WorldWideScience

Sample records for medroxyprogesterone

  1. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The record cards of all clients who accepted medroxyprogesterone ... center. With the establishment of the college of. Health Sciences, University of Uyo in 2001, the ... and surgical sterilization (both male and female).

  2. Comparison of fluorgestone and medroxyprogesterone intravaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for synchronizing oestrus in lactating Saanen goats was investigated during the transition from non-breeding to natural breeding season. Does were treated for 11 days with 60 mg MAP (n=19) or 40 mg FGA (n=24) sponges.

  3. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  4. [Use of medroxyprogesterone in human hepatic cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A; Ríos, B; Bruno, M; Heinrichs, G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of medroxyprogesterone in 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis demonstrated with histological technics was studied. Eight of the 14 patients were controlled over a period of one year and three months. Six of this eight patients presented subjective clinical improvement and the ascitis disappeared in 5/7 cases, so that the doses of lactona could be diminished. Three of the male patients recovered their sexual potency although all were in alcoholic abstinence for more than one year. Histologically 5/6 patients presented a diminishing fibrosis in the control biopsy and the 3 patients controlled with hemodynamic studies presented lower portal pression. We didn't found secondary effects, except obesity in 3 cases. We concluded that it would be important to continue this experience with a greater number of patients and adding appropriate biochemical controls.

  5. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Christian; Brauchli, Yolanda B.; Jick, Susan S.; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Meier, Christoph R.

    2010-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has a high rate of use among teenagers in Europe and the United States, has been associated with impaired bone mineral acquisition during adolescence and accelerated bone loss in later life. Studies on the association between DMPA use and fracture risk are limited.; We aimed at evaluating the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives, specifically DMPA, and fracture risk.; We conducted a case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-b...

  6. Treatment of canine benign prostatic hyperplasia with medroxyprogesterone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg-Thalen, B.; Linde-Forsberg, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen dogs with clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were given a subcutaneous injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). At the first follow-up four to six weeks after treatment, 16 (84%) showed no signs of prostatic disease, and in 10 (53%) radiography revealed that the prostate had decreased in size. The dogs were followed for an average of 17 months. Twelve (64%) showed no signs of prostatic disease for at least 10 months. Relapses occurred in 10 between 10 and 24 months after treatment. Based on the results of this study and an earlier study on the effects of estrogen on BPH, it was concluded that MPA was a good alternative for treatment of canine BPH

  7. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  8. Long QTc Syndrome Type 2 Presenting in a Postpartum Patient on Medroxyprogesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2 is a rare inherited cardiac abnormality resulting in increased risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT. Case Description. A 21-year-old postpartum female presented with syncopal episode after phone alarm. She was noted to have PVT on telemetry monitoring in the emergency department. EKG revealed QTc of 530. The patient’s only medication was medroxyprogesterone. She ultimately received a dual chamber pacemaker with ICD. Discussion. LQTS2 is associated with alarm sounds as a precipitating factor. Postpartum hormonal shifts as well as medroxyprogesterone have significant effect on native QTc duration.

  9. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  10. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  11. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  12. Analytical Method Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Stability-Indicating Study of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Intravaginal Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medroxyprogesterone acetate is widely used in veterinary medicine as intravaginal dosage for the synchronization of breeding cycle in ewes and goats. The main goal of this study was to develop reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of medroxyprogesterone acetate in veterinary vaginal sponges. A single high-performance liquid chromatography/UV isocratic run was used for the analytical assay of the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone. The chromatographic system consisted of a reverse-phase C18 column as the stationary phase and a mixture of 60% acetonitrile and 40% potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as the mobile phase; the pH was adjusted to 5.6. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were also performed to evaluate the stability-indicating properties and specificity of the method. Medroxyprogesterone was eluted at 5.9 minutes. The linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 0.0576 to 0.1134 mg/mL ( R 2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification was shown to be 3.9 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy ranges were found to be %RSD <0.2 and 98% to 102%, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone capacity factor value of 2.1, tailing factor value of 1.03, and resolution value of 3.9 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results, a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone in vaginal sponges. This analytical method is the only available method to analyse medroxyprogesterone in veterinary intravaginal dosage form.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates estrogen-induced nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Akira; Ohmichi, Masahide; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Mori-Abe, Akiko; Kawagoe, Jun; Otsu, Reiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2004-01-01

    We report the novel observation that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) attenuates the induction by 17β estradiol (E2) of both nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Although MPA had no effect on basal NO production or basal eNOS phosphorylation or activity, it attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Moreover, we examined the mechanism by which MPA attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. MPA attenuated the E2-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that phosphorylates eNOS. Treatment with pure progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, the effects of actinomycin D were tested to rule out the influence of genomic events mediated by nuclear PRs. Actinomycin D did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the potential roles of PRA and PRB were evaluated. In COS cells transfected with either PRA or PRB, MPA attenuated E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that MPA attenuated E2-induced NO production via an Akt cascade through PRA or PRB in a non-genomic manner

  15. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  16. A comparative study of Cyclofem and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) effects on endometrial vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Zeinab; Zham, Hananeh; Fraser, Ian S

    2007-10-01

    The most common reason for discontinuation of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives is irregular bleeding following local endometrial vascular changes. To reduce unpredictable bleeding episodes among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users, the combined injectable contraceptive, Cyclofem, was offered as an alternative. However, there is a gap in our knowledge about the effects of Cyclofem on the endometrial vasculature and patterns of bleeding. This study aimed to compare the effects of Cyclofem and DMPA on endometrial vascular density, endometrial histology and pattern of bleeding. Sixty-eight healthy women with regular menstrual bleeding and seeking injectable long-acting contraceptives were recruited. Two endometrial samples (before and 3 to 6 months after initial exposure to DMPA or Cyclofem) were collected from each participant. The samples were stained using an immunohistochemical method and anti-CD34 to visualise the endometrial vasculature. Endometrial vascular density was assessed using standard techniques. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to Cyclofem (38 women) or DMPA (30 women). Endometrial vascular density was 149.3 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD)/mm(2) before injection. This significantly decreased to 132.4 +/- 12.2 after DMPA use, and from 151.9 +/- 5.8 to 131.8 +/- 12.8 vessels/mm(2) following Cyclofem use (paired t-test, p Spotting was the most common type of bleeding experienced, and atrophic endometrium was the most common histological pattern observed in both groups. This study demonstrated that both Cyclofem and DMPA use are associated with decreased endometrial vascular density and atrophic endometrium, in addition to irregular bleeding, mainly spotting. There was no significant difference in bleeding patterns or endometrial findings observed for these two injectable contraceptives in Iranian women.

  17. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  18. Long-term outcomes of fertility-sparing treatment of atypical polypoid adenomyoma with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Yuko; Tanigawa, Terumi; Matoda, Maki; Kanao, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long-term oncologic outcomes of fertility-preserving hormonal treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in patients with APA. In a retrospective chart review, we identified patients with APA who were treated with MPA for fertility preservation at our hospital between 2001 and 2011. Eighteen patients with histologically diagnosed APA were identified. Clinical data including treatment, obstetrical, and oncologic outcomes were recorded. The mean observation period was 77.6 months (median 73.5, range 22-142), and the mean age was 33.6 years. Four patients also developed well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma. After the treatment, 14 patients (77.8 %) achieved either a complete response or partial response. Eight patients experienced recurrence, while four experienced persistent disease. Ten patients (55.6 %) eventually underwent hysterectomy. The median time to hysterectomy was 40.3 months (range 24-68). Nine patients progressed to endometrial cancer, and one experienced persistent APA. Among younger patients (years of age), four out of five patients who were married could have children. Seven patients (38.9 %) showed no evidence of the disease during the observation period (median 60 months, range 22-117 months). No one died because of the disease during the observation period. MPA yields a high response rate in APA, and if only younger patients are considered, a favorable pregnancy rate can be obtained. However, because recurrence rate is high, long-term follow-up under supervision of a trained gynecologic oncologist is required. To confirm MPA's utility, multi-center collaboration would be warranted.

  19. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  20. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) after the menopause is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other hormone preparations. We compared the effect of a combined HT and tibolone on the inhibition of haemostasis. METHODS......: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  1. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D

    2015-06-01

    Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in

  2. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  3. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline M; McLemore, Leslie; Westerberg, Katharine; Astronomo, Rena; Smythe, Kimberly; Gardella, Carolyn; Mack, Matthias; Magaret, Amalia; Patton, Dorothy; Agnew, Kathy; McElrath, M Juliana; Hladik, Florian; Eschenbach, David

    2014-08-15

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining. Over 12 months, the proportion with H2O2-positive lactobacilli decreased (n = 32; 53% vs 27%; P = .03). Median vaginal CD3(+) cells also decreased (n = 15; 355 vs 237 cells/mm(2); P = .03), as did CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells (195 vs 128 cells/mm(2); P = .04), HLA-DR(+) cells (130 vs 96 cells/mm(2); P = .27), and HLA-DR(+)CCR5(+) cells (18 vs 10 cells/mm(2); P = .33). DMPA contraception does not increase vaginal mucosal CCR5(+) HIV target cells but does decrease CD3(+) T lymphocytes and vaginal H2O2-producing lactobacilli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Effect of Depo Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Cerebral Food Motivation Centers: A Pilot Study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tania; Bao, Pinglei; Lerner, Alexander; Anderson, Lindsey; Page, Kathleen; Stanczyk, Frank; Mishell, Daniel; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects. fMRI scans were performed at baseline and 8 weeks after participants received one intramuscular dose of DMPA 150 mg. fMRI data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library. Changes in adiposity and circulating leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. There was a greater BOLD signal response to food cues in brain regions associated with food motivation (anterior cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex) 8 weeks after DMPA administration compared to baseline (z>2.3, pmotivation may guide the development of interventions to prevent weight gain in DMPA users. These data support a neural origin as one of the mechanisms underlying weight gain in DMPA users and may guide future research examining weight gain and contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Probing into the binding interaction between medroxyprogesterone acetate and bovine serum albumin (BSA): spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Dong-Qi; Qiu, Min-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min; Wang, Qi; Shi, Jie-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To further understand the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the binding interaction of MPA with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4) was studied using fluorescence emission spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking methods. The experimental results reveal that the fluorescence of BSA quenches due to the formation of MPA-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) and the binding constant for MPA-BSA complex are ~1 and 4.6 × 10(3)  M(-1) at 310 K, respectively. However, it can be concluded that the binding process of MPA with BSA is spontaneous and the main interaction forces between MPA and BSA are van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction due to the negative values of ΔG(0) , ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) in the binding process of MPA with BSA. MPA prefers binding on the hydrophobic cavity in subdomain IIIA (site II'') of BSA resulting in a slight change in the conformation of BSA, but BSA retaining the α-helix structure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Lu, Xuefeng; Hong, Qingqing; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer cycles using human menopausal gonadotrophin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 4596 live born babies. During January 2014-June 2016, children born after either hMG + MPA treatment, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist short protocol, or mild ovarian stimulation were included. The main outcome measures were neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations. Neonatal outcomes both for singletons and twins such as mean birth weight and length, gestational age, the frequency of preterm birth were comparable between groups. Rate of stillbirth and perinatal death were also similar. No significant differences were found in the overall incidence of congenital malformations between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that hMG + MPA regimen did not significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations compared with short protocol and mild ovarian stimulation, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.44] and 1.38 (CI 0.65-2.93), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our data suggested that compared with conventional ovarian stimulations, hMG + MPA treatment neither compromised neonatal outcomes of IVF newborns, nor did increase the prevalence of congenital malformations.

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  8. Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-04-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.

  9. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigėlienė, Natalija; Härkönen, Pirkko; Erkkola, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Human breast tissue undergoes phases of proliferation, differentiation and regression regulated by changes of the levels of circulating sex hormones during the menstrual cycle or aging. Ovarian hormones also likely play a key role in the etiology and biology of breast cancer. Reports concerning the proliferative effects of steroid hormones on the normal epithelium of human breast have been conflicting. Some studies have shown that steroid hormones may predispose breast epithelial cells to malignant changes by stimulating their proliferation, which is known to be regulated tightly by stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on proliferation, apoptosis, expression of differentiation markers and steroid hormone receptors in breast epithelium using an in vitro model of freshly isolated human breast tissue, in which a proper interaction of breast epithelium and stroma has been maintained. Human breast tissues were obtained from women undergoing surgery for breast tumours. Peritumoral tissues were excised and explants were cultured for 3 weeks in medium supplemented with E 2 or MPA or with E 2 +MPA. Endpoints included histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical assessment of the breast explants. Culture of breast explants for 14 or 21 days with steroid hormones increased proliferative activity and the thickness of acinar and ductal epithelium. E 2 -treatment led to hyperplastic epithelial morphology, MPA to hypersecretory single-layered epithelium and E 2 +MPA to multilayered but organised epithelium. The proliferative response to E 2 in comparison to control (p < 0.001) was more pronounced than to MPA (p < 0.05) or E 2 +MPA (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 days for Ki-67 and PCNA. E 2 treatment also decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells after 7 (p < 0.01) and 14 (p < 0.01) days. In addition, the relative number of ERα, ERβ and PR positive epithelial cells was decreased by all

  10. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  11. Medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated human, primary endometrial epithelial cells reveal unique gene expression signature linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Matthew W; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Dizzell, Sara; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) form the mucosal lining of the female genital tract (FGT) and provide the first line of protection against HIV-1. The impact of endogenous sex hormones or MPA on the gene expression profile of GECs has not been comprehensively documented. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial epithelial cells grown in physiological levels of E2, P4, and MPA. Each hormone treatment altered the gene expression profile of GECs in a unique manner. Interestingly, although MPA is a progestogen, the gene expression profile induced by it was distinct from P4. MPA increased gene expression of genes related to inflammation and cholesterol synthesis linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility. The analysis of gene expression profiles provides insights into the effects of sex hormones and MPA on GECs and allows us to posit possible mechanisms of the MPA-mediated increase in HIV-1 acquisition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate on incident hypertension in the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swica, Yael; Warren, Michelle P; Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Bassuk, Shari S; Shimbo, Daichi; Kaunitz, Andrew; Rossouw, Jacques; Stefanick, Marcia L; Womack, Catherine R

    2018-01-29

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on incident hypertension in the two Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials and in extended postintervention follow-up. A total of 27,347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers. This analysis includes the subsample of 18,015 women who did not report hypertension at baseline and were not taking antihypertensive medication. Women with an intact uterus received conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n = 5,994) or placebo (n = 5,679). Women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone (0.625 mg/d) (n = 3,108) or placebo (n = 3,234). The intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in the CEE plus MPA trial and 7.2 years in the CEE-alone trial with 13 years of cumulative follow-up until September 30, 2010. The primary outcome for these analyses was self-report of a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or high blood pressure requiring treatment with medication. During the CEE and CEE plus MPA intervention phase, the rate of incident hypertension was 18% higher for intervention than for placebo (CEE: hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27). This effect dissipated postintervention in both trials (CEE: HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.20; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10). CEE (0.625 mg/d) administered orally, with or without CEE plus MPA, is associated with an increased risk of hypertension in older postmenopausal women. Whether lower doses, different estrogen formulations, or transdermal route of administration offer lower risks warrant further study.

  13. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus metformin as a fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, A; Sato, Y; Kiyokawa, T; Koshizaka, M; Hanaoka, H; Shozu, M

    2016-02-01

    Metformin, widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduces the risk of cancer and relapse after treatment. Fertility-sparing treatment for endometrial cancer (EC) with progestin is associated with a high chance of disease regression, and the high relapse rate continues to be a problem. We assessed the efficacy of metformin in preventing recurrence after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) as fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and EC. This phase II study enrolled 17 patients with AEH and 19 patients with EC limited to the endometrium (age, 20-40 years). MPA (400 mg/day) and metformin (750-2250 mg/day) were administered for 24-36 weeks to achieve a complete response (CR). Metformin was administered until conception, even after MPA discontinuation. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS) after remission. We analyzed all efficacy end points in the full analysis set. The body mass index was ≥25 kg/m(2) in 27 patients (mean, 31 kg/m(2); range, 19-51 kg/m(2)), and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index was ≥2.5 in 24 patients (mean, 4.7; range, 0.7-21). Two patients showed progression at 12 weeks [6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2-18]. At 36 weeks, 29 (81%; 95% CI 65-90) patients achieved CR, and 5 (14%; 95% CI 6-29) patients achieved partial response. During a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-66 months) after remission, relapse was confirmed in three of the patients who had achieved CR (relapse rate, 10%). The 3-year estimated RFS rate was 89%. No patients experienced severe toxicity. Metformin inhibited disease relapse after MPA therapy. The combination of metformin and MPA in EC treatment should be studied further. UMIN 000002210. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Endocrine and Ovarian Changes in Response to the Ram Effect in Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-primed Corriedale Ewes During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubianes E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to determine the endocrine and ovarian changes in medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP-primed ewes after ram introduction. Experiment 1 was performed during the mid-breeding season with 71 ewes primed with an intravaginal MAP sponge for 12 days. While the control (C ewes (n = 35 were in permanent contact with rams, the ram effect (RE ewes (n = 36 were isolated for 34 days prior to contact with rams. At sponge withdrawal, all ewes were joined with eight sexually experienced marking Corriedale rams and estrus was recorded over the next 4 days. The ovaries were observed by laparoscopy 4–6 days after estrus. Four weeks later, pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In eight ewes from each group, ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned; FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β were measured every 12 hours until ovulation or 96 hours after estrus. The response to the rams was not affected by the fact that ewes had been kept or not in close contact with males before teasing. No differences were found in FSH, LH, estradiol-17β concentrations, growth of the ovulatory follicle, onset of estrus, ovulation rate, or pregnancy rate. Experiment 2 was performed with 14 ewes during the nonbreeding season. Ewes were isolated from rams for 1 month, and received a 6-day MAP priming. Ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned every 12 hours, and FSH, LH, estradiol-17β, and progesterone were measured. Ewes that ovulated and came into estrus had higher FSH and estradiol-17β levels before introduction of the rams than did ewes that had a silent ovulation. The endocrine pattern of the induced follicular phase of ewes that came into estrus was more similar to a normal follicular phase, than in ewes that had a silent ovulation. The follicle that finally ovulated tended to emerge earlier and in a more synchronized fashion in those ewes that did come into estrus. All ewes that ovulated had an LH surge and reached higher maximum FSH

  15. The pregnancy outcome of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation using 4 versus 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate per day in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J; Wang, Y; Chai, W R; Hong, Q Q; Wang, N L; Sun, L H; Long, H; Wang, L; Tian, H; Lyu, Q F; Lu, X F; Chen, Q J; Kuang, Y P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the clinical outcome and endocrinological characteristics of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) using 4 versus 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) per day in infertile women with normal ovary reserve. A randomised parallel controlled trial. Tertiary-care academic medical centre. A cohort of 300 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG; 225 iu per day) and MPA (group A, 10 mg per day; group B, 4 mg per day) were started simultaneously from cycle day 3 onwards. Ovulation was co-triggered by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1000 iu) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist; 0.1 mg) when dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later frozen embryo transfer (FET) in both groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of a premature surge in luteinising hormone (LH), the number of viable embryos, and clinical pregnancy outcomes. The number of oocytes retrieved and viable embryos were similar between two groups (9.8 ± 6.3 versus 9.6 ± 5.9; 4.2 ± 2.6 versus 3.7 ± 3.0; P > 0.05). No significant difference was found in clinical pregnancy rate (58.0 versus 48.7%) and live birth rate per participant (48.7 versus 42.0%; P > 0.05). No premature LH surge and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurred in either group. Progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) using 4 or 10 mg of MPA per day was comparable in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy outcome after FET. The administration of 4 mg of MPA per day was sufficient to prevent an untimely LH rise in women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. An RCT confirmed similar pregnancy outcome in P-primed ovarian stimulation with a daily dose of 4 or 10 mg MPA. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Contraception With Medroxyprogesterone Injections in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five accidental pregnancies occurred (Pearl Index 0.22 per hundred woman years). Defaults from scheduled injections and discontinuations of use were common with a low continuation rate (7.6%) at the end of the observation period. Secondary amenorrhoea was responsible for 33.3% of discontinuations. Conclusion: ...

  17. Associação da medroxiprogesterona ao protocolo Ovsynch para inseminação artificial em tempo fixo de búfalas cíclicas (Bubalus bubalis criadas na Amazônia Oriental The association of medroxyprogesterone to the Ovsynch protocol for the fixed time artificial insemination of cyclic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rossetto Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou avaliar os efeitos da associação da medroxiprogesterona (análogo sintético da progesterona ao protocolo Ovsynch sobre o crescimento folicular, a ovulação e a taxa de concepção de búfalas criadas na Amazônia Oriental (Tracuateua-PA. Vinte e sete fêmeas adultas (G1 n=14 e G2 n=13, cíclicas, sem bezerro ao pé e com ECC 3,5 foram submetidas a Ovsynch. Os animais do G2 receberam 60 mg de medroxiprogesterona entre D0 e D7 (D0=início do tratamento. A ultra-sonografia ovariana foi realizada nos D 0, 7, 9 e 10. O contingente de folículos pequenos diferiu no D7 (G1: 4,57±0,60 versus G2: 6,54±0,67; P=0,05. Tempo e tratamento influenciaram o diâmetro folicular no D7. O crescimento do folículo dominante entre D7 e D9 foi maior nos animais tratados (G1: 2,05±0,49 mm/dia versus 3,48±0,41 mm/dia; P0,05. Os achados sugerem que a medroxiprogesterona (1 aumenta recrutamento folicular e retarda o crescimento dos folículos com diâmetro maior que 5,0 mm entre D0 e D7; (2 sua retirada incrementa em 1,7 vezes o crescimento folicular do D7 ao D9; (3 pode contribuir para a ovulação de folículos maiores e, em tese, para maior formação de tecido luteínico; (4 não promove ovulação precoce após o Ovsynch; (5 não eleva as taxas de concepção após sincronização de fêmeas cíclicas e com bom escore corporal, devendo ser avaliada para uso em fêmeas acíclicas ou com ECC mais baixo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the association of medroxyprogesterone with the Ovsynch protocol on the follicular growth, ovulation, and conception rate of buffaloes in the Eastern Amazon (Tracuateua-PA. Twenty-seven cyclic, non-lactating females (G1 n=14 and G2 n=13 with a 3.5 BCS were synchronized with the Ovsynch. Animals from G2 received a supplementation of 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone from D0 to D7 (D0=starting day of treatment. Ultrasonography evaluation on ovaries was realized on Days 0, 7, 9, and 10. A

  18. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with Veramix sponge (medroxyprogesterone acetate) or CIDR (natural progesterone) in combination with an injection of estradiol-17β on ovarian activity, endocrine profiles, and embryo yields in cyclic ewes superovulated in the multiple-dose Folltropin-V (porcine FSH) regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Szpila, Patrycja; Oliveira, Maria E F; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Kridli, Rami T; Zieba, Dorota A

    2015-10-15

    Follicular wave status at the beginning of exogenous FSH administration is an important contributor to variability in superovulatory responses in ruminants. Studies in ewes have shown a decrease in the number of ovulations when superovulation is initiated in the presence of ostensibly ovulatory-sized ovarian follicles. Hormonal ablation of large antral follicles with the progestin-estradiol (E2-17β) treatment significantly reduces this variability in superovulated anestrous ewes, but the effects of the treatment in cycling ewes have not yet been assessed. Sixteen Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes (November-December) received either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP)-releasing intravaginal sponges (60 mg) or controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices (containing 300 mg of natural progesterone) for 14 days (Days 0-14), with a single intramuscular injection of 350 μg of E2-17β on Day 6. The superovulatory treatment consisted of six injections of porcine FSH (Folltropin-V) given twice daily, followed by a bolus GnRH injection (50 μg intramuscular) on Day 15. There were no differences (P ewes. In both subsets of animals, the next follicular wave emerged ∼2.5 days after an E2-17β injection (P > 0.05). A decline in maximum follicle size after an E2-17β injection was more abrupt in CIDR- compared with MAP-treated animals, and the ewes pretreated with exogenous progesterone had significantly more 3-mm follicles at the start of the superovulatory treatment. The metabolic clearance rate of exogenous E2-17β appeared to be greater in MAP-treated ewes, but circulating concentrations of porcine FSH failed to increase significantly after each Folltropin-V injection in CIDR-treated animals. The CIDR-treated ewes exceeded (P ewes receiving E2-17β before ovarian superstimulation, there were no differences in superovulatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mas...

  20. D:epot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... pelvic infection, cerVICItis. moniliasis, trichomoniasis and gynaecological malignancies. These conditions, if suspected clinically, should be diagnosed and treated by the appro- priate methods and with the usual drugs before assuming that the D\\1PA is causing the menstrual disorganizati9n. Only in this ...

  1. Medroxy-Progesterone Acetate in the Treatment of Paraphilic Sexual Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Followed 46 male patients with paraphilic sexual disorders for 5 or more years in Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Unit. All patients received equivalent amounts of group psychotherapy. Of these, 17 relapsed. Rate of relapse among subjects receiving treatment with medroxy-progestorone acetate was 15 percent whereas rate of relapse among subjects not…

  2. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The lack of a cardioprotective effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as suggested by the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and Women's Health Initiative (WHI) may in part be explained by the progestin used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect...... equine estrogens (CEE) (1.25 mg/day); 17beta-estradiol (E2) (4 mg/day); MPA + CEE (10 mg/day + 1.25 mg/day); NETA + E2 (3 mg/day + 4 mg/day); or placebo. Segments from the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries were mounted in myographs for tension recordings. Concentration-response curves to potassium...

  3. Neurons in the brain of the male cynomolgus monkey accumulate 3H-medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    MPA is a synthetic progestin with androgen-depleting activity. It is used clinically to reduce sexual motivation and aggression in male sex offenders. The mechanisms for its behavioral effects are not known. The authors used steroid autoradiography to help identify sites where MPA may act in the brain of male primates. Twenty-four hours after castration, two adult male cynomolgus macaques, weighing 4.9 and 6.6 kg, were administered 5 mCi 3 H-MPA (NEN, 47.7 Ci/mmol) i.v., and were killed 1 h later. Left sides of the brains and samples of pituitary glands were frozen and 4-micron sections were cut and processed for thaw-mount autoradiography. Radioactivity was concentrated in the nuclei of many neutrons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (n.), arcuate n., medial preoptic n., and anterior hypothalamic area. Virtually no labeled cells were seen in the bed n. of stria terminalis, lateral septal n., amygdala, or pituitary gland. Right sides of the brains were analyzed by HPLC which demonstrated that 98% of the radioactivity in cell nuclei from the hypothalamus was in the form of unmetabolized 3 H-MPA. The distribution of labelling in the brain following 3 H-MPA administration resembled that previously seen following 3 H-ORG 2058 in female cynomolgus monkeys. These data indicate that MPA has a circumscribed localization in the brain

  4. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) alone and in combination with two progestins on K+ and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms in coronary...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca2+, activated or ATP-sensitive K+ channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity. Conclusion......: When E-2 is administered with MPA, effects of E-2 on nitric oxide and Ca2+ mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects of estrogen...

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca(2+) activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity....... CONCLUSION: When E(2) is administered with MPA, effects of E(2) on nitric oxide and Ca(2+)-mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects...

  6. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  7. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  8. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... triggers gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release ... open period has been shown to have positive effect on inducing a preovulatory ..... release, injectable levonorgestrel and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on.

  9. The effects of three methods of synchronization on estrus induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three methods of synchronization on estrus induction and ... Due to the importances of estrus synchronization in sheep reproduction and fertility, the ... sponges (medroxyprogesterone) and controlled intravaginal drug-releasing ...

  10. The differential association of conjugated equine estrogen and esterified estrogen with activated protein C resistance in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N. L.; Heckbert, S. R.; Doggen, C. J.; Lemaitre, R. N.; Reiner, A. P.; Lumley, T.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Psaty, B. M.; Rosendaal, F. R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials have demonstrated that oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapy with or without medroxyprogesterone (MPA) increases venous thrombotic risk but this safety issue has not been investigated for other oral estrogens. Based on observational study findings that esterified

  11. The effects of progesterone selection on psychological symptoms in hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Emel Kiyak; Kara, Mustafa; Etiz, Sema; Kumru, Pinar; Aka, Nurettin; Kose, Gultekin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of hormone replacement therapy using dienogest and medroxyprogesterone acetate on psychological symptoms in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. A total of 73 patients who sought treatment at the menopause units of the authors' gynecology and obstetrics clinics between of November 2003 and October 2004 complaining of vasomotor symptoms were included in the study prospectively. The cases were divided into two groups: Group I (37 patients) was given 2 mg estradiol valerate and 2 mg dienogest, and Group II (36 patients) was given 2 mg estradiol valerate and 10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate. The groups' results in months 0 and 6 were compared through the evaluation of vasomotor and psychological symptom levels. No significant difference was found between the groups when the initial levels of vasomotor and psychological symptom subtypes were compared (p = 0.16). It was observed that all the psychological symptoms decreased in the 6th month in the group using dienogest in comparison with the initial situation, and that psychological symptoms increased in the group using medroxyprogesterone acetate in the evaluation performed in the 6th month compared with the initial levels. It was also found out that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups when compared in terms of these symptoms (p psychological situation and sleep, it was observed that the use of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) worsens the general psychological situation.

  12. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer: the role of progestins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Pederson, Anette Tønnes; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2003-01-01

    estrogen-progestin treatment regime is now prescribed worldwide. In the USA the predominant compounds are conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone-acetate, whereas oestradiol combined with testosterone-like progestins is commonly used in Europe. These differences are largely the result of traditions...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971) - Articles Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  14. Attitude of Nigerian women to abnormal menstrual bleeding from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and Norethisterone Enanthate (Net-En) are frequently used progestogen-only injectable contraceptives in many developing countries including Nigeria. Their use is often complicated by abnormal and unpredictable menstrual bleeding patterns. This has often been ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 399 ... N Ameh, MA Abdul, D Haggai. Vol 9, No 2 (2010), Depot medroxyprogesterone infectable contraception at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Abstract PDF. AM Abasiattai, EJ Udoma, E Ukeme. Vol 9, No 1 (2010), Depression among medical outpatients with diabetes: A cross-sectional study ...

  16. Hormonal contraception decreases bacterial vaginosis but oral contraception may increase candidiasis: implications for HIV transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Verwijs, Marijn C.; Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    A 2012 WHO consultation concluded that combined oral contraception (COC) does not increase HIV acquisition in women, but the evidence for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is conflicting. We evaluated the effect of COC and DMPA use on the vaginal microbiome because current evidence suggests

  17. A Five Year Review of the Complications of Progestogen only ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and used progestogen only injectable contraceptives (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and noerthistherone enantate) at the family planning units of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2004. The case files of these clients were retrieved their data extracted.

  18. Progestins used in hormonal replacement therapy display different effects in coronary arteries from New Zealand white rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina G; Pedersen, Susan H; Dalsgaard, Tórur

    2004-01-01

    ) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), (2) norethisterone acetate (NETA), (3) conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (4) 17-beta-estradiol (E2), (5) MPA+CEE , (6) NETA+E2 , (7) or placebo (n=8) and given hormonal treatment through the diet for 4 weeks. Ring segments from the left proximal coronary artery and from the distal...

  19. A new progestogen-only medical therapy for outpatient management of acute, abnormal uterine bleeding: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Stacy R; Nelson, Anita L

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study short-term efficacy and feasibility of a new progestogen-only treatment for outpatient management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding. This was a prospective, single-arm, pilot clinical trial of a progestogen-only bridging treatment for acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant, premenopausal women in the Gynecologic Urgent Care Clinic at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Subjects were administered a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscular injection and given medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg to be taken orally every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measures included a percentage of women who stopped bleeding in 5 days, time to bleeding cessation, reduction in numbers of pads used, side effects, and patient satisfaction. All 48 women stopped bleeding within 5 days; 4 women had spotting only at the time of their last contact during the 5 day follow-up. Mean time to bleeding cessation was 2.6 days. Side effects were infrequent and patient satisfaction was high. Injection of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg intramuscularly combined with 3 days of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 mg every 8 hours for 9 doses is an effective outpatient therapy for acute abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a cohort of primiparous periurban peruvian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Susana L; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2012-02-01

    The authors aimed to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among 117 Peruvian mothers planning to breastfeed exclusively. Data were collected on days 0 and 3, and months 1, 3, and 6. Exclusive breastfeeding status was evaluated with a 24-hour recall of infant diet. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 74%, 72%, and 35% at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. At 3 months, lower maternal education, greater breastfeeding frequency (day 3), greater breast pain (day 3), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (3 months) were associated with EBF, after adjusting for EBF intentions. At 6 months, greater infant birth weight and mother-not employed were associated with EBF, after controlling for EBF intentions. More educated and working mothers, and infants with lower birth weight should be targeted in interventions to promote EBF in urban Peru. Research is also warranted to explore the factors linking depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and breast pain with EBF duration.

  1. Relationship of Hypertension, Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Control With White Matter Abnormalities in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)—MRI Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for h...

  2. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows.

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, J. C. F.; JAUME, C. M.; SOUZA, C. J. H. de

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS) during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves wer...

  3. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at ...

  4. One-year contraceptive continuation and pregnancy in adolescent girls and women initiating hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Tina R; Foster-Rosales, Anne; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Boyer, Cherrie B; Brown, Beth A; Sokoloff, Abby; Harper, Cynthia C

    2011-02-01

    To assess contraceptive discontinuation, switching, factors associated with method discontinuation, and pregnancy among women initiating hormonal contraceptives. This was a 12-month longitudinal cohort study of adolescent girls and women (n=1,387) aged 15 to 24 years attending public family planning clinics who did not desire pregnancy for at least 1 year and selected to initiate the patch, ring, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, or pills. Participants completed follow-up assessments at 3, 6, and 12 months after baseline. Life table analysis was used to estimate survival rates for contraceptive continuation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate factors associated with method discontinuation. The continuation rate (per 100 person-years) at 12 months was low for all methods; however, it was lowest for patch and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate initiators, 10.9 and 12.1 per 100 person years, respectively (P≤.003); continuation among ring initiators was comparable to pill initiators, 29.4 and 32.7 per 100 person-years, respectively (P=.06). Discontinuation was independently associated with method initiated and younger age. The only factors associated with lower risk of discontinuation were greater intent to use the method and being in school or working. The pregnancy rate (per 100 person-years) was highest for patch and ring initiators (30.1 and 30.5) and comparable for pill and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate initiators (16.5 and 16.1; Pcontraceptive continuation, education about longer-acting methods, and developing new contraceptives that women may be more likely to continue. II.

  5. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Borrell, Roberto; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Iglesias-Peinado, Irene; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2016-11-01

    To review interactions between oral antineoplastic agents (OAAs) for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors and common food and medicinal plants. All potential interactions between OAAs, medicinal plants and food were reviewed. OAAs were considered to be drugs for oral administration that have direct antitumor activity and were approved by the European Medicines Agency in April 2015. We performed the literature search in Pubmed(®) considering only medicinal plants and food. In addition, available data were analyzed from each OAA in secondary data sources taken from Thomson Micromedex(®) and Lexi-comp(®), as well as in the summary of product characteristics. Fifty-eight OAAs were analyzed. We found interactions in 60.3 % of OAAs. Those with most interactions described were: imatinib and procarbazine (4 interactions) and erlotinib, vemurafenib, pomalidomide, medroxyprogesterone and methotrexate (3 interactions). We found 39 interactions (74.4 % important). St. John's wort was the medicinal plant with most interactions (92.6 % were considered important). The rest were: important (ginseng-imatinib, methotrexate-cola and tobacco-erlotinib and tobacco-pomalidomide) and moderate (caffeine-vemurafenib/medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone-ruxolitinib/St. John's wort, garlic-anagrelide and ginseng-procarbazine). Twenty-six interactions (61.5 % important). Grapefruit had most interactions (82.4 % were considered important). The rest were: important (alcohol-procarbazine) and moderate (dairy-estramustine, methotrexate-ethanol, procarbazine-tyramine, vitamin A-tretinoin/bexarotene and grapefruit-bexarotene/etoposide/sunitinib). A review of interactions of medicinal plants and food should be taken into account in the management of OAAs, since more than half have interactions with MPs and food, of which 70.3 % are considered important. The most relevant are HSJ, grapefruit, ginseng and tobacco. This review is intended to serve as a support to all healthcare

  6. Discussion of a Well-Designed Clinical Trial Which Did Not Demonstrate Effectiveness: UIC Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Study of Black Cohosh and Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Fong, Harry H. S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a clinical trial for pharmaceutical agents is usually undertaken only after there is likely benefit demonstrated from the use of the putative agent. The consideration of botanical products as pharmaceutical agents must similarly go through a rigorous evaluation process. The present work reviews the recently published Phase II study evaluating the effectiveness of black cohosh and red clover in a randomized trial with conjugated equine estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate and placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. We analyze the possible reasons why this study failed to show benefit for either botanical product in reducing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. PMID:21034798

  7. [High-dosed gestagen therapy of the metastatic mammary carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firusian, N; Becher, R

    1981-12-01

    Thirty patients with histologically proven metastatic mammary carcinoma were treated, after exhaustion of hormonal and cytostatic therapeutic means, with high-dosed medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) during a ten-day induction phase with 1000 mg MPAi.m. per day and then with 600 mg oral MPA per day. In eleven patients a complete or partial remission was achieved. The median period of remission comprised ten months. A positive relationship was found between the response to high-dosed MPA therapy and the length of free intervals. Side effects were tolerable.

  8. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hormone therapy modulates ET(A) mRNA expression in the aorta of ovariectomised New Zealand White rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan Helene; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Nina Gros

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone and in combination with norethisterone acetate (NETA) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were treated with E(2), CEE, E(2......(A) receptor. The effect was maintained with the co-administration of NETA, but not MPA. The differential effects of specific hormone components may explain the variable effects of hormone therapy on the arterial wall....

  10. Unsuspected meningioma in a patient with pituitary gigantism. Case report with autopsy findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, J.M.; Ghatak, N.R.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1975-06-01

    A unique example of a clinically unsuspected large parasellar meningioma is described in a 36-yr-old pituitary giant who had been treated initially with conventional irradiation, subsequently by surgical excision of an acidophil adenoma, and ultimately with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) prior to his demise. The patient died of increased intracranial pressure resulting from a combined mass effect of the meningioma and recurrent tumor. The relationship between radiation and the development of the meningioma is discussed, as well as the fine ultrastructure of a highly functioning acidophil adenoma.

  11. Unsuspected meningioma in a patient with pituitary gigantism. Case report with autopsy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, J.M.; Ghatak, N.R.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A unique example of a clinically unsuspected large parasellar meningioma is described in a 36-yr-old pituitary giant who had been treated initially with conventional irradiation, subsequently by surgical excision of an acidophil adenoma, and ultimately with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) prior to his demise. The patient died of increased intracranial pressure resulting from a combined mass effect of the meningioma and recurrent tumor. The relationship between radiation and the development of the meningioma is discussed, as well as the fine ultrastructure of a highly functioning acidophil adenoma

  12. Progestogens and Cushing's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harte, C

    2012-02-03

    We report 3 patients where Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA = Provera) and Megestrol Acetate (Megace) in doses used for therapy of breast cancer, caused clinical hypercortisolism and Cushing\\'s syndrome. Studies of the toxicity of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate list the commonest adverse events at 500 mg\\/day as weight gain, water retention, increased blood pressure, tremor, moon face, sweating, muscle cramps, vaginal bleeding and increased appetite. Glucocorticoid-like effects are seen in up to 30% of patients treated for longer than 6 weeks with mostly large doses of the order of 1500 mg\\/day but Cushing\\'s syndrome has been reported in patients taking 400 mg\\/day. Neither the glucocorticoid-like effects or Cushing\\'s syndrome have been previously observed with Megestrol Acetate. In the elderly female population receiving progestogens for neoplastic disease the progestogen itself could be an appreciable cause of morbidity both by causing glucocorticoid-like effects and Cushing\\'s syndrome but also by lack of awareness of the danger of sudden withdrawal of these compounds when the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is suppressed. The signs and symptoms could be easily overlooked unless appropriate testing for Cushing\\'s syndrome is carried out. While the progestogen may have to be continued indefinitely a dose decrease may be feasible with reduction of morbidity.

  13. Quinacrine non-surgical female sterilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, S N; Begum, R

    2001-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of transcervical applications of quinacrine along with other adjuvants, such as ampicillin and ibuprofen, for sterilization. The cohort consisted of 750 normal women who requested sterilization and volunteered for this method at the family planning clinic of a tertiary hospital and community clinics in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Several different protocols were followed from October 1989 to April 1999. Each woman received one or two insertions of 180 mg or 252 mg quinacrine with or without adjuvants including 55.5 mg ibuprofen or 125 mg ampicillin. Supplementary contraception was given in the form of combined oral contraceptive pills, barrier methods, or injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for 3 months. Details of each protocol are described in the text. The gross pregnancy failure rate for insertion of 180 mg in 590 women was 3.9% compared to 1.9% for the 160 who received 252 mg. There were no serious complications, and side effects were transient. We conclude that quinacrine non-surgical sterilization is a safe, acceptably effective method when two insertions of 252 mg quinacrine with medroxyprogesterone injection as a supplement is used.

  14. Characterization of a novel telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line, St-T1b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosens Jan J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated differentiation of the endometrial compartments in the second half of the menstrual cycle is a prerequisite for the establishment of pregnancy. Endometrial stromal cells (ESC decidualize under the influence of ovarian progesterone to accommodate implantation of the blastocyst and support establishment of the placenta. Studies into the mechanisms of decidualization are often hampered by the lack of primary ESC. Here we describe a novel immortalized human ESC line. Methods Primary ESC were immortalized by the transduction of telomerase. The resultant cell line, termed St-T1b, was characterized for its morphological and biochemical properties by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Its progestational response was tested using progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate with and without 8-Br-cAMP, an established inducer of decidualization in vitro. Results St-T1b were positive for the fibroblast markers vimentin and CD90 and negative for the epithelial marker cytokeratin-7. They acquired a decidual phenotype indistinguishable from primary ESC in response to cAMP stimulation. The decidual response was characterized by transcriptional activation of marker genes, such as PRL, IGFBP1, and FOXO1, and enhanced protein levels of the tumor suppressor p53 and the metastasis suppressor KAI1 (CD82. Progestins alone had no effect on St-T1b cells, but medroxyprogesterone acetate greatly enhanced the cAMP-stimulated expression of IGFBP-1 after 3 and 7 days. Progesterone, albeit more weakly, also augmented the cAMP-induced IGFBP-1 production but only after 7 days of treatment. The cell line remained stable in continuous culture for more than 150 passages. Conclusion St-T1b express the appropriate phenotypic ESC markers and their decidual response closely mimics that of primary cultures. Decidualization is efficiently induced by cAMP analog and enhanced by medroxyprogesterone acetate, and, to a lesser extent, by natural

  15. Degradation of progestagens by oxidation with potassium permanganate in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Paul B; Zamyadi, Arash; Broseus, Romain; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the oxidation of selected progestagenic steroid hormones by potassium permanganate at pH 6.0 and 8.0 in ultrapure water and wastewater effluents, using bench-scale assays. Second order rate constants for the reaction of potassium permanganate with progestagens (levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone and progesterone) was determined as a function of pH, presence of natural organic matter and temperature. This work also illustrates the advantages of using a novel analytical method, the laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD-APCI) interface coupled to tandem mass spectrometry apparatus, allowing for the quick determination of oxidation rate constants and increasing sample throughput. The second-order rate constants for progestagens with permanganate determined in bench-scale experiments ranged from 23 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in both wastewater and ultrapure waters with pH values of 6.0 and 8.0. Two pairs of progestagens exhibited similar reaction rate constants, i.e. progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (23 to 80 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 26 to 149 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0) and levonorgestrel and norethindrone (179 to 224 M(-1) sec(-1) in ultrapure water and 180 to 368 M(-1) sec(-1) in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0). The presence of dissolved natural organic matter and the pH conditions improved the oxidation rate constants for progestagens with potassium permanganate only at alkaline pH. Reaction rates measured in Milli-Q water could therefore be used to provide conservative estimates for the oxidation rates of the four selected progestagens in wastewaters when exposed to potassium permanganate. The progestagen removal efficiencies was lower for progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (48 to 87 %) than for levonorgestrel and norethindrone (78 to 97%) in Milli-Q and wastewaters at pH 6.0-8.2 using potassium permanganate dosages of 1 to 5 mg L(-1) after contact times of 10 to 60 min. This

  16. Membranous Dysmenorrhea: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hatim A.; Smith, Shawn J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to illustrate the variability of hormonal contraception of patients that presented with membranous dysmenorrheal. A case analysis chart review was completed on six patients referred to a Pediatric Gynecologist in an academic setting. In each case the patient underwent a thorough pelvic and bimanual exam. Following the initial presentation, each patient continued to be followed on a regular visits. Cases: Two were using the transdermal contraceptive patch and oral contraceptive, but following the expulsion of decidual cast, they were both placed on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) without further complications. Three of the six cases were on DMPA prior to the similar occurrence of membranous dysmenorrheal and following this incident, continued on DMPA without further problems. The final case was on the transdermal patch prior to decidual cast expulsion and remained on this form of hormonal contraception without further complications. These cases indicate that membranous dysmenorrheal is not limited to the use of DMPA. PMID:18060329

  17. Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1984-01-01

    Sex steroids are supposed to contribute to the normal glucose homeostasis and to the altered glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during contraception. In the present study isolated mouse pancreatic islets were maintained in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% newborn...... calf serum and 100 ng/ml of one of the following steroids: oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, chlormadinone acetate, norethynodrel, norethindrone acetate, and ethynyloestradiol. Release of insulin to the culture medium was measured during a 2 week culture...... in the presence of oestradiol, progesterone, or testosterone were subjected to 30 min stimulation with 5.5, 11, 22 mmol/l glucose, only the progesterone-treated islets released more insulin in response to glucose than the control islets. It is concluded that progesterone and its derivatives have a direct effect...

  18. Use of [125I]-iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives as radioligands for radioimmunoassay of natural and synthetic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    [ 125 I]-Iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives were prepared and utilized as radioligands in radioimmunoassays of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, estriol-16α-glucuronide, levonorgestrel, norethindrone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The binding of these iodinated radioligands was compared to that of the corresponding tritiated steroids and their effect on the sensitivity and slope of standard curves was examined. The results demonstrate that much higher antibody dilutions could be used with iodinated than with tritiated radioligands. In general, standard curves obtained with iodinated radioligands were more sensitive than those obtained with tritiated steroids, but standard curves had steeper slopes when tritiated rather than iodinated radioligands were used. The data, summarizing our 5-year experience with steroid-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine derivatives, indicate that these tracers play an important role in radioimmunoassay systems for both natural and synthetic steroids. (author)

  19. "EFFECT OF PROGESTOGEN-ONLY CONTRACEPTIVES ON HUMAN MILK COMPOSITION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ghazizadeh P. Pasalar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Different contraceptive methods are used by breastfeeding mothers. To investigate the effects of progestogen - only contraceptives on human milk components, a non-randomized, follow-up study was carried out in Iran (Varamin on 140 breastfeeding women, 51 of whom used progestogenonly contraception including progestogen-only pills (POP or depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, and 89 used non-hormonal contraception methods, starting at 6 weeks after delivery. Human milk components were compared between the groups after 26 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between groups, in terms of protein, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium concentration of milk, but triglycerides in the hormonal group and magnesium in the non-hormonal group were higher than the other group (P< 0.05. It seems that progestogen-only methods (POP and DMPA do not have an adverse effect on human milk composition, and are safe contraceptives during lactation.

  20. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas.

  1. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... years were assigned to receive alendronate, placebo, or open-label estrogen-progestin (conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate or a cyclic regimen of 17 beta-estradiol, norethisterone acetate and estradiol). Of the original women, one third after year 2 and one third after year 4...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...

  2. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on the body weight, blood pressure and vaginal bleeding in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was a descriptive, retrospective trial conducted in 29 menopausal women. Each patient received treatment with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE 0.625 mg/day + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 5 mg/hari continuously for the period of 6 months. The average age of menopause was 53.7 years with duration of menopause of 5.5 years. The education level of patients was Senior High School and higher. During the period of 6 months of continuous combined HRT, a significant increase of body weight and systolic blood pressure was found, while diastolic blood pressure did not have any significant change. Vaginal bleeding in the form of spotting occurred in 69% of the patients during the use of continuous combined HRT. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:11-4Keywords: continuous HRT, menopause, body weight, blood pressure, bleeding

  3. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    therapy (HT), although an underlying healthy-user effect may account for these observations. Progestagens are added to protect against an increased risk of endometrial cancer observed with unopposed estrogen treatment. The inclusion of progestagen in HT has been associated with possible adverse......Biological studies have demonstrated estrogen's beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors, including plasma lipoproteins, atherogenesis, vascular reactivity, inflammation and antioxidative activity. Additionally, observational studies have supported a cardioprotective effect of hormone...... cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  4. An examination of the characteristics, concentration, and distribution of androgen receptor in rat testis during sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In these studies a nuclear exchange assay was established in rat testis in which exchange after 86 hours at 4 degree C was greater than 85% complete and receptor was stable. Receptor concentration per DNA measured by exchange declined between 15 and 25 days of age in the rat testis, then increased 4-fold during sexual maturation. Proliferation of germ cells which had low receptor concentration appeared to account for the early decline in testicular receptor concentration, whereas increase in receptor number per Sertoli cell between 25 and 35 days of age contributed to the later increase. Detailed studies showed that other possible explanations for changes in receptor number were not likely. Androgen receptor dynamics in testicular cells showed rapid, specific uptake of [ 3 H]-testosterone that was easily blocked by unlabeled testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not as well as by the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide

  5. [Beta thalassemia major and pregnancy during adolescence: report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Lucas Augusto Monteiro Castro; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pereira, Belmiro Gonçalves; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia major is a rare hereditary blood disease in which impaired synthesis of beta globin chains causes severe anemia. Medical treatment consists of chronic blood transfusions and iron chelation. We describe two cases of adolescents with beta thalassemia major with unplanned pregnancies and late onset of prenatal care. One had worsening of anemia with increased transfusional requirement, fetal growth restriction, and placental senescence. The other was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism and low maternal weight, and was admitted twice during pregnancy due to dengue shock syndrome and influenza H1N1-associated respiratory infection. She also developed fetal growth restriction and underwent vaginal delivery at term complicated by uterine hypotonia. Both patients required blood transfusions after birth and chose medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive method afterwards. This report highlights the importance of medical advice on contraceptive methods for these women and the role of a specialized prenatal follow-up in association with a hematologist.

  6. Women’s experiences after Planned Parenthood’s exclusion from a family planning program in Texas☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C. Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. Study Design We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006–2010 (NSFG). Results (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Conclusions Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Implications Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. PMID:26680757

  7. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome: early diagnosis and intervention are necessary for fertility preservation in young women with endometrial cancer under 35 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yoshinori; Saito, Fumitaka; Takaishi, Kiyomi; Motohara, Takeshi; Honda, Ritsuo; Ohba, Takashi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a significant risk factor for premenopausal endometrial cancer (EC) and/or atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH). The aim was to elucidate the clinical background and detailed menstrual history of EC and/or AEH in young women with PCOS. From January 2001 to December 2013, women under 35 years of age who had been diagnosed with EC and/or AEH and who had been treated at Kumamoto University Hospital, Japan, were recruited. The patients' clinical characteristics, clinical stages of EC and/or AEH, medication and operation methods, endocrine profiles, and menstrual history were assessed retrospectively. Of all the cases of EC and/or AEH, 25 (4.6%) were under 35 years of age. The mean age was 29.0 years and all the patients were nulligravida. The clinical stages of EC and/or AEH that were identified included: AEH (five cases), stage IA (18 cases), IB (one case), and IIIA (one case). Fourteen (56%) cases met the criteria for PCOS. Both the Body Mass Index and Homeostatic Model Assessment-insulin resistance were significantly higher in the patients with PCOS than in the patients without PCOS. Medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy was not effective for the patients with PCOS and they underwent a hysterectomy more often than the patients without PCOS. All the patients with PCOS exhibited irregular menstruation or amenorrhea, the mean duration of which was 13.1 years before PCOS and EC and/or AEH were diagnosed. Although both the patients with and without PCOS had irregular menstruation, the patients with PCOS were less likely to have fertility-sparing surgery than the patients without PCOS because they had more advanced disease or failed to respond to medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy.

  9. The presence of a membrane-bound progesterone receptor sensitizes the estradiol-induced effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Hans; Yang, Yang; Seeger, Harald; Fehm, Tanja; Cahill, Michael A; Tong, Xiaowen; Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer risk is still an important topic regarding hormone therapy as well as oral contraception. Evidence that progestogens may play a crucial role is accumulating. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) expressed in breast cancer may be important in tumorigenesis and thus may increase breast cancer risk. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of different estradiol (E2) concentrations and the addition of two progestogens on MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing PGRMC1. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with PGRMC1 expression plasmid (MCF-7/PGRMC1-3HA [WT-12]). To test the effects of E2 and progestogens on cell proliferation, MCF-7 and WT-12 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of E2 (10 and 10 M) alone and in combination with progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate (each 10 M). E2 elicited a concentration-dependent proliferative effect on both cell lines, which was much more pronounced in WT-12 cells (50% vs 200%). This effect could be completely abrogated by the addition of the E2 antagonist fulvestrant. Addition of progesterone had no influence on the E2-induced effect, whereas medroxy-progesterone acetate enhanced the E2-induced effect at a low E2 concentration, which was, again, more pronounced in the WT-12 cells. The figures were between 20% and 40% in MCF-7 and between 60% and 250% in WT-12 cells. Overexpression of PGRMC1 sensitizes the proliferative response of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line to estradiol. The effect of progestogens on breast cancer tumorigenesis may depend on the specific progestogen used for hormone therapy or oral contraception.

  10. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  11. Women's Health Initiative estrogen plus progestin clinical trial: a study that does not allow establishing relevant clinical risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sócrates; Cavada, Gabriel; Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Fica, Juan; Barriga, Patricio; Brantes, Sergio; Irribarra, Cristina; Vallejo, María; Campodónico, Ítalo

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine time differences (differences in restricted mean survival times [RMSTs]) in the onset of invasive breast cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, and hip fracture between the placebo group and the conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg group of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial based on survival curves of the original report and to provide adequate interpretation of the clinical effects of a given intervention. Distribution of survival function was obtained from cumulative hazard plots of the WHI report; Monte Carlo simulation was performed to obtain censored observations for each outcome, in which assumptions of the Cox model were evaluated once corresponding hazard ratios had been estimated. Using estimation methods such as numerical integration, pseudovalues, and flexible parametric modeling, we determined differences in RMSTs for each outcome. Obtained cumulative hazard plots, hazard ratios, and outcome rates from the simulated model did not show differences in relation to the original WHI report. The differences in RMST between placebo and conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg (in flexible parametric modeling) were 1.17 days (95% CI, -2.25 to 4.59) for invasive breast cancer, 7.50 days (95% CI, 2.90 to 12.11) for coronary heart disease, 2.75 days (95% CI, -0.84 to 6.34) for stroke, 4.23 days (95% CI, 1.82 to 6.64) for pulmonary embolism, -2.73 days (95% CI, -5.32 to -0.13) for colorectal cancer, and -2.77 days (95% CI, -5.44 to -0.1) for hip fracture. The differences in RMST for the outcomes of the WHI study are too small to establish clinical risks related to hormone therapy use.

  12. [Mechanism study on leptin resistance in lung cancer cachexia rats treated by Xiaoyan Decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Chao; Jia, Ying-Jie; Yang, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xing; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jin-Li; Sun, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jun; Duan, Hao-Guo; Guo, Hua; Li, Chao

    2014-12-01

    To study the leptin resistance mechanism of Xiaoyan Decoction (XD) in lung cancer cachexia (LCC) rats. An LCC rat model was established. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the LCC model group, the XD group, and the positive control group, 10 in each group. After LCC model was set up, rats in the LCC model group were administered with normal saline, 2 mL each time. Rats in the XD group were administered with XD at the daily dose of 2 mL. Those in the positive control group were administered with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate suspension (20 mg/kg) by gastrogavage at the daily dose of 2 mL. All medication lasted for 14 days. The general condition and tumor growth were observed. Serum levels of leptin and leptin receptor in the hypothalamus were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Contents of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexia for genomic POMC were detected using real-time PCR technique. Serum leptin levels were lower in the LCC model group than in the normal control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD or Medroxyprogesterone Acetate could effectively reduce levels of leptin receptor with statistical significance (P XD group and the positive control group (P 0.05). There was statistical difference in POMC between the normal control group and the LCC model group (P XD group and the positive control group with statistical significance (P XD group (P XD could increase serum leptin levels and reduce leptin receptor levels in the hypothalamus. LCC could be improved by elevating NPY contents in the hypothalamus and reducing POMC contents, promoting the appetite, and increasing food intake from the periphery pathway and the central pathway.

  13. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, L H.; Hogan, P E.; Bryan, N R.; Kuller, L H.; Margolis, K L.; Bettermann, K; Wallace, R B.; Lao, Z; Freeman, R; Stefanick, M L.; Shumaker, S A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) hormone therapy (HT) trials reported that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases risk for all-cause dementia and global cognitive decline. WHIMS MRI measured subclinical cerebrovascular disease as a possible mechanism to explain cognitive decline reported in WHIMS. Methods: We contacted 2,345 women at 14 WHIMS sites; scans were completed on 1,424 (61%) and 1,403 were accepted for analysis. The primary outcome measure was total ischemic lesion volume on brain MRI. Mean duration of on-trial HT or placebo was 4 (CEE+MPA) or 5.6 years (CEE-Alone) and scans were conducted an average of 3 (CEE+MPA) or 1.4 years (CEE-Alone) post-trial termination. Cross-sectional analysis of MRI lesions was conducted; general linear models were fitted to assess treatment group differences using analysis of covariance. A (two-tailed) critical value of α = 0.05 was used. Results: In women evenly matched within trials at baseline, increased lesion volumes were significantly related to age, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lower post-trial global cognition scores, and increased incident cases of on- or post-trial mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Mean ischemic lesion volumes were slightly larger for the CEE+MPA group vs placebo, except for the basal ganglia, but the differences were not significant. Women assigned to CEE-Alone had similar mean ischemic lesion volumes compared to placebo. Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy was not associated with a significant increase in ischemic brain lesion volume relative to placebo. This finding was consistent within each trial and in pooled analyses across trials. GLOSSARY 3MSE = modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; HT = hormone therapy; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MPA

  14. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  15. Histomorfometria da mama de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio Breast histomorphometry of rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Maria Preda dos Santos Torres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas nas mamas de ratas tratadas com estrogênio e/ou progestagênio por curto período de tempo. MÉTODOS: Foram divididas em quatro grupos 40 ratas ooforectomizadas: GC-recebeu veículo; GE-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal; GP-recebeu acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal e, GEP-recebeu benzoato de estradiol (37,6 µg/animal e acetato de medroxiprogesterona (11,28 mg/animal. No grupo GE, o estradiol foi administrado durante sete dias, por via subcutânea. Já no grupo EP o estradiol foi administrado nos primeiros sete dias e o progestagênio por mais 23 dias, por via subcutânea. Vinte e quatro horas após a última administração dos hormônios, os animais foram anestesiados e o primeiro par de mamas inguinais removido, imerso em formaldeído a 10% e processado para inclusão em parafina, sendo os cortes corados pela Hematoxilina-Eosina. Foram avaliadas a morfologia e a área ocupada pelo parênquima mamário, sendo os dados submetidos à análise de variância complementado pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p GEP > GC; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breast histomorphometric changes in rats treated with estrogen and/or progestogen for a short period of time. METHODS: Forty oophorectomized rats were divided into four groups: GC, vehicle; GE, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal; GP, treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.2 mg/animal and GEP, treated with estradiol benzoate (37.6 mg/animal plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (11.28 mg/animal. In GE group, estradiol was administered subcutaneously for seven days; in GEP group, estradiol was administered once in a day for the first seven days and the progestogen over the next 23 days both subcutaneously. Twenty-four hours after the last hormone administration, the animals were killed upon deep anesthesia and the first inguinal breasts were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed to be included in paraffin

  16. Two synthetic progestins and natural progesterone are responsible for most of the progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents in the Czech and Slovak republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šauer, Pavel; Stará, Alžběta; Golovko, Oksana; Valentová, Olga; Bořík, Adam; Grabic, Roman; Kroupová, Hana Kocour

    2018-06-15

    Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated. Wastewaters (influent and effluent) and surrounding surface waters (upstream and downstream) at six municipal WWTPs were screened using instrumental chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene bioassay. We showed the presence of target compounds and (anti-)progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater and surface water. Nine and seven progestins were identified in influent and effluent wastewaters, respectively. Only two compounds, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone were found in surface waters. Progestagenic agonistic activities in influents were partially masked by strong anti-progestagenic activities that were detected in all influents and ranged from 2.63 to 83 ng/L of mifepristone equivalents (EQs). Progestagenic activities were detected in all effluents and ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng/L of reference compound ORG 2058 EQs (a synthetic progestin equivalents), thus indicating incomplete removal of progestins during wastewater treatment processing. This activity poses a continuing risk for the aquatic environment. By contrast, anti-progestagenic activities showed better removal efficiency in WWTPs compared to progestagenic agonistic activities. Anti-progestagenic activities were found in only three of six effluents and ranged from 0.26 to 2.1 ng/L mifepristone EQs. We explained most of the progestagenic activity in municipal WWTP effluents by the presence of synthetic progestins and

  17. Wpływ zastosowanych gestagenów w ciągłej hormonalnej terapii zastępczej na wydzielanie insulinotropowego peptydu zależnego od glukozy i peptydu glukanopodobnego 1 u kobiet po menopauzie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Rogatko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To evaluate GIP and GLP-1 secretion in postmenopausal women on the HRT in relation togestagen used. Material and method: 105 postmenopausal women (mean age 59.0 ±3.4 years were included in the study.Group I (n = 32 consisted of women treated with oral dydrogesterone and transdermal 17-b- estradiol. Group II(n = 30 was treated with 17-b-estradiol and dydrogesterone orally. Group III (n = 15 received 17-b-estradioltransdermally and medroxyprogesterone orally. Women from group IV (n = 10 received 17-b-estradiol and noretisteroneorally. Blood was taken twice – before and 60 min. after the meal - to the chilled tubes with EDTA andaprotinin. Such a protocol was used before the HRT began and in the 6th month of the HRT. Results: The HRT resulted in diminished plasma concentration of GIP and GLP-1 in both group I and II – beforeand after the meal (p < 0.05. In group III the same tendency in GIP levels was observed but the differenceswere not statistically significant. The GLP-1 concentrations were not affected by HRT, as well as GIP and GLP-1levels in group IV. Conclusion: The plasma concentration of incretins (GIP and GLP-1 depends on the route of HRT delivery andon the kind of gestagen used.

  18. MOBILE-izing Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Care: A Pilot Study Using a Mobile Health Unit in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Lilja S; Webb, M Elizabeth; Hebert, Luciana E; Masinter, Lisa; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents experience numerous barriers to obtaining sexual and reproductive health care (SRHC). Mobile Health Units (MHUs) can remove some barriers by traveling to the community. This pilot study developed Mobile SRHC through an iterative process on an existing MHU and evaluated it among adolescents and providers. Mobile SRHC was developed through a mixed-method, multiphase study. Three key informant interviews with MHU providers, an adolescent needs assessment survey, and a Youth Model Development Session informed model development. Emergency contraception (EC), oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) were sequentially incorporated into MHU services. Administrative data assessed method distribution and surveys assessed patient satisfaction. Key informants held positive attitudes toward implementing Mobile SRHC into their practice. Needs assessment surveys (N = 103) indicated a majority was interested in learning about sexual health (66.0%) and obtaining birth control (54.4%) on an MHU. Over 3 months, 123 adolescents participated in Mobile SRHC. Seven packs and 9 prescriptions of EC, 8 3-month packs and 10 prescriptions of OCPs, and 5 injections and 5 prescriptions of DMPA were distributed. Ninety-two percent of adolescent participants reported they would recommend Mobile SRHC to friends. Mobile SRHC is a feasible approach for reproductive health care among adolescents. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  19. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  20. Hormonal Contraceptives Differentially Suppress TFV and TAF Inhibition of HIV Infection and TFV-DP in Blood and Genital Tract CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Patel, Mickey V; Bodwell, Jack; Kashuba, Angela D M; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-18

    HIV prevention research is focused on combining antiretrovirals (ARV) and progestin contraceptives to prevent HIV infection and pregnancy. The possibility that progestins compromise ARV anti-HIV activity prompted us to evaluate the effects of progestins on tenofovir (TFV) and TFV-alafenamide (TAF) on HIV infection and intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in blood and genital CD4+ T cells. Following incubation of blood CD4+ T cells with TFV or TAF, Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), but not Levonorgestrel, Norethisterone or progesterone, suppressed the anti-HIV effect of TFV by reducing intracellular TFV-DP, but had no effect on TAF inhibition of infection or TFV-DP. In contrast, with genital CD4+ T cells, MPA suppressed TAF inhibition of HIV infection and lowered of TFV-DP concentrations without affecting TFV protection. These findings demonstrate that MPA selectively compromises TFV and TAF protection in blood and genital CD4+ T cells and suggests that MPA may decrease ARV protection in individuals who use ARV intermittently for prevention.

  1. Medical Therapies for Endometriosis Differentially Inhibit Stem Cell Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Gulcin Sahin; Zolbin, Masoumeh Majidi; Cosar, Emine; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Taylor, Hugh S

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effect of the 3 well-known endometriosis treatments on stem cell recruitment to endometriotic lesions. C57BL/6 mice (aged 8 weeks, n = 20) underwent bone marrow transplant following submyeloablation with 5-fluorouracil using 20 × 10 6 bone marrow stem cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice. Two weeks after transplantation, experimental endometriosis was created in mice by suturing segments of the uterine horn into the peritoneal cavity. Mice were then randomized to receive treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), leuprolide acetate (Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Analogue [GnRHa]), letrozole, or vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide). After 3 weeks of treatment, the mice were killed and the endometriosis lesions evaluated. All 3 treatments resulted in a significant reduction in lesion volume and weight. Estrogen deprivation using GnRHa or letrozole resulted in greater lesion regression than the progestin MPA. The GFP + /CD45 - bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) engrafted the lesions of endometriosis. Estrogen deprivation using GnRHa or letrozole significantly reduced BMDSC engraftment in the endometriosis lesions. MPA failed to significantly reduce stem cell number in endometriosis. The superiority of estrogen deprivation over progestin therapy in depriving the lesions of stem cells may have implications for the long-term treatment of endometriosis. Reduced stem cell engraftment is likely to result in long-term regression of the lesions, whereas progestins may only prevent their growth acutely.

  2. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  3. Perceived competence and contraceptive use during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer B; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about psychosocial correlates of different contraceptive methods in adolescence. Cross-sectional analyses of 209 postmenarcheal girls [mean age (years)+/-SD=15.68+/-1.74], primarily Caucasian (62.8%) or African American (32.8%). Competence (activities and social) and rule-breaking behavior were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR; adolescent) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; parent). Three contraceptive-use groups were created: no hormonal contraceptive (n=142), combined oral contraceptives or the transdermal patch (COCs/patch, n=41), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, n=20). There was a significant effect of contraceptive-use group on competence (p=.003). The DMPA group had lower competence (CBCL activities and social; YSR social) than the no-hormonal-contraceptive and COCs/patch groups. The COCs/patch group scored lower than the no-hormonal-contraceptive group on YSR activities competence, but was not different from the DMPA group. Lastly, there was an effect of contraceptive-use group on CBCL (but not YSR) rule-breaking behavior (p=.029) with the DMPA group having higher rule-breaking behavior than the other groups. Type of contraceptive method was associated with parent and adolescent's perceived competence. For rule-breaking behavior, parental perception may be more relevant to contraceptive use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Partner roles in contraceptive use: what do adolescent mothers say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dinah A; Martins, Summer L; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2012-12-01

    To examine the role of sexual partners in adolescent mothers' use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. 40 African American adolescent mothers completed surveys and qualitative interviews during the first postpartum year as part of a larger longitudinal study in Chicago, Illinois. Themes related to contraception and sexual partners were analyzed. Adolescent mothers' reports of partners' roles in the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods (i.e., oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraception, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate). Partners largely supported the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods, yet mechanisms of support varied greatly, from advocating for specific methods to facilitating participants' continuation of their chosen method. Unsupportive partners either expressed concerns about the safety and side effects of specific methods or desired another child in the near future. Participants valued these preferences to different degrees when making their contraceptive decisions. Partners of adolescent mothers play varying roles in postpartum contraceptive decisions. They thus have the potential both to inhibit and to facilitate the use of non-coital dependent contraception. Quantitative research is needed to further evaluate how partner attitudes and support behaviors, among other factors, affect contraceptive initiation and continuation among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estrogen biosynthesis in human uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Takara; Kitawaki, Jo; Honjo, Hideo; Okada, Hiroji

    1989-01-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis (aromatiase activity) was investigated in human adenomyosis tissue and compared with that of the normal myometrium, endometrium, and endometrical cancer tissues. Homogenates were incubated with [1,2,6,7- 3 H]androstenedione and NADPH at 37 deg. C for 1 h. After stopping the enzymatic reaction with ethyl acetate, [4- 14 C]estrone and [4- 14 C]estradiol-17β were added to the incubated sample. Estrone and estradiol were purified and identified by Bio-Rad AG1-X2 column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and co-crystallization. Estrogen formed in the incubated sample was calculated from the 3 H/ 14 C ratio of the final crystal. The value for estrone formed from androstenedione was 52-132 fmol . h -1. g -1 wet weight. Aromatase activity in the adenomyosis tissues was higher than that in normal endometrial or myometrial tissues, but lower than that found in myometrial or endometrial tumour tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of danazol, progresterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate on adenomyosis cells in primary cultures. Aromatase activity in adenomyosis was blocked by danazol, but stimulated by progesterone and MPA. These results indicate that aromatase activity in adenomyosis may contribute to the growth of the ectopic endometrial tissue which occurs in this disease. (author)

  6. New once-a-month injectable contraceptives, with particular reference to Cyclofem/Cyclo-Provera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P E

    1998-08-01

    Once-a-month injectable contraceptives containing a progestogen and an estrogen have been developed that disrupt vaginal bleeding patterns less than the widely used progestogen-only preparations. Pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken of dosages and ratios of the progestogens and the respective estrogens. In Phase III clinical trials, annual pregnancy rates were below 0.4% for Mesigyna (norethisterone enanthate/estradiol valerate, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and below 0.2% for Cyclofem (MPA/E2C) (medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate, Aplicaciones Farmaceuticas, SA, Mexico and PT Tunggal, Indonesia). More than two-thirds of women had predictable, regular cycles, and discontinuation due to bleeding-related problems occurred less than half as often as with progestogen-only injectables. With MPA/E2C, return to fertility is similar to that observed with other hormonal or intrauterine methods, and both products have little effect on lipids or hemostasis. Introductory trials of MPA/E2C in 12000 women with 100000 woman-months of experience confirmed the high efficacy of the product in routine use. The use of MPA/E2C in a non-reusable injection device, Uniject (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) is discussed. Once-a-month hormonal contraceptives have been shown to provide a safe contraceptive option for all women and an alternative for women who wish to use injectable formulations that cause less disruption in vaginal bleeding and minimal side effects.

  7. Effect of oral and transdermal hormone therapy on hyaluronic acid in women with and without a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Ropponen, Anne; Ylikorkala, Olavi

    2008-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy predisposes women to liver disorders years after affected pregnancy. We compared the basal levels and responses of hyaluronic acid, a marker of liver fibrosis, and liver transaminases to postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Basal levels of hyaluronic acid were similar in both groups. Two weeks of oral estradiol 2.0 mg/day led to significant but similar (10.9% to 15.4%) rises in hyaluronic acid in both groups. Increasing the dose of oral estradiol to 4.0 mg/day resulted in normalization of the levels, whereas the addition of medroxyprogesterone acetate led to falls (11.0% to 10.7 %) in hyaluronic acid. Transdermal estradiol 50 microg led to a rise (3.2 %) in hyaluronic acid only in the control group. Other liver markers were normal at baseline and during hormone therapy. Normal basal levels and/or normal responses of hyaluronic acid and other liver markers to hormone therapy in women with previous intrahepatic cholestasis suggest that this therapy does not predispose these women to liver diseases.

  8. Binding of the aliphatic halides 1,2-dibromoethane and chloroform in the rodent vaginal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.; Kowalski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography were used to study the binding of 1,2-dibromo( 14 C)ethane ( 14 C-DBE) and 14 C-chloroform ( 14 C-CF) in the mouse and rat vaginal epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In pregnant mice, mice pretreated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) or ovariectomized mice primed with medroxyprogesterone, a high level of bound 14 C-DBE metabolites were present in the epithelium, while in ovariectomized oestradiol-primed mice or intact oestradiol-primed mice, the binding was low. Similar results were obtained with 14 C-CF, although the level of binding generally was lower than that observed after 14 C-DBE-exposure. No binding of 14 C-DBE-metabolites was observed in the juvenile rat vaginal epithelium, whereas a high binding was present in the PMSG-primed adult rat vaginal epithelium. Collectively, these data show that 14 C-DBE and 14 C-CF are transformed in situ to metabolites that are irreversibly bound to the vaginal epithelium. The results also suggest that the activating enzyme is under endocrine control and has a low activity in the juvenile and oestradiol-primed adult animal. (author)

  9. Pertumbuhan Prenatal dalam Kandungan Kambing Melalui Superovulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW 20.4-44.2 kg, age 2.5-7 years were used to study the efficacy of increasing secretion of endogenous hormones of pregnancy by superovulation of does to stimulate of growth prenatal in uterus. The does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG, 0 IU/kg BW [grouped into nonsuperovulation-NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [grouped into Superovulation-SO]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected to stimulate superovulation. After sponge removal, five experimental does were mixed with one buck for natural mating. Superovulation prior to mating increased number of corpora lutea, mean of maternal serum estradiol concentration, progesterone concentration, litter size, average birth weight and average milk yield, by 112, 67, 42, 27, 32, and 35%, respectively. Those were correlated with the increase of uterine, corpora lutea, and individual birth weight.

  10. Postmenopausal hormone therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and brain volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Manson, JoAnn E; Yaffe, Kristine; Hugenschmidt, Christina; Vaughan, Leslie; Craft, Suzanne; Edwards, Beatrice J; Casanova, Ramon; Masaki, Kamal; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-09-29

    To examine whether the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on brain volumes in women aged 65-79 years differs depending on type 2 diabetes status during postintervention follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial. The Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials assigned women to HT (0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogens with or without 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate) or placebo for an average of 5.6 years. A total of 1,402 trial participants underwent brain MRI 2.4 years after the trials; these were repeated in 699 women 4.7 years later. General linear models were used to assess the interaction between diabetes status and HT assignment on brain volumes. Women with diabetes at baseline or during follow-up who had been assigned to HT compared to placebo had mean decrement in total brain volume of -18.6 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] -29.6, -7.6). For women without diabetes, this mean decrement was -0.4 (95% CI -3.8, 3.0) (interaction p=0.002). This interaction was evident for total gray matter (pNeurology.

  11. Hormone therapy in menopausal women with cognitive complaints: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, P M; Gast, M J; Vieweg, A J; Burriss, S W; Yaffe, K

    2007-09-25

    To evaluate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition and subjective quality of life (QoL) in recently postmenopausal women with cognitive complaints. Cognitive Complaints in Early Menopause Trial (COGENT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, pilot study of 180 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 55 years, randomly assigned to receive either placebo or conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg for 4 months. Outcome measures included memory, subjective cognition, QoL, sexuality, and sleep, which were assessed at baseline and month 4. The study was terminated before the expected final sample size of 275 due to a decrease in enrollment coinciding with the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative. There were no differences between groups on any cognitive or QoL measures, except for an increase in sexual interest and thoughts with HT. Modest negative effects on short- and long-term verbal memory approached significance (p or=0.45, this study suggests potential modest negative effects on verbal memory that are consistent with previous hormone therapy trials in older women.

  12. Mifepristone inhibits MPA-and FGF2-induced mammary tumor growth but not FGF2-induced mammary hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cerliani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and progestins inducing experimental breast cancer growth. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of FGF2 and of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on the mouse mammary glands and to investigate whether the antiprogestin RU486 was able to reverse the MPA- or FGF2-induced effects on both, mammary gland and tumor growth. We demonstrate that FGF2 administered locally induced an intraductal hyperplasia that was not reverted by RU486, suggesting that FGF2-induced effects are progesterone receptor (PR-independent. However, MPA-induced paraductal hyperplasia was reverted by RU486 and a partial agonistic effect was observed in RU486-treated glands. Using C4-HD tumors which only grow in the presence of MPA, we showed that FGF2 administered intratumorally was able to stimulate tumor growth as MPA. The histology of FGF2-treated tumors showed different degrees of gland differentiation. RU486 inhibited both, MPA or FGF2 induced tumor growth. However, only complete regression was observed in MPA-treated tumors. Our results support the hypothesis that stromal FGF2 activates PR inducing hormone independent tumor growth.

  13. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 as the mediator of the inhibitory effect of progestins on cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Terrence K; Feng, Liping; Grotegut, Chad A; Murtha, Amy P

    2014-02-01

    Progesterone (P4) and the progestin, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, are clinically used to prevent preterm births (PTBs); however, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Cytokine-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity plays a key role in preterm premature rupture of the membranes and PTB. We demonstrated that the primary chorion cells and the HTR8/SVneo cells (cytotrophoblast cell line) do not express the classical progesterone receptor (PGR) but instead a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), whose role remains unclear. Using HTR8/SVneo cells in culture, we further demonstrated that 6 hours pretreatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dexamethasone (Dex) but not P4 or 17α-hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate significantly attenuated tumor necrosis factor α-induced MMP-9 activity after a 24-hour incubation period. The inhibitory effect of MPA, but not Dex, was attenuated when PGRMC1 expression was successfully reduced by PGRMC1 small interfering RNA. Our findings highlight a possible novel role of PGRMC1 in mediating the effects of MPA and in modulating cytokine-induced MMP-9 activity in cytotrophoblast cells in vitro.

  14. The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail M; Barnes, Kylie N; Myles, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    To review data regarding the efficacy of galactogogues available in the US to increase breast milk production in postpartum mothers. Literature was sought using PubMed (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1973-June 2012). Search terms included breastfeeding, breast milk, lactation, galactogogue, metoclopramide, oxytocin, fenugreek, milk thistle, silymarin, growth hormone, thyroid releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone, domperidone, goat's rue, beer, Asparagus racemosus, shatavari, Medicago sativa, alfalfa, Onicus benedictus, blessed thistle, Galega officinalis, brewer's yeast, and herbals. All studies including humans and published in English with data assessing the efficacy of galactogogues for increasing breast milk production were evaluated. Breast milk is considered the optimal food source for newborns through 1 year of age. Many factors influence overall maternal production, including maternal pain, illness, balance of time when returning to work, anxiety, or emotional stress. Although a variety of herbal and pharmaceutical options have anecdotal evidence of their ability to improve breast milk production, peer-reviewed studies proving their efficacy are lacking. Metoclopramide, oxytocin, fenugreek, and milk thistle have shown mixed results in improving milk production; however, the trials were small and had a variety of limitations. Nonpharmacologic recommendations should be exhausted before adding therapy. Although anecdotal evidence encourages the use of metoclopramide, fenugreek, asparagus, and milk thistle for their galactogogue properties, efficacy and safety data in the literature are lacking. Oxytocin and domperidone are potentially available for compounding purposes, but safety data are limited. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of available galactogogues on breast milk production.

  15. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2005-05-01

    Surrogate end points in clinical research pose real danger. A surrogate end point is an outcome measure, commonly a laboratory test, that substitutes for a clinical event of true importance. Resistance to activated protein C, for example, has been used as a surrogate for venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives. Other examples of inappropriate surrogate end points in contraception include the postcoital test instead of pregnancy to evaluate new spermicides, breakage and slippage instead of pregnancy to evaluate condoms, and bone mineral density instead of fracture to assess the safety of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate. None of these markers captures the effect of the treatment on the true outcome. A valid surrogate end point must both correlate with and accurately predict the outcome of interest. Although many surrogate markers correlate with an outcome, few have been shown to capture the effect of a treatment (for example, oral contraceptives) on the outcome (venous thrombosis). As a result, thousands of useless and misleading reports on surrogate end points litter the medical literature. New drugs have been shown to benefit a surrogate marker, but, paradoxically, triple the risk of death. Thousands of patients have died needlessly because of reliance on invalid surrogate markers. Researchers should avoid surrogate end points unless they have been validated; that requires at least one well done trial using both the surrogate and true outcome. The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter.

  16. [Phase II trial evaluating the effect of megestrol acetate-prednisolone combination in the treatment of anorexia during the palliative-care phase of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanfaivre, T; Souday, V; Chaleil, D; Maillet, F; Tuchais, E

    2000-09-01

    Anorexia is one of the most frequent complaints in patients who have reached the palliative-care phase of lung cancer. Megestrol acetate (or medroxyprogesterone acetate) and corticosteroids have been used with success, but the effect of their combination remains unknown. We conducted a phase II trial to assess the impact of combination therapy. Patients with lung cancer given palliative care and who developed anorexia with or without weight loss were given 320 mg/d megestrol acetate in 2 doses and 40 mg/d prednisolone in one dose in the morning for 1 month. The principal outcome criterion was anorexia assessed on a visual analog scale prior to treatment and then at day 15 and day 30. Variation in daily calorie intake and weight were also recorded. We used an Armitage sequential plan to determine the number of inclusions necessary and the preference method (closed schema) to evaluate the principal outcome criterion. Inclusions were stopped after the eighth patient (giving panorexia in patients with lung cancer in the palliative-care phase and allowed a significant improvement in calorie intake and body weight.

  17. Contraception for adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contraception is an important issue and should be a matter of concern in every medical visit of adolescent and young patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. This narrative review discusses contraception methods in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. Barrier methods are safe and their use should be encouraged for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases. Combined oral contraceptives (COC are strictly prohibited for JSLE and APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Reversible long-acting contraception can be encouraged and offered routinely to the JSLE adolescent patient and other rheumatic diseases. Progestin-only pills are safe in the majority of rheumatic diseases, although the main concern related to its use by adolescents is poor adherence due to menstrual irregularity. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injections every three months is a highly effective contraception strategy, although its long-term use is associated with decreased bone mineral density. COC or other combined hormonal contraceptive may be options for JIA and JDM patients. Oral levonorgestrel should be considered as an emergency contraception method for all adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases, including patients with contraindication to COC.

  18. Family planning in the teen population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, P J

    1993-12-01

    As an increasing percentage of adolescents reach their sexual debut at younger ages, effective contraceptive methods, which will decrease the risks of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), become even more critical. Contraceptive methods which are less 'compliance-dependent', such as the implantable subdermal levonorgestrel and the injectable depot formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate, are popular in adolescents but careful counseling before method selection and on-going counseling when side-effects are experienced are necessary and essential. The use of condoms to decrease the risks of STDs will continue to be important for adolescents, and it remains to be seen what impact the long-term methods will have on effective condom use. Adolescents' access to abortions when contraceptive methods fail, or when no method is used, is being challenged with state laws which mandate parental notification or permission. A greater knowledge about the option of emergency contraception could potentially lead to increased use of this method, particularly when the option of medications such as RU486 becomes available. The potential for a reduction in unintended pregnancies in adolescents, and a reduced need for abortions is a welcome prospect.

  19. Type of contraception method used at last intercourse and associations with health risk behaviors among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine associations with contraception methods used at last sexual intercourse among US adolescents. Data consisted of sexually active adolescents (9th-12th grade, weighted n=24,638) from the 1999-2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). We performed multinomial multivariable logistic regression analyses with condom users at last sexual intercourse as the reference group. Males who used alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and cocaine were more likely to use no method/unsure of method (OR=2.4, CI=1.7-3.4) or rely on withdrawal (OR=2.6, CI=1.5-4.3). Females with six or more sexual partners were more likely to rely on withdrawal (OR=2.9, CI=2.1-3.9) or contraception methods that offer no STI protection [i.e., birth control pills: OR=1.9, CI=1.4-2.5; and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, marketed as Depo-Provera): OR=2.6, CI=1.6-4.2]. Earlier age of sexual debut was also associated with nonuse. Prevention efforts should focus on at-risk adolescents including substance-using males, females with six or more sexual partners, and those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  1. Confirmation of hormones in animal serum by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry according to European Commission Decision 2002/657.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Malone, Edward; McBride, John

    2010-01-01

    A novel and rapid method was developed and validated for the confirmation of endogenous and synthetic hormones in animal serum using LC/MS/MS. Detection of 17 beta-estradiol and beta-testosterone below the respective European Union-recommended levels of 0.1 and 0.5 microg/L was achieved, as was a required performance level of 0.1 microg/L for 17 alpha-estradiol and 0.5 microg/L for 17 alpha-testosterone, medroxyprogesterone-17-acetate, and progesterone. The method was established with dilution of serum followed by ion-exchange SPE, LC separation and MS detection with electrospray ionization, selected reaction monitoring, and positivelnegative switching. Two characteristic transitions were monitored for each analyte. The method was applied to bovine, ovine, porcine, equine, and avian samples and validated according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and accepted for ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation. An extended calibration curve allows naturally occurring levels of endogenous hormones to be quantified. Recoveries ranged from 97.3% for 17 alpha-testosterone to 102.0% for 17 alpha-estradiol. The decision limit CCalpha ranged from 0.02 microg/L for 17 alpha- and beta-estradiol to 0.12 microg/L for progesterone. Detection capability CCbeta ranged from 0.03 microg/L for 17 a-estradiol to 0.20 microg/L for progesterone.

  2. Serum androgen and gonadotropin levels decline after progestogen-induced withdrawal bleeding in oligomenorrheic women with or without polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Kaihola, H L; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1992-10-01

    To examine the effect of short-term progestogen treatment on androgen, gonadotropin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in oligomenorrheic women. Comparative study of changes in hormonal parameters in patients with or without ultrasonographically diagnosed polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Open patient clinic of reproductive endocrinology at University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Seventy-five oligomenorrheic women with (n = 51) or without (n = 24) PCOD. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and SHBG. The levels of T, A, LH, and the LH:FSH ratios decreased significantly after oral treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg/d for 10 days) in non-PCOD women and in women with PCOD decreasing the frequencies of pathological laboratory findings, in particular elevated levels of LH:FSH ratio and A in PCOD women and of LH:FSH ratio in non-PCOD women. The levels of T, A, and LH as well as the LH:FSH ratio were significantly higher in women with PCOD. Obesity was associated with high free androgen indices, low LH:FSH ratios, and low concentrations of LH, A, and SHBG. The serum samples for hormonal analyses used as an aid in diagnosing PCOD should be obtained without pretreatment with progestogen because it masks the biochemical findings of PCOD.

  3. Differential effects of synthetic progestagens on neuron survival and estrogen neuroprotection in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Pike, Christian J

    2014-03-25

    Progesterone and other progestagens are used in combination with estrogens for clinical purposes, including contraception and postmenopausal hormone therapy. Progesterone and estrogens have interactive effects in brain, however interactions between synthetic progestagens and 17β-estradiol (E2) in neurons are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of seven clinically relevant progestagens on estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA expression, E2-induced neuroprotection, and E2-induced BDNF mRNA expression. We found that medroxyprogesterone acetate decreased both ERα and ERβ expression and blocked E2-mediated neuroprotection and BDNF expression. Conversely, levonorgestrel and nesterone increased ERα and or ERβ expression, were neuroprotective, and failed to attenuate E2-mediated increases in neuron survival and BDNF expression. Other progestagens tested, including norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, norethynodrel, and norgestimate, had variable effects on the measured endpoints. Our results demonstrate a range of qualitatively different actions of progestagens in cultured neurons, suggesting significant variability in the neural effects of clinically utilized progestagens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormone replacement therapy increases levels of antibodies against heat shock protein 65 and certain species of oxidized low density lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uint L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy (HRT reduces cardiovascular risks, although the initiation of therapy may be associated with transient adverse ischemic and thrombotic events. Antibodies against heat shock protein (Hsp and oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL have been found in atherosclerotic lesions and plasma of patients with coronary artery disease and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of HRT on the immune response by measuring plasma levels of antibodies against Hsp 65 and LDL with a low and high degree of copper-mediated oxidative modification of 20 postmenopausal women before and 90 days after receiving orally 0.625 mg equine conjugate estrogen plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate per day. HRT significantly increased antibodies against Hsp 65 (0.316 ± 0.03 vs 0.558 ± 0.11 and against LDL with a low degree of oxidative modification (0.100 ± 0.01 vs 0.217 ± 0.02 (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, ANOVA. The hormone-mediated immune response may trigger an inflammatory response within the vessel wall and potentially increase plaque burden. Whether or not this immune response is temporary or sustained and deleterious requires further investigation.

  5. Thrombin impairs human endometrial endothelial angiogenesis; implications for progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, John P; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Semerci, Nihan; Huang, S Joseph; Arlier, Sefa; Larsen, Kellie; Fadda, Paolo; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Progestin-only contraceptives induce abnormal uterine bleeding, accompanied by prothrombin leakage from dilated endometrial microvessels and increased thrombin generation by human endometrial stromal cell (HESC)-expressed tissue factor. Initial studies of the thrombin-treated HESC secretome identified elevated levels of cleaved chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), impairing pericyte-endothelial interactions. Thus, we investigated direct and CSPG4-mediated effects of thrombin in eliciting abnormal uterine bleeding by disrupting endometrial angiogenesis. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated conditioned medium supernatant and cell lysates from control versus thrombin-treated HESCs. Pre- and post-Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-administered endometria were immunostained for CSPG4. Proliferation, apoptosis and tube formation were assessed in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) incubated with recombinant human (rh)-CSPG4 or thrombin or both. Thrombin induced CSPG4 protein expression in cultured HESCs as detected by mass spectrometry and ELISA (pabnormal uterine bleeding in DMPA users. Mass spectrometry analysis identified several HESC-secreted proteins regulated by thrombin. Therapeutic agents blocking angiogenic effects of thrombin in HESCs can prevent or minimize progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancer eventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexia and a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemic inflammation, negative protein and energy balance, and an involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidious syndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patient quality of life, but also is associated with poor responses to chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia is still largely an underestimated and untreated condition, despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported to be involved in its development, with a number of cytokines postulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistent catabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, including orexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation of symptoms and reduction of the distress of patients and families rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapies for the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinary approach. Combination therapy with diet modification and/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceutical agents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agents are reported to have improved survival rates as well as quality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emerging understanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia, the current treatment options including multidisciplinary combination therapies, as well an update on new and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25897346

  7. THE EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY ON MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RESULTS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Wang, Lu; Lamonte, Michael J.; Allison, Matthew; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Martin, Lisa W.; Aragaki, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan D.; Swica, Yael; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of blood pressure in postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods Blood pressure was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials in which 10,739 and 16,608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results At the first annual visit (Year 1), mean systolic blood pressure was 1.04 mmHg (95% CI 0.58, 1.50) and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms respectively compared to corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after Year 1. CEE also increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.03, Pblood pressure increased at Year 1, and the differences in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after Year 1. Further, both CEE and CEE+MPA significantly increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.04, Pblood pressure. PMID:24991872

  8. Tratamento Clínico e Seguimento das Hiperplasias de Endométrio Clinical Treatment and Follow-up of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaglória Pontes

    2000-01-01

    ões hiperplásicas nesses últimos nove casos. Conclusões: o tratamento das hiperplasias de endométrio com acetato de medroxiprogesterona e/ou acetato de megestrol, representa uma alternativa satisfatória para mulheres que desejam preservar o útero ou que tenham risco cirúrgico elevado. Entretanto, é necessário monitorização cuidadosa do endométrio, o que deve ser realizado pela avaliação dos sintomas, ultra-sonografia transvaginal e biópsia periódica.Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol acetate in endometrial hyperplasia. Patients and Methods: forty-seven patients with abnormal uterine bleeding were retrospectively evaluated. These patients were submitted to diagnostic uterine curettage and/or endometrial biopsy, with histopathological finding of endometrial hyperplasia. Patients with hyperplasia without atypia received 10 mg/day oral medroxyprogesterone acetate during 10 to 12 days a month. Those with hyperplasia with atypia received 160 mg/day oral megestrol acetate continuously. The length of treatment ranged from 3 to 18 months. Control endometrial biopsy and/or uterine curettage were performed 3 and 6 months from the beginning of treatment, and then periodically to evaluate whether or not regression of hyperplasia occurred. Results: forty-two patients with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia and 5 with hyperplasia with atypia were included. The mean age of the patients was 49.5 ± 10.6 years (22 to 72 years, 70.2% aged over 45 years. Medroxy-progesterone acetate was effective in promoting regression of 83.2% (35/42 of hyperplasia without atypia, and megestrol acetate in 80% (4/5 of hyperplasia with atypia. Despite treatment, lesions persisted in 16.8% (7 cases of hyperplasia with atypia and in 20% (1 case of hyperplasia without atypia. No progression to endometrial cancer was seen during the follow-up period of 3 months to 9 years. During follow-up, we found that 18 patients (38.3% showed amenorrhea, 12 (25

  9. Interventional radiology in the cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the interventional radiologist in the diagnosis and management of the cancer patient include angiography and intraarterial CT-angiography, intraarterial infusion therapy, embolization, chemoembolization, biopsy and drainage procedures, central venous catheter reposition and retrieval, and stent dilation of stenotic tubular structures in the following organ systems: (1) Kidney. Arterial embolization, therapeutic delay, enphrectomy, and medroxyprogesterone yield a response rate of 28% in patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary parenchymal metastases. (2) Liver. The carcinoid syndrome secondary to hepatic metastases can be controlled by embolization in 87% of patients. Islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas with hepatic metastases is successfully managed in 75% of patients. Chemoembolization (Ivalon and cisplatin) has been effective in 60% of patients with hepatic metastases from ocular melanoma. (3) Bone. A 73% 3-year survival rate is now possible with the inraarterial infusion of cisplatin, while Adriamycin is given intravenously in patients with osteosarcoma. Limb salvage is now possible in 80% of cases. Cancers of the vulva, vagina, urethra, and penis have been successfully treated with intraarterial infusion of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. (5) An expansile metallic stent is available to alleviate obstructions of the vena cava, the aorta and its major branches, the tracheobronchial tree, and the common duct. These techniques are demonstrated and results discussed

  10. Induction of synchronized oestrous in indigenous Damascus goats outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Synchronized oestrous was induced in indigenous Damascus goats, outside the breeding season, using intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), plus pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). A total of 78 female Damascus goats of mixed ages (1.5 to 5 years) were divided randomly into 2 equal groups, T and C. The females in Group T were treated with MAP for 18 days and injected intramuscularly with either 150 of 200 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas, animals in Group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced between 21 to 68 h post-sponge withdrawal in all treated animals, resulting in oestrous response of 100%. all animals in Group C were in anoestrous during the treatment period. In the Group T, conception rate and fecundity rate were 65.8% and 195.2%, respectively. There was no significant difference in pregnancy duration between animals carrying singles and twins (149 versus 184.5 days, respectively). The average birth weight of kids was 3.8 kg. However, single-born kids were significantly (p < 0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (4.8 versus 3.8 kg). The results suggest that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, obtain successful pregnancy and kidding in Damascus goats outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and successful. (author)

  11. Clinical prognostic significance and pro-metastatic activity of RANK/RANKL via the AKT pathway in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Wang, Lihua; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2016-02-02

    RANK/RANKL plays a key role in metastasis of certain malignant tumors, which makes it a promising target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for cancer. However, the prognostic value and pro-metastatic activity of RANK in endometrial cancer (EC) remain to be determined. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of RANK on the prognosis of EC patients, as well as the pro-metastatic activity of EC cells. The results indicated that those with high expression of RANK showed decreased overall survival and progression-free survival. Statistical analysis revealed the positive correlations between RANK/RANKL expression and metastasis-related factors. Additionally, RANK/RANKL significantly promoted cell migration/invasion via activating AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway in vitro. However, RANK/RANKL-induced AKT activation could be suppressed after osteoprotegerin (OPG) treatment. Furthermore, the combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and RANKL could in turn attenuate the effect of RANKL alone. Similarly, MPA could partially inhibit the RANK-induced metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model via suppressing AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of MPA in RANK/RANKL-induced metastasis was mediated by AKT/β-catenin/Snail pathway both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target of RANK for gene-based therapy for EC.

  12. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  13. Androgen deprivation therapy (castration therapy and pedophilia: What’s new

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silvani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrology is a constantly evolving discipline, embracing social problems like pedophilia and its pharmacological treatment. With regard to chemical castration, the andrologist may perform an important role as part of a team of specialists. At present, no knowledge is available regarding hormonal, chromosomal or genetic alterations involved in pedophilia. International legislation primarily aims to defend childhood, but does not provide for compulsory treatment. We reviewed international literature that, at present, only comprises a few reports on research concerning androgen deprivation. Most of these refer to the use of leuprolide acetate, rather than medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate, which present a larger number of side effects. Current opinions on chemical castration for pedophilia are discordant. Some surveys confirm that therapy reduces sexual thoughts and fantasies, especially in recidivism. On the other hand, some authors report that chemical castration does not modify the pedophile’s personality. In our opinion, once existing legislation has changed, andrologists could play a significant role in the selection of patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy, due in part to their knowledge about its action and side effects.

  14. Preliminary studies of plasma growth hormone releasing activity during medical therapy of acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.C.; Lawrence, A.M.; Kirsteins, L.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro growth hormone releasing activity of plasma obtained from six acromegalic subjects was measured before and during therapy. In five subjects, plasmas were obtained before and during successful medical therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The sixth subject was sampled before and after transphenoidal Sr 90 -induced hypopituitarism. All subjects had a decrement in fasting growth hormone levels with respective therapies (29-88%). The in vitro growth hormone released from Rhesus monkey anterior pituitaries was assessed after incubating one lateral half in control plasma (pre-therapy) and the contralateral pituitary half in plasma obtained during or after therapy. Studies with plasmas obtained from the five patients successfully treated with MPA showed a decrease in growth hormone releasing activity during therapy in all (18-57%). Plasma obtained after Sr 90 pituitary ablation in the sixth subject had 35% more growth hormone releasing activity than obtained before therapy. These results suggest that active acromegalics who respond to MPA with significantly lowered growth hormone levels may actually achieve this response because of a decrease in growth hormone releasing factor measured peripherally. The opposite response in one acromegalic subject, following Sr 90 pituitary ablation and hypopituitarism, suggests that growth hormone releasing factor secretion may increase when growth hormone levels are lowered by ablative therapy. (orig.) [de

  15. Designing a global monitoring system for pilot introduction of a new contraceptive technology, subcutaneous DMPA (DMPA-SC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Anna; Wood, Siri; Namagembe, Allen; Kaboré, Alain; Siddo, Daouda; Ndione, Ida

    2018-06-01

    In collaboration with ministries of health, PATH and key partners launched the first pilot introductions of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC, brand name Sayana ® Press) in Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal, and Uganda from July 2014 through June 2016. While each country implemented a unique introduction strategy, all agreed to track a set of uniform indicators to chart the effect of introducing this new method across settings. Existing national health information systems (HIS) were unable to track new methods or delivery channels introduced for a pilot, thus were not a feasible source for project data. We successfully monitored the four-country pilot introductions by implementing a four-phase approach: 1) developing and defining global indicators, 2) integrating indicators into existing country data collection tools, 3) facilitating consistent reporting and data management, and 4) analyzing and interpreting data and sharing results. Project partners leveraged existing family planning registers to the extent possible, and introduced new or modified data collection and reporting tools to generate project-specific data where necessary. We routinely shared monitoring results with global and national stakeholders, informing decisions about future investments in the product and scale up of DMPA-SC nationwide. Our process and lessons learned may provide insights for countries planning to introduce DMPA-SC or other new contraceptive methods in settings where stakeholder expectations for measureable results for decision-making are high. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in Goats during Low Breeding Season-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmood*, S. M. H Andrabi, M. Anwar and M. Rafiq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A pilot project was initiated to introduce artificial insemination (AI in goats at farmer level with chilled semen. Does (n=18 were synchronized with progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges (60 mg Medroxyprogesterone acetate; MAP for 11 days. At 48 hrs prior to removal of the sponges, intramuscular injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and cloprostenol (0.075 mg was given. Fixed time vaginal insemination (43-45 hrs after sponge removal was done twice (at 12 hrs interval in 17 does with chilled Beetal buck semen (4°C extended with Tris-citric acid (TCA or skimmed milk (SM based extender (75 x 106 sperm/ml. Pregnancy test was performed at 45 days post insemination through ultrasonography. An overall 94.5% (17/18 of does showed heat signs and 78% of them were detected in heat between 12 - 24 hrs after sponge removal. An overall 29.4% (5/17 pregnancy rate was recorded. Higher pregnancy rate (44.4% was obtained in does inseminated with SM extended semen as compared to 12.5% for TCA extended semen. Results were encouraging in the sense that to the best of our knowledge it was the first report of kidding through AI in heat induced does in Pakistan. Moreover, it indicated the feasibility of using synchronization and fixed time AI during low breeding season to enhance the reproductive efficiency in local goats.

  17. Cyclofem/Cyclo-Provera: emerging countries' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Flores, J

    1998-08-01

    Cyclo-Provera, the original name of the combination of 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate and 5 mg estradiol cypionate, later known as Cyclofem and hereafter referred to MPA/E2C, has proven its use-effectiveness (pregnancy rate less than 1%) in routine service delivery conditions. Overall, the life-table discontinuation rates at 1 year ranged from 33.5% to 71.8%. Only a third of total discontinuations were attributable to the injectable contraceptive method, thus raising the importance of service delivery issues related to its continued use. The results of introductory trials in Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, Tunisia, Jamaica and, more recently, Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Peru have demonstrated that MPA/E2C is a highly effective contraceptive that could be offered as an alternative to current fertility regulation methods for many women around the world. In addition, the results of studies were the basis for the approval of MPA/E2C by local health authorities and its inclusion in the Ministries of Health Family Planning Programs.

  18. Current understanding on pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of progestins for treating pain associated to endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fabio; Scala, Carolina; Ferrero, Simone

    2018-04-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen and progestogen responsive inflammatory disease associated with pain symptoms and infertility. The medical therapy of endometriosis aims to induce decidualization within the hormonally dependent ectopic endometrium, and it is often administered to ameliorate women' pain symptoms or to prevent post-surgical disease recurrence. A variety of progestins have been used in monotherapy for the medical management of women with endometriosis. Areas covered: This review aims to offer the reader a complete overview of pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical efficacy of progestins for the treatment of endometriosis. Expert opinion: Each progestin has a distinct PK parameters and pharmacodynamics affinity not only for progesterone receptor, but also for other steroid receptors, such as estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid. Moreover, progestins can also be delivered in different formulations. All these characteristics influence their final biological effect. Randomized, controlled, non-blinded studies support the use of oral progestin-only treatment for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Currently, the only two progestins approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of endometriosis are norethindrone acetate (NETA) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA).

  19. Study on the therapeutic effect of small dose of estradiol and progesterone on post-menopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen; Zhou Zhengli

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible adverse side-effects of small dose of estradiol and progesterone on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: Applying a GBD-928 mono-photon BMD radiometer, 68 women (past-menopausal over 3 years, age 52-59, body weight index 2 0.5 mg with MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate) 0.5 mg daily. The medication laster for a whole years and BMD value was measured again. All subjects underwent gynecological physical examination, vaginal sonography, vaginal smear study and breast examination with infra-red ray both before and after the test period. Results: After one year medication, mean value of BMD in Group A was 0.49 ± 0.05, three percentage points higher than before. In Group B, this was 0.52 ± 0.06, another three percentage points higher. Ten Women with mild lobular hyperplasia and nine women with small uterine myoma ( 3 ) were all allocated to the hormone treated group. The lesions showed either little change or slight regression after the test period. Conclusion: Osteoporotic women receiving additional small doses of female hormones responded much better than those receiving calcium only. The WHI report which advised against HRT should be more critically studied

  20. Relationship of Hypertension, Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Control With White Matter Abnormalities in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS)—MRI Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Bryan, Nick R.; Kerwin, Diana; Limacher, Marian; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Williamson, Jeff; Robinson, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of blood pressure (BP) levels at Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) baseline, treatment of hypertension, and white matter abnormalities among women in conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate and CEE-alone arms. The WHI Memory Study—Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI) trial scanned 1424 participants. BP levels at baseline were significantly positively related to abnormal white matter lesion (WML) volumes. Participants treated for hypertension but who had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had the greatest amount of WML volumes. Women with untreated BP ≥140/90 mm Hg had intermediate WML volumes. Abnormal WML volumes were related to hypertension in most areas of the brain and were greater in the frontal lobe than in the occipital, parietal, or temporal lobes. Level of BP at baseline was strongly related to amount of WML volumes. The results of the study reinforce the relationship of hypertension and BP control and white matter abnormalities in the brain. The evidence to date supports tight control of BP levels, especially beginning at younger and middle age as a possible and perhaps only way to prevent dementia. PMID:20433539

  1. Modified natural cycle for embryo transfer using frozen-thawed blastocysts: A satisfactory option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quoc V; Abhari, Sina; Abuzeid, Omar M; DeAnna, Jennifer; Satti, Mohamed A; Abozaid, Tarek; Khan, Iqbal; Abuzeid, Mostafa I

    2017-06-01

    To describe pregnancy outcomes of frozen-thawed blastocysts cycles using modified natural cycle frozen embryo transfers (NC-FET) and down-regulated hormonally controlled frozen embryo transfers (HC-FET) