These vascular bundles are continuations of outer medullary vascular bundles. Bundles containing DTLs and vasa recta lie at the margins of coalescing collecting duct (CD) clusters, thereby forming two regions, the vascular bundle region and the CD cluster region. Although AQP1 and urea transporter UT-B are abundantly expressed in long-loop DTLs and DVR, respectively, their expression declines with depth below the outer medulla. Transcellular water and urea fluxes likely decline in these segments at progressively deeper levels. Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein is also expressed in DVR of the inner stripe and the upper inner medulla, but is sparsely expressed at deeper inner medullary levels. In rodent inner medulla, fenestrated capillaries abut CDs along their entire length, paralleling ascending thin limbs (ATLs), forming distinct compartments (interstitial nodal spaces; INSs); however, in humans this architecture rarely occurs. Thus INSs are relatively infrequent in the human inner medulla, unlike in the rodent where they are abundant. UT-B is expressed within the papillary epithelium of the lower inner medulla, indicating a transcellular pathway for urea across this epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. [Effects of transections and electrical coagulations in the medulla oblongata upon the activities in the respiratory muscles of the crucian carp (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H

    1975-06-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from the results in this work. The respiratory cycles are formed by the neuronal machinery in the reticular formation under the posterior part of the vagal motor nucleus. The motor neurones or the neuronal networks composing the motor nucleus of the respiratory muscles tonically discharge the action potentials, when the neurones or the networks are released from the inhibitory influences of the interneurones connecting the neuronal machinery to the motor neurones. Furthermore, the interneurones probably generate the tonic discharges after removing the inhibitory influences of the other interneurones or the neuronal machinery on them. A reflex mouth closing is elicited by a mechanical stimulus applying on the upper lip. The motor neurones of the m. adductor mandibulae are activated via only one synapse in the reflex. The reflex action potentials recorded from the motor nerve reduce in amplitude at the resting phase of the nerve in the respiratory cycles. These results suggest that the respiratory motor neurones are by nature spontaneous generators of the tonic action potentials and, in the time of the normal breathing, the tonic activity is interrupted by an inhibitory influence of the neuronal machinery generating the respiratory cycles.

  2. Projections from estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray to the lateral medulla oblongata in the rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2004-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) contains numerous estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons that are distributed in a species-specific way. These neurons might modulate different types of behavior that are mediated by the PAG such as active and passive coping responses, analgesia,

  3. Hypothalamic projections to the ventral medulla oblongata in the rat, with special reference to the nucleus raphe pallidus: a study using autoradiographic and HRP techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, Yasuhiko

    1985-10-07

    Hypothalamic descending projections to the medullary ventral surface were studied autoradiographically in the rat. A small amount of (/sup 3/H)leucine was injected unilaterally into various parts of the hypothalamus by air pressure. Abundant and characteristic terminal labelings were observed bilaterally in the nucleus raphe pallidus, the ventral surface to the pyramidal tract and the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi, after injections into the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area caudal to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Conspicuous, but less numerous labelings were observed in the nucleus raphe obscurus and the ipsilateral raphe magnus. After an injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine into the hypothalamus and injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the spinal cord in the same animal, silver grains were densely distributed around HRP-labeled neurons in the nucleus raphe pallidus including the nucleus interfascicularis hypoglossi. The present results suggest that the dorsal posterior hypothalamic area projects directly to the spinal-projecting neurons of the nucleus raphe pallidus. 53 refs.; 9 figs.

  4. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Mathematical Model of Ammonia Handling in the Rat Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiret, Lorette; Baigent, Stephen; Jalan, Rajiv; Thomas, S. Randall

    2015-01-01

    The kidney is one of the main organs that produces ammonia and release it into the circulation. Under normal conditions, between 30 and 50% of the ammonia produced in the kidney is excreted in the urine, the rest being absorbed into the systemic circulation via the renal vein. In acidosis and in some pathological conditions, the proportion of urinary excretion can increase to 70% of the ammonia produced in the kidney. Mechanisms regulating the balance between urinary excretion and renal vein release are not fully understood. We developed a mathematical model that reflects current thinking about renal ammonia handling in order to investigate the role of each tubular segment and identify some of the components which might control this balance. The model treats the movements of water, sodium chloride, urea, NH3 and NH4+, and non-reabsorbable solute in an idealized renal medulla of the rat at steady state. A parameter study was performed to identify the transport parameters and microenvironmental conditions that most affect the rate of urinary ammonia excretion. Our results suggest that urinary ammonia excretion is mainly determined by those parameters that affect ammonia recycling in the loops of Henle. In particular, our results suggest a critical role for interstitial pH in the outer medulla and for luminal pH along the inner medullary collecting ducts. PMID:26280830

  6. The Effect of Cortex/Medulla Proportions on Molecular Diagnoses in Kidney Transplant Biopsies: Rejection and Injury Can Be Assessed in Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill-Thomsen, K S; Wiggins, R C; Eskandary, F; Böhmig, G A; Halloran, P F

    2017-08-01

    Histologic assessment of kidney transplant biopsies relies on cortex rather than medulla, but for microarray studies, the proportion cortex in a biopsy is typically unknown and could affect the molecular readings. The present study aimed to develop a molecular estimate of proportion cortex in biopsies and examine its effect on molecular diagnoses. Microarrays from 26 kidney transplant biopsies divided into cortex and medulla components and processed separately showed that many of the most significant differences were in glomerular genes (e.g. NPHS2, NPHS1, CLIC5, PTPRO, PLA2R1, PLCE1, PODXL, and REN). Using NPHS2 (podocin) to estimate proportion cortex, we examined whether proportion cortex influenced molecular assessment in the molecular microscope diagnostic system. In 1190 unselected kidney transplant indication biopsies (Clinicaltrials.govNCT01299168), only 11% had Molecular scores for antibody-mediated rejection, T cell-mediated rejection, and injury were independent of proportion cortex. Rejection was diagnosed in many biopsies that were mostly or all medulla. Agreement in molecular diagnoses in paired cortex/medulla samples (23/26) was similar to biological replicates (32/37). We conclude that NPHS2 expression can estimate proportion cortex; that proportion cortex has little influence on molecular diagnosis of rejection; and that, although histology cannot assess medulla, rejection does occur in medulla as well as cortex. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. The clinical significance of determination of adrenal medulla in patients with chronic cor pulmonale and analysis of its relevant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yingchun; Zha Jinshun

    2002-01-01

    In order to find the function of adrenal medulla in the development of chronic cor pulmonale and the effect of smoking, anoxia and lung's work on adrenal medulla, the authors determined adrenal medulla in 63 patients with acute cor pulmonale (Group A) and 60 controls (Group B). The authors tried to find out the effect of the patients' age, course of disease, history of smoking, malfunction of lung on adrenal medulla by multiple regressive analysis. Adrenal medulla is significantly higher in Group A than that of in Group B (P 2 both contribute to the conclusion that smoking is an independent factor to affect the adrenal medulla. The study shows that the adrenal medulla in patients with cor pulmonale is higher than that of normal people, and that the level of adrenal medulla is dependent on the degree of seriousness of the disease, obstructive ventilatory disturbance and anoxia

  8. High density renal medulla on unenhanced CT : significance and relation with hydration status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation

  9. Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with [123I] and [131I] metaiodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Tobes, M.C.; Rogers, W.L.; Marsh, D.D.; Mangner, T.J.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of radioiodinated meta-iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG) as an adrenomedullary imaging agent is reported in 15 rhesus monkeys. Scintiscans of the monkey adrenal medulla have been obtained with [ 123 I]- and [m- 131 ]IBG at 2 to 6 days after injection. The imaging superiority of m-IBG over its positional isomer, para-iodobenzylguanidine (p-IBG), is documented in both dogs and monkeys. Administration of reserpine, a depletor of catecholamine stores, markedly lowers the [m- 131 I]-IBG content of the dog adrenal medulla, but the adrenergic blocking agents phenoxybenzamine and propanolol have no effect. Subcellular fractionation of the dog's adrenal medullae reveals that m-IBG is sequestered mainly in the chromaffin storage granules. The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated m-IBG, previously reported to image the primate myocardium, also merits evaluation as a clinical radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal medulla

  10. Blood Pressure Regulation by the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla in Conscious Rats: Effects of Hypoxia, Hypercapnia, Baroreceptor Denervation, and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenker, Ian C.; Abe, Chikara; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    in the medulla oblongata, which may operate as a switchboard for differential, behavior-appropriate activation of selected sympathetic efferents. Based largely on experimentation in anesthetized or reduced preparations, a rostrally located subset of C1 neurons may contribute to both BP stabilization and dysregulation (hypertension). Here, we used Archaerhodopsin-based loss-of-function optogenetics to explore the contribution of these neurons to BP in conscious rats. The results suggest that C1 neurons contribute little to resting BP under normoxia or hypercapnia, C1 neuron discharge is restrained continuously by arterial baroreceptors, and C1 neuron activation is critical to stabilize BP under hypoxia or anesthesia. This optogenetic approach could also be useful to explore the role of C1 neurons during specific behaviors or in hypertensive models. PMID:28363984

  11. Orexinergic fibers are in contact with Kölliker-Fuse nucleus neurons projecting to the respiration-related nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shigefumi; Oka, Tatsuro; Asano, Hirohiko; Yasui, Yukihiko

    2016-10-01

    The neural pathways underlying the respiratory variation dependent on vigilance states remain unsettled. In the present study, we examined the orexinergic innervation of Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) neurons sending their axons to the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) and phrenic nucleus (PhN) as well as to the hypoglossal nucleus (HGN) by using a combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. After injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the KFN, CTb-labeled neurons that are also immunoreactive for orexin (ORX) were found prominently in the perifornical and medial regions and additionally in the lateral region of the hypothalamic ORX field. After injection of fluorogold (FG) into the rVRG, PhN or HGN, we found an overlapping distribution of ORX-immunoreactive axon terminals and FG-labeled neurons in the KFN. Within the neuropil of the KFN, asymmetrical synaptic contacts were made between these terminals and neurons. We further demonstrated that many neurons labeled with FG injected into the rVRG, PhN, or HGN are immunoreactive for ORX receptor 2. Present data suggest that rVRG-, PhN- and HGN-projecting KFN neurons may be under the excitatory influence of the ORXergic neurons for the state-dependent regulation of respiration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory motor output in bilateral cranial nerves is synchronized, but the underlying synchronizing mechanisms are not clear. We used an in vitro slice preparation from newborn mice to investigate the effect of systematic transsections on respiratory activity in bilateral XII nerves. Complete...... in bilateral XII nerves. Hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla, possibly mediated by contralaterally projecting dendrites....

  13. Intractable vomiting caused by vertebral artery compressing the medulla: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gorton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery compressing the medulla and causing intractable vomiting has only been reported once previously. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman with intractable nausea and vomiting causing a 50 pound weight loss and who failed medical management and whose symptoms were completely reversed following microvascular decompression (MVD.

  14. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    /day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...... adrenal glands (P less than 0.05), higher catecholamine content in the glands (P less than 0.05), and higher adrenal medulla volumes (P less than 0.05) [males: 2.74 +/- 0.16 (T) vs. 2.05 +/- 0.16 (C), 1.90 +/- 0.10 (ST), and 2.21 +/- 0.08 mm3 (CS)] [females: 2.55 +/- 0.11 (T) vs. 1.92 +/- 0.06 mm3 (C......)]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary...

  15. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  16. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  17. Depletion of catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in multiple systems atrophy with autonomic failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, E. E.; Smithson, I. L.; Low, P. A.; Parisi, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The ventrolateral portion of the intermediate reticular formation of the medulla (ventrolateral medulla, VLM), including the C1/A1 groups of catecholaminergic neurons, is thought to be involved in control of sympathetic cardiovascular outflow, cardiorespiratory interactions, and reflex control of vasopressin release. As all these functions are affected in patients with multiple systems atrophy (MSA) with autonomic failure, we sought to test the hypothesis that catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase [TH]-positive) neurons of the VLM are depleted in these patients. Medullas were obtained at autopsy from 4 patients with MSA with prominent autonomic failure and 5 patients with no neurological disease. Patients with MSA had laboratory evidence of severe adrenergic sudomotor and cardiovagal failure. Tissue was immersion fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde at 4 degrees C for 24 hours and cut into 1-cm blocks in the coronal plane from throughout the medulla. Serial 50-microm sections were collected and one section every 300 microm was stained for TH. There was a pronounced depletion of TH neurons in the rostral VLM in all cases of MSA. There was also significant reduction of TH neurons in the caudal VLM in 3 MSA patients compared with 3 control subjects. In 2 MSA cases and in 2 control subjects, the thoracic spinal cord was available for study. There was also depletion of TH fibers and sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the 2 MSA cases examined. Thus, depletion of catecholaminergic neurons in the VLM may provide a substrate for some of the autonomic and endocrine manifestations of MSA.

  18. Isolation of pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Rasmussen, Annette; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation is based on the ovarian cortex that contains the vast majority of the follicular reserve, while the remaining tissue, the medulla is discarded. The present study describes the development of a gentle method for isolating pre...

  19. The rostral medulla of bullfrog tadpoles contains critical lung rhythmogenic and chemosensitive regions across metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mitchell D; Iceman, Kimberly E; Harris, Michael B; Taylor, Barbara E

    2018-06-08

    The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO 2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO 2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages. Whole-nerve recordings of respiratory burst activity in cranial and spinal nerves were made from intact or transected brainstems isolated from tadpoles during early or late stages of metamorphosis. Brainstems were transected at the level of the trigeminal nerve, removing rostral structures including the nucleus isthmi, midbrain, and locus coeruleus, or transected at the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, removing the putative buccal oscillator and caudal medulla. Removal of caudal structures stimulated the frequency of lung ventilatory bursts and revealed a hypercapnic response in normally unresponsive preparations derived from early stage tadpoles. In preparations derived from late stage tadpoles, removal of rostral or caudal structures reduced lung burst frequency, while CO 2 responsiveness was retained. Our results illustrate that structures within the rostral medulla are capable of sensing CO 2 throughout metamorphic development. Similarly, the region controlling lung ventilation appears to be contained in the rostral medulla throughout metamorphosis. This work offers insight into the consistency of rhythmic respiratory and chemosensitive capacities during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  1. The renin-angiotensin system; development and differentiation of the renal medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Robdrup Tinning, Anne; Marcussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    on mechanisms of postnatal development the renal medulla and putting medullary developmental lesions into perspective with regard to the programming effect. Moreover, the renin-angiotensin system is critically involved in mammalian kidney development and signaling disorders give rise to developmental renal...... disturbances reaching into adulthood. A review of current knowledge of the role of the renin-angiotensin system for renal medullary development will be given. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society....... lesions that has been associated with hypertension later in life. A consistent finding in both experimental animal models and in human case reports is atrophy of the renal medulla with developmental lesions to both medullary nephron segments and vascular development with concomitant functional...

  2. Cryopreservation and xenografting of human ovarian fragments: medulla decreases the phosphatidylserine translocation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine is the phospholipid component which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in regards to necrosis and apoptosis. When a cell affected by some negative factors, phosphatidylserine is no longer restricted to the intracellular side of membrane and can be translocated to the extracellular surface of the cell. Cryopreservation can induce translocation of phosphatidylserine in response to hypoxia, increasing intracellular Ca2+, osmotic disruption of cellular membranes, generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. As such the aim of this study was to test the level of phosphatidylserine translocation in frozen human medulla-contained and medulla-free ovarian tissue fragments. Methods Ovarian fragments from twelve patients were divided into small pieces of two types, medulla-free cortex (Group 1, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 0.5–0.8 mm and cortex with medulla (Group 2, n = 42, 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–3.0 × 1.5–2.0 mm, pre-cooled after operative removal to 5 °C for 24 h and then conventionally frozen with 6 % dimethyl sulfoxide, 6 % ethylene glycol and 0.15 M sucrose in standard 5-ml cryo-vials. After thawing at +100 °C and step-wise removal of cryoprotectants in 0.5 M sucrose, ovarian pieces were xenografted to SCID mice for 45 days. The efficacy of tissues cryopreservation, taking into account the presence or absence of medulla, was evaluated by the development of follicles (histology with hematoxylin-eosin and through the intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FACS with FITC-Annexin V and Propidium Iodide. Results For Groups 1 and 2, the mean densities of follicles per 1 mm3 were 9.8, and 9.0, respectively. In these groups, 90 and 90 % preantral follicles appeared morphologically normal. However, FACS analysis showed a significantly decreased intensity of translocation of phosphatidylserine (FITC-Annexin V positive after

  3. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...

  4. The 64-MSCT study of relationship between renal corticomedullary differentiation, contrast between renal cortex and medulla, renal cortex and medulla CT peak value with the single renal function in hydronephrotic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunhua; Hou Weiwei; Liu Ruihong; He Jianjun; Zhi Ke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study 64-MSCT perfusion imaging features about renal corticomedullary differentiation, contrast between renal cortex and medulla (CMC), renal cortex and medulla CT peak value in normal and hydronephrotic kidneys, and to explore the relationship between them and the unilateral renal function. Methods: Thirty-six patients with obstructive nephrohydrosis underwent 64-MSCT perfusion scanning. The split renal glomerular filtration rates (GFR) of their kidneys were measured by SPECT renal dynamic imaging. The 72 kidneys were divided into groups of normal renal function group, mild and severe renal impairment groups according to GFR. Renal corticomedullary differentiation on CT images was graded as clear, obscure, part clear. The CT intensity of cortex and medulla was measured in order to calculate contrast between renal cortex and medulla (CMC). Using Pearson correlation test, the correlation between them and renal GFR were examined. Results: (1) In the 24 kidneys of normal group, all kidneys showed clear CMD. In the 21 kidneys of mild renal impairment group, 14 kidneys showed clear CMD, 2 showed obscure CMD and 5 showed part clear of CMD. In the 27 kidneys of severe renal impairment group, 7 kidneys showed clear CMD, 5 showed obscure CMD and 15 showed part clear of CMD. (2)The CMC of normal group was 0.62 ± 0.20, while it was 0.52 ± 0.14 and 0.37 ± 0.11 for mild renal impairment group and severe renal impairment group CMC respectively. The CMC had positive linear correlation with GFR (r=0.536,P<0.05). (3) The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of normal group were (133 ± 22) and (104 ± 16) HU; The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of mild renal impairment group were (91 ± 29) and (76 ± 25) HU; The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value of severe renal impairment group were (68 ± 24) and (57 ± 21) HU(F=42.76 and 32.68,P<0.05). The renal cortex and medulla CT peak value had positive linear correlation with GFR (r=0.672 and 0.623, P<0

  5. Frequency and clinical significance of transient hyperechoic renal medulla in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Shick; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of transient hyperechogenicity of the renal medulla in neonates by comparing the clinical features, urinalysis and follow-up ultrasonographic examination of the control group. One hundred ten neonates were divided into 2 groups, hyperechoic and normal renal medulla groups, and all of them underwent abdominal ultrasound with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer (Sonoace 8800MT, Medicine, Korea) from November 1999 to January 2000. Whether there was any difference in clinical features including birth weight, body surface area, gestational age, sex, date of examination and mode of delivery between two groups was evaluated. In addition, any difference in their urinary osmolarity, albumin, uric acid and calcium in 41 neonates who underwent urinalysis was evaluated. In ten neonates with hyperechoic renal medulla underwent follow-up study, the follow-up ultrasonographic findings were compared with the initial study. In 67 of 110 (61%) neonates, ultrasonography demonstrated hyperechoic renal medulla. There was no difference in clinical features between the hyperechoic renal medullary group and normal group. In 41 neonates, there was no significant difference in urinalysis between two groups. (Osmolarity=146.46 ± 68.4 mOsml/KgH 2 O in the hyperechoic renal medullary group vs. 149.8 ± 77.7 mOsml/KgH 2 O in the normal group; albumin=13.9 ± 10.2 mg/ml vs. 17.6 ± 13.6 mg/dl; uric acid=50.0 ± 23.3 mg/dl vs. 44.9 ± 34.1 mg/dl; calcium=1.38 ± 3.0 mg/ dl vs. 0.44 ± 0.07 mg/dl.) Ten neonates who underwent follow-up ultrasonography within 20 days after the initial study showed the normal medullary echogenicity. There were no significant difference between the hyperechoic renal medullary group and the normal echogenic group in their clinical features and urinalysis. Therefore, the hyperechoic renal medullar in neonate is considered as an usual and transient finding which disappears on follow-up study.

  6. Theoretical conformational analysis of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, N. A.; Tagiyev, Z. H.; Hasanov, E. M.; Akverdieva, G. A.

    2003-02-01

    The spatial structure and conformational properties of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide Tyr1-Gly2-Gly3-Phe4-Met5-Arg6-Arg7-Val8-Gly9-Arg10-Pro11-Glu12 (BAM-12P) molecule were studied by theoretical conformational analysis. It is revealed that this molecule can exist in several stable states. The energy and geometrical parameters for the low-energy conformations are obtained. The conformationally rigid and labile segments of this molecule were revealed.

  7. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  8. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  9. Diversity and wiring variability of visual local neurons in the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, An-Lun; Lin, Chih-Yung; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2014-12-01

    Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this downstream substrate. Here, using R7 terminals as references, we generated a 3D volume model of the M6 stratum, which revealed a retinotopic map for UV representations. Using this volume model as a common 3D framework, we compiled and analyzed the spatial distributions of more than 200 single M6-specific local neurons (M6-LNs). Based on the segregation of putative dendrites and axons, these local neurons were classified into two families, directional and nondirectional. Neurotransmitter immunostaining suggested a signal routing model in which some visual information is relayed by directional M6-LNs from the anterior to the posterior M6 and all visual information is inhibited by a diverse population of nondirectional M6-LNs covering the entire M6 stratum. Our findings suggest that the Drosophila medulla M6 stratum contains diverse LNs that form repeating functional modules similar to those found in the vertebrate inner plexiform layer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nuclear-magnetic tomography in the differential diagnosis of syringobulbia and craniospinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadov, T.A.; Belov, S.A.; Kravtsov, A.K.; Panov, V.O.; Sachkova, I.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Studies carried out in 43 patients helped distinguish the NMT symptoms most characteristic of syringobulbia: a centrally located echo signal zone in the medulla oblongata and the cord, increased transverse size of the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord, dilated volumes of the basal cysterns. A craniospinal condition resultant from a tumor process is characterized by detection of a bulky formation with a heterologus structure in the medulla oblongata involving the cervical portion of the cord and the cerebellar

  11. Radioautographic study of the synthesis and migration of glycoproteins in the cells of the rat adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchimol, Sarita; Cantin, Marc

    1978-01-01

    Rats were injected intravenously with ( 3 H) fucose to study the synthesis and migration of glycoproteins into adrenaline-storing and noradrenaline-storing cells of the adrenal medulla and to evaluate the fate of this radioactive sugar in both serum and adrenal-medulla at various time intervals. Radioactivity was decreased in serum by 50% between 5 and 20 min after the injection and by a hundred fold with 1 h. There was a sharp decrease in the radioactivity of the adrenal-medulla between 5 and 20 min after the injection and a slight, continuous decrease thereafter. The adrenal-medullae were fixed 5 min, 20 min, 1 h and 4 h after intravenous injection of [ 3 H] fucose, and radiautographs were analysed quantitatively after development in Microdol X. Kinetic analysis showed that, in both cell types, glycoprotein synthesis is completed in the Golgi complex and glycoproteins migrate subsequently to the secretory granules and to the cell coat. This analysis also revealed that [ 3 H] fucose moves much more rapidly in the Golgi complex of noradrenaline-storing cells than in that of adrenaline-storing cells and appears much earlier in the secretory granules of the former cell type [fr

  12. An Exact Solution to the Central Core Model of the Renal Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1998-11-01

    The central core model of the renal medulla provides a mathematical representation of the urine concentration mechanism. The model consists of eight coupled, nonlinear ODE's subject to certain initial and boundary conditions. Many investigators have studied the properties of the solutions to these equations, however no general analytic solution is known to exist. Thus, special exact solutions assume a position of significance by providing a basis for insight into the understanding of more realistic models used to analyze actual data. We calculate an exact solution for the case in which the water permeabilities are zero and a particular, but realistic, functional form is used for the metabolic pump. A detailed discussion will be given for the results obtained on the four cencentration and four flux functions that define the model. If invited to do so, the author is willing to expand the talk for the above abstract to twenty minutes.

  13. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PEG 2 ) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its α subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G 0 ) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the α subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G 0 . The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G 0 and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of [ 3 H]PGE 2 binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla

  14. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification...... and warming. METHODS: 36 patients aged from 8 to 41 years who had one ovary excised for fertility preservation were included. Oocytes were collected from the medulla tissue and matured in vitro 44-48 h followed by vitrification. Number of oocytes collected, the rates of maturation and post-warming survival...... of cortical tissue may pose a risk of relapse, but the IVM approach is currently too inefficient to be the only method used for fertility preservation....

  15. Acetazolamide on the ventral medulla of the cat increases phrenic output and delays the ventilatory response to CO sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, E.L.; Aihua Li; Nattie, E.E. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Acetazolamide applied to the surface of the rostral ventrolateral medulla or microinjected beneath the medullary surface in chloralose-urethan-anesthetized, vagotomized, carotid denervated, paralyzed, servo-ventilated cats produced a long-lasting increase in phrenic minute ventilation. Extracellular pH measured beneath the rostral ventrolateral medulla exhibited a long-lasting decrease after surface acetazolamide but was not a good predictor, in each individual animal, of changes in phrenic activity. Medullary carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduced the slope and the half-time of the phrenic response to rapid step CO{sub 2} increases. Conversely, acetazolamide did not effect the phrenic response to steady state CO{sub 2} increases. These data indicate that localized inhibition of medullary carbonic anhydrase causes a centrally mediated increase in ventilation that the authors attribute to medullary tissue acidosis. In addition, these data indicate that medullary carbonic anhydrase may play a role in central CO{sub 2} chemotransduction.

  16. Regulation of memory - from the adrenal medulla to liver to astrocytes to neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Epinephrine, released into blood from the adrenal medulla in response to arousing experiences, is a potent enhancer of learning and memory processing. This review examines mechanisms by which epinephrine exerts its effects on these cognitive functions. Because epinephrine is largely blocked from moving from blood to brain, it is likely that the hormone's effects on memory are mediated by peripheral actions. A classic effect of epinephrine is to act at the liver to break down glycogen stores, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. The increase in blood glucose provides additional energy substrates to the brain to buttress the processes needed for an experience to be learned and remembered. In part, it appears that the increased glucose may act in the brain in a manner akin to that evident in the liver, engaging glycogenolysis in astrocytes to provide an energy substrate, in this case lactate, to augment neuronal functions. Together, the findings reveal a mechanism underlying modulation of memory that integrates the physiological functions of multiple organ systems to support brain processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. REGULATION OF MEMORY – FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA TO LIVER TO ASTROCYTES TO NEURONS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Epinephrine, released into blood from the adrenal medulla in response to arousing experiences, is a potent enhancer of learning and memory processing. This review examines mechanisms by which epinephrine exerts its effects on these cognitive functions. Because epinephrine is largely blocked from moving from blood to brain, it is likely that the hormone's effects on memory are mediated by peripheral actions. A classic effect of epinephrine is to act at the liver to break down glycogen stores, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. The increase in blood glucose provides additional energy substrates to the brain to buttress the processes needed for an experience to be learned and remembered. In part, it appears that the increased glucose may act in the brain in a manner akin to that evident in the liver, engaging glycogenolysis in astrocytes to provide an energy substrate, in this case lactate, to augment neuronal functions. Together, the findings reveal a mechanism underlying modulation of memory that integrates the physiological functions of multiple organ systems to support brain processes. PMID:24406469

  18. Superoxide Mediates Depressive Effects Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S exerts its cardiovascular effects by reducing oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. We examined cell distributions of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS and effects of H2S on reactive oxygen species (ROS and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We found that CBS was expressed in neurons of the RVLM, and the expression was lower in SHRs than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of NaHS (H2S donor, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM, a CBS agonist, or Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor into the RVLM reduced the ROS level, NADPH oxidase activity, and MAP, whereas microinjection of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA, a CBS inhibitor increased MAP. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS inhibited phosphorylation of p47phox, a key step of NADPH oxidase activation. Since decreasing ROS level in the RVLM reduces MAP and heart rate and increasing H2S reduces ROS production, we conclude that H2S exerts an antihypertensive effect via suppressing ROS production. H2S, as an antioxidant, may be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  19. The physiological role of AT1 receptors in the ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tagawa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the rostral and caudal parts of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM play a pivotal role in the regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. Studies in several species, including humans, have shown that these regions contain a high density of AT1 receptors specifically associated with neurons that regulate the sympathetic vasomotor outflow, or the secretion of vasopressin from the hypothalamus. It is well established that specific activation of AT1 receptors by application of exogenous angiotensin II in the rostral and caudal VLM excites sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory neurons, respectively, but the physiological role of these receptors in the normal synaptic regulation of VLM neurons is not known. In this paper we review studies which have defined the effects of specific activation or blockade of these receptors on cardiovascular function, and discuss what these findings tell us with regard to the physiological role of AT1 receptors in the VLM in the tonic and phasic regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure.

  20. Inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities in pheochromocytoma, the adrenal medulla tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisé, Pauline; Brunaud, Laurent; Tóth, Petra; Gasman, Stéphane; Ory, Stéphane

    2017-04-03

    Altered Rho GTPase signaling has been linked to many types of cancer. As many small G proteins, Rho GTPases cycle between an active and inactive state thanks to specific regulators that catalyze exchange of GDP into GTP (Rho-GEF) or hydrolysis of GTP into GDP (Rho-GAP). Recent studies have shown that alteration takes place either at the level of Rho proteins themselves (expression levels, point mutations) or at the level of their regulators, mostly RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs. Most reports describe Rho GTPases gain of function that may participate to the tumorigenesis processes. In contrast, we have recently reported that decreased activities of Cdc42 and Rac1 as well as decreased expression of 2 Rho-GEFs, FARP1 and ARHGEF1, correlate with pheochromocytomas, a tumor developing in the medulla of the adrenal gland (Croisé et al., Endocrine Related Cancer, 2016). Here we highlight the major evidence and further study the correlation between Rho GTPases activities and expression levels of ARHGEF1 and FARP1. Finally we also discuss how the decrease of Cdc42 and Rac1 activities may help human pheochromocytomas to develop and comment the possible relationship between FARP1, ARHGEF1 and the 2 Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 in tumorigenesis.

  1. Ventromedial medulla inhibitory neuron inactivation induces REM sleep without atonia and REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Brischoux, Frédéric; Clément, Olivier; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Arthaud, Sébastien; Lazarus, Michael; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Despite decades of research, there is a persistent debate regarding the localization of GABA/glycine neurons responsible for hyperpolarizing somatic motoneurons during paradoxical (or REM) sleep (PS), resulting in the loss of muscle tone during this sleep state. Combining complementary neuroanatomical approaches in rats, we first show that these inhibitory neurons are localized within the ventromedial medulla (vmM) rather than within the spinal cord. We then demonstrate their functional role in PS expression through local injections of adeno-associated virus carrying specific short-hairpin RNA in order to chronically impair inhibitory neurotransmission from vmM. After such selective genetic inactivation, rats display PS without atonia associated with abnormal and violent motor activity, concomitant with a small reduction of daily PS quantity. These symptoms closely mimic human REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), a prodromal parasomnia of synucleinopathies. Our findings demonstrate the crucial role of GABA/glycine inhibitory vmM neurons in muscle atonia during PS and highlight a candidate brain region that can be susceptible to α-synuclein-dependent degeneration in RBD patients.

  2. Architecture of interstitial nodal spaces in the rodent renal inner medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca L; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2013-09-01

    Every collecting duct (CD) of the rat inner medulla is uniformly surrounded by about four abutting ascending vasa recta (AVR) running parallel to it. One or two ascending thin limbs (ATLs) lie between and parallel to each abutting AVR pair, opposite the CD. These structures form boundaries of axially running interstitial compartments. Viewed in transverse sections, these compartments appear as four interstitial nodal spaces (INSs) positioned symmetrically around each CD. The axially running compartments are segmented by interstitial cells spaced at regular intervals. The pairing of ATLs and CDs bounded by an abundant supply of AVR carrying reabsorbed water, NaCl, and urea make a strong argument that the mixing of NaCl and urea within the INSs and countercurrent flows play a critical role in generating the inner medullary osmotic gradient. The results of this study fully support that hypothesis. We quantified interactions of all structures comprising INSs along the corticopapillary axis for two rodent species, the Munich-Wistar rat and the kangaroo rat. The results showed remarkable similarities in the configurations of INSs, suggesting that the structural arrangement of INSs is a highly conserved architecture that plays a fundamental role in renal function. The number density of INSs along the corticopapillary axis directly correlated with a loop population that declines exponentially with distance below the outer medullary-inner medullary boundary. The axial configurations were consistent with discrete association between near-bend loop segments and INSs and with upper loop segments lying distant from INSs.

  3. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, K; Mieno, M; Shimizu, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-12-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad.

  4. Response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in head X-irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Mieno, M.; Shimizu, T.

    1976-01-01

    The observed results on the secretory response of the adrenal medulla to exogenous insulin in dogs whose heads had been irradiated with 200 rad X-irradiation at a rate of 60.6 rad/min are reported. Approximately 20 h after irradiation 2 i.u. insulin/kg body weight was administered to both irradiated and control (non-irradiated) dogs. The secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenaline in five control dogs which received insulin had increased markedly 30 min after the injection and it was sustained over the first 120 min. Five irradiated dogs also responded to the injection of insulin by secreting appreciable amounts of both adrenaline and noradrenaline, but the responsiveness was considerably lower; adrenaline and noradrenaline secretion 30 and 60 min after the injection was 59 and 33% less than that caused by insulin in control animals respectively, and these differences were significant (P < 0.01). Since insulin induces hypoglycaemia and thereby leads to an increase in the adrenal medullary secretion through the central mechanism, the present results observed 1 day after X-irradiation of the head indicate that the susceptibility of the adrenomedullary activating mechanism in the central nervous system may be diminished considerably after X-irradiation, even at doses as low as 200 rad. (U.K.)

  5. Acute action of rotenone on excitability of catecholaminergic neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Shi, Limin; Du, Xixun; Jiao, Qian; Jiang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    The degeneration of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) catecholaminergic neurons was responsible for some cardiovascular symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous study had observed the impairment of these neurons in the early stage of PD in the rotenone-induced PD rat model, but the related mechanisms remain unclear. Rotenone is a mitochondrial inhibitor, influencing the neuronal electrophysiological activity through activation of K-ATP channels that potentially participate in cell death processes. In the present study, effects of rotenone on electrophysiological properties of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. In coronal slices of brain containing the RVLM through patch clamp technique, rotenone (0.5μM) induced gradual postsynaptic inhibition on the spontaneous firing and cell membrane hyperpolarization with outward currents of catecholaminergic neurons. The electrophysiological changes were blocked by glibenclamide (30μM), a blocker of K-ATP channels, and were nearly unchanged by diazoxide (100μM), an opener of K-ATP channels. Our results also showed that effects of rotenone on catecholaminergic neurons including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were prevented by pretreatment of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, 100μM), a scavenger of ROS. These suggest that rotenone-induced electrophysiological changes of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons are caused by the opening of K-ATP channels, which are partly related to ROS generation. The changes of K-ATP channels might account for the vulnerability of RVLM catecholaminergic neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Repetitive Electroacupuncture Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension through Enkephalin in the Rostral Ventral Lateral Medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, but mechanisms underlying its action are unclear. To simulate clinical studies, we performed electroacupuncture (EA) in unanesthetized rats with cold-induced hypertension (CIH) induced by six weeks of cold exposure (6 °C). EA (0.1 – 0.4 mA, 2 Hz) was applied at ST36-37 acupoints overlying the deep peroneal nerve for 30 min twice weekly for five weeks while sham-EA was conducted with the same procedures as EA except for no electrical stimulation. Elevated BP was reduced after six sessions of EA treatment and remained low 72 hrs after EA in 18 CIH rats, but not in sham-EA (n = 12) and untreated (n = 6) CIH ones. The mRNA level of preproenkephalin in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) 72 hr after EA was increased (n = 9), compared to the sham-EA (n = 6), untreated CIH rats (n = 6) and normotensive control animals (n = 6). Microinjection of ICI 174,864, a δ-opioid receptor antagonist, into the rVLM of EA-treated CIH rats partially reversed EA’s effect on elevated BP (n = 4). Stimulation of rVLM of CIH rats treated with sham-EA using a δ-opioid agonist, DADLE, decreased BP (n = 6). These data suggest that increased enkephalin in the rVLM induced by repetitive EA contributes to BP lowering action of EA. PMID:27775047

  7. Repetitive Electroacupuncture Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension through Enkephalin in the Rostral Ventral Lateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C

    2016-10-24

    Acupuncture lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, but mechanisms underlying its action are unclear. To simulate clinical studies, we performed electroacupuncture (EA) in unanesthetized rats with cold-induced hypertension (CIH) induced by six weeks of cold exposure (6 °C). EA (0.1 - 0.4 mA, 2 Hz) was applied at ST36-37 acupoints overlying the deep peroneal nerve for 30 min twice weekly for five weeks while sham-EA was conducted with the same procedures as EA except for no electrical stimulation. Elevated BP was reduced after six sessions of EA treatment and remained low 72 hrs after EA in 18 CIH rats, but not in sham-EA (n = 12) and untreated (n = 6) CIH ones. The mRNA level of preproenkephalin in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) 72 hr after EA was increased (n = 9), compared to the sham-EA (n = 6), untreated CIH rats (n = 6) and normotensive control animals (n = 6). Microinjection of ICI 174,864, a δ-opioid receptor antagonist, into the rVLM of EA-treated CIH rats partially reversed EA's effect on elevated BP (n = 4). Stimulation of rVLM of CIH rats treated with sham-EA using a δ-opioid agonist, DADLE, decreased BP (n = 6). These data suggest that increased enkephalin in the rVLM induced by repetitive EA contributes to BP lowering action of EA.

  8. The inhibitory effect of granisetron on ventrolateral medulla neuron responses to colorectal distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleev, Sergey S; Martseva, Alexandra А; Lyubashina, Olga А

    2015-02-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most widespread functional gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain. A key pathophysiological mechanism of abdominal pain is associated with disturbances of serotonergic transmission in feedback control loops of endogenous pain modulation in which the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) plays an important role. The receptors to serotonin (5-HT), and particularly the serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors have been extensively used as a potential target for abdominal pain treatment of IBS patients due to antinociceptive features of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The precise mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive action of these antagonists remain unclear. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the involvement of the 5-HT3 receptors in abdominal pain transmission within the VLM. Experiments were carried out on urethane-anaesthetized rats using the animal model of abdominal pain. Noxious colorectal distension (CRD) with a pressure of 80mmHg induced a significant increase in VLM neuron-evoked activity and depressor reactions (171.1±12.7% and 64±1.8% to baseline, accordingly). Selective blockade of the 5-HT3 receptors with granisetron at doses of 1.0 or 2.0mg/kg (i.v) resulted in long-lasting (90min) dose-dependent inhibition of VLM neuron-evoked activity and depressor reactions. When brainstem dorsal surface applications of granisetron (10 or 20µM) were used, the changes were more pronounced. These results suggest involvement of the 5-HT3 receptors in abdominal pain transmission within the VLM, which will be discussed in relation to the central antinociceptive effect of granisetron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trigeminal-Rostral Ventromedial Medulla circuitry is involved in orofacial hyperalgesia contralateral to tissue injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies have shown that complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced masseter inflammation and microinjection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β into the subnucleus interpolaris/subnucleus caudalis transition zone of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vi/Vc can induce contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia in rat models. We have also shown that contralateral hyperalgesia is attenuated with a lesion of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, a critical site of descending pain modulation. Here we investigated the involvement of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry in mediating contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia after an injection of CFA into the masseter muscle. Results Microinjection of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (5 nmol, n=6 into the ipsilateral Vi/Vc attenuated the CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia but not the ipsilateral hyperalgesia. Intra-RVM post-treatment injection of the NK1 receptor antagonists, RP67580 (0.5-11.4 nmol and L-733,060 (0.5-11.4 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced bilateral hyperalgesia and IL-1β induced bilateral hyperalgesia. Serotonin depletion in RVM neurons prior to intra-masseter CFA injection prevented the development of contralateral hyperalgesia 1–3 days after CFA injection. Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in the contralateral Vi/Vc with direct microinjection of the select 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, Y-25130 (2.6-12.9 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia. Lesions to the ipsilateral Vc prevented the development of ipsilateral hyperalgesia but did not prevent the development of contralateral hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that the development of CFA-induced contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia is mediated through descending facilitatory mechanisms of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry.

  10. Nicotine-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ increase and cell depolarization in capillary endothelial cells of the bovine adrenal medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL VINET

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs respond to acetylcholine (ACh with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.

  11. C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, J; Mancillas, J R; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1993-06-01

    Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral pontine tegmentum of the cat induces a state that is comparable to naturally occurring active (REM, rapid eye movement) sleep. We sought to determine, during this pharmacologically induced behavioral state, which we refer to as active sleep-carbachol, the distribution of activated neuron within the pons and medulla using c-fos immunocytochemistry as a functional marker. Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited higher numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons in (1) the medial and portions of the lateral reticular formation of the pons and medulla, (2) nuclei in the dorsolateral rostral pons, (3) various raphe nuclei, including the dorsal, central superior, magnus, pallidus, and obscurus, (4) the medial and lateral vestibular, prepositus hypoglossi, and intercalatus nuclei, and (5) the abducens nuclei. On the other hand, the mean number of c-fos-expressing neurons found in the masseter, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei was lower in carbachol-injected than in control cats. The data indicate that c-fos expression can be employed as a marker of state-dependent neuronal activity. The specific sites in which there were greater numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons during active sleep-carbachol are discussed in relation to the state of active sleep, as well as the functional role that these sites play in generating the various physiological patterns of activity that occur during this state.

  12. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřínová, Anna; Behuliak, Michal; Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 401-411 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16225P Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adrenal medulla * gene expression profiling * reference gene selection * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  13. CGRP infusion in unanesthetized rats increases expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarius and caudal ventrolateral medulla, but not in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Ramachandran, Roshni; Christensen, Sarah Louise Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    caudalis (TNC) was isolated at different time points after CGRP infusion. The level of c-Fos mRNA and protein expression in TNC were analyzed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. c-Fos-stained nuclei were also counted in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), integrative...

  14. The influence of whole-body γ-irradiation with low doses on enzyme activity of rat adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amvros'ev, A.P.; Shostak, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the pattern of changes in histological indices of key enzymes of the tricarbonic acid cycle (succinate dehydrogenase) and glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase) as well as of catecholamines (monoamine oxidase) in cells of the adrenal medulla of young and adult albino rats subjected to external whole-body γ-irradiation with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy (dose-rate of 2.7·10 -4 Gy/s). Radiosensitivity of the enzyme systems under study in the adrenal gland cells of young animals was higher than in that of adult. Changes of their levels in different periods of observation were mainly of phase nature and indicated the development of adaptation syndrome in the animal organism

  15. Control of the cerebral circulation and metabolism by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: Possible role in the cerebrovascular response to hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Neurons within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) corresponding to the location of adrenaline neurons of the C1 group (C1 area) maintain resting levels of arterial pressure (AP) and mediate the reflex cardiovascular responses to baro- and chemoreceptor activation and cerebral ischemia. The author therefore sought to determine whether neurons in the C1 area: (a) modulate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and/or cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), (b) participate in the maintenance of resting levels of CBF and CGU, and (c) mediate the CBF response to hypoxia. Rats were anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated. The RVL was stimulated electrically or chemically, with kainic acid; lesions were placed electrolytically. rCBF was measured using 14-C-iodoantipyrine and rCGU with 14 C-2-deoxyglucose in 11 dissected brain regions

  16. Serotonin and Serotonin Transporters in the Adrenal Medulla: A Potential Hub for Modulation of the Sympathetic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Rebecca L; Bauer, Mary Beth; Blakely, Randy D; Currie, Kevin P M

    2017-05-17

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling. Experimentally, loss of SERT function (SERT knockout mice or chronic pharmacological block) has been reported to augment the sympathetic stress response. Alterations to serotonergic signaling in the CNS and thus central drive to the peripheral sympathetic nervous system are presumed to underlie this augmentation. Although less widely recognized, SERT is robustly expressed in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, the neuroendocrine arm of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenal chromaffin cells do not synthesize 5-HT but accumulate small amounts by SERT-mediated uptake. Recent evidence demonstrated that 5-HT 1A receptors inhibit catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells via an atypical mechanism that does not involve modulation of cellular excitability or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. This raises the possibility that the adrenal medulla is a previously unrecognized peripheral hub for serotonergic control of the sympathetic stress response. As a framework for future investigation, a model is proposed in which stress-evoked adrenal catecholamine secretion is fine-tuned by SERT-modulated autocrine 5-HT signaling.

  17. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  18. Neurochemistry of neurons in the ventrolateral medulla activated by hypotension: Are the same neurons activated by glucoprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay M; Le, Sheng; Wearne, Travis A; Hardwick, Kate; Kumar, Natasha N; Robinson, Katherine J; McMullan, Simon; Goodchild, Ann K

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a range of stimuli activate neurons, including catecholaminergic neurons, in the ventrolateral medulla. Not all catecholaminergic neurons are activated and other neurochemical content is largely unknown hence whether stimulus specific populations exist is unclear. Here we determine the neurochemistry (using in situ hybridization) of catecholaminergic and noncatecholaminergic neurons which express c-Fos immunoreactivity throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the ventrolateral medulla, in Sprague Dawley rats treated with hydralazine or saline. Distinct neuronal populations containing PPCART, PPPACAP, and PPNPY mRNAs, which were largely catecholaminergic, were activated by hydralazine but not saline. Both catecholaminergic and noncatecholaminergic neurons containing preprotachykinin and prepro-enkephalin (PPE) mRNAs were also activated, with the noncatecholaminergic population located in the rostral C1 region. Few GlyT2 neurons were activated. A subset of these data was then used to compare the neuronal populations activated by 2-deoxyglucose evoked glucoprivation (Brain Structure and Function (2015) 220:117). Hydralazine activated more neurons than 2-deoxyglucose but similar numbers of catecholaminergic neurons. Commonly activated populations expressing PPNPY and PPE mRNAs were defined. These likely include PPNPY expressing catecholaminergic neurons projecting to vasopressinergic and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, which when activated result in elevated plasma vasopressin and corticosterone. Stimulus specific neurons included noncatecholaminergic neurons and a few PPE positive catecholaminergic neuron but neurochemical codes were largely unidentified. Reasons for the lack of identification of stimulus specific neurons, readily detectable using electrophysiology in anaesthetized preparations and for which neural circuits can be defined, are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impaired endocannabinoid signalling in the rostral ventromedial medulla underpins genotype-dependent hyper-responsivity to noxious stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Kieran; Olango, Weredeselam M; Okine, Bright N; Madasu, Manish K; McGuire, Iseult C; Coyle, Kathleen; Harhen, Brendan; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2014-01-01

    Pain is both a sensory and an emotional experience, and is subject to modulation by a number of factors including genetic background modulating stress/affect. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits a stress-hyper-responsive and depressive-like phenotype and increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli, compared with other rat strains. Here, we show that this genotype-dependent hyperalgesia is associated with impaired pain-related mobilisation of endocannabinoids and transcription of their synthesising enzymes in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Pharmacological blockade of the Cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptor potentiates the hyperalgesia in WKY rats, whereas inhibition of the endocannabinoid catabolising enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, attenuates the hyperalgesia. The latter effect is mediated by CB1 receptors in the RVM. Together, these behavioural, neurochemical, and molecular data indicate that impaired endocannabinoid signalling in the RVM underpins hyper-responsivity to noxious stimuli in a genetic background prone to heightened stress/affect. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  1. Kidney outer medulla mitochondria are more efficient compared to cortex mitochondria as a strategy to sustain ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Gustafsson, Håkan; Palm, Fredrik

    2018-05-30

    The kidneys receive approximately 25% of cardiac output, which is a prerequisite in order to maintain sufficient glomerular filtration rate. However, both intrarenal regional renal blood flow and tissue oxygen levels are heterogeneous with decreasing levels in the inner part of the medulla. These differences in combination with the heterogeneous metabolic activity of the different nephron segment located in the different parts of the kidney may constitute a functional problem when challenged. The proximal tubule and the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle are considered to have the highest metabolic rate, which is relating to the high mitochondria content needed to sustain sufficient ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation in order to support high electrolyte transport activity in these nephron segments. Interestingly, the cells located in kidney medulla functions at the verge of hypoxia and the mitochondria may have adapted to the surrounding environment. However, little is known about intrarenal differences in mitochondria function. We therefore investigated functional differences between mitochondria isolated from kidney cortex and medulla of healthy normoglycemic rats were estimated using high-resolution respirometry. The results demonstrate that medullary mitochondria had a higher degree of coupling, are more efficient and have higher oxygen affinity, which would make them more suitable to function in an environment with limited oxygen supply. Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that mitochondria of medullary cells have adapted to the normal hypoxic in vivo situation as a strategy of sustaining ATP production in a suboptimal environment.

  2. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Overexpression of ß-Arrestin1 in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Downregulates Angiotensin Receptor and Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Cen; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Jiao, Pei-Lei; Tan, Xing; Wang, Yang-Kai; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM. Methods: The animal model of β-arrestin1 overexpression was induced by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus containing Arrb1 gene (AAV-Arrb1) into the RVLM of WKY and SHR. Results: β-arrestin1 was expressed on the pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM, and its expression in the RVLM was significantly ( P Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in SHR significantly decreased baseline levels of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, and attenuated cardiovascular effects induced by RVLM injection of angiotensin II (100 pmol). Furthermore, β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly reduced the expression of AT1R by 65% and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation by 66% in SHR. It was confirmed that β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM led to an enhancement of interaction between β-arrestin1 and IκB-α. Conclusion: Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in the RVLM reduces BP and sympathetic outflow in hypertension, which may be associated with NFκB-mediated AT1R downregulation.

  4. Mechanisms of CO2/H+ chemoreception by respiratory rhythm generator neurons in the medulla from newborn rats in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Akira; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated mechanisms of CO2/H+ chemoreception in the respiratory centre of the medulla by measuring membrane potentials of pre-inspiratory neurons, which are putative respiratory rhythm generators, in the brainstem–spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat. Neuronal response was tested by changing superfusate CO2 concentration from 2% to 8% at constant HCO3− concentration (26 mm) or by changing pH from 7.8 to 7.2 by reducing HCO3− concentration at constant CO2 (5%). Both respiratory and metabolic acidosis lead to depolarization of neurons with increased excitatory synaptic input and increased burst rate. Respiratory acidosis potentiated the amplitude of the neuronal drive potential. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), membrane depolarization persisted during respiratory and metabolic acidosis. However, the depolarization was smaller than that before application of TTX, which suggests that some neurons are intrinsically, and others synaptically, chemosensitive to CO2/H+. Application of Ba2+ blocked membrane depolarization by respiratory acidosis, whereas significant depolarization in response to metabolic acidosis still remained after application of Cd2+ and Ba2+. We concluded that the intrinsic responses to CO2/H+changes were mediated by potassium channels during respiratory acidosis, and that some other mechanisms operate during metabolic acidosis. In low-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solution, an increased CO2 concentration induced a membrane depolarization with a simultaneous increase of the burst rate. Pre-inspiratory neurons could adapt their baseline membrane potential to external CO2/H+ changes by integration of these mechanisms to modulate their burst rates. Thus, pre-inspiratory neurons might play an important role in modulation of respiratory rhythm by central chemoreception in the brainstem–spinal cord preparation. PMID:16469786

  5. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling at rostral ventrolateral medulla in redox-sensitive hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kay L H; Chao, Yung-Mei; Tsay, Shiow-Jen; Chen, Chen Hsiu; Chan, Samuel H H; Dovinova, Ima; Chan, Julie Y H

    2014-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is rapidly becoming prevalent worldwide, is long known to be associated with hypertension and recently with oxidative stress. Of note is that oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where sympathetic premotor neurons reside, contributes to sympathoexcitation and hypertension. This study sought to identify the source of tissue oxidative stress in RVLM and their roles in neural mechanism of hypertension associated with MetS. Adult normotensive rats subjected to a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks developed metabolic traits of MetS, alongside increases in sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. In RVLM of these MetS rats, the tissue level of reactive oxygen species was increased, nitric oxide (NO) was decreased, and mitochondrial electron transport capacity was reduced. Whereas the protein expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) or protein inhibitor of nNOS was increased, the ratio of nNOS dimer/monomer was significantly decreased. Oral intake of pioglitazone or intracisternal infusion of tempol or coenzyme Q10 significantly abrogated all those molecular events in high-fructose diet-fed rats and ameliorated sympathoexcitation and hypertension. Gene silencing of protein inhibitor of nNOS mRNA in RVLM using lentivirus carrying small hairpin RNA inhibited protein inhibitor of nNOS expression, increased the ratio of nNOS dimer/monomer, restored NO content, and alleviated oxidative stress in RVLM of high-fructose diet-fed rats, alongside significantly reduced sympathoexcitation and hypertension. These results suggest that redox-sensitive and protein inhibitor of nNOS-mediated nNOS uncoupling is engaged in a vicious cycle that sustains the production of reactive oxygen species in RVLM, resulting in sympathoexcitation and hypertension associated with MetS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Functional cardiovascular action of L-cysteine microinjected into pressor sites of the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-04-01

    The endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space of the cisterna magna increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) in the freely moving rat. The present study examined (1) cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where a group of neurons regulate activities of cardiovascular sympathetic neurons and (2) involvement of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors in response. In the RVLM of urethane-anesthetized rats accessed ventrally and identified with pressor responses to L-glutamate (10 mM, 34 nl), microinjections of L-cysteine increased ABP and HR dose dependently (3-100 mM, 34 nl). The cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine (30 mM) were not attenuated by a prior injection of either antagonist alone, MK801 (20 mM, 68 nl) for the NMDA type of iEAA receptors, or CNQX (2 mM) for the non-NMDA type. However, inhibition of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors with additional prior injection of either antagonist completely blocked those responses to L-cysteine. The results indicate that L-cysteine has functional cardiovascular action in the RVLM of the anesthetized rat, and the responses to L-cysteine involve both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors albeit in a mutually exclusive parallel fashion. The findings may suggest endogenous roles of L-cysteine indirectly via iEAA receptors in the neuronal network of the RVLM for cardiovascular regulation in physiological and pathological situations.

  8. L-Cysteine and L-AP4 microinjections in the rat caudal ventrolateral medulla decrease arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-12-01

    The thiol amino acid L-cysteine increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space in conscious rats, indicating a pressor response to centrally acting L-cysteine. A prior synaptic membrane binding assay suggests that L-cysteine has a strong affinity for the L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) binding site. The central action of L-cysteine may be vial-AP4 sensitive receptors. The present study investigated cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine and L-ap4 microinjected into the autonomic area of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) where inhibitory neurons regulate ABP via pre-sympathetic vasomotor neurons. Both the injection of L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM sites identified with L-glutamate produced the same depressor and bradycardic responses in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neither a prior antagonist microinjection of MK801 for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor nor CNQX for the non-NMDA receptor attenuated the responses to L-cysteine, but the combination of the two receptor blocking with an additional prior injection abolished the response. In contrast, either receptor blockade alone abolished the response to L-AP4, indicating distinct mechanisms between responses to L-cysteine and L-AP4 in the CVLM. The results indicate that the CVLM is a central active site for L-cysteine's cardiovascular response. Central L-cysteine's action could be independent of the L-AP4 sensitive receptors. Cardiovascular regulation may involve endogenous L-cysteine in the CVLM. Further multidisciplinary examinations are required to elaborate on L-cysteine's functional roles in the CVLM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the effect of ion channel modulators on I1-imidazoline binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, I.F.; Kotsopoulos, D.; Hughes, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The structure of I 1 -imidazoline binding sites is still unknown and we have proposed that they represent ion channels (i). In these experiments we characterised the effects of the known ion channel modulators methyltriphenylphosphonium (MTPP), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethyl ammonium (TEA) on [ 3 H] clonidine binding in bovine adrenal medullary membranes as these membranes have a relatively well defined I 1 -imidazoline binding site (Molderings et al, 1993). Membranes from bovine adrenal medulla's were prepared by a minor modification of the method of Rapier et al. [ 3 H] Clonidine binding was performed by the method of Ernsberger et al (3), with [ 3 H] clonidine (62 Ci/mmol) used at a final concentration of 5 nM. [ 3 H] Clonidine binding was displaced from bovine adrenal medullary membranes by adrenergic drugs with the order of potency being oxymetazoline > clonidine > moxonidine = idazoxan >> yonimbine. This order of potency is consistent with previous studies of I 1 -imidazoline binding sites (4). Non-linear curve fitting to this data was consistent with a single site model. Both TEA and 4-AP displaced [ H] clonidine with similar potency to its effect on ion channels, TEA having a EC>> of 54 ± 0.3 μM (n=3). The displacement of [ 3 H] clonidine produced by both TEA and 4-AP also fitted to a single site model. Displacement of [ 3 H] clonidine by MTPP fitted a two site model (p 1 -imidazoline binding sites defined with [ 3 H] clonidine may represent ion channels. We have used this data to perform molecular modelling and have determined a common conformation of I 1 -prefering ligands which will aid in the development of I 1 -selective ligands in the future. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  10. The effect of microinjection of dimethyl sulfoxide into the rostral ventromedial medulla on swim stress-induced analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is an important solvent for compounds that used in pain research. Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM plays an important role in modulating nociception and stress-induced analgesia (SIA. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DMSO administration into the RVM on SIA by using formalin test. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 27 Wistar male rats (200±30 gr were randomly assigned to control, stress and stress+DMSO groups. Animals were placed in a water reservoir (20±1°C for 3 minutes to induce forced swimming stress. Stereotaxic surgery was performed to microinjection of DMSO (0.5μl, 100% into RVM. The pain behavior score was evaluated by subcutaneous injection of formalin 2% in the dorsal plantar region of hid paw. Findings: The pain score of phase 1, interphase and phase 2 of formalin test in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control group (P<0.001, P< 0.05, P<0.001 respectively. In addition, the pain score of three phase of formalin test after DMSO injection in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control and stress group (P<0.001, P<0.05 respectively. Conclusion: Also microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, as well as its ability to potentiate stressinduced analgesia, DMSO should be used with caution as a solvent in pain studies. Conclusion: Force swim stress induces analgesia in, and microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of DMSO, as well as its ability to potentiate stress-induced analgesia, it should be used with caution as solvent in pain studies.

  11. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solubilization of Na,K-ATPase from rabbit kidney outer medulla using only C12E8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Santos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available SDS, C12E8, CHAPS or CHAPSO or a combination of two of these detergents is generally used for the solubilization of Na,K-ATPase and other ATPases. Our method using only C12E8 has the advantage of considerable reduction of the time for enzyme purification, with rapid solubilization and purification in a single chromatographic step. Na,K-ATPase-rich membrane fragments of rabbit kidney outer medulla were obtained without adding SDS. Optimum conditions for solubilization were obtained at 4ºC after rapid mixing of 1 mg of membrane Na,K-ATPase with 1 mg of C12E8/ml, yielding 98% recovery of the activity. The solubilized enzyme was purified by gel filtration on a Sepharose 6B column at 4ºC. Non-denaturing PAGE revealed a single protein band with phosphomonohydrolase activity. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by gel filtration chromatography was 320 kDa. The optimum apparent pH obtained for the purified enzyme was 7.5 for both PNPP and ATP. The dependence of ATPase activity on ATP concentration showed high (K0.5 = 4.0 µM and low (K0.5 = 1.4 mM affinity sites for ATP, with negative cooperativity. Ouabain (5 mM, oligomycin (1 µg/ml and sodium vanadate (3 µM inhibited the ATPase activity of C12E8-solubilized and purified Na,K-ATPase by 99, 81 and 98.5%, respectively. We have shown that Na,K-ATPase solubilized only with C12E8 can be purified and retains its activity. The activity is consistent with the form of (alphaß2 association.

  13. Exercise training lowers the enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yang-Kai; Deng, Yu; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Tan, Xing; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Deng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that low-intensity exercise training (ExT) is beneficial to cardiovascular dysfunction in hypertension. The tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for control of blood pressure and sympathetic tone, has been demonstrated to be increased in hypertensive rats. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ExT on the increased glutamatergic input to the RVLM in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Normotensive rats Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR were treadmill trained or remained sedentary (Sed) for 12 weeks and classed into four groups (WKY-Sed, WKY-ExT, SHR-Sed, and SHR-ExT). The release of glutamate in the RVLM and its contribution to cardiovascular activity were determined in WKY and SHR after treatment of ExT. Blood pressure and sympathetic tone were significantly reduced in SHR after treatment with ExT. Bilateral microinjection of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (2.7 nmol in 100 nL) into the RVLM significantly decreased resting blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in SHR-Sed but not in WKY groups (WKY-Sed and WKY-ExT). However, the degree of reduction in these cardiovascular parameters evoked by KYN was significantly blunted in SHR-ExT compared with SHR-Sed group. The concentration of glutamate and the protein expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in the RVLM were significantly increased in SHR-Sed compared with WKY-Sed, whereas they were reduced after treatment with ExT. Our findings suggest that ExT attenuates the enhancement in the tonically acting glutamatergic input to the RVLM of hypertensive rats, thereby reducing the sympathetic hyperactivity and blood pressure. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Cardiovascular responses to microinjections of GABA or anesthetics into the rostral ventrolateral medulla of conscious and anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda J.E.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM contains neurons involved in tonic and reflex control of arterial pressure. We describe the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and anesthetics injected into the RVLM of conscious and urethane (1.2 g/kg, iv anesthetized Wistar rats (300-350 g. In conscious rats, bilateral microinjection of GABA (50 nmol/200 nl induced a small but significant decrease in blood pressure (from 130 ± 3.6 to 110 ± 5.6 mmHg, N = 7. A similar response was observed with sodium pentobarbital microinjection (24 nmol/200 nl. However, in the same animals, the fall in blood pressure induced by GABA (from 121 ± 8.9 to 76 ± 8.8 mmHg, N = 7 or pentobarbital (from 118 ± 4.5 to 57 ± 11.3 mmHg, N = 6 was significantly increased after urethane anesthesia. In contrast, there was no difference between conscious (from 117 ± 4.1 to 92 ± 5.9 mmHg, N = 7 and anesthetized rats (from 123 ± 6.9 to 87 ± 8.7 mmHg, N = 7 when lidocaine (34 nmol/200 nl was microinjected into the RVLM. The heart rate variations were not consistent and only eventually reached significance in conscious or anesthetized rats. The right position of pipettes was confirmed by histology and glutamate microinjection into the RVLM. These findings suggest that in conscious animals the RVLM, in association with the other sympathetic premotor neurons, is responsible for the maintenance of sympathetic vasomotor tone during bilateral RVLM inhibition. Activity of one or more of these premotor neurons outside the RVLM can compensate for the effects of RVLM inhibition. In addition, the effects of lidocaine suggest that fibers passing through the RVLM are involved in the maintenance of blood pressure in conscious animals during RVLM inhibition.

  15. Repeated electroacupuncture attenuating of apelin expression and function in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in stress-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Rong; Xia, Chun-Mei; Jiang, Mei-Yan; Zhu, Min-Xia; Zhu, Ji-Min; Du, Dong-Shu; Liu, Min; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Da-Nian

    2013-08-01

    Studies have revealed that apelin is a novel multifunctional peptide implicated both in blood pressure (BP) regulation and cardiac function control. Evidence shows that apelin and its receptor (APJ) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) may play an important role in central BP regulation; however, its role is controversial and very few reports have shown the relationship between acupuncture and apelin. Our study aims to both investigate the apelinergic system role in stress-induced hypertension (SIH) and determine whether acupuncture therapy effects on hypertension involve the apelinergic system in the RVLM. We established the stress-induced hypertensive rat (SIHR) model using electric foot-shock stressors with noise interventions. The expression of both apelin and the APJ receptor in the RVLM neurons was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blots. The results showed apelin expression increased remarkably in SIHR while APJ receptor expression showed no significant difference between control and SIHR groups. Microinjection of apelin-13 into the RVLM of control rats or SIHR produced pressor and tachycardic effects. Furthermore, effects induced by apelin-13 in SIHR were significantly greater than those of control rats. In addition, repetitive electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at the Zusanli (ST-36) acupoint attenuated hypertension and apelin expression in the RVLM in SIHR; it also attenuated the pressor effect elicited by exogenous apelin-13 microinjection in SIHR. The results suggest that augmented apelin in the RVLM was part of the manifestations of SIH; the antihypertensive effects of EA might be associated with the attenuation of apelin expression and function in the RVLM, which might be a novel role for EA in SIH setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Overexpression of ß-Arrestin1 in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla Downregulates Angiotensin Receptor and Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cen Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM.Methods: The animal model of β-arrestin1 overexpression was induced by bilateral injection of adeno-associated virus containing Arrb1 gene (AAV-Arrb1 into the RVLM of WKY and SHR.Results: β-arrestin1 was expressed on the pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM, and its expression in the RVLM was significantly (P < 0.05 downregulated by an average of 64% in SHR than WKY. Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in SHR significantly decreased baseline levels of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, and attenuated cardiovascular effects induced by RVLM injection of angiotensin II (100 pmol. Furthermore, β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM significantly reduced the expression of AT1R by 65% and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation by 66% in SHR. It was confirmed that β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM led to an enhancement of interaction between β-arrestin1 and IκB-α.Conclusion: Overexpression of β-arrestin1 in the RVLM reduces BP and sympathetic outflow in hypertension, which may be associated with NFκB-mediated AT1R downregulation.

  17. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bao [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Ma, Le [Department of Public Health, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Miao, Yu-Wang [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Lu, Yan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sanaitang Hospital, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Song, Xin-Ai [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91{sup phox}) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension.

  18. Chronic infusion of lisinopril into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bao; Qin, Da-Nian; Ma, Le; Miao, Yu-Wang; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lu, Yan; Song, Xin-Ai; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sympathetic nerve activity. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the PVN modulates cytokines and attenuates oxidative stress (ROS) in the RVLM, and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats by the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) method. Renovascular hypertensive rats received bilateral PVN infusion with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (LSP, 10 μg/h) or vehicle via osmotic minipump for 4 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and plasma proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) were significantly increased in renovascular hypertensive rats. The renovascular hypertensive rats also had higher levels of ACE in the PVN, and lower level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the RVLM. In addition, the levels of PICs, the chemokine MCP-1, the subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox ) and ROS in the RVLM were increased in hypertensive rats. PVN treatment with LSP attenuated those changes occurring in renovascular hypertensive rats. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition in the PVN in renovascular hypertension are partly due to modulation cytokines and attenuation oxidative stress in the RVLM. - Highlights: • Chronic ACE inhibition in PVN on renovascular hypertension was investigated. • 2K1C resulted in sympathoexcitation, increased plasma PICs and hypertension. • 2K1C rats had higher levels of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RVLM. • Chronic inhibiting PVN ACE attenuates cytokines and ROS in RVLM in hypertension

  19. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0.......5 nM, respectively, as demonstrated by bromodeoxyuridine pulse-labeling and immunocytochemical staining of cell nuclei. In comparison, corticosterone inhibited neonatal and adult chromaffin cell proliferation by 70% and 95%, respectively, with half-maximal effect at 100 nM. In neonatal chromaffin...

  20. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Cheng; Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2010-08-01

    An injection of orexin A or B into the cisterna magna or the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where bulbospinal vasomotor neurons are located, elevated arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). We examined how orexins affected RVLM neurons to regulate cardiovascular functions by using in vitro recordings of neuronal activity of the RVLM and in vivo measurement of cardiovascular functions in rats. Orexin A and B concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. At 100 nM, both peptides excited 42% of RVLM neurons. Tetrodotoxin failed to block orexin-induced depolarization. In the presence of N-(2-methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N'-1, 5-naphthyridin-4-yl urea (SB-334867), an orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 42% of RVLM neurons with a smaller, but not significantly different, amplitude (4.9 +/- 0.8 versus 7.2 +/- 1.1 mV). In the presence of (2S)-1- (3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(4-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-1-butanone hydrochloride (TCS OX2 29), an orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 25% of RVLM neurons with a significantly smaller amplitude (1.7 +/- 0.5 mV). Coapplication of both antagonists completely eliminated orexin A-induced depolarization. An OX(2)R agonist, [Ala(11),D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. Regarding neuronal phenotypes, orexins depolarized 88% of adrenergic, 43% of nonadrenergic, and 36 to 41% of rhythmically firing RVLM neurons. Intracisternal TCS OX2 29 (3 and 10 nmol) suppressed intracisternal orexin A-induced increases of AP and HR, whereas intracisternal SB-334867 (3 and 10 nmol) had no effect on the orexin A-induced increase of HR but suppressed the orexin A-induced pressor response at 10 nmol. We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R.

  1. The effect of orexin-A on cardiac dysfunction mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anion in ventrolateral medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available Hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons, located in the perifornical region of the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA and projecting to the brain sites of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, involve in the increase of sympathetic activity, thereby regulating cardiovascular function. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the central orexin-A (OXA could be involved in the cardiovascular dysfunction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI by releasing NAD(PH oxidase-derived superoxide anion (O2 (- generation in RVLM, AMI rat model established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery to induce manifestation of cardiac dysfunction, monitored by the indicators as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, mean arterial pressure (MAP and left intraventricular pressure. The results showed that the expressions of OXA in LHA and orexin 1 receptor (OX1R increased in RVLM of AMI rats. The double immunofluorescent staining indicated that OX1R positive cells and NAD(PH oxidative subunit gp91phox or p47phox-immunoreactive (IR cells were co-localized in RVLM. Microinjection of OXA into the cerebral ventricle significantly increased O2 (- production and mRNA expression of NAD(PH oxidase subunits when compared with aCSF-treated ones. Exogenous OXA administration in RVLM produced pressor and tachycardiac effects. Furthermore, the antagonist of OX1R and OX2R (SB-408124 and TCS OX2 29, respectively or apocynin (APO, an inhibitor of NAD(PH oxidase, partly abolished those cardiovascular responses of OXA. HRV power spectral analysis showed that exogenous OXA led to decreased HF component of HRV and increased LF/HF ratio in comparison with aCSF, which suggested that OXA might be related to sympathovagal imbalance. As indicated by the results, OXA might participate in the central regulation of cardiovascular activities by disturbing the sympathovagal balance in AMI, which could be explained by the possibility that OXR and NAD(PH-derived O

  2. Origin and neurochemical properties of bulbospinal neurons projecting to the rat lumbar spinal cord via the medal longitudinal fasciculus and caudal ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilli eHuma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bulbospinal systems (BS originate from various regions of the brainstem and influence spinal neurons by classical synaptic and modulatory mechanisms. Our aim was to determine the brainstem locations of cells of origin of BS pathways passing through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM. We also examined the transmitter content of spinal terminations of the CVLM pathway. Six adult rats received Fluorogold (FG injections to the right intermediate grey matter of the lumbar cord (L1-L2 and the b-subunit of cholera toxin (CTb was injected either into the MLF or the right CVLM (3 animals each. Double-labelled cells were identified within brainstem structures with confocal microscopy and mapped onto brainstem diagrams. An additional 3 rats were injected with CTb in the CVLM to label axon terminals in the lumbar spinal cord. Double-labelled cells projecting via the MLF or CVLM were found principally in reticular regions of the medulla and pons but small numbers of cells were also located within the midbrain. CVLM projections to the lumbar cord were almost exclusively ipsilateral and concentrated within the intermediate grey matter. Most (62% of terminals were immunoreactive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 while 23% contained the vesicular GABA transporter. The inhibitory subpopulation was glycinergic, GABAergic or contained both transmitters. The proportions of excitatory and inhibitory axons projecting via the CVLM to the lumbar cord are similar to those projecting via the MLF. Unlike the MLF pathway, CVLM projections are predominantly ipsilateral and concentrated within intermediate grey but do not extend into motor nuclei or laminia VIII. Terminations of the CVLM pathway are located in a region of the grey matter that is rich in premotor interneurons; thus its primary function may be to coordinate activity of premotor networks.

  3. *sp131*I-3-iodobenzylguanidine (*sp131*I-3-IBG) as a scintigraphic agent for the visualization of adrenal medulla tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggeli, D.E.; Brorson, B.I.; Bremper, P.O.

    1983-06-01

    A method of labelling 3-iodobenzylguanidine with *sp131*I is described. 3-IBG . 0.5 H*sb2*SO*sb4* and Cu(II)SO*sb4* were dissolved in a 0.1 M NH*sb4*H*sb2*PO*sb4* buffer and mixed with *sp131*I-NaI. The solution was evaporated to dryness by heating. After addition of water, the solution was heated with reflux for two hours. The I*sp-* ions were removed after labelling by anionic exchange chromatography. The final product was made isotonic and bacteriostatic by the addition of acetate buffer, saline and benzylalcohol. The product was filtered through a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.22*my*m and was apyrogenically tested by limulus test. The tumors of adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and neuroplastomas may in some cases be small or located extra-adrenally. In those cases *sp131*I-labelled 3-IBG is a valuable tool, since 3-IBG concentrates in adrenal medulla tumors because ot its analogy to the catecholamines. Injecting a dose of 0.5 mCi *sp131*I-3-IBG (2.5 mCi/mg), which is an adult dose, allows the scintigraphic localization of the tumours, thus guiding the surgeon. Adrenal uptake in mice and dog is described in the report, as well as a rapid method for the control of radiochemical purity. The radioactive concentration of the *sp131*I-3-IBG has been found to be important for the radiochemical stability of the product. (RF)

  4. The correlation between dysphagia and involvement of the ambiguous nucleus on MRI in acute-phase lateral medullary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurono, Hiroko; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masanari; Imafuku, Ichirou

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the clinical features and MRI findings of 21 patients admitted for acute lateral medullary syndrome, including 10 patients with dysphagia, were examined. According to Cytoarchitecture of the Human Brain Stem (Olszewski, J and Baxter, D), MRI-identified lesions were classified into four groups based on their location (upper, middle-upper, middle-lower, and lower parts of the medulla oblongata). We also examined whether each lesion involved the ambiguous nucleus (AN). We then studied the correlation between dysphagia and involvement of the AN. Ten patients had dysphagia, which improved very quickly in all but one. In the horizontal plane, lesions of all patients with dysphagia exhibited AN involvement, suggesting that dysphagia is strongly correlated with AN involvement. Among the 8 patients with lesions in the upper part of the medulla oblongata, the lesions of 7 patients included the AN, and 6 of those 7 patients had dysphagia. Among the 5 patients with lesions in the middle-upper part of the medulla oblongata, the lesions of two contained the AN, and one of those two patients had dysphagia. Among the 6 patients with lesions in the middle-lower part of the medulla oblongata, all lesions contained the AN, but only 3 of the patients exhibited dysphagia. In both patients who had lesions in the lower part of the medulla oblongata, the lesions did not include the AN and neither patient had dysphagia. Patients who had lesions involving the AN in the rostral part of the medulla oblongata were more likely to have dysphagia than the other patients. On the other hand, half of the patients with lesions involving the AN in the middle-lower part of the medulla oblongata did not have dysphagia. This might suggest that the caudal part of the AN has little involvement in the mechanisms of dysphagia. (author)

  5. Comparison of P2 purinergic receptors of aortic endothelial cells with those of adrenal medulla: evidence for heterogeneity of receptor subtype and of inositol phosphate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, D J; Boarder, M R

    1990-07-01

    Vascular endothelial cells from different parts of the circulation are known to show different functional responses, presumably corresponding to physiological roles. Previous studies have shown that ATP acts on P2 purinergic receptors of endothelial cells of major blood vessels, stimulating the formation of inositol phosphates. Here we have compared the action of ATP and congeners acting on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta with cells derived from the microvasculature of bovine adrenal medulla. With measurement of total inositol phosphates, cells from the aorta showed a rank order of agonist potency of 2-methylthio-ATP greater than adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP, consistent with action at receptors of the P2Y subtype. However, with adrenal cells the rank order of potency was ATP gamma S greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than ADP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP = 2-methylthio-ATP. This profile is not consistent with either P2X or P2Y receptors. When the nature of this inositol phosphate response was analyzed with anion exchange chromatography, it was found that the aortic cells showed an inositol trisphosphate stimulation that peaked within a few seconds and rapidly declined, whereas the response of the adrenal medulla cells continued to rise through 5 min. Analysis of isomers of inositol phosphates revealed a different pattern of metabolism between the two cell types, which may account for the different time course of response. With adrenal cells, ATP at low micromolar concentrations caused a dose-dependent increase in levels of cyclic AMP and had a greater than additive effect on cyclic AMP levels when combined with submaximal stimulation by prostaglandin E2. These results suggest the presence of a P2Y receptor on aortic endothelial cells, with an 'atypical' purinocepter, i.e., neither P2X nor P2Y

  6. Identification of a membrane-bound, glycol-stimulated phospholipase A2 located in the secretory granules of the adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, E.; Albanesi, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Chromaffin granule membranes prepared from bovine adrenal medullae showed Ca 2+ -stimulated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity when assayed at pH 9.0 with phosphatidylcholine containing an [ 14 C]-arachidonyl group in the 2-position. However, the activity occurred in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, and did not codistribute with markers for the secretory granule. PLA 2 activity in the granule membrane preparation was stimulated dramatically by addition of glycerol, ethylene glycole, or poly(ethylene glycol). This glycol-stimulated PLA 2 activity codistributed with membrane-bound dopamine β-hydroxylase, a marker for the granule membranes, through the sequence of differential centrifugation steps employed to prepare the granule membrane fraction, as well as on a sucrose density gradient which resolved the granules from mitochondria, lysosomes, and plasma membrane. The glycol-stimulated PLA 2 of the chromaffin granule was membrane-bound, exhibited a pH optimum of 7.8, retained activity in the presence of EDTA, and was inactivated by p-bromophenacyl bromide. When different 14 C-labeled phospholipids were incorporated into diarachidonylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine was a better substrate for this enzyme than 1-palmitoyl-2-oleylphosphatidylcholine or 1-acyl-2-arachidonyl-phosphatidylethhanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine was not hydrolyzed

  7. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yates, Bill J

    2011-05-01

    Research on animal models as well as human subjects has demonstrated that the vestibular system contributes to regulating the distribution of blood in the body through effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Elimination of vestibular inputs results in increased blood flow to the hindlimbs during vestibular stimulation, because it attenuates the increase in vascular resistance that ordinarily occurs in the lower body during head-up tilts. Additionally, the changes in vascular resistance produced by vestibular stimulation differ between body regions. Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferents produces an inhibition of most hindlimb vasoconstrictor fibers and a decrease in hindlimb vascular resistance, but an initial excitation of most upper body vasoconstrictor fibers accompanied by an increase in upper body vascular resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that neurons in the principal vasomotor region of the brainstem, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), whose projections extended past the T10 segment, to spinal levels containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating lower body blood flow, respond differently to electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve than RVLM neurons whose axons terminate rostral to T10. Contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of RVLM neurons were excited by vestibular stimulation, despite their level of projection in the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the RVLM is not solely responsible for establishing the patterning of vestibular-sympathetic responses. This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM.

  8. Blockade of Adrenal Medulla-Derived Epinephrine Potentiates Bee Venom-Induced Antinociception in the Mouse Formalin Test: Involvement of Peripheral β-Adrenoceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yun Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The injection of diluted bee venom (DBV into an acupoint has been used traditionally in eastern medicine to treat a variety of inflammatory chronic pain conditions. We have previously shown that DBV had a potent antinociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. However, the peripheral mechanisms underlying DBV-induced antinociception remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the role of peripheral epinephrine on the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect in the mouse formalin assay. Adrenalectomy significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of DBV during the late phase of the formalin test, while chemical sympathectomy had no effect. Intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine blocked this adrenalectomy-induced enhancement of the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Moreover, injection of a phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT inhibitor enhanced the DBV-induced antinociceptive effect. Administration of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists also significantly potentiated this DBV-induced antinociception, in a manner similar to adrenalectomy. These results demonstrate that the antinociceptive effect of DBV treatment can be significantly enhanced by modulation of adrenal medulla-derived epinephrine and this effect is mediated by peripheral β-adrenoceptors. Thus, DBV acupoint stimulation in combination with inhibition of peripheral β-adrenoceptors could be a potentially novel strategy for the management of inflammatory pain.

  9. Angiotensin II potentiates prostaglandin stimulation of cyclic AMP levels in intact bovine adrenal medulla cells but not adenylate cyclase in permeabilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, M R; Plevin, R; Marriott, D B

    1988-10-25

    The level of cyclic AMP in primary cultures of bovine adrenal medulla cells is elevated by prostaglandin E1. Angiotensin II is commonly reported to act on receptors linked to phosphoinositide metabolism or to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We have investigated the effect of angiotensin II on prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in these primary cultures. Rather than reducing cyclic AMP levels, we have found that angiotensin II powerfully potentiates prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, both in the presence and absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The 50% maximal response was similar to that for stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown by angiotensin II in these cultures. The potentiation of stimulated cyclic AMP levels was seen, although to a smaller maximum, with the protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) activating phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate and with the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol; pretreatment (24 h) with active phorbol ester, which would be expected to diminish protein kinase C levels, attenuated the angiotensin II potentiation of cyclic AMP. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells we showed that adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by prostaglandin E1 with the same dose-response relationship as was cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, but the permeabilized cells showed no response to angiotensin II. The results are discussed with respect to the hypothesis that the angiotensin II influence on cyclic AMP levels is mediated, in part, by diacylglycerol stimulation of protein kinase C.

  10. Plasma Catecholamines (CA) and Gene Expression of CA Biosynthetic Enzymes in Adrenal Medulla and Sympathetic Ganglia of Rats Exposed to Single or Repeated Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, J.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.; Kvetnansky, R.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in blood collected directly during a single or 8-times repeated centrifugation at hypergravity 4G, using remote controlled equipment. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge hypergravity-induced increase. After the last blood collection during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge decelerated and stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels showed none or small changes. Repeated exposure to hypergravity 4G (8 days for 60 min) eliminated the increase in plasma EPI levels at the 15 min interval but did not markedly affect plasma NE levels. To explain these findings we measured mRNA levels of CA biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the adrenal medulla (AM) and stellate ganglia (SG) of rats exposed to continuous hypergravity (2G) up to 6 days. In AM, TH, DBH and PNMT mRNA levels were significantly increased in intervals up to 3 days, however, after 6 day hypergravity exposure, no significant elevation was found. In SG, no significant changes in gene expression of CA enzymes were seen both after a single or repeated hypergravity. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary system, whereas the sympathoneural system is not significantly changed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that during repeated or continuous exposure of the organism to hypergravity the adrenomedullary system is adapted, whereas sympathoneural system is not affected.

  11. BLOCKADE OF ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA (RVLM BOMBESIN RECEPTOR TYPE 1 DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Silva De Jesus Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available IIntrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1 the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; (2 the contribution of RVLM bombesin type 1 receptors (BB1 to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg−1, i.v. were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP, diaphragm (DIA motor and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 mmHg and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05 and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 % and 84.5 ± 18.1 %, respectively; p < 0.05. In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7 %; p < 0.05. BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05 and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8 %; p < 0.05 in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6 %, respectively. These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR.

  12. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  13. Nontranscriptional activation of PI3K/Akt signaling mediates hypotensive effect following activation of estrogen receptor β in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kay LH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen acts on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, where sympathetic premotor neurons are located, to elicit vasodepressor effects via an estrogen receptor (ERβ-dependent mechanism. We investigated in the present study nontranscriptional mechanism on cardiovascular effects following activation of ERβ in the RVLM, and delineated the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/serine/threonine kinase (Akt signaling pathway in the effects. Methods In male Sprague–Dawley rats maintained under propofol anesthesia, changes in arterial pressure, heart rate and sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone were examined after microinjection bilaterally into RVLM of 17β-estradiol (E2β or a selective ERα or ERβ agonist. Involvement of ER subtypes and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the induced cardiovascular effects were studied using pharmacological tools of antagonists or inhibitors, gene manipulation with antisense oligonucleotide (ASON or adenovirus-mediated gene transfection. Results Similar to E2β (1 pmol, microinjection of ERβ agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 1, 2 or 5 pmol, into bilateral RVLM evoked dose-dependent hypotension and reduction in sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone. These vasodepressive effects of DPN (2 pmol were inhibited by ERβ antagonist, R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (50 pmol, ASON against ERβ mRNA (250 pmol, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (5 pmol, or Akt inhibitor (250 pmol, but not by ERα inhibitor, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (1 nmol, or transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D (5 or 10 nmol. Gene transfer by microinjection into bilateral RVLM of adenovirus encoding phosphatase and tensin homologues deleted on chromosome 10 (5 × 108 pfu reversed the vasodepressive effects of DPN. Conclusions Our results indicate that vasodepressive effects following activation of ERβ in RVLM are mediated by nongenomic activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study provides new insight in the

  14. Sumoylation of IkB attenuates NF-kB-induced nitrosative stress at rostral ventrolateral medulla and cardiovascular depression in experimental brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Yi; Li, Faith C H; Wu, Carol H Y; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H

    2016-09-22

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-kB, leading to nitrosative stress by the formation of peroxynitrite in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), underpins the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that precedes brain death. Based on an experimental endotoxemia model, this study evaluated the hypothesis that sumoylation plays a pro-life role in brain death by interacting with the NF-kB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling pathway in the RVLM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 mg kg -1 ) elicited an augmentation of SUMO-1 and ubiquitin-conjugase 9 (Ubc9) mRNA or protein levels, alongside SUMO-1-conjugated proteins in the RVLM. Immunoneutralization of SUMO-1 or Ubc9 in the RVLM significantly potentiated the already diminished sumoylation of IkBα and intensified NF-kB activation and NOS II/peroxynitrite expression in this brain stem substrate, together with exacerbated fatality, cardiovascular depression and reduction of an experimental index of a life-and-death signal detected from arterial pressure that disappears in comatose patients signifying failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation before brain death. We conclude that sumoylation of IkB in the RVLM ameliorates the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins brain death in our experimental endotoxemia modal by reducing nitrosative stress via inhibition of IkB degradation that diminishes the induction of the NF-kB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling cascade.

  15. Direct effects of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP on bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in neonatal wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Naoki; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Hidehito; Uchida, Takahiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Imakiire, Toshihiko; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2017-03-06

    Although patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often exhibit hypertension, the mechanisms responsible for this correlation are not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are affected by the levels of glucose, insulin, or incretins (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) in patients with DM. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are activated by glucose, insulin, GLP-1, or GIP, we examined changes in the membrane potentials of bulbospinal RVLM neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with various levels of glucose or these hormones in neonatal Wistar rats. A brainstem-spinal cord preparation was used for the experiments. A low level of glucose stimulated bulbospinal RVLM neurons. During insulin superfusion, almost all the RVLM neurons were depolarized, while during GLP-1 or GIP superfusion, almost all the RVLM neurons were hyperpolarized. Next, histological examinations were performed to examine transporters for glucose and receptors for insulin, GLP-1, and GIP on RVLM neurons. Low-level glucose-depolarized RVLM neurons exhibited the presence of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3). Meanwhile, insulin-depolarized, GLP-1-hyperpolarized, and GIP-hyperpolarized RVLM neurons showed each of the respective specific receptor. These results indicate that a low level of glucose stimulates bulbospinal RVLM neurons via specific transporters on these neurons, inducing hypertension. Furthermore, an increase in insulin or a reduction in incretins may also activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce hypertension by activating RVLM neurons via their own receptors. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Different Levels of Expression of the Clock Protein PER and the Glial Marker REPO in Ensheathing and Astrocyte-Like Glia of the Distal Medulla of Drosophila Optic Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Płonczyńska, Alicja; Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Circadian plasticity of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster depends on functioning of both the neuronal and glial oscillators. The clock function of the former is already quite well-recognized. The latter, however, is much less known and documented. In this study we focus on the glial oscillators that reside in the distal part of the second visual neuropil, medulla (dMnGl), in vicinity of the PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) releasing terminals of the circadian clock ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs). We reveal the heterogeneity of the dMnGl, which express the clock protein PERIOD (PER) and the pan-glial marker REVERSED POLARITY (REPO) at higher (P1) or lower (P2) levels. We show that the cells with stronger expression of PER display also stronger expression of REPO, and that the number of REPO-P1 cells is bigger during the day than during the night. Using a combination of genetic markers and immunofluorescent labeling with anti PER and REPO Abs, we have established that the P1 and P2 cells can be associated with two different types of the dMnGl, the ensheathing (EnGl), and the astrocyte-like glia (ALGl). Surprisingly, the EnGl belong to the P1 cells, whereas the ALGl, previously reported to play the main role in the circadian rhythms, display the characteristics of the P2 cells (express very low level of PER and low level of REPO). Next to the EnGl and ALGl we have also observed another type of cells in the distal medulla that express PER and REPO, although at very low levels. Based on their morphology we have identified them as the T1 interneurons. Our study reveals the complexity of the distal medulla circadian network, which appears to consist of different types of glial and neuronal peripheral clocks, displaying molecular oscillations of higher (EnGl) and lower (ALGl and T1) amplitudes.

  17. Atlantoaxial instability in Marfans syndrome. Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levander, B.; Mellstroem, A.; Grepe, A.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1981-01-01

    A case of Marfans syndrome is described in which progressive neurological signs and symptoms were produced by flexion of the head. Radiological examinations revealed hypermotility between the atlas and axis, as well as compression of the medulla oblongata by the odontoid process on flexion, since low positioned cerebellar tonsils prevented dorsal shift of the oblongata. The signs and symptoms disappeared after occipitocervical internal transfixation. (orig.)

  18. LOCUS-COERULEUS PROJECTIONS TO THE DORSAL MOTOR VAGUS NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; TOES, GJ; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the noradrenergic innervation of the preganglionic autonomic nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord is still controversial. In this investigation descending connections of the locus coeruleus to the dorsal motor vagus nucleus in the rat are studied with Phaseolus vulgaris

  19. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment: Noradrenaline levels and in vitro 3H-catecholamine synthesis in discrete brain regions of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, D.H.G.; Ree, J.M. van; Provoost, Abraham P.; Jong, Wybren de

    1974-01-01

    Endogenous noradrenaline levels are elevated in medulla oblongata, mesencephalon, pons and thalamus of adult rats which had been treated with 6-hydroxydopamine on days 1, 2, 8 and 15 after birth. Levels in spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus/amygdala and cortex are depressed, whereas no significant

  20. Pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the first report of pediatric brainstem oligodendroglioma, infiltrating midbrain, and medulla oblongata. The report details clinical features, radiological findings, and surgical steps. As this entity is exceedingly uncommon, the overall epidemiology, prognosis, and long-term outcome remain far from established.

  1. The Beautiful Brain: A Unit for Grades 5-9 with Further Explorations for Gifted and Talented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy

    The unit provides information on the study of the human brain for students in grades 5-9 with suggestions for extending the lessons for gifted and talented students. Learning activities are offered for ten lessons (sample subtopics in parentheses); introduction to the unit (student pretest and posttest); brain growth; medulla-oblongata-reptilian…

  2. Monosynaptic projections from the lateral periaqueductal gray to the nucleus retroambiguus in the rhesus monkey : Implications for vocalization and reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ; Holstege, G

    2000-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is known to be essential for vocalization and reproductive behavior. The PAG controls components of these behaviors by means of projections to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA), a group of premotor neurons in the caudal medulla oblongata. In the accompanying study

  3. Neurovascular Compression in Essential Hypertension: Cause, Consequence or Unrelated Finding?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ceral, J.; Žižka, J.; Eliáš, P.; Solař, M.; Klzo, L.; Reissigová, Jindra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2007), s. 179-181 ISSN 0950-9240 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA6169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : neurovascular compression * rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata * hypertension Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2007

  4. Pontine and medullary projections to the nucleus retroambiguus : A wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase and autoradiographic tracing study in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Holstege, Gert

    1996-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata plays a role in expiration, vocalization, vomiting, and possibly lordosis. The present study tried to determine which structures, in turn, control the NRA. One cell group is the periaqueductal gray (FAG), which is considered to be the

  5. NMR - finding in a case of Morquio's syndrome with syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treig, T.; Huk, W.; Nusslein, B.

    1987-01-01

    Acute or chronic cervical myelopathies are well known neurological complications of mucopolysaccharidoses This paper deals with a case of a mild form of Morquio's disease which appeared with syncope. NMR-imaging of the cranio-spinal region demonstrated a high intensity echo in the medulla oblongata before and after spinal decompression

  6. Afferent projections to pharynx and soft palate motoneurons : A light and electron microscopical tracing study in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J; Hulshoff, AC; De Weerd, H; Mouton, LJ; Kuipers, R; Holstege, G; Hulshoff, Antoinette C.

    2005-01-01

    Pharynx and soft palate are muscles for respiration, vocalization, swallowing, and vomiting. In cat, motoneurons innervating pharynx/soft palate are located in the dorsal group of the nucleus ambiguus (dgNA) in the medulla oblongata. In cat, dgNA is the only part of nucleus ambiguus that can be

  7. A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Angioma Presenting with Persistent Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Arami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntractable hiccup most be considered as a symptom of underlying serious pathologies. We report a case of medulla oblongata cavernous angima presented with persistant hiccup and without any improvement during routine nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimns. The patient is under our follow up visits and surgery is very high risk for this young girl.

  8. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  9. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (Machado-Joseph disease) : severe destruction of the lateral reticular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rub, U; de Vos, RAI; Schultz, C; Brunt, ER; Paulson, H; Braak, H

    The lateral reticular nucleus (LRT) of the medulla oblongata is a precerebellar nucleus involved in proprioception and somatomotor automatisms. We investigated this nucleus in five individuals with clinically diagnosed and genetically confirmed spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, Machado-Joseph

  10. The role of mesencephalic neurons in the interactions between the medullary respiratory center and other systems in the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jüch, Philippus Jacob Wolfgang

    1982-01-01

    De sturing van de ademhaling bij de karper wordt verzorgd door het primaire ademregelsysteem gelegen in de medulla oblongata. Het ademhalingsritme ontstaat onder invloed van input van de ademritmegenerator op de motoriek en wordt gemoduleerd door input van de perifere terugmelding van het

  11. Axonal sprouting of a brainstem-spinal pathway after estrogen administration in the adult female rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is located in the caudal medulla oblongata and contains premotor neurons that project to motoneuronal cell groups in the brainstem and spinal cord. NRA projections to the lumbosacral cord are species specific and might be involved in mating behavior. In the female

  12. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  13. Neurocysticercosis, unusual manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López-Valencia

    2016-07-01

    The case of a patient with an atypical location of the parasite at the medulla oblongata, between parenchymal and spinal areas, is presented. The initial symptoms were common but its subsequent manifestations were similar to those of Bruns syndrome. Furthermore, the epidemiological profile of neurocysticercosis in Colombia, its control measures and prevention strategies were reviewed in this study.

  14. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hattori, T.; Murakami, K.; Suemaru, S.; Kawada, Y.; Kageyama, J.; Ota, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of 125 I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR

  15. Brain cholinergic involvement during the rapid development of tolerance to morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Z. Z.; Oriaku, E. T.; Soliman, S. F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of morphine on the activities of the cholinergic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in specific brain regions were studied in rats treated with 10 mg/kg morphine for one or two days. Repeated administration of morphine was associated with a decline in the degree of analgesia produced and with a significant increase of AChE activity of the medulla oblongata. A single injection of morphine resulted in a significant decline in ChAT activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions. After two consecutive injections, no decline in ChAT was observed in these regions, while in the cerebral cortex the second administration elicited a significant decline. The results suggest that the development of tolerance to morphine may be mediated through changes in ChAT activity and lend support to the involvement of the central cholinergic system in narcotic tolerance.

  16. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  17. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  18. Distribution of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig central nervous system after intraventricular administration of precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukovsky, V.; Hage Ali, M.A.; Mezes, V.

    1982-01-01

    Within 20 minutes after administration into the right lateral ventricle, precursor balance is achieved in both cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum. A different course was observed in the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. Twenty minutes following administration of the precursor, the amount of radioactivity decreased in the following order of sequence: the right hemisphere, the brain stem, the cerebellum, the left hemisphere, the medulla oblongata, and the spinal cord. Of the total amount of phosphates in the acid-soluble fraction of the whole brain and cerebellum, inorganic phosphates constxtute 50%, and there are no differences between the two parts. 60 minutes after administration of the labelled phosphate, the specific activity of total phosphates in the acid-soluble fraction of the brain and cerebellum is higher than the specific activity of inorganic phosphates. (author)

  19. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  20. Evaluation of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by MRI. Determination of a normal range in signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images and evaluation of diffuse diseases of an organ by using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow, were evaluated by using signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in 1.5 T MR system in 203 persons, including 122 controls and 81 patients with a diffuse disease in the upper abdominal organ. In controls, though there was neither sexual nor age difference in signal intensity ratios of the liver and pancreas, those of the spleen and vertebral marrow showed sexual and age difference, respectively. A normal range of signal intensity ratio of each organ in each image was determined in each decade of each sex by using controls. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly low in T1- and T2-weighted images in patients with abundant iron deposit and within normal limits in patients with liver cirrhosis or scant iron deposit. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly high only in a T2-weighted image in patients with fatty deposit in the liver, which was suspected to be due to inflammatory change in the liver with fatty deposit. The signal intensity ratios of the spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow were significantly low only in a T2-weighted image in patients with iron metabolic disturbance. The signal intensity ratio of the pancreas was significantly high in 40% of patients with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, which was more sensitive in detection of pancreatitis than data in other studies. it can be concluded that the signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images is useful for detection of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by using the normal range in each decade of each sex. (S.Y.)

  1. Organisation and functional role of the brain angiotensin system

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Llorens-Cortes; Frederic AO Mendelsohn

    2002-01-01

    The discovery that all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are present in the brain led investigators to postulate the existence of a local brain RAS. Supporting this, angiotensin immunoreactive neurones have been visualised in the brain. Two major pathways were described: a forebrain pathway which connects circumventricular organs to the median preoptic nucleus, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, and a second pathway connecting the hypothalamus to the medulla oblongata. Bloo...

  2. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiao; Lv, Guangming; Wu, Huiqun; Ji, Dafeng; Sun, Zhou; Li, Yaofu; Tang, Lemin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the ...

  3. MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Jae Kwoeng; Kim, Chang Soo

    2001-01-01

    To describe MRI findings of multiple sclerosis involving the brainstem. Among 35 cases of clinically definite multiple sclerosis, the authors retrospectively analysed 20 in which the brainstem was involved. MR images were analysed with regard to involvement sites in the brainstem or other locations, signal intensity, multiplicity, shape, enhancement pattern, and contiguity of brainstem lesions with cisternal or ventricular CSF space. The brainstem was the only site of involvement in five cases (25%), while simultaneous involvement of the brainstem and other sites was observed in 15 cases (75%). No case involved only the midbrain or medulla oblongata, and simultaneous involvement of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata was noted in 12 cases (60%). The most frequently involved region of the brainstem was the medulla oblongata (n=13; 90%), followed by the pons (n=17; 85%) and the midbrain (n=16; 80%). Compared with normal white matter, brainstem lesions showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2 weighted, proton density weighted, and FLAIR images. In 17 cases (85%), multiple intensity was observed, and the shape of lesions varied: oval, round, elliptical, patchy, crescentic, confluent or amorphous were seen on axial MR images, and in 14 cases (82%), coronal or sagittal scanning showed that lesions were long and tubular. Contiguity between brainstem lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space was seen in all cases (100%) involving midbrain (16/16) and medulla oblongata (18/18) and in 15 of 17 (88%) involving the pons. Contrast enhancement was apparent in 7 of 12 cases (58%). In the brainstem, MRI demonstrated partial or total contiguity between lesions and cisternal or ventricular CSF space, and coronal or sagittal images showed that lesions were long and tubuler

  4. Babinski-Nageotte Syndrome Diagnosed in Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Oruç

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Babinski-Nageotte Syndrome (BNS is one of the brainstem syndromes characterized by muscle weakness in the opposite half of the body with classic Wallenberg findings. According to our literature survey, only a few cases have been reported and none of them was in the postpartum period. We report a case of a typical BNS in a postpartum woman with an ischemic lesion in the medulla oblongata shown on magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Delayed radiation injury of brain stem after radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yunli; Liu Yingxin; Xie Dong; Su Danke; Chen Mingzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, MRI findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic factors of patients with radiation induced brain stem injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1991 to January 2001, 24 patients with radiation injury of brain stem were treated, 14 males and 10 females. The latency ranged from 6 to 38 months, with a median of 18 months. The lesions were located in the pons in 10 patients, mesencephalon + pons in 4, pons + medulla oblongata in 5, medulla oblongata in 2 and mesencephalon + pons + medulla oblongata in 3. MRI findings showed that the injury was chiefly presented as hypointensity foci on T 1 WI and hyperintensity foci on T 2 WI. Results: Eighteen patients were treated with dexamethasone in the early phase, with symptoms relieved in 12 patients but unimproved in 6 patients. Eight 44% patients died within the 8-38 months, leaving 16 patients surviving for 0.5 to 6.0 years. Conclusions: Radiation injury of brain stem has a short latency with severe symptoms, signifying poor prognosis. It is suggested that adequate reduction of irradiation volume and dose at the brain stem should be able to lower the incidence of brain stem injury

  6. Preconditioning with subneurotoxic allyl nitrile: protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, H; Higashi, T; Saijoh, K

    2010-02-01

    High-dose cruciferous allyl nitrile can induce behavioral abnormalities in rodents, while repeated exposure to allyl nitrile at subneurotoxic levels can increase phase 2 detoxification enzymes in many tissues, although the brain has not been investigated yet. In the present study, we examined the effect of 5 days repeated exposure to subneurotoxic allyl nitrile (0-400 micromol/kg/day) on the brain. Elevated glutathione S-transferase activity was recorded in the striatum, hippocampus, medulla oblongata plus pons, and cortex. Enhancement of quinone reductase activity was observed in the medulla oblongata plus pons, hippocampus, and cortex. In the medulla oblongata plus pons, elevated glutathione levels were recorded. Following repeated subneurotoxic allyl nitrile exposure (0-400 micromol/kg/day), mice were administered a high-dose allyl nitrile (1.2 mmol/kg) which alone led to appearance of behavioral abnormalities. Compared with the 0 micromol/kg/day group, animals in the 200 and 400 micromol/kg/day pre-treatment groups exhibited decreased behavioral abnormalities and elevated GABA-positive cell counts in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the interpeduncular nucleus. These data suggest that repeated exposure to subneurotoxic levels of allyl nitrile can induce phase 2 enzymes in the brain, which together with induction in other tissues, may contribute to protection against allyl nitrile neurotoxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  8. Effect of thermal stress and water deprivation on the acetylcholinesterase activity of the pig brain and hypophyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, D. O.; Egbunike, G. N.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of direct exposure of boars to thermal stress for 1 h daily for 5 days and to acute water deprivation for 24 or 48 h were studied on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of porcine brain and hypophysial regions. Mean ambient temperatures, respiratory rates and rectal temperatures in the open were significantly higher than inside the pen. Heat stress induced a rise in AChE activities in the pons, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, mid-brain and medulla oblongata. However, no significant changes were observed in the cerebral cortex, adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. Water deprivation significantly ( Pmedulla oblongata were comparable to the amygdala in this respect. The adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis were relatively unaffected.

  9. Assesment of Osteoporosis in Medulla Spinalis Injured Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Bayırlı Karakoyun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship between osteoporosis and demographic features, clinical characteristics,risk factors in younger SCI patients. Materials and Methods: Between January-June 2009, all SCI patients admitted to our hospital evaluated and 58 patients who were younger than 50 years who had osteoporosis were enrolled.Patients age, gender, educational status, duration of injury, smoking, sunlight exposure and dietary habits were questioned. Neurological level, completeness, ambulation status and spasticity were assessed. Relationship between these findings with the severity of osteoporosis has been viewed. Results: There were 19 women. Mean age was 35,7 years. The mean time since injury were 117.7 months. 42 patients were paraplegia (17 complete, 16 were tetraplegia (4 complete.The most common osteoporotic site where the legs. There was no correlation between BMD values with age. In men, the legs and total body BMD were significantly lower.The effect of educational level on BMD was not found. No significant correlation was found between time since injury and BMD. In paraplegics, femoral neck and total femur Z-scores were significantly lower. In tetraplegics, Z scores of the arms were lower, but was not significant. Lumbar BMD values of complete patients were significantly lower than incompletes. Sunlight exposure and consumption of milk/milk products had not a significant positive effect on BMD. 8 patients had therapeutic ambulation, whereas 23 of them had community ambulation. Ambulation status of patients and the presence of spasticity was no effect on BMD. There was no significant correlation between BMD and the severity of spasticity. Smokers (n=19, bone density was lower in all regions except for femoral neck but were not significantly. Conclusion: Male gender, paraplegia, and incompleteness negatively effects the bone density. Age, time since injury, education level, spasticity, ambulation level, smoking, sunlight exposure and dietary habits has no significant effect on bone density. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:71-6

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute brain stem infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narisawa, Aya; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides one of the earliest demonstrations of ischemic lesions. However some lesions may be missed in the acute stage due to technical limitation of DWI. We therefore conducted the study to clarify the sensitivity of DWI to acute brain stem infarctions. Twenty-eight patients with the final diagnosis of brain stem infarction (midbrain 2, pons 9, medulla oblongata 17) who had been examined by DWI within 24 hours of onset were retrospectively analyzed for how sensitively the initial DWI demonstrated the final ischemic lesion. Only obvious (distinguishable with DWI alone without referring clinical symptoms and other informations) hyperintensity on DWI was regarded to show an ischemic lesion. Sixteen (57.1%) out of 28 patients had brain stem infarctions demonstrated by initial DWI. In the remaining 12 cases, no obvious ischemic lesion was evident on initial DWI. Subsequent MRI studies obtained 127 hours, on average after the onset showed infarction in the medulla oblongate in 11 cases and in the pons in one case. Negative findings of DWI in the acute stage does not exclude possibility of the brain stem infarction, in particularly medulla oblongata infarction. (author)

  11. Surgical treatment of lesions in and around the fourth ventricle. Part 3: special reference to pre-surgical anatomical MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Toshio; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Mihara, Futoshi; Fukui, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    MR images are presented to demonstrate how clearly and how much of the structures of the fourth ventricle can be shown. It then is stressed how useful the information obtained from the MR images can be in planning a surgical approach and determining preoperative prospects of the actual surgery. The information includes the location, extension, and original structure of the mass lesion and its infiltration into surrounding tissues. The MR midline sagittal view image showing the tent-like shape and components of the fourth ventricle can demonstrate whether the lesion originates from the roof or the floor of the ventricle, and how far it extends rostrally or caudally. The axial views at the levels of the medulla oblongata and the pons show a fourth ventricle of completely different shape. The former shows the ventricle in the shape of a slit and the latter in the shape of a pentagon. At the level of the medulla oblongata, the tela choroidea with the choroid plexus is seen as a membranous structure just posterior to the medulla oblongata. The space between the two structures is the ventricular space. Because the enhanced MRI clearly demonstrates the choroid plexus in the lateral recess, the cerebellomedullary fissure can be identified. In this view, the lateral extension of a lesion to the cerebellopontine cistern through the cerebellomedullary fissure or the lateral recess easily can be identified. In the coronal views, the floor and the roof of the ventricle appear on different slices. They clearly show the diamond-shaped floor, three cerebellar peduncles, and the lateral recesses. The striae medullares transversely course in the widest area of the floor at the level of the pontomedullary junction, and the lateral recess extends laterally from the widest area. These views demonstrate the lateral and/or inferior extension of a lesion. (author)

  12. Diffuse and focal presentations of brainstem tumors in children: the images and the prognostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Canete, A.; Romero, M. J.; Trilles, L.; Carvajal, E.; Marti-Bonmati, L.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether the presentation of brainstem tumors as diffuse or focal lesions showed any prognostic value in children. A retrospective review was carried out of the neuroradiological findings in 43 children with brainstem tumors, all of whom underwent computed tomography (CT) and 31 of whom underwent magnetic resonance (MR). The diffuse tumors (n=20) were all located in the pons, spreading to mesencephalon in 6 cases and to medulla oblongata in 1, and exhibiting exophytic growth, preferentially to the prepontine cistern. They presented homogeneous low attenuation in CT (90%) and decrease/increased signal intensity in T1/T2-weighted MR images (91.6%). Contrast uptake was observed in 20% of cases, with agreement between CT and MR. The patients showed a good initial response to treatment (70%), a high rate of relapse (80%) and a 5-year survival of 12%. The focal tumors were located in the pons (11 cases, spreading to the medulla oblongata in 2), mesencephalon (11 cases, 9 tectal and 2 peduncular) and medulla oblongata (1 case), and exhibited exophytic growth predominantly to the pontocerebellar junction and to the cerebellar peduncles. They showed a certain tendency toward heterogeneity (21.7%), toward isoattenuation in CT (47.8%) and isointensity in T1-weighted MR images (26.3%). CT showed a rate of tumor uptake of 26%, while the rate of contrast iptake was 58% MR. Fifty percent of these lesions responded well to therapy, with a recurrence rate of 28% and 4-year survival of 63%. Neuroimaging helps to define two basic patterns in brainstem tumors that play a role in prognosis. The diffuse tumor, which characteristically shows a good initial response to therapy, has a worse prognosis, probably reflecting its histological aggressiveness. (Author) 21 refs

  13. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  14. Diffuse and focal presentations of brainstem tumors in children: the images and the prognostic value; Presentacion difusa o focal de los tumores troncoencefalicos en los ninos: imagen y valor pronostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menor, F.; Canete, A.; Romero, M. J.; Trilles, L.; Carvajal, E. [Hospital Universitario La Fe. Valencia (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To determine whether the presentation of brainstem tumors as diffuse or focal lesions showed any prognostic value in children. A retrospective review was carried out of the neuroradiological findings in 43 children with brainstem tumors, all of whom underwent computed tomography (CT) and 31 of whom underwent magnetic resonance (MR). The diffuse tumors (n=20) were all located in the pons, spreading to mesencephalon in 6 cases and to medulla oblongata in 1, and exhibiting exophytic growth, preferentially to the prepontine cistern. They presented homogeneous low attenuation in CT (90%) and decrease/increased signal intensity in T1/T2-weighted MR images (91.6%). Contrast uptake was observed in 20% of cases, with agreement between CT and MR. The patients showed a good initial response to treatment (70%), a high rate of relapse (80%) and a 5-year survival of 12%. The focal tumors were located in the pons (11 cases, spreading to the medulla oblongata in 2), mesencephalon (11 cases, 9 tectal and 2 peduncular) and medulla oblongata (1 case), and exhibited exophytic growth predominantly to the pontocerebellar junction and to the cerebellar peduncles. They showed a certain tendency toward heterogeneity (21.7%), toward isoattenuation in CT (47.8%) and isointensity in T1-weighted MR images (26.3%). CT showed a rate of tumor uptake of 26%, while the rate of contrast iptake was 58% MR. Fifty percent of these lesions responded well to therapy, with a recurrence rate of 28% and 4-year survival of 63%. Neuroimaging helps to define two basic patterns in brainstem tumors that play a role in prognosis. The diffuse tumor, which characteristically shows a good initial response to therapy, has a worse prognosis, probably reflecting its histological aggressiveness. (Author) 21 refs.

  15. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to basilar impression: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurus Marques de Almeida Holanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of trigeminal neuralgia. A 23-year-old woman with a history of 1 year of typical trigeminal neuralgia manifested the characteristics of basilar impression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated basilar impression, deformity of the posterior fossa with asymmetry of petrous bone, and compression of medulla oblongata in the topography of the odontoid apophysis. The operation was performed through a suboccipital craniectomy. The neuralgia disappeared after surgery and remains completely resolved until today. This is the second reported case of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with basilar impression in Brazil.

  16. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorigados, C.A.B.; Pinto, A.C.B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  17. Functional stability of cerebral circulatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Y. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The functional stability of the cerebral circulation system seems to be based on the active mechanisms and on those stemming from specific of the biophysical structure of the system under study. This latter parameter has some relevant criteria for its quantitative estimation. The data obtained suggest that the essential part of the mechanism for active responses of cerebral vessels which maintains the functional stability of this portion of the vascular system, consists of a neurogenic component involving central nervous structures localized, for instance, in the medulla oblongata.

  18. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  19. Membranous nephropathy with Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangling; Wang, YanQiang

    2017-07-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) accompanying Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has rarely been described previously. We recently presented a 45-year-old Chinese male presenting with recurrent lower extremity pitting edema, or eyelid edema, proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. especially intractable hiccup and vomiting, painful tonic spasm (PTS) as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating disorder of central nervous system. The kindey biopsy specimen showed MN stage 2. Serological testing revealed antibodies AQP4, MRI head and spine revealed medulla oblongata and C1-C2 cervical vertebra lesions. Treatment with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine resulted in consistent clinical improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arnold-Chiari Type II Malformation: A Case Report and Review of Prenatal Sonographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nik Nejadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arnold-Chiari malformation is a congenital abnormality of CNS, characterized by downwarddisplacement the parts of the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, pons and medulla oblongata into thespinal canal. This malformation is one of causative factor of death in neonates and infants. Athorough understanding of the direct and indirect sonographic findings is necessary for diagnosis ofChiari II malformation in the developing fetus.In this case report, we present a Chiari malformation II detected at 23 weeks of gestation by routinelysonographic screening. The Role of prenatal sonography in recognition of the malformation andprognostic value of these features are discussed.

  1. Presence of melatonin in various cat brainstem nuclei determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallanon, M.; Touret, M.; Claustrat, B.

    1982-01-01

    Microdissected samples of juvenile cat brain tissue were assayed for melatonin content using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Immunoreactive melatonin was consistently detected, albeit in variable amounts, in pineal, habenula, the region of the nucleus gracilis, gigantocellular reticular formation of the pons and medulla oblongata. Among the negative areas were raphe nuclei, substantia nigra dn locus caeruleus. These findings suggest that melatonin may play a role in some structures of the central nervous system outside the pineal-hypothalamo-pituitary axis. This immunoreactive melatonin could reflect a local synthesis, or a tissular uptake of melatonin from blood or cerebrospinal fluid. (author)

  2. Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation; Tomografia computadorizada do encefalo do cao: aspectos da normalidade e correlacao anatomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, C.A.B., E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (UniFMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C.B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2013-06-15

    Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification. (author)

  3. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  4. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1984-01-01

    Paraffin sections of brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri were immunostained with an antiserum to FMRF-amide. Immunoreactivity was visible in a large number of neurons in the posterior part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in long neuronal processes extending cranially from...... the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material...

  5. The spinal cord: a review of functional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bican, Orhan; Minagar, Alireza; Pruitt, Amy A

    2013-02-01

    The spinal cord controls the voluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs and receives sensory input from these areas. It extends from the medulla oblongata to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra. A basic knowledge of spinal cord anatomy is essential for interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms and for understanding of pathologic processes involving the spinal cord. In this article, anatomic structures are correlated with relevant clinical signs and symptoms and a step-wise approach to spinal cord diagnosis is outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of the insecticide 14 C-fen valerate and its effect on protein and amino acid content in different brain areas of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Intragastric administration of fenvalerate (45 mg/kg) to male rats induced symptoms associated with gamma-cyano pyrethroids (type II syndrome). Fenvalerate crossed blood brain barrier and reached different brain areas. The highest concentration of fenvalerate was found in striatum (18.7+2.5 Mou/g) followed by pons + medulla oblongata (10.4+ 0.91Moug/g) after 24 h of the insecticide administration. A decrease in the protein content in different brain areas was recorded at 24 h. However, it was observed that there was a tendency for the protein level to recover at 48 h although it was still lower than corresponding controlgroup. Excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids, glutamic and aspartic, in the pons + medulla oblongata showed a prominent decrease (-9.9 and 7.0%, respectively). Inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acids, glycine and alanine, showed a slight decrease. On the other hand, the amino acids in the striatum revealed fluctuating changes. Amino acids acting as a precursor of neurotransmitter were also affected in the selected brain areas. The data obtained revealed that fenvalerate caused subtle disruption in the integrity of the CNS and there is a possibility that such disruption might result in physiological and behavioural alteration which may affect the organism ability to interact with environment

  7. MRI findings of neurologic complications in the enterovirus 71-infected hand-foot-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Li Jianjun; Liu Tao; Xiang Wei; Wen Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the imaging characteristics of neurologic complications associated with the enterovirus 71 (EV71) epidemic by analyzing 25 cases and reviewing the literature. Methods: Twenty-five cases of hand-foot-mouth disease with neurologic complications during the recent EV71 outbreaks of Hainan province were studied for the clinical features and imaging findings, and literature were reviewed. Results: In 5 cases, acute flaccid paralysis associated with EV71-infected hand-foot-mouth disease was related to the linear high signal in the spinal cord on sagittal images. Two cases showed symmetrical, well- defined hyperintense lesions in the spinal cord on T 2 WI transverse. Strong enhancement of the ventral horns and root was seen on the contrast-enhanced axial T 1 WI. In brainstem encephalitis, all lesions presented with significant hyperintensity on T 2 WI and hypointense on T 1 WI in the posterior portions of the medulla oblongata, midbrain, and pons. The manifestations of aseptic meningitis (AM) on MRI have no characteristics, but subdural effusion, meningeal enhancement and hydrocephalus can be the indirect signs of AM. Conclusions: MRI is an effective method to investigate neurologic complications associated with the EV71 epidemic. Posterior portions of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral ventral horns of spinal involvement are characteristic findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis. (authors)

  8. Mechanical characterization of the P56 mouse brain under large-deformation dynamic indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManus, David B.; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G.; Gilchrist, Michael D.

    2016-02-01

    The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties, which may be attributed to the diversity of cells and anisotropy of neuronal fibers within individual brain regions. The regional dynamic mechanical properties of P56 mouse brain tissue in vitro and in situ at velocities of 0.71-4.28 mm/s, up to a deformation of 70 μm are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury. The experimental data obtained from micro-indentation measurements were fit to three hyperelastic material models using the inverse Finite Element method. The cerebral cortex elicited a stiffer response than the cerebellum, thalamus, and medulla oblongata regions for all velocities. The thalamus was found to be the least sensitive to changes in velocity, and the medulla oblongata was most compliant. The results show that different regions of the mouse brain possess significantly different mechanical properties, and a significant difference also exists between the in vitro and in situ brain.

  9. Central respiratory and circulatory effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borison, Herbert L.; Ellis, Sydney; McCarthy, Lawrence E.

    1980-01-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, observations were made on respiration, spontaneous and evoked diaphragmatic electromyograms, blood pressure, heart rate, indirectly-induced contractions of the anterior tibialis muscle and nictitating membrane, and electrical excitability of the inspiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. 2 Gymnodinium breve toxin (GBTX) was administered intravenously, intra-arterially to the brain, and intracerebroventricularly. Physiological effects were recorded while alveolar PCO2 was controlled at a constant level except when changes in gas tension were made in order to measure CO2-ventilatory responsiveness. 3 Adequate doses of GBTX given intravenously by bolus injection elicited a non-tachyphylactic reflex response triad of apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia mediated by the vagus nerves independently of arterial baroreceptor and chemoreceptor innervation. 4 After vagotomy, additional amounts of GBTX (i.v.) resulted in apneustic breathing, hypertension and tachycardia. The cardiovascular effects were abolished by ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium. 5 Smaller doses of GBTX were required intra-arterially and intracerebroventricularly than by the intravenous route of injection to produce respiratory irregularity and cardiovascular hyperactivity. 6 Evoked motor responses, electrical excitability of the medulla oblongata and CO2-ventilatory responsiveness were largely spared even though GBTX caused marked disturbances in respiratory rhythmicity and cardiovascular functions. 7 It is concluded that GBTX acts reflexly on vagally innervated receptors to evoke a Bezold-Jarisch effect but that the toxin further acts centrally to cause irregular breathholding and hypertension with tachycardia, leading ultimately to respiratory and circulatory failure. PMID:7191740

  10. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  11. Kinetics of 137cesium in cerebral structures and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribas, B.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Rio, J. del; Reus, M.I.S.; Gonzalez-Baron, M.

    1987-01-01

    The old clinical use of cesium in epilepsy expresses a relation of this metal with the central nervous system. Two groups of male Wistar rats of 200 g were administered single doses of 50μCi intravenously for blood kinetics and 2μCi 137 CsCl in each lateral ventricle of the brain for the kinetics in the cerebral structures, respectively. In both cases under ether anesthesia. Blood samples of IV gouts were weighed, and cerebral structure hypothalamus, hypocampus, striatum, cortex, cerebellum, mesencephalon and medulla oblongata dissected, cleaned, washed, dried, weighed, and in both cases cpm of the samples evaluated submitting it to the gamma radiations detector. In both experimental values of the 137 CsCl kinetics are expressed and applying the retroprojection method; parameters and constants are obtained. tsub(1/2) alpha = 0.0358 h and tsub(1/2) beta = 6.7159 h. In tables the equations of the alpha and beta phases are expressed. In blood after the rapid diminution of the radioactivity in the first 5 min the equilibrium phase is reached in 30 min afterwards, and the values remain almost the same 4 h after the injection and cesium is slowly eliminated by the rat. Cerebral structures after its intracerebroventricular application show that cesium has a great uptake velocity, it is rapidly incorporated by hypothalamus and after by cortex, hypocampus, striatum, mesencephalon and medulla oblongata, the two last showing the slower incorporation. After 24 h the cesium radioactivity declines slowly and progressively. (author)

  12. The mediator-modulator brain system in minks exposed to radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishunina, T.M.; Kalinskaya, L.N.; Pil'kevich, L.I.; Kononenko, V.Ya.; Ryasenko, V.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the activity of the important metabolizing mediators/modulators of the central nervous system: adenosine, angiotensin and GABA as well as specific bonding of 14 C-GABA by synaptic membranes of brain structures in minks who were in the 10-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP from 0.5 months to 3 years. Adenosine deaminase, angiotensin converting enzyme and glutamate decarboxylase activities endured significant changes in the hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral, cortex, medulla oblongata and midbrain of minks; the direction and the extent of manifestation of those changes depend on the term of animals' stay in the zone. The GABA reception in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata increased significantly and progressively with the prolongation of exposure to radiation. It is concluded that the variety of changes, their regional-specificity and dependence on exposure of animals to the radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone may induce development of serious complications not only in nervous but in some other systems

  13. Serial changes of magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kimiya; Sekimoto, Yoichi; Koike, Yasuo; Takahashi, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Serial changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) were demonstrated. Two inpatients of MS were followed-up for 8 and 5 months respectively. The first case was a 38-year-old housewife with lesions in upper cervical cord, medulla oblongata and visual nerve. The second case was a 45-year-old man with middle thracic spinal cord and brain stem lesions. Both cases were successfully induced into the remission by peroral prednisolone therapy. In the first case, in early stage of the disease, low signal (in IR method) and high signal (in T 2 -weighted SE method) intensities with enlarged lower dorsal medulla were demonstrated. The second MRI in this case specially in horizontal sections revealed round high intensity lesions (in T 2 -weighted SE) with clear margins, which appeared to push away the normal spinal cord tissue. In the third MRI, T 2 weighted SE revealed localized narrowing in C 2 and C 3 cervical cord, and even no signal lesions in IR method were shown in the central of the spinal cord. The forth and fifth MRI, however, showed almost normally recovered spinal cord and medulla oblongata. In the second case, the first MRI revealed high intensity lesions in the middle thracic spinal cord in T 2 weight SE, and moreover, the spinal cord looked very enlarged. In IR method, localized patchy low intensity lesions were seen in the enlarged spinal cord, but in this case, the MRI demonstrated that localized patchy high intensity lesions without cord swelling in SE remained long after the clinically complete recovery of the disease. (author)

  14. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist

  15. Evaluation of left-right asymmetry of pyramidal tracts in preterm neonates by diffusion tensor imaging and tractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Tractography (DTT) is a new noninvasive brain imaging technique to detect the neural tract and is expected to be instrumental in diagnosing diseases with white matter involvement. Assessing the pyramidal tract with DTT will be useful in diagnosing motor dysfunction. However, the pyramidal tract (PT) has not been fully investigated with this technique especially in neonates. The aim of this study is to clarify the normal characteristics, especially the latevility, of the PT in healthy neonates. Fourteen preterm neonates were examined with DTT before being discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Free software dTV and Volume-One were used to depict the PT and analyze the fractional anisotrophy (FA) value, a parameter used in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In the beginning, the FA at the medulla oblongata as the initial region of interest was determined to be 0.18 or more to depict the PT by DTT. The FA values at the level of the posterior limb of the Internal Capsule (IC), the Corona Radiate (CR), and the Centrum Semiovale (CS) of the depicted PT were measured and compared with the contralateral. The upper limit of the level of the FA at the medulla oblongata value capable of depicting the PT was measured and compared with the contralateral. All data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate significant difference. The FA value of the left CS was higher than that of the right in all 14 cases, and the FA value of the left CA was higher than that of the right in 13 cases. The upper limit of the FA value of the medulla oblongata as the initial region of interest to depict the left side of the PT was higher than for the right side of the PT in all 14 cases. We clarified the laterality of the PT in healthy neonates using DTT. This laterality must be taken into consideration when involvement of the PT is diagnosed using this technique. (author)

  16. Alexander disease as a cause of nocturnal vomiting in a 7-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Haataja, Leena; Brander, Antti; Valanne, Leena; Blaser, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Alexander disease is a rare form of leukodystrophy with a highly variable clinical course. Occasionally night-time nausea and vomiting are the first symptoms of juvenile Alexander disease. A 7-year-old girl had recurrent night-time vomiting and her growth and weight gain had deteriorated after her sixth birthday. Cranial MRI demonstrated two small, symmetrical focal areas of abnormally high signal intensity in the dorsal medulla oblongata on T2-W and FLAIR images. These were suggestive of juvenile Alexander disease, and subsequent sequencing of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene revealed a heterogeneous missense mutation in the GFAP gene in exon 6. Alexander disease should be considered in young patients with atypical anorexia nervosa-type symptoms. (orig.)

  17. The progestin etonogestrel enhances the respiratory response to metabolic acidosis in newborn rats. Evidence for a mechanism involving supramedullary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Camille; Osinski, Diane; Joubert, Fanny; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Central congenital hypoventilation syndrome is a neuro-respiratory disease characterized by the dysfunction of the CO2/H(+) chemosensitive neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group. A recovery of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity has been observed in some central congenital hypoventilation syndrome patients coincidental with contraceptive treatment by a potent progestin, desogestrel (Straus et al., 2010). The mechanisms of this progestin effect remain unknown, although structures of medulla oblongata, midbrain or diencephalon are known to be targets for progesterone. In the present study, on ex vivo preparations of central nervous system of newborn rats, we show that acute exposure to etonogestrel (active metabolite of desogestrel) enhanced the increased respiratory frequency induced by metabolic acidosis via a mechanism involving supramedullary structures located in pontine, mesencephalic or diencephalic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pilot study on the distribution of 14C-labeled methaqualone in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; DeBernardo, E.; Krisko, I.

    1978-01-01

    Methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone) is a hypnotic/sedative, chemically unrelated to other groups of sleep-inducing drugs or major tranquilizers. Measurements have been made of the distribution of radioactive methaqualone in the rat brain up to 24 h after oral administration of the drug. Peak tissue concentrations were found 3 h after intubation. The highest concentrations appeared in the optic chiasm, pituitary gland, and reticular formation of the medulla oblongata. Serum concentrations were approximately one order of magnitude higher than those found in the brain. An apparently inert metabolite was found at 24 h in concentrations which were double those of the peak tissue levels of the compound, both in the brain and in the sera. (U.K.)

  19. Lateral medullary infarction with ipsilateral hemiparesis, lemniscal sensation loss and hypoglossal nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuzhou

    2014-04-01

    Here, we present a rare case of a lateral medullary infarction with ipsilateral hemiparesis, lemniscal sensation loss and hypoglossal nerve palsy. In this case, we proved Opalski's hypothesis by diffusion tensor tractography that ipsilateral hemiparesis in a medullary infarction is due to the involvement of the decussated corticospinal tract. We found that the clinical triad of ipsilateral hemiparesis, lemniscal sensation loss and hypoglossal nerve palsy, which had been regarded as a variant of medial medullary syndrome, turned out to be caused by lateral lower medullary infarction. Therefore, this clinical triad does not imply the involvement of the anteromedial part of medulla oblongata, when it is hard to distinguish a massive lateral medullary infarction from a hemimedullary infarction merely from MR images. At last, we suggest that hyperreflexia and Babinski's sign may not be indispensable to the diagnosis of Opalski's syndrome and we propose that "hemimedullary infarction with ipsilateral hemiparesis" is intrinsically a variant of lateral medullary infarction.

  20. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistency of the current classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages is discussed in the article. The author explains divergence of including of the subependymal (1st stage and intracerebral (4th stage hemorrhages into this classification. A new classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages including their origin, phases and stages is offered. The most common origin of intraventricular hemorrhages is subependymal hemorrhage (82,2%. Two phases of hemorrhage were distinguished: bleeding phase and resorption phase. Stages of intraventricular hemorrhages reflecting the blood movement after the onset of bleeding are the following: 1 — infill of the up to ½ of the lateral ventricles without their enlargement; 2 — infill of more than ½ of the lateral ventricles with their enlargement; 3 — infill of the IV ventricle, of the cerebellomedullary cistern and its dislocation into the subarachnoid space of the cerebellum, pons varolii, medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

  1. Early trigeminal nerve involvement in Listeria monocytogenes rhombencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Roed, Casper

    2017-01-01

    dysfunction on that side. In addition, we identified another 120 cases of Listeria rhombencephalitis following a systematic review. Cranial nerves VII, V, IX, and X, respectively, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and pons, were the most frequently involved brain structures. The present clinical and radiological...... findings corroborate earlier data from animal experiments, indicating that L. monocytogenes may be capable of retrograde intra-axonal migration along the cranial nerves. We suggest that in a subset of patients with rhombencephalitis L. monocytogenes enters the cerebellopontine angle through the trigeminal......Listeria monocytogenes is associated with rhombencephalitis. However, the exact mechanisms of brainstem invasion remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate clinical and radiological data suggesting that Listeria may invade the brainstem via the trigeminal nerve. Three females (41, 64 and 70...

  2. MRI findings in an infant with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto; Santos Torres, Ulysses dos; Portela de Oliveira, Eduardo; Soares Souza, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Although acute flaccid paralysis is a manifestation observed in several neurologic and muscular disorders, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an exceedingly rare etiology. In the clinical setting of acute flaccid paralysis, MRI is useful in differentiating between VAPP and other conditions. Additionally, MRI can assess the extent of lesions. However, reports on MRI findings in VAPP are scarce in the pediatric radiology literature. We report a Brazilian infant who developed VAPP 40 days after receiving the first dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). MR images of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed lesions involving the anterior horn cell, with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. We would like to emphasize the importance of considering VAPP as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute flaccid paralysis and an MRI showing involvement of medulla oblongata or spinal cord, particularly in countries where OPV is extensively administered. (orig.)

  3. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of primary intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.T.; Park, C.; Yoo, J.H.; Gu, S.H.; Jang, D.P.; Kim, Y.B.; Woo, E.J.; Kim, D.Y.; Cho, Z.H.; Park, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year-old, neutered male, Maltese dog presented with a three week history of intention tremor, right hind limb rigidity, poor coordination, and occasional circling to the left. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, a mass was identified in the right occipital lobe and cerebellum. Three weeks after the initial MRI scan, we performed an sup(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of the brain. The FDG-PET demonstrated areas of hypermetabolism in the right occipital lobe, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. When the standardized uptake value was calculated, the hypermetabolic lesion was higher than the gray matter values. The anatomical location of the hypermetabolic lesion was more precisely identified by the PET-MRI fusion images. The dog was definitively diagnosed as a primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain. This is the first report of PET findings of an intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

  4. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy limited to the brain stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, O.; Maschke, M.; Diener, H.C. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik, University of Essen (Germany); Wanke, I. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a subacute demyelinating slow-virus encephalitis caused by the JC polyomavirus in 2-5% of patients with AIDS. MRI typically shows multiple lesions in the cerebral hemispheres. We present a rare case of rapidly evolving and lethal PML with a severe bulbar syndrome and spastic tetraparesis in a patient with AIDS. MRI showed high-signal lesions on T2-weighted images confined to the brain stem, extending from the medulla oblongata to the midbrain. JC virus polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid was positive, and neuropathology showed the findings of PML. This case was also notable because of the rapid progression despite improved immune status with antiretroviral therapy. (orig.)

  5. The Pathology of Wobbly Hedgehog Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Whitley, Derick B; Storts, Ralph W; Heatley, Jill J; Hoppes, Sharman; Porter, Brian F

    2018-01-01

    Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis. Lesions were most severe in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata, as well as cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Less affected areas were the corona radiata, corpus callosum, corpus striatum, internal capsule, and the mesencephalon. Ultrastructurally, the lesions consisted of splitting of the myelin sheath at the intraperiod line with subsequent focal expansion, resulting in status spongiosus, disruption, dilatation, rhexis, and phagocytosis. Based on these results, WHS is best described as a "spongy myelinopathy" with widespread central nervous system involvement.

  6. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  7. Approach to the irradiation of extensive cervical and upper thoracic spinal astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, E.

    1981-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord tumors are relatively rare, especially to the extent presented in this report. A 31-year-old woman had been diagnosed as having an inoperable astrocytoma, grade I-II, involving the entire cervical spinal cord and two upper thoracic segments. After decompressive laminectomy, she was referred for a radical course of radiation therapy. An irradiation technique was devised which allowed treatment of a single cylindrical volume of tissue encompassing the known tumor. Field fractionation with undesirable gaps and/or excessive dose to overlying normal structures was avoided. To the cervical spinal cord she received 5590 cGy in 29 fractions over 42 days. By this schedule she received at the same time 4820 cGy to the medulla oblongata and 4880 cGy to the upper thoracic cord. Partial neurological improvement occurred at the end of the treatment. The treatment approach is discussed in the background of the literature data. (orig.) [de

  8. Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of an anatomical study of the neuronal pathways in the cat, via which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces excitation of motoneurons involved in vocalization. It is shown that a specific cell group in the lateral part of the caudal PAG and in the tegmentum just lateral to it projects bilaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata. Neurons in the NRA in turn project, via a contralateral pathway through the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord, to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating intercostal and abdominal muscles. In the brainstem, the NRA neurons project to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating mouth-opening and perioral muscles as well as to motoneurons innervating the pharynx, soft palate, and tongue. These results indicate that the projections from PAG via NRA to vocalization motoneurons form the final common pathway in vocalization.

  9. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  10. Sudden Death: An Uncommon Occurrence in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Joery P; Wilbers, Joyce; Aerts, Marjolein B; Leijten, Quinten H; van Dijk, Jan G; Esselink, Rianne A; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-01-01

    We present a 75-year-old woman with dementia and parkinsonism who developed severe orthostatic hypotension and eventually died. Autopsy revealed extensive Lewy body formation in the midbrain, limbic system, intermediate spinal cord, and medulla oblongata. Furthermore, a vast amount of Lewy bodies was seen in the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia which likely explained the severe autonomic failure. We speculate that this autonomic failure caused sudden death through dysregulation of respiration or heart rhythm, reminiscent of sudden death in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Clinicians should be aware of this complication in patients presenting with parkinsonism and autonomic dysfunction, and that sudden death may occur in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as it does in MSA.

  11. Alexander disease as a cause of nocturnal vomiting in a 7-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinikoski, Harri [University of Turku, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Brander, Antti [University of Tampere, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Valanne, Leena [University of Helsinki, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Alexander disease is a rare form of leukodystrophy with a highly variable clinical course. Occasionally night-time nausea and vomiting are the first symptoms of juvenile Alexander disease. A 7-year-old girl had recurrent night-time vomiting and her growth and weight gain had deteriorated after her sixth birthday. Cranial MRI demonstrated two small, symmetrical focal areas of abnormally high signal intensity in the dorsal medulla oblongata on T2-W and FLAIR images. These were suggestive of juvenile Alexander disease, and subsequent sequencing of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene revealed a heterogeneous missense mutation in the GFAP gene in exon 6. Alexander disease should be considered in young patients with atypical anorexia nervosa-type symptoms. (orig.)

  12. Seronegative neuromyelitis optica presenting with life-threatening respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Zuccoli, Giulio; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Fitzgerald, Ryan T

    2016-11-01

    Dyspnea has rarely been reported as a presenting symptom in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We report an unusual case of NMO relapse presenting with rapidly progressive respiratory failure and briefly discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this potential life-threatening complication of NMO. The 58-year-old woman with a history of bilateral optic neuritis presented to the emergency department with rapidly worsening dyspnea. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive abnormal signal with involvement of the medulla oblongata. Since in our patient chest radiography failed to disclose a diaphragmatic palsy that is commonly observed in patients with phrenic nerve involvement, this acute manifestation of the disease may be attributed to brainstem involvement instead of cervical myelitis. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical presentation of NMO, which needs to be promptly recognized and aggressively treated.

  13. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  14. Prenatal effects of trichlorfon on the guinea pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, G.N.; Nafstad, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1986-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound trichlorfon, dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate, was administered by stomach tube (100 mg/kg) to pregnant guinea pigs at two different stages of gestation (days 36, 37, 38 and 51, 52, 53). The pups developed locomotory disturbances, and post mortem examination revealed significantly decreased weights of the total brain and the cerebellum, as compared to controls. There was also a significant weight reduction particularly of the medulla oblongata, but also of the hippocampus, the thalamus, and the colliculi. Histological examination of the cerebellum revealed reduction of the external granular layer and the molecular layer, and regional absence of Purkinje cells. The activities of the neutrotransmitter enzymes choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in cerebellum were reduced as compared to the control values. (orig.)

  15. Development of stroke-induced quadriplegia after endovascular repair of blunt aortic injury pseudoaneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, Abdullah S; Merdad, Anas A; Makhdoom, Ahmed Q; Jamjoom, Reda A

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular repair of blunt aortic injury is now a first-line approach in management. This can warrant coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA), which could lead to posterior strokes. In this case report, we present a severe complication of endovascular repair of a traumatic aortic aneurysm. A 53-year-old man presented with blunt aortic injury, endovascular repair was carried out where the left subclavian artery was covered. The intervention had a 100% technical success. Twelve hours later, he was discovered to have quadriplegia, a CT scan showed a large left cerebellar infarction extending to the medulla oblongata and proximal spinal cord. Strokes complicate 3% of thoracic endovascular aortic repairs, 80% of those strokes occur in patients who had their LSA`s covered. Most patients however, tolerate the coverage. Although our patient had a dominant right vertebral artery, and lacked risks for these strokes, he developed an extensive stroke that left him quadriplegic.

  16. A case of traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury presenting with life-threatening symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishi S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seiji Kishi1, Kenji Kanaji2, Toshio Doi1, Tadashi Matsumura21Department of Nephrology, Tokushima University Hospital, Kuramoto-cho Tokushima, 2Department of General Internal Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho Yamashina-ku Kyoto, JapanAbstract: Traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of loss of consciousness after hitting his head. After immediate resuscitation, he showed quadriplegia and absence of spontaneous breathing. Brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atlantoaxial subluxation, fractured C2 odontoid process, left vertebral artery occlusion, and bilateral extensive ischemia in the medulla oblongata and high cervical spinal cord. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated left vertebral artery dissection just below the level of vertebral body C2.Keywords: vertebral artery dissection, brainstem infarction, bilateral spinal cord infarction, neck trauma

  17. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  18. MRI findings in an infant with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil); Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State (Brazil); Santos Torres, Ulysses dos; Portela de Oliveira, Eduardo; Soares Souza, Antonio [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Although acute flaccid paralysis is a manifestation observed in several neurologic and muscular disorders, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an exceedingly rare etiology. In the clinical setting of acute flaccid paralysis, MRI is useful in differentiating between VAPP and other conditions. Additionally, MRI can assess the extent of lesions. However, reports on MRI findings in VAPP are scarce in the pediatric radiology literature. We report a Brazilian infant who developed VAPP 40 days after receiving the first dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). MR images of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed lesions involving the anterior horn cell, with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. We would like to emphasize the importance of considering VAPP as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute flaccid paralysis and an MRI showing involvement of medulla oblongata or spinal cord, particularly in countries where OPV is extensively administered. (orig.)

  19. Effect of CoO nanoparticles on the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CoO nanoparticles (NPs on the brain of mice administered through gastrointestinal tract for a period of 30 days was studied. AAS analysis revealed that NPs administered orally were retained by cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb. This retention of nanoparticles by the brain promoted a significant increase in glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glycogen levels along with the concomitant increase in hexokinase, glucose 6 phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogense activities. However, a decrease in glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed in the brain regions indicating a deterioration of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, the present study suggests that the CoO NPs affect the carbohydrate metabolism of the brain.

  20. Progressive dysautonomia in two patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Osamu; Miyahara, Hiroaki; Abe, Naho; Goto, Chika; Okanari, Kazuo; Akiyoshi, Kensuke; Korematsu, Seigo; Izumi, Tatsuro

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by a defect in nucleotide excision repair. Progressive dysautonomia in patients with XPA is rarely described. Two juvenile male patients with XPA suffered from dysphagia, sleep interruption, and dysuria from the age of 10 to 19 years, successively. These autonomic symptoms might have been caused by progressive descending degeneration of cranial nerves IX and X and the sacral parasympathetic nerve, including Onuf's nucleus. One patient died from sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during postural change and tracheal suction. Heart rate variability analyses of these patients revealed parasympathetic dysautonomia, based on decreased high-frequency values. The insidiously progressive dysautonomia in these two patients with XPA suggested progressive descending degeneration extending from the medulla oblongata to the sacral spinal cord, which is an ominous sign of end-stage disease and a risk factor of sudden death attributable to XPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of overlapping Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-sheng; TANG Ying; WANG Ye

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There is no report on Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) patients in China. We here report the first case of BBE in China. Methods: Clinical features, results of electromyography, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were studied to clarify the characteristics of this syndrome.Results: A 44-year-old man presented himself at our inpatient department with somnolence and dizziness as his initial symptoms.He developed multiple cranial nerves paralysis especially internal and external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and tetraparesis within 1 week. His condition rapidly deteriorated, and he experienced coma. Electromyography showed indications of peripheral nerve dysfunction, electroencephalography revealed loss of basic rhythm, MRI demonstrated high-intensity abnormalities on T2-weighted images of medulla oblongata, and CSF albuminocytological dissociation was defined abnormally as high protein. Ten similar clinically; BBE and FS were proposed to be the variant of GBS.

  2. Blockade of AT1 receptors by losartan did not affect renin gene expression in kidney medulla

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tybitanclová, K.; Szabová, L.; Grima, M.; Ingert, C.; Železná, Blanka; Zórad, Š.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2006), s. 43-51 ISSN 0231-5882 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/5090/25 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : AT1 receptor * renin-angiotensin system * kidneys Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.771, year: 2006

  3. The course of paraventricular hypothalamic efferents to autonomic structures in medulla and spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.; Horst, G.J. ter; Karst, H.; Steffens, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    By application of the anterograde transport technique of Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin the descending autonomic projection of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was investigated. The Phaseolus lectin technique allowed the detection of the cells of origin in the paraventricular PVN, the

  4. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...

  5. Role of liver nerves and adrenal medulla in glucose turnover of running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, B; Mikines, K J; Richter, Erik

    1985-01-01

    Sympathetic control of glucose turnover was studied in rats running 35 min at 21 m X min-1 on the level. The rats were surgically liver denervated, adrenodemedullated, or sham operated. Glucose turnover was measured by primed constant infusion of [3-3H]glucose. At rest, the three groups had...... identical turnover rates and concentrations of glucose in plasma. During running, glucose production always rose rapidly to steady levels. The increase was not influenced by liver denervation but was halved by adrenodemedullation. Similarly, hepatic glycogen depletion was identical in denervated and control...... rats but reduced after adrenodemedullation. Early in exercise, glucose uptake rose identically in all groups and, in adrenodemedullated rats, matched glucose production. Accordingly, plasma glucose concentration increased in liver-denervated and control rats but was constant in adrenodemedullated rats...

  6. Long-lasting pathological consequences of overexpression-induced α-synuclein spreading in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Raffaella; Ulusoy, Ayse; Aboutalebi, Helia; Di Monte, Donato A

    2018-04-01

    Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions. Protein advancement and accumulation in pontine, midbrain, and forebrain areas were contingent upon continuous overexpression, because death of transduced medullary neurons resulted in cessation of spreading. Lack of sustained spreading did not prevent the development of long-lasting pathological changes. Particularly remarkable were findings in the locus coeruleus, a pontine nucleus with direct connections to the dorsal medulla oblongata and greatly affected by overexpression-induced transfer in this model. Data revealed progressive degeneration of catecholaminergic neurons that proceeded long beyond the time of spreading cessation. Neuronal pathology in the locus coeruleus was accompanied by pronounced microglial activation and, at later times, astrocytosis. Interestingly, microglial activation was also featured in another region reached by α-synuclein transfer, the central amygdala, even in the absence of frank neurodegeneration. Thus, overexpression-induced spreading, even if temporary, causes long-lasting pathological consequences in brain regions distant from the site of overexpression but anatomically connected to it. Neurodegeneration may be a consequence of severe protein burden, whereas even a milder α-synuclein accumulation in tissues affected by protein transfer could induce sustained microglial activation. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and

  7. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  8. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Harada

    Full Text Available Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker. These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

  9. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  10. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  11. Susceptibility of various areas of the nervous system of hens to TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, W; Gretener, P; Rauch, M; Weber, E; Krinke, G J

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of in-life parameters, biochemical endpoints, and susceptibility of various areas of the chicken nervous system to delayed neuropathy induced by tri-orthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) was assessed. Groups of hens were exposed to a single oral dose of TOCP of 0, 50, 200 or 500 mg/kg and the animals observed for 21 days. Perfusion fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained with Bodian's silver and Luxol blue and semi-thin epoxy sections with toluidine blue. Sciatic and tibial nerves, lumbosacral, midthoracic, and upper cervical spinal cord, medulla oblongata and cerebellum were examined using a semiquantitative scoring system. In pair-dosed hens inhibition of brain and spinal cord neurotoxic esterase (NTE) and cholinesterase and of plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterases was determined 24 hr and 48 hr after administration. At all dose levels NTE in brain and spinal cord and plasma cholinesterase was inhibited markedly. Quantitative inhibition of NTE was seen also in absence of neuropathy. Ataxia and body weight loss occurred in high-dose animals only, while dose-related neuropathy was seen in the distal tibial nerve, medulla oblongata and cerebellum. Ataxia was correlated best with neuropathy in peripheral nerves while degeneration of nerve fibers in the cerebellum, seen best in mid-longitudinal sections, was the most sensitive histological indicator of TOCP-induced delayed neuropathy. The particular susceptibility of spinocerebellar neurons was recognized long ago, but often has been neglected in delayed neurotoxicity studies and respective guidelines. Optimal sensitivity of toxicity tests is a prerequisite for risk assessment, can be cost efficient, and nowadays should be a main interest of animal welfare in order to reduce animals' suffering. Based on these data, determination of NTE inhibition together with histopathological examination of longitudinal sections of distal tibial nerves, mid-longitudinal sections of rostral cerebellum and cross

  12. Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jubault

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia. Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes an intermediate step in a broader neurodegenerative process rather than a unique feature of Parkinson's disease, as a consistent pattern of progression would exist, originating from the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum. To date, neuroimaging techniques have been unable to characterize the pre-symptomatic stages of PD. However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease. We recruited 23 PD patients at Hoenn and Yahr stages I to II of the disease and 18 healthy controls (HC matched for age. T1-weighted anatomical scans were acquired (MPRAGE, 1 mm3 resolution and analyzed using an optimized VBM protocol to detect white and grey matter volume reduction without spatial a priori. When the HC group was compared to the PD group, a single cluster exhibited statistical difference (p<0.05 corrected for false detection rate, 4287 mm3 in the brain stem, between the pons and the medulla oblongata. The present study provides in-vivo evidence that brain stem damage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology, and that the identification of this consistent damage along with other factors could help with earlier diagnosis in the future. This damage could also explain some non-motor symptoms in PD that often precede diagnosis, such as autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders.

  13. Clearly delineated lesion in a case of Wallenberg's syndrome by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumiya, Noriya; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Miyashita, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1985-01-01

    Diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome has been made by typical neurological symptoms and signs which are compatible with those of lesion in the lateral aspect of medulla oblongata. Although X-ray CT is an extraordinary useful measure for detecting lesions in the central nervous system, brainstem lesion is difficult to be evaluated by it because of varieties of artifact. A recent advance in techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made it possible to produce fairly good images of infratentorial structure without artifact. But, there are no reports on patients with Wallenberg's syndrome whose lesion was clearly delineated by MRI. A 44 year-old man with a history of hypertension was referred to our hospital because of vertigo, pain on the right side of the face, disturbance of swallowing and hiccup 22 days after onset. On admission, neurological examination revealed right Horner's sign, decreased gag reflex and cerebellar ataxia on the right side, and dissociated sensory impairment on the right side of the face and left extremities. Clinical diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome was made, but X-ray CT showed no definite lesion in the infratentorial structure. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right vertebral artery without reflux of contrast media from the left vertebral artery. Then, there was no visualization of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. MRI using Magnetom (0.35 Tesla of static magnetic field produced by superconducting magnet) clearly delineated low intensity area in the right lateral aspect of the medulla oblongata. This is the first case of Wallenberg's syndrome whose anatomical lesion was demonstrated by MRI. (author)

  14. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  15. Histaminergic activity in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Przemysław; Noras, Lukasz; Jochem, Jerzy; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Brus, Halina; Körossy, Eva; Drab, Jacek; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2009-04-01

    Rats lesioned shortly after birth with 6-OHDA have been proposed to be a near-ideal model of severe Parkinson's disease, because of non-lethality of the procedure, near-total destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers, and near-total dopamine (DA) denervation of striatum. There are scarce data that in Parkinson's disease, activity of the central histaminergic system is increased. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine histamine content in the brain and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists on behavior of adult rats. At 3 days after birth, Wistar rats were pretreated with desipramine (20.0 mg/kg ip) 1 h before bilateral icv administration of the catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA (67 microg base, on each side) or saline-ascorbic acid (0.1%) vehicle (control). At 8 weeks levels of DA and its metabolites L: -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were estimated in the striatum and frontal cortex by HPCL/ED technique. In the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and medulla oblongata, the level of histamine was analyzed by immunoenzymatic method. Behavioral observations (locomotion, exploratory-, oral-, and stereotyped-activity) were additionally made on control and 6-OHDA neonatally lesioned rats. Effects of DA receptor agonists (SKF 38393, apomorphine) and histamine receptor antagonists (e.g., S(+)chlorpheniramine, H(1); cimetidine, H(2); thioperamide, H(3) agonist) were determined. We confirmed that 6-OHDA significantly reduced contents of DA and its metabolites in the brain in adulthood. Histamine content was significantly increased in the hypothalamus, hipocampus, and medulla oblongata. Moreover, in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats behavioral response was altered mainly by thioperamide (H(3) antagonist). These findings indicate that histamine and the central histaminergic system are altered in the brain of rats lesioned to model Parkinson's disease, and that histaminergic neurons exert a modulating role in Parkinsonian 6

  16. A rare case of concomitant sicca keratopathy and ipsilateral central facial palsy in Wallenberg’s dorsolateral medullary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruyn, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a patient with a right-sided supranuclear facial palsy and concomitant sicca keratopathy of the right eye following right-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction. Methods: Our patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and neurologic examination including biomicroscopy, fundus examination, cranial nerve examination, Shirmer I test, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.Results: A 61-year-old woman presented in emergency with a central facial nerve palsy on the right side and truncal ataxia. Neurologic assessment revealed a concurrent dysphagia, dysarthria, hypoesthesia of the right face, and weakness of the right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an old left-sided cerebellar infarction, but a recent ischemic infarction at the level of the right dorsolateral medulla oblongata was the cause of our patient’s current problems. One month after diagnosis of the right-sided dorsolateral medullary syndrome, there were complaints of ocular irritation and a diminished visual acuity in the right eye. Biomicroscopy showed a sicca keratopathy with nearly complete absence of tear secretion on the Shirmer I test, but with normal eye closure and preserved corneal reflexes and sensitivity.Conclusion: A dorsolateral medullary syndrome can have a variable expression in symptomatology. Our case is special because of the combination of an ipsilateral supranuclear facial palsy with normal upper facial muscle function together with an ipsilateral sicca keratopathy as a result of a nearly absent tear secretion. We hypothesized that the mechanism underlying the patient’s sicca keratopathy ipsilateral to the supranuclear facial palsy involved the superior salivatory nucleus, which is situated in the caudal pons inferiorly of the motor facial nucleus and is most probably affected by a superior extension of the infarcted area in the right medulla oblongata.

  17. Radiation myelopathy. Analysis of the clinical picture. Die Strahlenmyelopathie. Klinische Analyse des Krankheitsbildes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlit, P

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. With 17 figs.

  18. MRI findings of radiation encephalopathy of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhong; Li Guoye; Huang Biao; Huang Meiping; Zheng Junhui; Tan Shaoheng; Zeng Qiongxin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study MRI findings and clinical manifestation of radiation encephalopathy (RE) of brain stem. Methods: MRI findings and clinical symptoms in 51 patients with RE of brain stem after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer were reviewed. Results: Clinical symptoms included number weakness or paralysis in the limbs and symptoms of damaged cranial nerves. All lesions appeared hypo- or iso-intense on spin echo(SE) T 1 -weighted images and inhomogeneous and mixed hyper- and iso-intense on Turbo spin echo (TSE) T 2 -weighted images. The lesions were located in mesencephalon, pons, medulla, basilar part of pons, basilar part of pons and medulla oblongata in 2,7,3,9 and 30 patients respectively. The enhancement patterns included irregular rings in 39 patients, spotty in 3 and no enhancement in 9 patients. Mass effect was minimal in all patients. On follow-up MRI, the lesions disappeared in 4 patients, did not change in size and shape in 8 patients and enlarged in 2 patients. Conclusion: MRI could demonstrate the characteristic findings of RE of brain stem. MRI findings sometimes are not consistent with the clinical symptoms

  19. Key Brainstem Structures Activated during Hypoxic Exposure in One-day-old Mice Highlight Characteristics for Modeling Breathing Network in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Fanny; Loiseau, Camille; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Cayetanot, Florence; Frugière, Alain; Voituron, Nicolas; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral, and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus. In contrast, the hypoglossal nucleus displayed decreased c-FOS immunoreactivity. There were fewer or no activated catecholaminergic cells activated in the medulla oblongata, whereas ~45% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the dorsal subcoeruleus were co-labeled. Approximately 30% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the parapyramidal group were serotoninergic, whereas only a small portion were labeled for serotonin in the raphe magnus nucleus. None of the c-FOS-positive cells in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region were co-labeled for PHOX2B. Thus, the hypoxia-activated brainstem neuronal network of one-day-old mice is characterized by (i) the activation of catecholaminergic cells of the dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus, a structure implicated in the strong depressive pontine influence previously reported in the fetus but not in newborns, (ii) the weak activation of catecholaminergic cells of the ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, an area involved in hypoxic hyperventilation, and (iii) the absence of PHOX2B-positive cells activated in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region. Based on these results, one-day-old mice could highlight characteristics for modeling the breathing network of premature infants. PMID:28018238

  20. Key brainstem structures activated during hypoxic exposure in one-day-old mice highlight characteristics for modelling breathing network in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny JOUBERT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We mapped and characterized changes in the activity of brainstem cell groups under hypoxia in one-day-old newborn mice, an animal model in which the central nervous system at birth is particularly immature. The classical biphasic respiratory response characterized by transient hyperventilation, followed by severe ventilation decline, was associated with increased c-FOS immunoreactivity in brainstem cell groups: the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, retrotrapezoid/parafacial region, parapyramidal group, raphe magnus nucleus, lateral and medial parabrachial nucleus, and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus. In contrast, the hypoglossal nucleus displayed decreased c-FOS immunoreactivity. There were fewer or no activated catecholaminergic cells activated in the medulla oblongata, whereas approximately 45% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the dorsal subcoeruleus were co-labelled. Approximately 30% of the c-FOS-positive cells in the parapyramidal group were serotoninergic, whereas only a small portion were labelled for serotonin in the raphe magnus nucleus. None of the c-FOS-positive cells in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region were co-labelled for PHOX2B. Thus, the hypoxia-activated brainstem neuronal network of one-day-old mice is characterized by i the activation of catecholaminergic cells of the dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus, a structure implicated in the strong depressive pontine influence previously reported in the fetus but not in newborns, ii the weak activation of catecholaminergic cells of the ventral reticular nucleus of the medulla, an area involved in hypoxic hyperventilation, and iii the absence of PHOX2B-positive cells activated in the retrotrapezoid/parafacial region. Based on these results, one-day-old mice could highlight characteristics for modelling the breathing network of premature infants.

  1. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  2. Contribution of oxygen-sensitive neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla to hypoxic cerebral vasodilatation in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We sought to determine whether hypoxic stimulation of neurons of the rostral ventrolateral reticular nucleus (RVL) would elevate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in anaesthetized paralysed rats. 2. Microinjection of sodium cyanide (NaCN; 150-450 pmol) into the RVL rapidly (within 1-2 s), transiently, dose-dependently and site-specifically elevated rCBF1 measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, by 61.3 +/- 22.1% (P < 0.01), increased arterial pressure (AP; +30 +/- 8 mmHg; P < 0.01)1 and triggered a synchronized 6 Hz rhythm of EEG activity. 3. Following cervical spinal cord transection, NaCN and also dinitrophenol (DNP) significantly (P < 0.05) elevated rCBF and synchronized the EEG but did not elevate AP; the response to NaCN was attenuated by hyperoxia and deepening of anaesthesia. 4. Electrical stimulation of NaCN-sensitive sites in the RVL in spinalized rats increased rCBF measured autoradiographically with 14C iodoantipyrine (Kety method) in the mid-line thalamus (by 182.3 +/- 17.2%; P < 0.05) and cerebral cortex (by 172.6 +/- 15.6%; P < 0.05) regions, respectively, directly or indirectly innervated by RVL neurons, and in the remainder of the brain. In contrast regional cerebral glucose utilization (rCGU), measured autoradiographically with 14C-2-deoxyglucose (Sokoloff method), was increased in proportion to rCBF in the mid-line thalamus (165.6 +/- 17.8%, P < 0.05) but was unchanged in the cortex. 5. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of NaCN sensitive sites of RVL, while not altering resting rCBF or the elevation elicited by hypercarbia (arterial CO2 pressure, Pa,CO2, approximately 69 mmHg), reduced the vasodilatation elicited by normocapnic hypoxaemia (arterial O2 pressure, Pa,O2, approximately 27 mmHg) by 67% (P < 0.01) and flattened the slope of the Pa,O2-rCBF response curve. 6. We conclude that the elevation of rCBF produced in the cerebral cortex by hypoxaemia is in large measure neurogenic, mediated trans-synaptically over intrinsic neuronal pathways, and initiated by excitation of oxygen sensitive neurons in the RVL.

  3. Changes in glutamate receptor subunits within the medulla in goats after section of the carotid sinus nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin Robert; Neumueller, Suzanne; Muere, Clarissa; Olesiak, Samantha; Pan, Lawrence; Bukowy, John D.; Daghistany, Asem O.; Hodges, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms which contribute to the time-dependent recovery of resting ventilation and the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex after carotid body denervation (CBD) are poorly understood. Herein we tested the hypothesis that there are time-dependent changes in the expression of specific AMPA, NMDA, and/or neurokinin-1 (NK1R) receptors within respiratory-related brain stem nuclei acutely or chronically after CBD in adult goats. Brain stem tissues were collected acutely (5 days) or chronically (30 days) after sham or bilateral CBD, immunostained with antibodies targeting AMPA (GluA1 or GluA2), NMDA (GluN1), or NK-1 receptors, and optical density (OD) compared. Physiological measurement confirmed categorization of each group and showed ventilatory effects consistent with bilateral CBD (Miller et al. J Appl Physiol 115: 1088–1098, 2013). Acutely after CBD, GluA1 OD was unchanged or slightly increased, but GluA2 and GluN1 OD were reduced 15–30% within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and in other medullary respiratory nuclei. Chronically after CBD, GluA1 was reduced (P < 0.05) within the caudal NTS and in other nuclei, but there was significant recovery of GluA2 and GluN1 OD. NK1 OD was not significantly different from control after CBD. We conclude that the initial decrease in GluA2 and GluN1 after CBD likely contributes to hypoventilation and the reduced CO2 chemoreflex. The partial recovery of ventilation and the CO2 chemoreflex after CBD parallel a time-dependent return of these receptors to near control levels but likely depend upon additional initiating and maintenance factors for neuroplasticity. PMID:24790015

  4. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  5. Evidence that central dopamine receptors modulate sympathetic neuronal activity to the adrenal medulla to alter glucoregulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnerić, S P; Chow, S A; Bhatnagar, R K; Webb, R L; Fischer, L J; Long, J P

    1984-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that analogs of dopamine (DA) can produce hyperglycemia in rats by interacting with DA receptors. Experiments reported here indicate the site of action and describe the metabolic sequalae associated with the hyperglycemic effect of apomorphine (APO), produced in conscious unrestrained rats. Apomorphine was more potent when administered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection than when given subcutaneously (s.c.). Very small doses of the DA receptor antagonist pimozide, given intraventricularly, blocked the hyperglycemic effect of apomorphine administered subcutaneously. Sectioning of the spinal cord at thoracic vertebra T1-2 or sectioning the greater splanchnic nerve blocked apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia; whereas section of the superior colliculus or section at T5-6 had no effect. A dose of apomorphine or epinephrine (EPI) producing a similar degree of hyperglycemia elevated the concentration of EPI in serum to a similar degree, and the increase in EPI in serum preceded the increase in glucose in serum. Fasting animals for 2 or 18 hr had no significant effect on EPI- or apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia despite a reduction (91-93%) of the glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscle during the 18 hr fast. 5-Methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA), an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, blocked EPI- and apomorphine-induced hyperglycemia in rats fasted for 18 hr. However, 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid was ineffective in blocking hyperglycemia in animals fasted for 2 hr. Changes in insulin or glucagon in serum alone cannot account for the hyperglycemic action of apomorphine. These data demonstrate that apomorphine interacts with central DA receptors located in the hindbrain to activate sympathetic neuronal activity to the adrenal gland which subsequently releases epinephrine to alter homeostasis of glucose. Epinephrine may then, depending on the nutritional status, facilitate glycogenolytic or gluconeogenic processes to produce hyperglycemia.

  6. Brain propagation of transduced α-synuclein involves non-fibrillar protein species and is enhanced in α-synuclein null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Michael; Klinkenberg, Michael; Rusconi, Raffaella; Musgrove, Ruth E; Majbour, Nour K; El-Agnaf, Omar M A; Ulusoy, Ayse; Di Monte, Donato A

    2016-03-01

    Aggregation and neuron-to-neuron transmission are attributes of α-synuclein relevant to its pathogenetic role in human synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. Intraparenchymal injections of fibrillar α-synuclein trigger widespread propagation of amyloidogenic protein species via mechanisms that require expression of endogenous α-synuclein and, possibly, its structural corruption by misfolded conformers acting as pathological seeds. Here we describe another paradigm of long-distance brain diffusion of α-synuclein that involves inter-neuronal transfer of monomeric and/or oligomeric species and is independent of recruitment of the endogenous protein. Targeted expression of human α-synuclein was induced in the mouse medulla oblongata through an injection of viral vectors into the vagus nerve. Enhanced levels of intra-neuronal α-synuclein were sufficient to initiate its caudo-rostral diffusion that likely involved at least one synaptic transfer and progressively reached specific brain regions such as the locus coeruleus, dorsal raphae and amygdala in the pons, midbrain and forebrain. Transfer of human α-synuclein was compared in two separate lines of α-synuclein-deficient mice versus their respective wild-type controls and, interestingly, lack of endogenous α-synuclein expression did not counteract diffusion but actually resulted in a more pronounced and advanced propagation of exogenous α-synuclein. Self-interaction of adjacent molecules of human α-synuclein was detected in both wild-type and mutant mice. In the former, interaction of human α-synuclein with mouse α-synuclein was also observed and might have contributed to differences in protein transmission. In wild-type and α-synuclein-deficient mice, accumulation of human α-synuclein within recipient axons in the pons, midbrain and forebrain caused morphological evidence of neuritic pathology. Tissue sections from the medulla oblongata and pons were stained with different antibodies recognizing

  7. Cognitive effects of electro-acupuncture and pregabalin in a trigeminal neuralgia rat model induced by cobra venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen RW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruo-Wen Chen,1,2 Hui Liu,2 Jian-Xiong An,1,2 Xiao-Yan Qian,2 Yi-De Jiang,2 Doris K Cope,3 John P Williams,3 Rui Zhang,1 Li-Na Sun1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang City, Shandong, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University and Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA and pregabalin on cognition impairment induced by chronic trigeminal neuralgia (TN in rats. Design: Controlled animal study. Setting: Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University. Subjects: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups. The TN model was induced by administration of cobra venom to the left infraorbital nerve. On postoperative day 14, either EA or pregabalin was administered, free behavioral activities were observed. Spatial learning and memory abilities were determined in the Morris water maze. The ultrastructural alterations of the Gasserian ganglion, medulla oblongata and hippocampus were examined by electron microscopy. The changes on long-term potentiation were investigated. Results: After treatment, the exploratory behavior increased and the grooming behavior decreased (P<0.05 for the EA group and pregabalin group compared with the cobra venom group; moreover, demyelination of neurons in Gasserian ganglion and medulla oblongata was reversed. The number of platform site crossings, the average percentages of time in the target quadrant and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential slopes increased (P<0.05 in the EA group compared to the cobra venom group. However, the pregabalin group

  8. Estimation of gadolinium-induced T1-shortening with measurement of simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and brain parenchyma on 3D-FLAIR. Correlation with T1 measurement by TI scout sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Iwano, Shingo; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to T 1 -shortening of labyrinthine fluid on 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) has been reported in many inner ear disorders. Although semi-quantitative assessment by simple signal intensity ratio between cochlear fluid and brain tissue has been tried, its feasibility using a multi-channel phased-array head coil with an inherently inhomogenous sensitivity distribution has not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring simple signal intensity ratio by correlating rapid T 1 measurements using an inversion time (TI) scout sequence. We evaluated 10 patients with Meniere's disease and 4 patients with sudden deafness. Nine of the patients with Meniere's disease received a unilateral intratympanic injection of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA); the tenth patient received bilateral injections. The 4 patients with sudden deafness received a double-dose intravenous injection. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained 24 hours after intratympanic injections and 4 hours after intravenous injections at 3 tesla using a 32-channel head coil. We measured the ratio (CM ratio) between the signal intensity of the perilymph in the cochlea (C) and that of the medulla oblongata (M) and correlated it with the null-point inversion time (TI null ) obtained with the TI scout sequence. The TI scout consisted of 85 images obtained with TI values between 132.5 and 3087.5 ms at increments of 37.5 ms. The correlation coefficient between TI null and the natural logarithm of the CM ratio was -0.88 (P<0.01). There was significant negative linear correlation. Measurement of the simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and the medulla can be used for semi-quantitative analysis of 3D-FLAIR. The results of this study may facilitate clinical research of inner-ear disease using 3D-FLAIR. (author)

  9. Effects of experimental suppression of active (REM) sleep during early development upon adult brain and behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, M; Scholtens, J; van de Poll, N E; Uylings, H B; van der Gugten, J; Boer, G J

    1983-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that active sleep (AS) is important for the normal development of the central nervous system, 3 different deprivation methods were applied to male Wistar rat pups during the first month of life. Daily injection of clomipramine from 8 to 21 days of age reduced the high level of AS to less than the adult value throughout most of the experimental period. Administration of clonidine from 8 to 21 days of life induced an almost total suppression of AS. Instrumental deprivation, using the 'pendulum' method, led to a significant (but less severe) AS reduction during 2-4 weeks of postnatal age. Open-field behavior testing in adulthood revealed a higher than normal level of ambulation in all 3 experimental groups. Masculine sexual responses were deficient, due to a low level of both mounts and ejaculations, in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated animals. Neither passive avoidance learning nor dark preference tests revealed any differences between the experimental and control rats. Sleep observations showed that there was an abnormally high incidence of large myoclonic jerks during AS in both clomipramine- and clonidine-treated rats. Subsequent measurement of regional brain weights showed a significant reduction in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata, as compared with the respective control groups, in both the clomipramine- and the clonidine-treated rats. In addition, DNA and protein determination in the affected brain areas showed a proportional reduction in the cortex and in the medulla. These results demonstrate that interference with normal functioning either of AS per se or of specific monoaminergic transmitter systems during early development can produce long-lasting behavioral as well as brain morphological and biochemical abnormalities in later life.

  10. Intermediate filament immunohistochemistry of astroglial cells in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of intermediate filament molecular markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, has been studied in the central nervous system (CNS) of the adult leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. This immunohistochemical study points out the presence of different astroglial cell types. The main pattern is constituted by ependymal radial glia, which have their cell bodies located in the ependymal layer throughout the brain ventricular system. Radial glia proper or radial astrocytes show their cell bodies displaced from the ependymal layer into a periependymal zone and are observed only in the spinal cord. Star-shaped astrocytes are scarce. They are detected in the ventral and lateral regions of the diencephalon and mesencephalon, in the superficial layer of the optic tectum, in the ventral medulla oblongata, and in the ventral and lateral spinal cord. In the different regions of the CNS, the staining intensity appears not to be identical even in the same cellular type. The results reported in the present study show an heterogeneous feature of the astroglial pattern in E. macularius.

  11. Medullary Reticular Neurons Mediate Neuropeptide Y-Induced Metabolic Inhibition and Mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiko; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Morrison, Shaun F; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-07

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) elicits hunger responses to increase the chances of surviving starvation: an inhibition of metabolism and an increase in feeding. Here we elucidate a key central circuit mechanism through which hypothalamic NPY signals drive these hunger responses. GABAergic neurons in the intermediate and parvicellular reticular nuclei (IRt/PCRt) of the medulla oblongata, which are activated by NPY-triggered neural signaling from the hypothalamus, potentially through the nucleus tractus solitarius, mediate the NPY-induced inhibition of metabolic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via their innervation of BAT sympathetic premotor neurons. Intriguingly, the GABAergic IRt/PCRt neurons innervating the BAT sympathetic premotor region also innervate the masticatory motor region, and stimulation of the IRt/PCRt elicits mastication and increases feeding as well as inhibits BAT thermogenesis. These results indicate that GABAergic IRt/PCRt neurons mediate hypothalamus-derived hunger signaling by coordinating both autonomic and feeding motor systems to reduce energy expenditure and to promote feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  13. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Yuh-Jey; Chang, Ying-Chao; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  14. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F.; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu

    2016-01-01

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  15. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F. [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Koenig, Mary Kay [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mitochondrial Center of Excellence Leigh Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  16. [Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: a review of possible underlying mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head's movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks-first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury.

  17. Hemilingual spasm: defining a new entity, its electrophysiological correlates and surgical treatment through microvascular decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Leisha L; Møller, Aage R; Bhatt, Jay R; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-07-01

    We report on vascular compression syndrome of the 12th cranial nerve (hypoglossal), an occurrence not previously reported, and demonstrate, through corresponding objective electrophysiological evidence, that microvascular decompression of the hypoglossal nerve root can cure hemilingual spasm. A 52-year-old man had lower face muscle twitching and tongue spasms, which worsened with talking, chewing, or emotional stress. Carbamazepine offered only temporary relief, and relief from injections of botulinum toxin was insignificant. He was referred for surgical treatment. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of his posterior fossa contents revealed no obvious evidence of any compressive vessel along the facial nerve, but a compressive vessel along the hypoglossal nerve was apparent. The presence of preoperative tongue spasms encouraged interoperative monitoring of tongue motor responses. The facial nerve exit zone was explored, but microsurgical inspection of the seventh/eighth cranial nerve complex did not reveal any compressive vessel. However, at the anterolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata, the hypoglossal nerve was clearly compressed and distorted laterally by a large tortuous vertebral artery. When the artery was mobilized away from the nerve, the abnormal late electromyographic response to transcranial electrical stimulation disappeared; immediately after shredded Teflon was interpositioned between the artery and the nerve, the abnormal spontaneous tongue fasciculation also disappeared. The patient has remained spasm free 6 months after surgery. Hemilingual spasm may be caused by vascular contact/compression along cranial nerve XII at the lower brainstem and belong to the same family of cranial nerve hyperactivity disorders as hemifacial spasm.

  18. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Sarno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses.We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products.This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  19. The neurogenic factor NeuroD1 is expressed in post-mitotic cells during juvenile and adult Xenopus neurogenesis and not in progenitor or radial glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Anne D'Amico

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals that have limited proliferation and neurogenesis capacities, the Xenopus frog exhibit a great potential regarding proliferation and production of new cells in the adult brain. This ability makes Xenopus a useful model for understanding the molecular programs required for adult neurogenesis. Transcriptional factors that control adult neurogenesis in vertebrate species undergoing widespread neurogenesis are unknown. NeuroD1 is a member of the family of proneural genes, which function during embryonic neurogenesis as a potent neuronal differentiation factor. Here, we study in detail the expression of NeuroD1 gene in the juvenile and adult Xenopus brains by in situ hybridization combined with immunodetections for proliferation markers (PCNA, BrdU or in situ hybridizations for cell type markers (Vimentin, Sox2. We found NeuroD1 gene activity in many brain regions, including olfactory bulbs, pallial regions of cerebral hemispheres, preoptic area, habenula, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. We also demonstrated by double staining NeuroD1/BrdU experiments, after long post-BrdU administration survival times, that NeuroD1 gene activity was turned on in new born neurons during post-metamorphic neurogenesis. Importantly, we provided evidence that NeuroD1-expressing cells at this brain developmental stage were post-mitotic (PCNA- cells and not radial glial (Vimentin+ or progenitors (Sox2+ cells.

  20. Magnetic resonance angiography in 12 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira; Hashizume, Yoshio (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1992-11-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in 12 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome (WS) in chronic stage to investigate the lesion of the vertebral artery (VA). The laterality of infarction in the medulla oblongata was confirmed with MRI; the right in four patients and the left in eight. In this study, time-of-flight MRA was evaluated. Coronal and OM sections in MRA were examined, because the former is useful to observe asymmetry and curve of the cervical VA, and the latter is useful to observe asymmetry and stenosis of the intracranial VA. In nine out of 12 patients, the ipsilateral VA was rather hypoplastic compared to the contralateral VA, and the flow of the hypoplastic VA stopped before and after entering the intracranial region. The contralateral VA of the hypoplastic cases showed curve in the neck in five patients and stenosis in the intracranial portion in one patient. A comparative study was conducted between vertebral angiogram (VAG) and MRA in four patients. Both VAG and MRA were useful in detecting hypoplasia and stoppage of the flow. It was considered that VA hypoplasia is frequently responsible for WS, and that MRA is useful in screening the vascular lesion as a non-invasive procedure to reveal changes of the bilateral VA. (author).

  1. Prion structure investigated in situ, ex vivo, and in vitro by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Janina; Miller, Lisa M.; Spassov, Sashko; Sokolowski, Fabian; Lasch, Peter; Beekes, Michael; Naumann, Dieter

    2004-07-01

    Syrian hamster nervous tissue was investigated by FTIR microspectroscopy with conventional and synchrotron infrared light sources. Various tissue structures from the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of scrapie-infected and control hamsters were investigated at a spatial resolution of 50 μm. Single neurons in dorsal root ganglia of scrapie-infected hamsters were analyzed by raster scan mapping at 6 μm spatial resolution. These measurements enabled us to (i) scrutinize structural differences between infected and non-infected tissue and (ii) analyze for the first time the distribution of different protein structures in situ within single nerve cells. Single nerve cells exhibited areas of increased β-sheet content, which co-localized consistently with accumulations of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). Spectral data were also obtained from purified, partly proteinase K digested PrPSc isolated from scrapie-infected nervous tissue of hamsters to elucidate similarities/dissimilarities between prion structure in situ and ex vivo. A further comparison is drawn to the recombinant Syrian hamster prion protein SHaPrP90-232, whose in vitro transition from the predominantly a-helical isoform to β-sheet rich oligomeric structures was also investigated by FTIR spectroscopy.

  2. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajarem, Jamaan S.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. PMID:28588748

  3. Three-dimensional assessment of brain tissue morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Germann, Marco; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Morel, Anne

    2006-08-01

    The microstructure of brain tissues becomes visible using different types of optical microscopy after the tissue sectioning. This preparation procedure introduces stress and strain in the anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft tissue slices, which are several 10 μm thick. Consequently, the three-dimensional dataset, generated out of the two-dimensional images with lateral submicrometer resolution, needs algorithms to correct the deformations, which can be significant for mellow tissue such as brain segments. The spatial resolution perpendicular to the slices is much worse with respect to the lateral sub-micrometer resolution. Therefore, we propose as complementary method the synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT), which avoids any kind of preparation artifacts due to sectioning and histological processing and yields true micrometer resolution in the three orthogonal directions. The visualization of soft matter by the use of SRμCT, however, is often based on elaborate staining protocols, since the tissue exhibits (almost) the same x-ray absorption as the surrounding medium. Therefore, it is unexpected that human tissue from the pons and the medulla oblongata in phosphate buffer show several features such as the blood vessels and the inferior olivary nucleus without staining. The value of these tomograms lies especially in the precise non-rigid registration of the different sets of histological slices. Applications of this method to larger pieces of brain tissue, such as the human thalamus are planned in the context of stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

  4. Differential expression of Cathepsin S and X in the spinal cord of a rat neuropathic pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Beate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample evidence suggests a substantial contribution of cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord to the induction and persistence of chronic neuropathic pain conditions. While for a long time, proteases were mainly considered as protein degrading enzymes, they are now receiving growing interest as signalling molecules in the pain pathology. In the present study we focused on two cathepsins, CATS and CATX, and studied their spatiotemporal expression and activity during the development and progression of neuropathic pain in the CNS of the rat 5th lumbar spinal nerve transection model (L5T. Results Immediately after the lesion, both cathepsins, CATS and CATX, were upregulated in the spinal cord. Moreover, we succeeded in measuring the activity of CATX, which was substantially increased after L5T. The differential expression of these proteins exhibited the same spatial distribution and temporal progression in the spinal cord, progressing up to the medulla oblongata in the late phase of chronic pain. The cellular distribution of CATS and CATX was, however, considerably different. Conclusion The cellular distribution and the spatio-temporal development of the altered expression of CATS and CATX suggest that these proteins are important players in the spinal mechanisms involved in chronic pain induction and maintenance.

  5. Lung inflammation induces IL-1β expression in hypoglossal neurons in rat brainstem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Anjum; Belkadi, Abdelmadjid; Zaidi, Syed I. A.; Getsy, Paulina; Wilson, Christopher G.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal inflammation is associated with respiratory morbidity. Immune modulation of brainstem respiratory control centers may provide a link for this pathobiology. We exposed 11-day old rats to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 µg/g) to test the hypothesis that intrapulmonary inflammation increases expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β within respiratory-related brainstem regions. Intratracheal LPS resulted in a 32% increase in IL-1β protein expression in the medulla oblongata. In situ hybridization showed increased intensity of IL-1β mRNA but no change in neuronal numbers. Co-localization experiments showed that hypoglossal neurons express IL-1β mRNA and immunostaining showed a 43% increase in IL-1β protein-expressing cells after LPS exposure. LPS treatment also significantly increased microglial cell numbers though they did not express IL-1β mRNA. LPS-induced brainstem expression of neuronal IL-1β mRNA and protein may have implications for our understanding of the vulnerability of neonatal respiratory control in response to a peripheral pro-inflammatory stimulus. PMID:23648475

  6. In-situ spectroscopic investigation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to a scrapie-hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Janina; Lasch, Peter; Beekes, Michael; Naumann, Dieter

    2002-03-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), such as BSE in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man are a group of fatal infectious diseases of the central nervous system that are far from being fully understood. Presuming the pathological changes to originate from small disease-specific compositional and structural modifications at the molecular level, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used to achieve insight into biochemical parameters underlying pathogenesis. We have developed an FTIR microspectroscopy-based strategy which, as a combination of image reconstruction and multivariate pattern recognition methods, permitted the comparison of identical substructures in the cerebellum of healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamsters in the terminal stage of the disease. Here we present FTIR data about the pathological changes of scrapie-infected and normal tissue of the gray matter structures stratum granulosum and stratum moleculare. IR spectroscopy was also applied to tissue pieces of the medulla oblongata of infected and control Syrian hamsters. Mapping data were analyzed with cluster analysis and imaging methods. We found variations in the spectra of the infected tissue, which are due to changes in carbohydrates, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and proteins.

  7. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Conte, Giorgio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ' L. Mangiagalli' , Milan (Italy); Rizzuti, Tommaso [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Pathology Unit, Milan (Italy); Triulzi, Fabio [Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Neuroradiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Milan (Italy)

    2018-01-15

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  8. Effects of fluoxetine on the rat brain in the forced swimming test: a [F-18]FDG micro-PET imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Pyo; Lee, So-Hee; Park, Chan-Woong; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2009-02-13

    We used the [F-18]FDG micro-PET neuroimaging to examine the effects of fluoxetine on brain activity in rats and on their behavioral response in the forced swimming test (FST). In the first experiment, the rats were administered doses of fluoxetine (10 or 20mg/kg) 24, 19 and 1h before the rat brains were scanned. Fluoxetine induced strong activation of the dorsal hippocampus and the deactivation of the inferior colliculus, medulla oblongata, and prelimbic cortex in a dose-dependent manner. These results seemed to be related with the changes in 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels after selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor treatments. In the second experiment, the changes in glucose metabolism in the test session were measured after fluoxetine was given between pre-test and test sessions of the FST. Fluoxetine administration significantly decreased immobility behavior compared with saline administration. At the same time, the activity of the insular/piriform cortex decreased significantly. In contrast, the extent of cerebellar activation increased. The glucose metabolism of the dorsal hippocampus also increased, which suggests that post-stress changes in the facilitation of hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission lead to decreased immobilization in the FST.

  9. Effect of edaravone on acute brainstem-cerebellar infarction with vertigo and sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuta; Yabe, Takao; Okada, Kazunari; Nakamura, Yuka

    2014-06-01

    We report 2 cases with acute brainstem and brainstem-cerebellar infarction showed improvement of their signs and symptoms after administration of edaravone. Case 1, a 74-year-old woman who experienced sudden vertigo, also had dysarthria and left hemiplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal region in the right ventrolateral medulla oblongata. The patient's vertigo and hemiplegia improved completely after treatment. Case 2, a 50-year-old man who experienced sudden vertigo and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), developed dysarthria after admission. MRI revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed dissection of the basilar artery and occlusion of the right anterior inferior cerebellar artery. The patient's vertigo and hearing remarkably improved. We have described 2 patients whose early symptoms were vertigo and sudden SNHL, but who were later shown to have ischemic lesions of the central nervous system. Edaravone is neuroprotective drug with free radical-scavenging actions. Free radicals in the ear are responsible for ischemic damage. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, may be useful in the treatment of vertigo and SNHL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serotonin-related FEV gene variant in the sudden infant death syndrome is a common polymorphism in the African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbelt, Kevin G; Barger, Melissa A; Paterson, David S; Holm, Ingrid A; Haas, Elisabeth A; Krous, Henry F; Kinney, Hannah C; Markianos, Kyriacos; Beggs, Alan H

    2009-12-01

    An important subset of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is associated with multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in regions of the medulla oblongata. The mouse ortholog of the fifth Ewing variant gene (FEV) is critical for 5-HT neuronal development. A putatively rare intronic variant [IVS2-191_190insA, here referred to as c.128-(191_192)dupA] has been reported as a SIDS-associated mutation in an African-American population. We tested this association in an independent dataset: 137 autopsied cases (78 SIDS, 59 controls) and an additional 296 control DNA samples from Coriell Cell Repositories. In addition to the c.128-(191_192)dupA variant, we observed an associated single-base deletion [c.128-(301-306)delG] in a subset of the samples. Neither of the two FEV variants showed significant association with SIDS in either the African-American subgroup or the overall cohort. Although we found a significant association of c.128-(191_192)dupA with SIDS when San Diego Hispanic SIDS cases were compared with San Diego Hispanic controls plus Mexican controls (p = 0.04), this became nonsignificant after multiple testing correction. Among Coriell controls, 33 of 99 (33%) African-American and 0 of 197 (0%) of the remaining controls carry the polymorphism (c.128-(191_192)dupA). The polymorphism seems to be a common, likely nonpathogenic, variant in the African-American population.

  11. Magnetic resonance angiography in 12 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira; Hashizume, Yoshio; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in 12 patients with Wallenberg's syndrome (WS) in chronic stage to investigate the lesion of the vertebral artery (VA). The laterality of infarction in the medulla oblongata was confirmed with MRI; the right in four patients and the left in eight. In this study, time-of-flight MRA was evaluated. Coronal and OM sections in MRA were examined, because the former is useful to observe asymmetry and curve of the cervical VA, and the latter is useful to observe asymmetry and stenosis of the intracranial VA. In nine out of 12 patients, the ipsilateral VA was rather hypoplastic compared to the contralateral VA, and the flow of the hypoplastic VA stopped before and after entering the intracranial region. The contralateral VA of the hypoplastic cases showed curve in the neck in five patients and stenosis in the intracranial portion in one patient. A comparative study was conducted between vertebral angiogram (VAG) and MRA in four patients. Both VAG and MRA were useful in detecting hypoplasia and stoppage of the flow. It was considered that VA hypoplasia is frequently responsible for WS, and that MRA is useful in screening the vascular lesion as a non-invasive procedure to reveal changes of the bilateral VA. (author)

  12. Clinical analysis of the outcome of patients with brainstem hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Hirohiko; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors in patients with brainstem hemorrhage, we analyzed their clinical symptoms and laboratory data on admission to our hospital. In 70 patients with brainstem hemorrhage (51 men and 19 women aged 29-93, with a mean of 59 gears) who had been admitted to our hospital from 1995 to 2000, we statistically evaluated the association of the outcome with their age and clinical symptoms on admission, blood glucose levels and white blood counts within 6 hours of admission, and the volume and extent of hematoma, concomitant hydrocephalus, and intraventricular perforation on admission CT scans. The mortality tended to be higher, but not significantly (P=0.07), in patients aged 70 years or older (83%) than in those aged less than 70 years (55%). Quadriplegia or decerebrate rigidity (P 2 or higher (P<0.01) on admission were significantly correlated with the prognosis. Hematoma volumes of 6 ml or larger on CT scans were most strongly correlated with the prognosis (P<0.001). Central hematoma and hematoma with extension to the midbrain, thalamus, or medulla oblongata (P<0.05), as well as hemorrhage complicated by hydrocephalus or intraventricular perforation (P<0.01), were correlated with the prognosis. (author)

  13. Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Manoel; Sacramento, Gielson A; Khouri, Ricardo; do Rosário, Mateus S; Costa, Federico; Archanjo, Gracinda; Santos, Luciane A; Nery, Nivison; Vasilakis, Nikos; Ko, Albert I; de Almeida, Antonio R P

    2016-02-01

    The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

  14. Organisation and functional role of the brain angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Llorens-Cortes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS are present in the brain led investigators to postulate the existence of a local brain RAS. Supporting this, angiotensin immunoreactive neurones have been visualised in the brain. Two major pathways were described: a forebrain pathway which connects circumventricular organs to the median preoptic nucleus, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, and a second pathway connecting the hypothalamus to the medulla oblongata. Blood-brain-barrier deficient circumventricular organs are rich in angiotensin II (Ang II receptors. By activating these receptors, circulating Ang II may act on central cardiovascular centres via angiotensinergic neurones, providing a link between peripheral and central Ang II systems. Among the effector peptides of the brain RAS, Ang II and angiotensin III (Ang III have the same affinity for type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors. When injected into the brain, both peptides increase blood pressure (BP, water intake and pituitary hormone release and may modify learning and memory. Since Ang II is converted in vivo to Ang III, the nature of the true effector is unknown. This review summarises new insights into the predominant role of brain Ang III in the control of BP and underlines the fact that brain aminopeptidase A, the enzyme forming central Ang III, could constitute a putative central therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.

  15. A 17 year-old girl with a demyelinating disease requiring mechanical ventilation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsenos Chrysostomos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demyelinating diseases cause destruction of the myelin sheath, while axons are relatively spared. Pathologically, demyelination can be the result of an inflammatory process, viral infection, acquired metabolic derangement and ischemic insult. Three diseases that can cause inflammatory demyelination of the CNS are: Multiple sclerosis (MS, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM and Acute hemorrhagic leucoencephalitis. Differentiation is not always easy and there is considerable overlaping. Data about adults with acute demyelination requiring ICU admission is limited. Case presentation A 17 year old Greek female was hospitalised in the ICU because of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. She had a history of febrile disease one month before, acute onset of paraplegia, diplopia, progressive arm weakness and dyspnea. Her consciousness was not impaired. A demyelinating central nervous system (CNS disease, possibly post infectious encephalomyelitis (ADEM was the underlying condition. The MRI of the brain disclosed diffused expanded cerebral lesions involving the optic nerve, basal ganglia cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata. There was also extended involvement of the cervical and thoracic part of the spinal cord. CSF leukocyte count was elevated with lymphocyte predominance. The patient required mechanical ventilation for two months. Then she was transferred to a rehabilitation centre. Three years later she remains paraplegic. Since then she has not suffered any other demyelination attack. Conclusions Demyelinating diseases can cause acute respiratory failure when the spinal cord is affected. Severe forms of these diseases, making necessary ICU admission, is less frequently reported. Intensivists should be aware of the features of these rare diseases.

  16. Neuromyelitis optica accompanied by nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune-related pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhangBao, Jingzi; Zhou, Lei; Lu, Jiahong; Xi, Jianying; Zhao, Chongbo; Quan, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) associated with nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune-related pancytopenia has not been reported previously. We report herein a young woman who initially presented with bilateral blurring of vision and numbness in her hands. MRI disclosed multiple white matter lesions and a long cervical spinal cord lesion extending to the medulla oblongata. Serum aquaporin-4 antibody was positive and the patient was diagnosed with NMO. While in the hospital, she presented with hypoproteinemia and heavy proteinuria, meeting the diagnostic criteria of nephrotic syndrome. After high-dose methylprednisolone treatment, her vision improved significantly and urine protein quantity decreased. However, the patient subsequently developed severe pancytopenia with a positive Coombs' test. Thrombocytopenia finally led to uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding as the direct cause of the patient's death. This case illustrates the extremely rare condition of concurrence of NMO, nephrotic syndrome, and autoimmune pancytopenia in one patient, which suggests the involvement of organs beyond the central nervous system in NMO spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodaa, Saleh N; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Al-Basher, Gadah I; Wang, Zun Yao

    2016-02-04

    Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.

  18. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  19. Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Schapira, Andrea; Anderson, Mark; Clothier, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods. © 2014 The Author(s).

  20. Dynamic neural networking as a basis for plasticity in the control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, G; Armour, J A; Zamir, M

    2013-01-21

    A model is proposed in which the relationship between individual neurons within a neural network is dynamically changing to the effect of providing a measure of "plasticity" in the control of heart rate. The neural network on which the model is based consists of three populations of neurons residing in the central nervous system, the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system, and the intrinsic cardiac nervous system. This hierarchy of neural centers is used to challenge the classical view that the control of heart rate, a key clinical index, resides entirely in central neuronal command (spinal cord, medulla oblongata, and higher centers). Our results indicate that dynamic networking allows for the possibility of an interplay among the three populations of neurons to the effect of altering the order of control of heart rate among them. This interplay among the three levels of control allows for different neural pathways for the control of heart rate to emerge under different blood flow demands or disease conditions and, as such, it has significant clinical implications because current understanding and treatment of heart rate anomalies are based largely on a single level of control and on neurons acting in unison as a single entity rather than individually within a (plastically) interconnected network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S. Khanzada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BPD and schizophrenia (SCH show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes, BPD (290 genes and SCH (560 genes. Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways. Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0, Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2, and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1. Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1, thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0 and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0 with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2. Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction.

  2. Regional brain distribution of toluene in rats and in a human autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameno, Kiyoshi; Kiriu, Takahiro; Fuke, Chiaki; Ameno, Setsuko; Shinohara, Toyohiko; Ijiri, Iwao (Kagawa Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Forensic Medicine)

    1992-02-01

    Toluene concentrations in 9 brain regions of acutely exposed rats and that in 11 brain regions of a human case who inhaled toluene prior to death are described. After exposure to toluene by inhalation (2000 or 10 000 ppm) for 0.5 h or by oral dosing (400 mg/kg.), rats were killed by decapitation 0.5 and 4 h after onset of inhalation and 2 and 10 h after oral ingestion. After each experimental condition the highest range of brain region/blood toluene concentration ratio (BBCR) was in the brain stem regions (2.85-3.22) such as the pons and medulla oblongata, the middle range (1.77-2.12) in the midbrain, thalamus, caudate-putamen, hypothalamus and cerebellum, and the lowest range (1.22-1.64) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These distribution patterns were quite constant. Toluene concentration in various brain regions were unevenly distributed and directly related blood levels. In a human case who had inhaled toluene vapor, the distribution among brain regions was relatively similar to that in rats, the highest concentration ratios being in the corpus callosum (BBCR:2.66) and the lowest in the hippocampus (BBCR:1.47). (orig.).

  3. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)- and Aromatic-L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC)-Immunoreactive Neurons of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Motoharu; Yamada, Keiki; Nagatsu, Ikuko; Iwasa, Mineo; Takeuchi, Terumi; Uematsu, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris. In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus. The distribution of AADC-IR neurons was not as extensive in the marmoset as it is in rats. However, these neurons were located in the marmoset, but not the rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, AADC-IR neurons that are present in the human striatum were absent in that of the marmoset. The present results indicate that the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of the common marmoset is unique and different from that in humans and rodents. PMID:17653300

  4. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  5. Trpv4 involvement in the sex differences in blood pressure regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Makiko; Yamanaka, Ko; Miyamoto, Yasunori; Waki, Hidefumi; Gouraud, Sabine

    2018-04-01

    Arterial pressure (AP) is lower in premenopausal women than in men of a similar age. Premenopausal women exhibit a lower sympathetic activity and a greater baroreceptor reflex; however, mechanisms controlling sex differences in blood pressure regulation are not well understood. We hypothesized that different neuronal functions in the cardiovascular centers of the brains of men and women may contribute to the sex difference in cardiovascular homeostasis. Our previous studies on male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive counterparts, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, revealed that the gene-expression profile of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a region of the medulla oblongata that is pivotal for regulating the set point of AP, is strongly associated with AP. Thus, we hypothesized that gene-expression profiles in the rat NTS are related to sex differences in AP regulation. Because female SHRs clearly exhibit lower AP than their male counterparts of a similar age, we investigated whether SHR NTS exhibits sex differences in gene expression by using microarray and RT-qPCR experiments. The transcript for transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 ( Trpv4) was found to be upregulated in SHR NTS in females compared with that in males. The channel was expressed in neurons and glial cells within NTS. The TRPV4 agonist 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD) decreased blood pressure when injected into NTS of rats. These findings suggest that altered TRPV4 expression might be involved in the sex differences in blood pressure regulation.

  6. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  7. Beam path toxicity in candidate organs-at-risk: Assessment of radiation emetogenesis for patients receiving head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Gunn, G. Brandon; Colen, Rivka R.; Kantor, Micheal E.; Mohamed, Abdallah S.R.; Schoultz-Henley, Sara; Mavroidis, Paniyotis; Frank, Steven J.; Garden, Adam S.; Beadle, Beth M.; Morrison, William H.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Fuller, Clifton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate potential dose–response relationship between radiation-associated nausea and vomiting (RANV) reported during radiotherapy and candidate nausea/vomiting-associated regions of interest (CNV-ROIs) in head and neck (HNC) squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and material: A total of 130 patients treated with IMRT with squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck were evaluated. For each patient, CNV-ROIs were segmented manually on planning CT images. Clinical on-treatment RANV data were reconstructed by a review of the records for all patients. Dosimetric data parameters were recorded from dose–volume histograms. Nausea and vomiting reports were concatenated as a single binary “Any N/V” variable, and as a “CTC-V2+” variable. Results: The mean dose to CNV-ROIs was higher for patients experiencing RANV events. For patients receiving IMRT alone, a dose–response effect was observed with varying degrees of magnitude, at a statistically significant level for the area postrema, brainstem, dorsal vagal complex, medulla oblongata, solitary nucleus, oropharyngeal mucosa and whole brain CNV-ROIs. Conclusion: RANV is a common therapy-related morbidity facing patients receiving HNC radiotherapy, and, for those receiving radiotherapy-alone, is associated with modifiable dose to specific CNS structures

  8. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  9. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal neurological disorders involving the brainstem: neurosonographic approaches through the squamous suture and the foramen magnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Yi-Fang [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan); Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (Taiwan); Lin, Yuh-Jey [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); Chang, Ying-Chao [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Children Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Huang, Chao-Ching [National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Tainan (Taiwan); National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Department of Institute of Molecular Medicine, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2005-09-01

    Brainstem damage which often indicates a critical condition is usually underestimated by trans-anterior-fontanel neurosonography (NS) owing to the far-field limitations. Instead, NS alternately scanning through the squamous suture of the temporal bones and the foramen magnum could provide a better visualization of the brainstem structures. The NS characteristics of brainstem lesions caused by various neonatal neurological disorders, such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), metabolic encephalopathy, birth trauma and bacterial meningoencephalitis, can be depicted at the acute stage. An echogenic change in the midbrain was found in patients with HIE or metabolic encephalopathy. In addition to the echogenic change, bilateral transtentorial temporal lobe herniation distorting the contour of the midbrain was observed in a patient with group B streptococcus meningoencephalitis, whereas echogenic changes at the level of the pons and/or the medulla oblongata, mainly localized in the dorsal part, could be observed in newborns with severe HIE, maple syrup urine disease or birth trauma. In this pictorial assay, we demonstrate the feasibility of NS imaging in evaluating the entire brainstem structure of critically ill neonates in the near field and illustrate the characteristic features of brainstem involvement in various neonatal neurological disorders along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging correlation. (orig.)

  11. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathological lesions in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of ddY mice with street rabies virus (1088 strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Yamada, Kentaro; Shiwa, Nozomi; Inoue, Satoshi; Nishizono, Akira; Park, Chun-Ho

    2017-06-10

    Most studies on rabies virus pathogenesis in animal models have employed fixed rabies viruses, and the results of those employing street rabies viruses have been inconsistent. Therefore, to clarify the pathogenesis of street rabies virus (1088 strain) in mice, 10 6 focus forming units were inoculated into the right hindlimb of ddY mice (6 weeks, female). At 3 days postinoculation (DPI), mild inflammation was observed in the hindlimb muscle. At 5 DPI, ganglion cells in the right lumbosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia showed chromatolysis. Axonal degeneration and inflammatory cells increased with infection progress in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia. Right hindlimb paralysis was observed from 7 DPI, which progressed to quadriparalysis. However, no pathological changes were observed in the ventral horn and root fibers of the spinal cord. Viral antigen was first detected in the right hindlimb muscle at 3 DPI, followed by the right lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, dorsal horn of spinal cord, left red nuclei, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex (M1 area) at 5 DPI. These results suggested that the 1088 virus ascended the lumbosacral spinal cord via mainly afferent fibers at early stage of infection and moved to cerebral cortex (M1 area) using descending spinal tract. Additionally, we concluded that significant pathological changes in mice infected with 1088 strain occur in the sensory tract of the spinal cord; this selective susceptibility results in clinical features of the disease.

  13. Topological characteristics of brainstem lesions in clinically definite and clinically probable cases of multiple sclerosis: An MRI-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainin, M.; Omasits, M.; Reisner, T.; Neuhold, A.; Wicke, L.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated lesions in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres and confluent lesions at the borders of the lateral ventricles as seen on MRI are both considered acceptable paraclinical evidence for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Similar changes are, however, also found in vascular diseases of the brain. We therefore aimed at identifying those additional traits in the infratentorial region, which in our experience are not frequently found in cerebrovascular pathology. We evaluated MR brain scans of 68 patients and found pontine lesions in 71% of cases with a clinically definite diagnosis (17 out of 24) and in 33% of cases with a probable diagnosis (14 out of 43). Lesions in the medulla oblongata were present in 50% and 16%, respectively, and in the midbrain in 25% and 7%, respectively. With rare exceptions all brainstem lesions were contiguous with the cisternal or ventricular cerebrospinal fluid spaces. In keeping with post-mortem reports the morphological spectrum ranged from large confluent patches to solitary, well delineated paramedian lesions or discrete linings of the cerebrospinal fluid border zones and were most clearly depicted from horizontal and sagittal T2 weighted SE-sequences. If there is a predilection for the outer or inner surfaces of the brainstem, such lesions can be considered an additional typical feature of multiple sclerosis and can be more reliably weighted as paraclinical evidence for a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Upregulation of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/Gb3 and interleukin-1β expression in the brain of EHEC patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurologic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Christian; Krasemann, Susanne; Löffler, Judith; Püschel, Klaus; Magnus, Tim; Glatzel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in northern Germany, which mainly affected adults. Out of 3842 patients, 104 experienced a complicated course comprising hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurological complications, including cognitive impairment, aphasia, seizures and coma. T2 hyperintensities on magnet resonance imaging (MRI) bilateral in the thalami and in the dorsal pons were found suggestive of a metabolic toxic effect. Five of the 104 patients died because of toxic heart failure. In the present study, the post-mortem neuropathological findings of the five EHEC patients are described. Histological investigation of 13 brain regions (frontal, temporal, occipital cortex, corpora mammillaria, thalamus, frontal operculum, corona radiata, gyrus angularis, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemisphere) showed no thrombosis, ischemic changes or fresh infarctions. Further, no changes were found in electron microscopy. In comparison with five age-matched controls, slightly increased activation of microglia and a higher neuronal expression of interleukin-1β and of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/globotriaosylceramide 3 was observed. The findings were confirmed by Western blot analyses. It is suggested that CD77/globotriaosylceramide upregulation may be a consequence to Shiga toxin exposure, whereas increased interleukin-1β expression may point to activation of inflammatory cascades. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  15. Effect of sibutramine on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and selected oxidative biomarkers on brain regions of female rats in the presence of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David C; García, Ernestina H; Mejía, Gerardo B; Olguín, Hugo J; Jiménez, Francisca T; Soto, Erick B; Del Angel, Daniel S; Aparicio, Liliana C

    2012-05-01

    A number of drugs, like sibutramine, which are used clinically in weight control, act on serotonergic metabolism. However, their relation with zinc and free radical (FR) production in central nervous system remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sibutramine and zinc on FR production. Female Wistar rats (about 250 g) were used in this study. The animals received 400 μg/kg of zinc and 10 mg/kg of sibutramine intraperitoneally every 36 hr for 15 days. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and their brains used for the measurement of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ), calcium and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, all by means of validated methods. Corporal weight and food consumption were found to be decreased in the zinc/sibutramine group. TBARS decreased in cortex, hemispheres and medulla oblongata. GSH decreased in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum in the sibutramine group. Zinc given alone and in combination with sibutramine decreased H(2) O(2) concentration in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum but increased calcium and 5-HIAA concentration in all brain regions. Our results suggest that sibutramine and zinc are associated with weight loss, an effect that was more pronounced in the group treated with both drugs. Reduction in oxidative stress may be involved in these effects. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  16. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  17. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High resolution post-mortem MRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brain in the second trimester of gestation. Normal foetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scola, Elisa; Palumbo, Giovanni; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria; Conte, Giorgio; Boito, Simona; Persico, Nicola; Rizzuti, Tommaso; Triulzi, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    To describe normal foetal brain development with high resolution post-mortem MRI (PMMRI) of non-fixed foetal brains. We retrospectively collected PMMRIs of foetuses without intracranial abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations studied after a termination of pregnancy due to extracranial abnormalities or after a spontaneous intrauterine death. PMMRIs were performed on a 3-T scanner without any fixation and without removing the brain from the skull. All PMMRIs were evaluated in consensus by two neuroradiologists. Our analysis included ten PMMRIs (median gestational age (GA): 21 weeks; range: 17-28 weeks). At 19 and 20 weeks of GA, the corticospinal tracts are recognisable in the medulla oblongata, becoming less visible from 21 weeks. Prior to 20 weeks the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) is more hypointense than surrounding deep grey nuclei; starting from 21 weeks the PLIC becomes isointense, and is hyperintense at 28 weeks. From 19-22 weeks, the cerebral hemispheres show transient layers: marginal zone, cortical plate, subplate, and intermediate, subventricular and germinal zones. PMMRI of non-fixed in situ foetal brains preserves the natural tissue contrast and skull integrity. We assessed foetal brain development in a small cohort of foetuses, focusing on 19-22 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  19. Radiation-induced myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenshirt, H [Heidelberg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    1975-10-01

    12 cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after /sup 60/Co teletherapy are reported on. Among these were 10 thoracal lesions, one cerviothoracal lesion, and one lesion of the medulla oblongata. In 9 cases, Hodgkin's disease had been the primary disease, tow patients had been irradiated because of suspected vertebral metastases of cancer of the breast, and one patient had suffered from a glomus tumour of the petrous bone. The spinal doses had exceeded the tolerance doses recommended in the relevant literature. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the course of the disease. The latency periods between the end of the radiotherapy and the onset of the neurological symptons varied from 6 to 16 mouths and were very constant in 7 cases with 6 to 9 months. The segmental height of the lesion corresponded to the level of irradiation. The presenting symptons of radiation-induced myelopathy are buruing dysaesthesias and Brown-Sequard's paralysis which may develop into transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia still accompanied by dissociated perception disorders. The disease developed intermittently. Disturbances of the bladder function are frequent. The fluid is normal in most cases. Myelographic examinations were made in 8 cases. 3 cases developed into stationary cases exhibiting. Brown-Sequard syndrome, while 9 patients developed transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia. 3 patients have died; antopsy findings are given for two of these. In the pathogenesis of radiation-induced myelopathy, the vascular factor is assumed to be of decisive importance.

  20. Neurovascular compression of cranial nerves: CT and MRI findings; Evaluacion de las compresiones neurovasculares intracraneales: hallazgos en TC y RM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Llanos, Julio; Sinner, Ricardo; Nagel, Jorge [Instituto Gamma, Rosario (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Purpose: The compression of a nervous structure by an aberrant vessel may be asymptomatic or produce an important symptoms, in these cases CT and MRI show relevant information. Materials and Methods: Between January 1998 and March 2001, we studied 27 patients: 8 with trigeminal neuralgia, 7 with hemi facial spasm, 4 vertigo and tinnitus, 2 hemianopsia, 1 with neuralgia of the amygdalin fossa, 1 with bitonal voice, 1 with tongue deviation with fascicular movements, 2 essential hypertension and 1 with severe headache. All of them had a neurologic evaluation from 2 specialists and 2 neuro radiologists interpreted the results. Results: The CT and RMI images with special sequences allowed to prove the compression of the entry segments of the V, VII, IX, X and XII cranial nerves, of the optic chiasma and the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata in close relation with the vasopressor centre. Also they demonstrate a rare vessel in the Silvio aqueduct avoiding the normal flow of the CSF. Of the total of patients that were studied, 37% had surgical confirmation. Conclusion: CT and RMI are sensitive and specific methods for the detection of vascular compressions of nervous structures. (author)

  1. Neurovascular compression of cranial nerves: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Llanos, Julio; Sinner, Ricardo; Nagel, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The compression of a nervous structure by an aberrant vessel may be asymptomatic or produce an important symptoms, in these cases CT and MRI show relevant information. Materials and Methods: Between January 1998 and March 2001, we studied 27 patients: 8 with trigeminal neuralgia, 7 with hemi facial spasm, 4 vertigo and tinnitus, 2 hemianopsia, 1 with neuralgia of the amygdalin fossa, 1 with bitonal voice, 1 with tongue deviation with fascicular movements, 2 essential hypertension and 1 with severe headache. All of them had a neurologic evaluation from 2 specialists and 2 neuro radiologists interpreted the results. Results: The CT and RMI images with special sequences allowed to prove the compression of the entry segments of the V, VII, IX, X and XII cranial nerves, of the optic chiasma and the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata in close relation with the vasopressor centre. Also they demonstrate a rare vessel in the Silvio aqueduct avoiding the normal flow of the CSF. Of the total of patients that were studied, 37% had surgical confirmation. Conclusion: CT and RMI are sensitive and specific methods for the detection of vascular compressions of nervous structures. (author)

  2. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  3. Evidence for a high and a low sensitivity receptor site for radiation-induced vomiting in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.K.; Hugenholtz, H.; Kucharczyk, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ablation of the area postrema (AP) has been shown to prevent radiation-induced vomiting in the dog (induced by 6-8 By /sup 60/Co γ). In other species (cat, monkey) a higher dose of radiation is necessary to elicit emesis and visceral deafferentation has been more effective than AP ablation in preventing vomiting. The AP and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), an important visceral afferent terminus, are anatomically adjacent structures in the medulla oblongata. Aggressive AP ablation could affect the DMV. The author's removed the AP in 6 dogs. Previous work showed this surgery prevented vomiting following exposure to 6-8 Gy. To prove the lesion did not invade the underlying DMV, the animals were given a hypertonic saline gavage, to elicit vomiting via visceral receptors. Animals were later submitted to 15-20 Gy. Those with proved visceral afferent connections vomited. They conclude that the AP is the most sensitive site for the stimulation of radiation-induced vomiting and that a less sensitive visceral site also exists. Differences in the relative sensitivities of these 2 systems may account for published species differences

  4. Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to electrophysiologically assess the corticospinal tracts of adult rats and the recovery of motor function of their forelimbs after cervical cord hemisection. Of 39 adult rats used, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs of the forelimbs of 15 rats were evaluated, before they received left C5 segmental hemisection of the spinal cord, by stimulating the pyramid of the medulla oblongata on one side using an exciting microelectrode. All 15 rats exhibited contralateral electrical activity, but their CMAPs disappeared after hemisection. The remaining 24 rats received hemisection first, and CMAPs of 12 rats were assessed over time to study their recovery time. All of them exhibited electrical activity of the forelimbs in 4 weeks after surgery. The remaining 12 rats received additional right C2 segmental hemisection, and variation of CMAPs between before and after surgery was examined. The right side of the 12 rats that received the additional hemisection exhibited no electrical activity in response to the stimulation of the pyramids on both sides. These results suggest that changes in path between the resected and healthy sides, activation of the ventral corticospinal tracts, and propriospinal neurons were involved in the recovery of motor function after cervical cord injury.

  5. Serotonin Metabolites in the Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: In Search of a Biomarker of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognum, Ingvar J.; Tran, Hoa; Haas, Elisabeth A.; Hyland, Keith; Paterson, David S.; Haynes, Robin L.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Harty, Brian J.; Mena, Othon; Krous, Henry F.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical biomarkers are urgently needed in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to identify living infants at risk because it because it occurs without occurs without clinical warning. Previously, we reported multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in nuclei of the medulla oblongata that help mediate protective responses to homeostatic stressors. Here we test the hypothesis that 5-HT-related measures are abnormal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SIDS infants compared to autopsy controls, as a first step towards their assessment as diagnostic biomarkers of medullary pathology. Levels of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), the degradative products of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 57 SIDS and 29 non-SIDS autopsy cases. Tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr), the substrates of 5-HT and dopamine, respectively, were also measured. There were no significant differences in 5-HIAA, Trp, HVA, or Tyr levels between the SIDS and non-SIDS groups. These data preclude use of 5-HIAA, HVA, Trp or Tyr measurements as CSF biomarkers of 5-HT medullary pathology in infants at risk. They provide, however, important information about monoaminergic measurements in human CSF at autopsy and their developmental profile in infancy that is applicable to multiple pediatric disorders beyond SIDS. PMID:24423636

  6. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  7. Two cases of possible neuro-Sweet disease with meningoencephalitis as the initial manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Makimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases that were considered to be neuro-Sweet disease. They initially manifested with meningoencephalitis and no skin lesions, and rapidly improved with corticosteroid therapy. In both cases, patients complained of meningitic symptoms such as fever and headache, and HLA-B54 and -Cw1 turned out to be positive over the clinical course. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased levels of lymphocytes and protein. In case #1, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion-weighted images (DWI showed high-intensity signals in the right dorsal medulla oblongata, bilateral dorsal midbrain, and left thalamus. In case #2, FLAIR and DWI showed high-intensity signals in the bilateral cerebellar cortex and left caudate nucleus. Symptoms and MRI images were markedly improved in both cases after corticosteroid pulse therapy. According to published diagnostic criteria, these 2 cases were considered possible neuro-Sweet disease. These cases suggest that the combination of meningoencephalitis and HLA specificity is important to consider the possibility of neuro-Sweet disease, even without skin lesions.

  8. A clinical study of brainstem infarction identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-04-01

    We conducted a clinical study of 155 cases that were confirmed to have brainstem infarctions on MRI (T[sub 1]-weighted image showed a low signal and T[sub 2]-weighted image showed a high signal, measuring in excess of 2 x 2 mm). The majority of the brainstem infarction was located in the pontine base in 132 cases (85.2%). Of these, 19 cases had double lesions including infarctions in the pontine base. Second infarctions frequently occurred in the cerebral peduncle or medical medulla oblongata, unilateral to the pontine infarctions. In addition to 98 symptomatic cases, there were 57 cases of 'asymptomatic' brainstem infarction. They comprised 24 cases accompanying other symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases in the supratentorium and 33 cases of transient subjective complaints such as headache or vertigo-dizziness. Complication by supratentorial infarctions was significantly frequent in cases of brainstem infarction (p<0.001), 122 of 155 cases (78.7%), especially in the pontine base (88.6%); while in the control cases (without brainstem infarction) only 65 of 221 cases (29.4%). These findings are considered to show the widespread progress of arteriosclerosis in brainstem infarction, especially in ones in the pontine base. (author).

  9. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  10. Autoradiography of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): Uptake in the monoaminergic pathways and in melanin containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyden, A; Lindquist, N G; Bondesson, U; Larsson, B S; Olsson, L -I

    1985-01-01

    A recently discovered neurotoxic compound, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, has been found to cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome in man and monkey, but not in laboratory animals such as rat, mouse and guinea pig. MPTP seems to selectively destroy the melanin containing dopaminergic cells in pars compacta of substantia nigra. Lower mammalian species do not have melanin in these cells, which indicates that the presence of neuromelanin may be of importance for the development of MPTP-induced lesions. By means of whole-body autoradiography of TH-MPTP in mice, accumulation and retention was observed in the dopaminergic pathways, in locus ceruleus and in structures in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. A high uptake was also seen in melanin-containing tissues such as in the eyes of pigmented mice. MPTP has earlier been found to have high affinity in vitro for dopamine melanin, which is similar to the pigment in substantia nigra. The typical features of the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity with destruction of pigmented nerve cells and development of parkinsonism may be due to accumulation adn retention of MPTP and its metabolites in these cells. In species with pigmented nerve cells, such as man and monkey, the accumulation may be much more pronounced because of the melanin affinity of MPTP and its metabolites. (author).

  11. Hypoxial death inferred from thermally induced injuries at upper lethal temperatures, in the banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus (LeSueur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombough, P J; Garside, E T

    1977-10-01

    Banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus (LeSueur), acclimated to 25/sup 0/C were subjected to upper lethal temperatures using a 10,000 min bioassay procedure. The incipient upper lethal temperature (LT/sub 50/) was about 34.5/sup 0/C. Histologic examination of heat-treated fish revealed no obvious injury to the heart, spleen, trunk musculature, eye, naris, integument, or digestive tract. Thermal stress induced progressive injury to the gills characterized by subepithelial edema, congestion of lamellar capillaries, and delamination of the respiratory epithelium from the pillar cell system. Areas of necrosis were observed in the lobus inferior of the hypothalamus and in the medulla oblongata. The pseudobranch epithelium was necrotic. Fatty change occurred in the liver. Acinar cells of the pancreas appeared autolytic and adjacent blood vessels damaged. Degenerative tubular changes and contracted glomerular tufts were noted in the kidney. The ovary was extremely temperature sensitive and displayed severe injury to oocytes and follicular cells after relatively short exposure to temperatures near the LT/sub 50/. It is proposed that primary thermally induced injury is to the gills. This results in abnormal gas exchange and osmoregulation and leads to pathologic changes in other tissues. Hypoxia of the central nervous system appears to be the ultimate cause of death.

  12. Pathogenesis of Granozan (ethylmercury chloride) poisoning in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardatova, A N; Yakusheva, O V

    1971-01-01

    This paper deals with the pathology of mercury poisoning in pigs aged 3-4 months, given daily 2 g Granozan (40 mg ethylmercury chloride) in compounded feed for up to 19 days, and also in pigs of various ages that developed mercury poisoning after consuming grain treated with Granozan. The pigs were killed and examined before the appearance of symptoms and also after acute and chronic mercury poisoning. The onset of mercury poisoning was characterized by anorexia, loss of weight, diarrhea, weakness and paralysis. The organs and tissues of animals killed 1-2 days before the appearance of symptoms (usually on day 14), or dying from mercury poisoning, contained the following amounts of accumulated Hg (mg per 100 g): kidneys 10.35, liver 4.3, muscles 1.36, spleen 1.38, pancreas 0.43, medulla oblongata 0.65, cerebellum 0.79, heart 0.75, mesenteric lymph nodes 0.71, submandibular salivary glands 0.59, stomach wall 0.69, and cecal wall 0.76. In subclinical cases the symptoms and lesions were absent, but the mercury content of organs and tissue was similar to that in animals dying from poisoning, i.e. (mg per 100g): kidneys 10.35, liver 4.3, muscles 1.36, and brain 0.8.

  13. Effect of ethanol on γ-aminobutyric acid in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassanova, M.; Tursky, T.; Homerova, D.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, aspartate, and glutamine was investigated using 14 C-labelled compounds. The level of GABA rose after both acute and chronic ethanol administration. In chronic experiments also the levels of glutamate, aspartate and glutamine were increased. In acute experiments the incorporation from glucose into the studied amino acids (neuronal compartment) increased, while in chronic experiments a decreasing trend was observed. In the glial compartment the incorporation increased only into glutamate and glutamine in acute experiments, while in chronic experiments a decreased incorporation into glutamine was recorded. The activities of three enzymes were studied in seven parts of the brain after acute ethanol administration. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase increased in the hypothalamus and brain cortex and decreased in the medulla oblongata. The activity of GABA transaminase did not change and the activity of glutamine synthetase decreased only in the hippocampus. In accordance with several other studies, the presented results show that ethanol interferes with the GABA system in the brain. It is suggested that the primary effect of ethanol is exerted on the cell membranes with preference for the regions connected with the GABA system. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 18 refs

  14. Effect of Acupuncture at LR3 on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in a Rat Model of Hypertension: A 18F-FDG-PET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the effect of acupuncture at LR3 on cerebral glucose metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We used 18F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET to examine the effects of acupuncture at LR3 on cerebral glucose metabolism in SHRs. SHRs were randomly allocated to receive no treatment (SHR group, needling at LR3 (SHR + LR3 group, or sham needling (SHR + sham group. Rats received 10 min acupuncture once per day for 7 days and were compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. Blood pressure (BP measurement and PET were performed after the first needling and the 7-day treatment period. BP was lower in the SHR + LR3 group compared to the other SHR groups between 30 and 60 min after the first needling and at 24 and 48 h after the 7-day treatment period. Glucose metabolism in the motor, sensory, and visual cortices was decreased in SHR group compared to WKY group. Needling at LR3 was associated with decreased glucose metabolism in the dorsal thalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus and with increased metabolism in the cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes, medulla oblongata, and sensory cortex compared to the SHR group. These findings suggest that LR3 acupuncture improves hypertension through a mechanism involving altered brain activation in SHRs.

  15. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T2 relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Lu Guangming; Zee Chishing

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T 2 relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T 2 relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T 2 -map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T 2 relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P 2 relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T 2 relaxation time.

  16. Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-kader, S.M.; Abdel-Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The oral administration of 1/5 LD 5 0 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl - ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T 3 and T 4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl - ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL - ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-traumatic syringomyelia and its surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nunomura, Mitsuru; Akino, Minoru; Koyanagi, Izumi; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Saito, Hisatoshi

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment. The subjects were 16 patients (13 men and 3 women) whose ages ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 42 years. Nine patients had delayed neurologic symptoms 2 years and 2 months through 32 years after spinal injuries. The site of initial spinal cord injury was the lower cervical region in 4 patients, the thoracic region in 8, and the upper lumbar region in 4. In all patients, post-traumatic syringomyelia was easy to diagnose on MRI. MRI showed the syrinx extending superiorly and/or inferiorly from the area of old trauma, sometimes extending to the medulla oblongata. In the cervical cord and the upper thoracic cord, the syrinx was unilaterally or bilaterally situated in the postero-lateral portion. Below the middle thoracic cord, the syrinx was centrally located. Surgery was performed in 6 patients. At an average follow up of 2 years and 9 months, both pain and numbness were relieved in all patients (100%) and neurologic symptoms improved in 5 patients (83%). Post-traumatic syringomyelia should be considered in all patients having delayed onset or aggravation of neurologic symptoms after spinal injury. MRI appears promising for the early diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia that can be treated favorably by surgical procedures. (N.K.).

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-traumatic syringomyelia and its surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nunomura, Mitsuru; Akino, Minoru; Koyanagi, Izumi; Abe, Hiroshi; Saito, Hisatoshi.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment. The subjects were 16 patients (13 men and 3 women) whose ages ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 42 years. Nine patients had delayed neurologic symptoms 2 years and 2 months through 32 years after spinal injuries. The site of initial spinal cord injury was the lower cervical region in 4 patients, the thoracic region in 8, and the upper lumbar region in 4. In all patients, post-traumatic syringomyelia was easy to diagnose on MRI. MRI showed the syrinx extending superiorly and/or inferiorly from the area of old trauma, sometimes extending to the medulla oblongata. In the cervical cord and the upper thoracic cord, the syrinx was unilaterally or bilaterally situated in the postero-lateral portion. Below the middle thoracic cord, the syrinx was centrally located. Surgery was performed in 6 patients. At an average follow up of 2 years and 9 months, both pain and numbness were relieved in all patients (100%) and neurologic symptoms improved in 5 patients (83%). Post-traumatic syringomyelia should be considered in all patients having delayed onset or aggravation of neurologic symptoms after spinal injury. MRI appears promising for the early diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia that can be treated favorably by surgical procedures. (N.K.)

  19. Studies of a Bulbospinal Pathway that Regulates Cardiovascular Function: Inhibition by GABA at the Ventral Medulla and Mediation by Spinal Cord Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-13

    rat. Neurosci. Abstr. 10:299. Meldrum , B.S. (1975) Epilepsy and gamma aminobutyric acid -mediated in- hibition. In: International Review of Neurobiology...Table 1 AGENTS THAT INDUCE CARDIOVASCULAR CHANGES WHEN TOPICALLY APPLIED TO OR MICROINJECTED NEAR THE VSMO acetylchol ine Y-aminobutyric acid ...va , 1981; Blessing and Reis, 1983; Keeler et _al_., 1984a Feldberg, 1976; Feldberg and Guertzenstein, 1976 Table 1 (continuation) kainic acid

  20. 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not 2-mercaptoacetate increases Fos-like immunoreactivity in adrenal medulla and sympathetic preganglionic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, S; Scheurink, A; Singer, LK

    1995-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and 2-mercaptoacetate (MA) are drugs that competetively inhibit metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, respectively, Both 2DG and MA stimulate food intake, In addition, 2DG-induced glucoprivation is a known stimulus for adrenomedullary secretion, However, very little is known

  1. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH 4 ) 4 ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn 2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn 2+ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous 31 P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35 0 , and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn 2+ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn 2+ to N 6 and N 7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme

  2. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, H L; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H

    2016-01-01

    during long-term culture has received only little attention. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Two to ten human pre-antral follicles were encapsulated together within an alginate bead and cultured with or without ovarian interstitial tissue for either 7 days or >30 days. Follicles were cultured in either 20...... interregional project ReproHigh are thanked for having funded this study; and the Key Program of Medical Science and Technology Innovation of Nanjing Military Area Command in China (14ZX06; 11Z010). They had no role in the study design, collection and analysis of data, data interpretation or in writing...

  3. Glucocorticoid impairs growth of kidney outer medulla and accelerates loop of Henle differentiation and urinary concentrating capacity in rat kidney development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Madsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Finn Thomsen

    2006-01-01

    In the rat, urinary concentrating ability develops progressively during the third postnatal (P) week and nearly reaches adult level at weaning (P21) governed by a rise in circulating glucocorticoid. Elevated extracellular osmolality can lead to growth arrest of epithelial cells. We tested...

  4. /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacD. Stewart, J.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-06-28

    /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous /sup 31/P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35/sup 0/, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn/sup 2 +/ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn/sup 2 +/ to N/sub 6/ and N/sub 7/ are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.

  5. Normal myelination of the child brain on MRI - a meta-analysis; Die normale Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in der MRT - eine Metaanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, M.; Grodd, W. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Kraegeloh-Mann, I. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Entwicklungsneurologie und Neuropaediatrie

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: To establish age limits for the assessment of normal myelination of the brain on T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) images. Method: Comparison of previous publications (Barkovich et al. 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al. 1990, Hittmair et al. 1994, Martin et al. 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al. 1998, Staudt et al. 1993/1994, Stricker et al. 1990). Results: Despite technical and methodological differences, these studies principally agreed on the timing of myelination for most regions of the brain. Thus, a common timetable could be established: At 1 month, myelin is visible on both T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w in the medulla oblongata, tegmentum pontis, cerebellar peduncles and vermis, quadrigeminal plate, decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thalamus, posterior limb of internal capsule, optic radiation, corona radiata. Thereafter, the myelin-typical signal in the different regions of the brain should be present at the following ages (M=months): Anterior limb of internal capsule (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w), splenium of corpus callosum (4 M: T{sub 1}w; 6 M: T{sub 2}w), genu of corpus callosum (6 M: T{sub 1}w; 8 M: T{sub 2}w), centrum semiovale (2 M: T{sub 1}w; 7 M: T{sub 2}w). Branching of myelin into the gyri of the telencephalon (=arborization) appears at the latest at: occipital lobe (5 M: T{sub 1}w; 12 M: T{sub 2}w) and frontal lobe (7 M: T{sub 1}w; 14 M: T{sub 2}w). Conclusion: These extracted age limits can be used for a more reliable assessment of myelination than the time-tables from a single study. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ermittlung von Altersgrenzen fuer die MR-tomographisch erfassbare Myelinisierung des kindlichen Gehirns in T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichteten Aufnahmen (T{sub 1}w, T{sub 2}w). Methode: Vergleich bisher publizierter Zeitangaben (Barkovich et al 1988, Grodd 1993, Hayakawa et al 1990, Hittmair et al 1994, Martin et al 1988/1990/1991, Nakagawa et al 1998, Staudt et al 1993/1994, Stricker et al 1990

  6. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchian, Souren; Lee, Kian Leong; Kåhlin, Jessica; Ebberyd, Anette; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I.

    2017-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.

  7. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg [Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore (Singapore); Kåhlin, Jessica [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Ebberyd, Anette [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Poellinger, Lorenz [Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I. [Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.

  8. GnRH在性成熟高白鲑神经系统及性腺中的分布定位%An Immunocytochemical Localization of GnRH in the Nerve System and Gonad of Mature Coregonus peled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉洁; 贾斌; 柳建新; 李志远; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    摘要:应用免疫组织化学方法,系统观察性成熟期高白鲑(Coregonus peled)神经系统及性腺中的促性腺激素释放激素( GnRH)的分布情况。结果表明,GnRH在大脑、小脑、中脑、脊髓、延髓中免疫阳性反应明显,且主要分布在神经元内。GnRH免疫阳性细胞在卵巢和精巢中均有分布,而且其阳性部位在卵巢主要分布于小生长期卵母细胞;在精巢中主要分布于间质细胞和精原细胞中。本文讨论了GnRH直接或间接参与高白鲑性腺发育成熟调节的可能性。%Immunocytochemical staining technique was used to study the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nervous system and gonad of Coregonus peled. The results showed that there were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the cerebrum,cerebellum,diencephalon,medulla oblongata,and spinal cord. There were GnRH immunoreactive endocrine cells in the ovary and testis. The positive staining was observed mainly in the small growing oocyte, and in the interstitial cells and spermatogonia. The possible physiological function and morphological evidence of GnRH regulation on the development of gonad in C. Peled were discussed.

  9. Effect of neonatal capsaicin treatment on neural activity in the medullary dorsal horn of neonatal rats evoked by electrical stimulation to the trigeminal afferents: an optical, electrophysiological, and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, S

    2001-07-06

    To elucidate which glutamate receptors, NMDA or non-NMDA, have the main role in synaptic transmission via unmyelinated afferents in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn), and to examine the early functional effects of neonatal capsaicin treatment to the subnucleus caudalis, optical recording, field potential recording, and quantitative study using electron micrographs were employed. A medulla oblongata isolated from a rat 5--7 days old was sectioned horizontally 400-microm thick or parasagittally and stained with a voltage-sensitive dye, RH482 or RH795. Single-pulse stimulation with high intensity to the trigeminal afferents evoked optical responses mainly in the subnucleus caudalis. The optical signals were composed of two phases, a fast component followed by a long-lasting component. The spatiotemporal properties of the optical signals were well correlated to those of the field potentials recorded simultaneously. The fast component was eliminated by 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 10 microM), while the long-lasting component was not. The latter increased in amplitude under a condition of low Mg(2+) but was significantly reduced by DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5; 30 microM). Neonatal capsaicin treatment also reduced the long-lasting component markedly. In addition, the decreases in the ratio of unmyelinated axons to myelinated axons and in the ratio of unmyelinated axons to Schwann cell subunits of trigeminal nerve roots both showed significant differences (P<0.05, Student's t-test) between the control group and the neonatal capsaicin treatment group. This line of evidence indirectly suggests that synaptic transmission via unmyelinated afferents in the subnucleus caudalis is mediated substantially by NMDA glutamate receptors and documented that neonatal capsaicin treatment induced a functional alteration of the neural transmission in the subnucleus caudalis as well as a morphological alteration of primary afferents

  10. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zee Chishing, E-mail: chishing@usc.edu [Department of Radiology, USC Keck School of Medicine (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T{sub 2} relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T{sub 2}-map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in affected side compared to the unaffected, healthy side; no difference in T{sub 2} relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T{sub 2} relaxation time.

  11. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  12. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: A review of possible underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head’s movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks­first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  13. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Eun, So-Hee [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  14. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shenzhen (China); Wen, Feiqiu [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenzhen (China); Huang, Wenxian [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  15. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen; Wen, Feiqiu; Huang, Wenxian

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  16. Enterovirus 71-related encephalomyelitis: usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seonah; Suh, Sang-Il; Ha, Su Min; Seol, Hae-Young; Byeon, Jung Hye; Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Eun, So-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Most enterovirus (EV) 71 infections manifest as mild cases of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD)/herpangina with seasonal variations, having peak incidence during the summer. Meanwhile, EV 71 may involve the central nervous system (CNS), causing severe neurologic disease. In many cases, enteroviral encephalomyelitis involves the central midbrain, posterior portion of the medulla oblongata and pons, bilateral dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, and the ventral roots of the cervical spinal cord, and the lesions show hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our goal was to review usual and unusual magnetic resonance (MR) findings in CNS involvement of enteroviral infection. Among consecutive patients who had HFMD and clinically suspected encephalitis or myelitis and who underwent brain or spinal MR imaging, five patients revealed abnormal MR findings. Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR and follow-up MR images were obtained. From cerebrospinal fluid, stool, or nasopharyngeal swabs, EV 71 was confirmed in all patients. MR imaging studies of two patients showed hyperintensity in the posterior portion of the brainstem on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, which is the well-known MR finding of EV 71 encephalitis. The remaining three cases revealed unusual manifestations: leptomeningeal enhancement, abnormal enhancement along the ventral roots at the conus medullaris level without brain involvement, and hyperintensity in the left hippocampus on T2/FLAIR images. EV 71 encephalomyelitis shows relatively characteristic MR findings; therefore, imaging can be helpful in radiologic diagnosis. However, physicians should also be aware of unusual radiologic manifestations of EV 71. (orig.)

  17. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  18. Coding of amplitude-modulated signals in the cochlear nucleus of a grass frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, N. G.

    2002-07-01

    To study the mechanisms that govern the coding of temporal features of complex sound signals, responses of single neurons located in the dorsal nucleus of the medulla oblongata (the cochlear nucleus) of a curarized grass frog ( Rana temporaria) to pure tone bursts and amplitude modulated tone bursts with a modulation frequency of 20 Hz and modulation depths of 10 and 80% were recorded. The carrier frequency was equal to the characteristic frequency of a neuron, the average signal level was 20 30 dB above the threshold, and the signal duration was equal to ten full modulation periods. Of the 133 neurons studied, 129 neurons responded to 80% modulated tone bursts by discharges that were phase-locked with the envelope waveform. At this modulation depth, the best phase locking was observed for neurons with the phasic type of response to tone bursts. For tonic neurons with low characteristic frequencies, along with the reproduction of the modulation, phase locking with the carrier frequency of the signal was observed. At 10% amplitude modulation, phasic neurons usually responded to only the onset of a tone burst. Almost all tonic units showed a tendency to reproduce the envelope, although the efficiency of the reproduction was low, and for half of these neurons, it was below the reliability limit. Some neurons exhibited a more efficient reproduction of the weak modulation. For almost half of the neurons, a reliable improvement was observed in the phase locking of the response during the tone burst presentation (from the first to the tenth modulation period). The cooperative histogram of a set of neurons responding to 10% modulated tone bursts within narrow ranges of frequencies and intensities retains the information on the dynamics of the envelope variation. The data are compared with the results obtained from the study of the responses to similar signals in the acoustic midbrain center of the same object and also with the psychophysical effect of a differential

  19. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi [Nagoya University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Aichi Medical University Hospital, Department of Medical Informatics, Nagakute (Japan); Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  20. Gene and protein patterns of potential prion-related markers in the central nervous system of clinical and preclinical infected sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular pathogenic mechanisms of prion diseases are far from clear. Genomic analyses have revealed genetic biomarkers potentially involved in prion neuropathology in naturally scrapie-infected sheep, a good animal model of infectious prionopathies. However, these biomarkers must be validated in independent studies at different stages of the disease. The gene and protein expression profiles and protein distribution of six potential genetic biomarkers (i.e., CAPN6, COL1A2, COL3A1, GALA1, MT2A and MTNR1B) are presented here for both the early and terminal stages of scrapie in five different brain regions. Gene transcription changes were confirmed in the medulla oblongata, and the expression profiles were generally similar in other central nervous system regions. The changes were more substantial in clinical animals compared to preclinical animals. The expression of the CAPN6 protein increased in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the clinical and preclinical brains. The distribution of the GALA1 was identified in glial cells from the cerebellum of scrapie-infected animals, GALA1 protein expression was increased in clinical animals in the majority of regions, and the increase of MT2A was in agreement with previous reports. The downregulation of MTNR1B was especially marked in the Purkinje cells. Finally, although collagen genes were downregulated the protein immunostaining did not reveal significant changes between the scrapie-infected and control animals. In conclusion, this study of gene transcription and protein expression and distribution confirm CAPN6, GALA1, MTNR1B and MT2A as potential targets for further prion disease research. PMID:23497022

  1. Toxicity of trimethyltin and triethyltin to mallard ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Momot, J.J.; Pang, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMTC) and triethyltin chloride (TETC) were fed to mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 73 to 75 d, beginning when ducklings were 3 to 4 d old. Diets were mixed to contain 0,0.5,5 or 50 ppm Sn as either TMTC or TETC. Mortality occurred only in the 5 ppm (2/5 ducklings) and 50 ppm (5/5 ducklings, all dying within 5 d) TMTC groups. Death was preceded by cephalic tremors, lethargy and ataxia; these clinical signs also were observed in surviving ducklings from the 5 ppm TMTC group, but not the 0.5 ppm TMTC group. Ducklings fed 5 and 50 ppm Sn as TMTC exhibited degeneration of the large neurons of the pons, medulla oblongata, gray matter of the spinal cord and pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex. TETC-fed ducklings showed few signs of clinical toxicosis. Ducklings fed 50 ppm Sn as TETC exhibited mild to severe vacuolization of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; these lesions were not present in ducklings fed 5 ppm Sn as TETC. Liver, spleen, kidney, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and skeletal muscle presented no abnormal histopathology for either organotin compound. Hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma aspartate aminotransferase; alanine aminotransferase; lactate dehydrogenase; alkaline phosphatase; and cholinesterase values were determined for the 5- and 50- ppm TMTC and TETC groups, and were not different from those of controls (p < 0.05). Lesions and clinical signs of toxicosis in ducklings were consistent with those described for mammals exposed to TMTC and TETe. The effect threshold for TMTC in ducklings appears to exceed current environmental concentrations. Environmental concentrations of TETC have not been reported.

  2. Conditional Loss of Hoxa5 Function Early after Birth Impacts on Expression of Genes with Synaptic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizen, Benoit; Moens, Charlotte; Mouheiche, Jinane; Sacré, Thomas; Ahn, Marie-Thérèse; Jeannotte, Lucie; Salti, Ahmad; Gofflot, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family that plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. In the mouse, Hoxa5 was recently shown to be expressed in the medulla oblongata and the pons from fetal stages to adulthood. In these territories, Hoxa5 transcripts are enriched in many precerebellar neurons and several nuclei involved in autonomic functions, while the HOXA5 protein is detected mainly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. However, whether HOXA5 is functionally required in these neurons after birth remains unknown. As a first approach to tackle this question, we aimed at determining the molecular programs downstream of the HOXA5 transcription factor in the context of the postnatal brainstem. A comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed in combination with gene expression localization, using a conditional postnatal Hoxa5 loss-of-function mouse model. After inactivation of Hoxa5 at postnatal days (P)1–P4, we established the transcriptome of the brainstem from P21 Hoxa5 conditional mutants using RNA-Seq analysis. One major finding was the downregulation of several genes associated with synaptic function in Hoxa5 mutant specimens including different actors involved in glutamatergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway, and GABAergic synapse. Data were confirmed and extended by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the expression of several HOXA5 candidate targets was shown to co-localize with Hoxa5 transcripts in precerebellar nuclei. Together, these new results revealed that HOXA5, through the regulation of key actors of the glutamatergic/GABAergic synapses and calcium signaling, might be involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar circuitry in the postnatal brainstem. PMID:29187810

  3. Characterization of genetically targeted neuron types in the zebrafish optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estuardo eRobles

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The optically transparent larval zebrafish is ideally suited for in vivo analyses of neural circuitry controlling visually guided behaviors. However, there is a lack of information regarding specific cell types in the major retinorecipient brain region of the fish, the optic tectum. Here we report the characterization of three previously unidentified tectal cell types that are specifically labeled by dlx5/6 enhancer elements. In vivo laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with ex vivo array tomography revealed that these neurons differ in their morphologies, synaptic connectivity, and neurotransmitter phenotypes. The first type is an excitatory bistratified periventricular interneuron (bsPVIN that forms a dendritic arbor in the retinorecipient stratum fibrosum griseum et superficiale (SFGS and an axonal arbor in the stratum griseum centrale (SGC. The second type, a GABAergic nonstratified periventricular interneuron (nsPVIN, extends a bushy arbor containing both dendrites and axons into the SGC and the deepest sublayers of the SFGS. The third type is a GABAergic periventricular projection neuron (PVPN that extends a dendritic arbor into the SGC and a long axon to the torus semicircularis, medulla oblongata, and anterior hindbrain. Interestingly, the same axons form en passant synapses within the deepest neuropil layer of the tectum, the stratum album centrale. This approach revealed several novel aspects of tectal circuitry, including: (1 a glutamatergic mode of transmission from the superficial, retinorecipient neuropil layers to the deeper, output layers, (2 the presence of interneurons with mixed dendrite/axon arbors likely involved in local processing, and (3 a heretofore unknown GABAergic tectofugal projection to midbrain and hindbrain. These observations establish a framework for studying the morphological and functional differentiation of neural circuits in the zebrafish visual system.

  4. Avian-like attributes of a virtual brain model of the oviraptorid theropod Conchoraptor gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2007-06-01

    An almost complete adult endoneurocranium of Conchoraptor gracilis Barsbold 1986 (Oviraptoridae; ZPAL MgD-I/95), discovered at the Hermiin Tsav locality (the Upper Cretaceous) in Mongolia, is analyzed. A virtual model of the endoneurocranial cavity was derived from CT scans and represents the most complete maniraptoran endocast to date. It displays reduced olfactory bulbs, large cerebral hemispheres in contact with the expanded cerebellum, an epiphysial projection, optic lobes displaced latero-ventrally, presumptive cerebellar folia, enlarged cerebellar auricles, and a deep medulla oblongata with a prominent ventral flexure. Contrary to Archaeopteryx, the shortened olfactory tract and cerebellum overtopping cerebral hemispheres of Conchoraptor resemble conditions in modern birds. Calculating brain mass relative to body mass indicates that Conchoraptor falls within the range of extant birds, whereas Archaeopteryx occupies a marginal position. Most of the endoneurocranial attributes, however, have a less birdlike appearance in Conchoraptor than do corresponding structures in Archaeopteryx and modern birds in which 1) postero-laterally expanded hemispheral domains broadly overlap the optic lobes, 2) the epiphysis projects to the posterior cerebrum, 3) lateral extension of the optic lobes substantially decreases a brain length-to-width ratio, 4) optic lobe and anterior hindbrain are superposed in lateral view, and 5) cerebellar and midbrain compartments are in distinct superposition. The endoneurocranial characteristics of Conchoraptor, taken together, suggest that the animal had a keen sense of vision, balance, and coordination. The data presented in this study do not allow an unambiguous assessment whether the avian-like endoneurocranial characteristics of the flightless Conchoraptor evolved convergently to those of avian theropods, or indicate a derivation of oviraptorosaurs from volant ancestors.

  5. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z

    2018-01-01

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).

  6. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi; Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  8. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi [National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentuji (Japan); Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  9. Role of brain orexin in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa

    2011-04-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamic area and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamic area plays an important role in not only feeding but the central regulation of other functions including gut physiology. Accumulating evidence have shown that orexins acts in the brain to regulate a wide variety of body functions including gastrointestinal functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant findings on brain orexins and a digestive system, and discuss the pathophysiological roles of the peptides with special reference to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Exogenously administered orexin or endogenously released orexin in the brain potently stimulates gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. The vagal cholinergic pathway is involved in the orexin-induced stimulation of acid secretion, suggesting that orexin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamic area activates neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus in medulla oblongata, followed by increasing vagal outflow, thereby stimulating gastric acid secretion. In addition, brain orexin stimulates gastric motility, pancreatic secretion and induce gastroprotective action. On the other hand, brain orexin is involved in a number of physiological functions other than gut physiology, such as control of sleep/awake cycle and anti-depressive action in addition to increase in appetite. From these evidence, we would like to make a hypothesis that decreased orexin signaling in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology in a part of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders who are frequently accompanied with appetite loss, sleep disturbance, depressive state and the inhibition of gut function. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  11. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS.Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections.The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001. Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i 'sphenoid flexure' at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii 'cervical flexure' at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001; Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009; CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007.The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

  12. How Commonly Is Stroke Found in Patients with Isolated Vertigo or Dizziness Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doijiri, Ryosuke; Uno, Hisakazu; Miyashita, Kotaro; Ihara, Masafumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-10-01

    The sudden development of vertigo or dizziness without focal neurological symptoms is generally attributable to vestibular diseases such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Isolated vertigo or dizziness attack needs more attention than vestibular diseases. This retrospective study was performed to elucidate the frequency of strokes in patients with isolated vertigo or dizziness attack. We enrolled 221 patients (men, 119; women, 102; mean age, 68.4 ± 10.3 years) who were admitted to our hospital over the last 10 years because of sudden isolated vertigo or dizziness attack without other neurological symptoms except for nystagmus, deafness, or tinnitus. We investigated the clinical features, final diagnosis, neuroimaging findings, and short- or long-term outcome of these patients. One hundred eighteen patients had vertigo whereas the other 103 had dizziness. Brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging revealed recent stroke lesions in 25 patients (11.3%) (ischemic, 21; hemorrhagic, 4).The lesions were generally small and localized in the cerebellum (n = 21), pons (n = 1), medulla oblongata (n = 1), or corona radiata (n = 1). Of the 25 patients, 19 (76%) had dizzy-type spells; none had neurological dysfunction at the time of discharge. In the remaining 196 patients, no stroke was detected on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke was found in 11% of patients with isolated vertigo or dizziness attack. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery area was the most frequently implicated for isolated vertigo or dizziness. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conditional Loss of Hoxa5 Function Early after Birth Impacts on Expression of Genes with Synaptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lizen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family that plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. In the mouse, Hoxa5 was recently shown to be expressed in the medulla oblongata and the pons from fetal stages to adulthood. In these territories, Hoxa5 transcripts are enriched in many precerebellar neurons and several nuclei involved in autonomic functions, while the HOXA5 protein is detected mainly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. However, whether HOXA5 is functionally required in these neurons after birth remains unknown. As a first approach to tackle this question, we aimed at determining the molecular programs downstream of the HOXA5 transcription factor in the context of the postnatal brainstem. A comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed in combination with gene expression localization, using a conditional postnatal Hoxa5 loss-of-function mouse model. After inactivation of Hoxa5 at postnatal days (P1–P4, we established the transcriptome of the brainstem from P21 Hoxa5 conditional mutants using RNA-Seq analysis. One major finding was the downregulation of several genes associated with synaptic function in Hoxa5 mutant specimens including different actors involved in glutamatergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway, and GABAergic synapse. Data were confirmed and extended by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the expression of several HOXA5 candidate targets was shown to co-localize with Hoxa5 transcripts in precerebellar nuclei. Together, these new results revealed that HOXA5, through the regulation of key actors of the glutamatergic/GABAergic synapses and calcium signaling, might be involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar circuitry in the postnatal brainstem.

  14. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  15. Neuro-Behcet's disease: initial and follow-up MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Ha Jong; Ha, Dong Ho; Lee, Yong Il

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial and follow-up MR imaging(MRI) findings of neuro-Behcet's disease. MRI of seven clinically diagnosed cases of neuro-Behcet's disease were retrospectively analysed in terms of involved site, pattern, signal intensity, contrast enhancement pattern and changes seen on follow-up. Using a 0.35T or 1.0T unit T2-and T1-weighted spin-echocontrast-enhanced images were obtained in six patients. Follow-up MRI after steroid therapy lastion between two weeks and 16 months was performed in six patients. Lesions involved the midbrain(6/7), pons(5/7), thalamus(4/7), medulla oblongata(3/7), tegmentum(3/7), internal capsule(3/7), middle cerebellar peduncle(2/7), dentate nucleus(1/7), basal ganglia(1/7) and temporal lobe(1/7). They were 1-3cm in size, and their shape was ill-defined and patchy. Inhomogeneous high and low signal-intensity was seen on T2-weighted and T1-weighted images, respectively. In two of six cases there was focal mild patchy enhancement. Euring follow-up lasting for between two weeks and 16 months after steroid therapy, the lesions decreased in extent(n=3D5) or disappeared(n=3D1), and in the brainstem, focal brain atrophy occurred in three cases. Although MRI findings of neuro-Behcet's disease are nonspecific, common involvement of the brainstem, tegmentum and internal capsule, as well as improvement on follow-up MRI, may be helpful diagnostic indicators of this condition.=20

  16. Neuro-Behcet's disease: diagnostic usefulness of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Song, Chang June; Lee, Ae Young; Pak, Chung Ho

    2000-01-01

    To suggest the characteristic MR features and to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for the diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of clinically confirmed neuro-Behcet's disease in eight patients (M:F =3D 7:1) ranging in age from 28 to 47 (average, 36) years. The findings were analyzed in terms of the most frequently occurring sites, signal intensities, contrast enhancement, and the changing patterns seen on follow-up MR examination. Seven of the eight patients had parenchymal brain lesions and the other had dural sinus thrombosis without brain parenchymal brain abnormality. In descending order of frequency, lesions involved the pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata, internal capsule, basal ganglia, thalamus, temporal lobe, and corpus callosum. The brain stem was involved in six patients, five of whom showed extensive involvement of the entire stem. In five patients, brain stem lesions showed supratentorial involvement, and in one, involvement of this region only was noted. Signal intensities of the lesions were poorly defined and extensive, especially in the brain stem, usually showed prolongation of both T1 and T2 relaxation time. Three patients underwent follow-up examination, and this showed that while most lesions had disappeared in time, some had become small and cavitary. Initial MR examination showed that three patients had newly developed lesions as well as cavitary foci, suggesting the recurrence of disease. Contrast enhancement was noted in five of seven patients (71%), and various types, including nodular, linear, marginal, and ring. The MR features of neuro-Behcet's disease were fairly characteristic, and in clinically unsuspicious patients might be diagnostically useful. (author)

  17. Not a single but multiple populations of GABAergic neurons control sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Peyron, Christelle; Fort, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    The role of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in sleep induction and maintenance is well accepted since most insomnia treatments target GABAa receptors. However, the population(s) of GABAergic neurons involved in the beneficial effect of GABA on sleep remains to be identified. This is not an easy task since GABAergic neurons are widely distributed in all brain structures. A recently growing number of populations of GABAergic neurons have been involved in sleep control. We first review here possible candidates for inducing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep including the GABAergic neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area, the parafacial zone in the brainstem, the nucleus accumbens and the cortex. We also discuss the role of several populations of GABAergic neurons in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep control. Indeed, it is well accepted that muscle atonia occurring during REM sleep is due to a GABA/glycinergic hyperpolarization of motoneurons. Recent evidence strongly suggests that these neurons are located in the ventral medullary reticular formation. It has also recently been shown that neurons containing the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone and GABA located in the lateral hypothalamic area control REM sleep expression. Finally, a population of REM-off GABAergic neurons located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray has been shown to gate REM sleep by inhibiting glutamatergic neurons located in the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In summary, recent data clearly indicate that multiple populations of GABAergic neurons located throughout the brain from the cortex to the medulla oblongata control NREM and REM sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivak, Stefan [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Jessenius Medical Faculty, Clinic of Neurology, Martin (Slovakia); Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan [Comenius University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [Comenius University, Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of {sup 1}H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 {+-} 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). {sup 1}H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Stefan; Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan; Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir; Polacek, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 1 H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel 1 H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 ± 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). 1 H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  20. Changes in HSP gene and protein expression in natural scrapie with brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp) perform cytoprotective functions such as apoptosis regulation and inflammatory response control. These proteins can also be secreted to the extracellular medium, acting as inflammatory mediators, and their chaperone activity permits correct folding of proteins and avoids the aggregation of anomalous isoforms. Several studies have proposed the implication of Hsp in prion diseases. We analysed the gene expression and protein distribution of different members of the Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 families in the central nervous system of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Different expression profiles were observed in the areas analysed. Whereas changes in transcript levels were not observed in the cerebellum or medulla oblongata, a significant decrease in HSP27 and HSP90 was detected in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, HSP73 was over-expressed in diencephalons of scrapie animals. Western blotting did not reveal significant differences in Hsp90 and Hsp70 protein expression between scrapie and control animals. Expression rates identified by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were compared with the extent of classical scrapie lesions using stepwise regression. Changes in Hsp gene and protein expression were associated with prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis rather than with apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed intense Hsp70 and Hsp90 immunolabelling in Purkinje cells of scrapie sheep. In contrast, controls displayed little or no staining in these cells. The observed differences in gene expression and protein distribution suggest that the heat shock proteins analysed play a role in the natural form of the disease. PMID:21314976

  1. Changes in HSP gene and protein expression in natural scrapie with brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat shock proteins (Hsp perform cytoprotective functions such as apoptosis regulation and inflammatory response control. These proteins can also be secreted to the extracellular medium, acting as inflammatory mediators, and their chaperone activity permits correct folding of proteins and avoids the aggregation of anomalous isoforms. Several studies have proposed the implication of Hsp in prion diseases. We analysed the gene expression and protein distribution of different members of the Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 families in the central nervous system of sheep naturally infected with scrapie. Different expression profiles were observed in the areas analysed. Whereas changes in transcript levels were not observed in the cerebellum or medulla oblongata, a significant decrease in HSP27 and HSP90 was detected in the prefrontal cortex. In contrast, HSP73 was over-expressed in diencephalons of scrapie animals. Western blotting did not reveal significant differences in Hsp90 and Hsp70 protein expression between scrapie and control animals. Expression rates identified by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting were compared with the extent of classical scrapie lesions using stepwise regression. Changes in Hsp gene and protein expression were associated with prion protein deposition, gliosis and spongiosis rather than with apoptosis. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed intense Hsp70 and Hsp90 immunolabelling in Purkinje cells of scrapie sheep. In contrast, controls displayed little or no staining in these cells. The observed differences in gene expression and protein distribution suggest that the heat shock proteins analysed play a role in the natural form of the disease.

  2. Association between the SMN2 gene copy number and clinical characteristics of patients with spinal muscular atrophy with homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarkov Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata, causing progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The aim of this study was to determine association between the SMN2 gene copy number and disease phenotype in Serbian patients with SMA with homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN1 gene. Methods. The patients were identified using regional Serbian hospital databases. Investigated clinical characteristics of the disease were: patients’ gender, age at disease onset, achieved and current developmental milestones, disease duration, current age, and the presence of the spinal deformities and joint contractures. The number of SMN1 and SMN2 gene copies was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results. Among 43 identified patients, 37 (86.0% showed homozygous deletion of SMN1 exon 7. One (2.7% of 37 patients had SMA type I with 3 SMN2 copies, 11 (29.7% patients had SMA type II with 3.1 ± 0.7 copies, 17 (45.9% patients had SMA type III with 3.7 ± 0.9 copies, while 8 (21.6% patients had SMA type IV with 4.2 ± 0.9 copies. There was a progressive increase in the SMN2 gene copy number from type II towards type IV (p < 0.05. A higher SMN2 gene copy number was associated with better current motor performance (p < 0.05. Conclusion. In the Serbian patients with SMA, a higher SMN2 gene copy number correlated with less severe disease phenotype. A possible effect of other phenotype modifiers should not be neglected.

  3. Neurogenesis in the brain stem of the rabbit: an autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblinger, M.M.; Das, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    With the aid of ( 3 H)-thymidine autoradiography, neurogenesis was documented in the nuclear groups of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mid-brain, as well as in the brain stem reticular formation of the rabbit. Following single injections of ( 3 H)-thymidine, counts were taken of intensely labeled neurons within the nuclei of the functional columns related to the cranial nerves, nuclei of several other functional classifications, and nuclei that did not fit into a functional category. In the brain stem as a whole, neurogenesis was found to occur between days 10.0 and 18.5 of gestation: however, the majority of nuclei studied contained intensely neurons only between days 12.0 and 15.0. Only in the pontine nucleus and the tectum were intensely labeled cells observed as late as day 18.5. Directional gradients of histogenesis were often observed within, as well as between, various nuclei. Within the nuclear columns related to the cranial nerves, a clear mediolateral spread of neurogenesis was observable such that nuclei of the motor columns reached a peak in neurogenesis before those in the sensory columns. Likewise, a mediolateral proliferation pattern was seen in the brain stem reticular formation. Other individual directional gradients were discernible; however, in the brain stem as a whole, distinct overall gradients were not observable. In many individual nuclei, gradients in neuron size were observed such that large neurons preferentially arose prior to smaller neurons. Information pertaining to gradients in neurogenesis, as well as to relationships among functionally related nuclei, are discussed

  4. Specific binding of 125I-salmon calcitonin to rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamuta, Hiromichi; Furukawa, Shinichi; Koida, Masao; Yajima, Haruaki; Orlowski, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Rat brain particulate fraction was found to contain binding sites for 125 I-Salmon Calcitonin-I ( 125 I-SCT). Maximum binding occurred in the physiological pH range of 7.25 - 7.5. The binding reaction proceeded in a temperature-dependent manner. Binding sites were broadly distributed among the various rat brain regions and considerable regional differences existed in the affinity and density as detected by Scatchard analysis. The highest affinity was recorded in the case of the hypothalamus and the lowest in the case of the cerebellum. The KD (nM) and Bmax (pmole/mg protein) estimated for the binding to four regions were as follows: hypothalamus: 1.4 and 0.19, midbrain, hippocampus plus striatum: 1.5 and 0.08, pon plus medulla oblongata: 3.0 and 0.15 and cerebellum: 8.3 and 0.20. Using a particulate fraction of rat brain void of cerebellum and cortices, a binding assay for calcitonins was developed. Binding of 125 I-SCT was inhibited by unlabeled salmon, [Asu sup(1,7)]-eel and porcine calcitonins in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50s were 2.0, 8.0 and 30 nM, respectively. The IC50s were comparable to those estimated using a kidney particulate fraction. Human calcitonin, β-endorphin and substance P were weak inhibitors of the binding. Other peptides, drugs and putative neurotransmitters tested (totally 23 substances) failed to inhibit the binding at concentrations of 1.0 μM. The physiological significance of brain binding sites for calcitonin, with the possibility that the brain may possess endogenous ligands for these sites are discussed. (author)

  5. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the stomach in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenina, O Yu; Kromin, A A

    2012-10-01

    Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in preliminary fed animals in the presence of the food is associated with successful food-procuring behavior, accompanied by regular generation of high-amplitude slow electrical waves by muscles of the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity in the form of unimodal distribution of slow wave periods typical of satiation state. Despite increased level of food motivation caused by stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, the additional food intake completely abolished the inhibitory effects of hunger motivation excitement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach of satiated rabbits. Changes in slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles in rabbits deprived of food over 24 h and offered food and associated food-procuring behavior during electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have a two-phase pattern. Despite food intake during phase I of electrical stimulation, the downstream inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of stomach abolishes the stimulating effect of food reinforcement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach. During phase II of electrical stimulation, the food reinforcement decreases inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature that paces maximal rhythm of slow electrical waves for muscles activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which is reflected by unimodal distribution of slow electrical wave periods. Our results indicated that the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles reflects convergent interactions of food motivation and reinforcement excitations on the dorsal vagal complex neurons in medulla oblongata.

  6. Structural determination, distribution, and physiological actions of ghrelin in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Yuji; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Teraoka, Hiroki; Kitazawa, Takio

    2018-01-01

    We identified guinea pig ghrelin (gp-ghrelin), and examined its distribution and physiological actions in the guinea-pig. Gp-ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide (GASFR SPEHH SAQQR KESRK LPAKI QPR); seven amino acids are different from that of rat ghrelin at positions 2, 5, 10, 11, 19, 21, and 25, which include the conserved region known in mammals. The third serine residue is mainly modified by n-decanoyl acid. Both gp-ghrelin and rat ghrelin increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration of HEK293 cells expressing guinea pig growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), and the affinity of gp-ghrelin was slightly higher than that of rat ghrelin. In addition, gp-ghrelin was also effective in CHO cells expressing rat GHS-R1a with similar affinity to that of rat ghrelin. Gp-ghrelin mRNA was predominantly expressed in the stomach, whereas the expression levels in other organs was low. High levels of GHS-R1a mRNA expression were observed in the pituitary, medulla oblongata, and kidney, while medium levels were noted in the thalamus, pons, olfactory bulb, and heart. Immunohistochemistry identified gp-ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the gastric mucosa and pancreas. Intraperitoneal injection of gp-ghrelin increased food intake in the guinea pig. Gp-ghrelin did not cause any mechanical responses in isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscles in vitro, similar to rat ghrelin. In conclusion, the N-terminal structures that are conserved in mammals were different in gp-ghrelin. Moreover, the functional characteristics of gp-ghrelin, other than its distribution, were dissimilar from those in other Rodentia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dorsal Vagal Complex Modulates Neurogenic Airway Inflammation in a Guinea Pig Model With Esophageal Perfusion of HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER is involved in the esophageal–bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD and substance P (SP expression in the airway. Neuronal activity was indicated by Fos expression in the DVC. The neural pathways from the lower esophagus to the DVC and the DVC to the airway were identified using DiI tracing and pseudorabies virus Bartha (PRV-Bartha retrograde tracing, respectively. HCl perfusion significantly increased plasma extravasation, SP expression in the trachea, and the expression of SP and Fos in the medulla oblongata nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. The microinjection of glutamic acid (Glu or exogenous SP to enhance neuronal activity in the DVC significantly potentiated plasma extravasation and SP release induced by intra-esophageal perfusion. The microinjection of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, lidocaine to inhibit neuronal activity or anti-SP serum in the DVC alleviated plasma extravasation and SP release. In conclusion, airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of HCl is regulated by DVC. This study provides new insight for the mechanism of airway neurogenic inflammation related to GER.

  8. Increased signal intensity of the cochlea on pre- and post-contrast enhanced 3D-FLAIR in patients with vestibular schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    In the vestibular schwannoma patients, the pathophysiologic mechanism of inner ear involvement is still unclear. We investigated the status of the cochleae in patients with vestibular schwannoma by evaluating the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on pre- and post-contrast enhanced thin section three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR). Twenty-eight patients were retrospectively analyzed. Post-contrast images were obtained in 18 patients, and 20 patients had the records of their pure-tone audiometry. Regions of interest of both cochleae (C) and of the medulla oblongata (M) were determined on 3D-FLAIR images by referring to 3D heavily T2-weighted images on a workstation. The signal intensity ratio between C and M on the 3D-FLAIR images (CM ratio) was then evaluated. In addition, correlation between the CM ratio and the hearing level was also evaluated. The CM ratio of the affected side was significantly higher than that of the unaffected side (p < 0.001). In the affected side, post-contrast signal elevation was observed (p < 0.005). In 13 patients (26 cochleae) who underwent both gadolinium injection and the pure-tone audiometry, the post-contrast CM ratio correlated with hearing level (p < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that alteration of cochlear fluid composition and increased permeability of the blood-labyrinthine barrier exist in the affected side in patients with vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, although weak, positive correlation between post-contrast cochlear signal intensity on 3D-FLAIR and hearing level warrants further study to clarify the relationship between 3D-FLAIR findings and prognosis of hearing preservation surgery. (orig.)

  9. Interneuronal systems of the cervical spinal cord assessed with BOLD imaging at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stracke, C.P.; Schoth, F.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Krings, T.; Pettersson, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if functional activity with spinal cord somatosensory stimulation can be visualized using BOLD fMRI. We investigated nine healthy volunteers using a somatosensory stimulus generator. The stimuli were applied in three different runs at the first, third, and fifth finger tip of the right hand, respectively, corresponding to dermatomes c6, c7, and c8. The stimuli gave an increase of BOLD signal (activation) in three different locations of the spinal cord and brain stem. First, activations could be seen in the spinal segment corresponding to the stimulated dermatome in seven out of nine volunteers for c6 stimulation, two out of eight for c7, and three out of eight for c8. These activations were located close to the posterior margin of the spinal cord, presumably reflecting synaptic transmission to dorsal horn interneurons. Second, activation in the medulla oblongata was evident in four subjects, most likely corresponding to the location of the nucleus cuneatus. The third location of activation, which was the strongest and most reliable observed was inside the spinal cord in the c3 and c4 segments. Activation at these spinal levels was almost invariably observed independently of the dermatome stimulated (9/9 for c6, 8/8 for c7, and 7/8 for c8 stimulation). These activations may pertain to an interneuronal system at this spinal level. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies on cervical spinal interneuronal pathways in animals and humans. (orig.)

  10. Experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in Argentina: a clinic and pathological correlation with special consideration on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio E. Ríos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, aguapei or mandiyura, is responsible for lysosomal storage in goats. The shrub contains several alkaloids, mainly swansonine which inhibits lysosomal α-mannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II. Poisoning occurs by inhibition of these hydrolases. There is neuronal vacuolation, endocrine dysfunction, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal injury, and immune disorders. Clinical signs and pathology of the experimental poisoning of goats by Ipomoea carnea in Argentina are here described. Five goats received fresh leaves and stems of Ipomoea. At the beginning, the goats did not consume the plant, but later, it was preferred over any other forage. High dose induced rapid intoxication, whereas with low doses, the course of the toxicosis was more protracted. The goats were euthanized when they were recumbent. Cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons and colliculi, were routinely processed for histology. In nine days, the following clinical signs developed: abnormal fascies, dilated nostrils and abnormal postures of the head, cephalic tremors and nystagmus, difficulty in standing. Subsequently, the goats had a tendency to fall, always to the left, with spastic convulsions. There was lack in coordination of voluntary movements due to Purkinje and deep nuclei neurons damage. The cochlear reflex originated hyperreflexia, abnormal posture, head movements and tremors. The withdrawal reflex produced flexor muscles hypersensitivity at the four legs, later depression and stupor. Abnormal responses to sounds were related to collicular lesions. Thalamic damage altered the withdrawal reflex, showing incomplete reaction. The observed cervical hair bristling was attributed to a thalamic regulated nociceptive response. Depression may be associated with agonists of lysergic acid contained in Ipomoea. These clinical signs were correlated with lesions in different parts of the CNS.

  11. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. An analysis of the NMR-CT image by the measurement of proton-relaxation times in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Chuzo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Koji; Kiri, Motosada.

    1984-01-01

    NMR-CT images were analyzed by measuring the proton-relaxation times in tissues. The NMR-CT images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers and 16 patients with brain tumors with a prototype superconducting magnet (Shimadzu Corp., Japan) operating at 0.2 T and 0.375 T. A smooth T 1 relaxation curve was obtained in each part of the brain and the brain tumor by the use of the data of the NMR-CT image; consequently, the in vivo T 1 value was proved to be reliable. The in vivo T 1 value showed the specific value corresponding to each region of the normal brain in all cases. Cerebral gray matter normally had the longest T 1 value, followed by the medulla oblongata, the pons, and white matter. The T 1 value of each region of the brain varied to the same degree in proportion to the strength of the static magnetic field. The in vivo T 1 values of the brain tumor varied with the histological type. All were longer than any part of the brain parenchyma, being between 480 and 780 msec at 0.2 T. The prolongation of the T 1 value does not always correspond to the degree of the malignancy in a tumor. The in vitro T 1 and T 2 values were also prolonged in all tumors. Although the absolute value of T 1 did not coincide between the in vitro and in vivo data, the tendency of the prolongation was the same between them. This result indicated that the NMR-CT images could be analysed by the use of the data of the in vitro T 1 and T 2 values in the tumor tissues. It is important to analyse the NMR-CT image by both in vivo and in vitro examinations of the relaxation times. (J.P.N.)

  13. Assessment of Factors Associated with the Safety Depth of GV15 Yamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Soo-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Yamen is the fifteenth acupoint of the Governor Vessel Meridian (GV15. It is anatomically close to the medulla oblongata, so finding the safety depth of the acupoint is very important. However, few studies on the safety depth of GV15 have been done. Methods: This study tried to measure the safety depth of GV15 by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and to analyze the factors affecting the safety depth through multiple regression analyses. This study was carried out for patients who had a brain MRI scan while visiting Jeonju Wonkwang Hospital, Korea. The shortest distance between the glabella and the occipital protuberance (DGO, the horizontal distance between the glabella and the back of the head (DGB and the dangerous depth (DD were measured from the sagittal views of the MRI images. The DD is the horizontal distance from the skin’s surface at GV15 to the spinal dura mater. Results: The model suggested that the safety depth (SD was significantly associated with gender (β = 0.474, P < 0.0001, DGO (β = 0.272, P = 0.027, and BMI (β = 0.249, P = 0.005 and the combination of three variables can explain the SD, with R2 = 0.571 (Table 3 A longer SD was associated with males and with greater BMI and DGO. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender, BMI and DGO may be important factors when the SD of GV15 is considered clinically through a multiple regression analysis of GV15.

  14. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata</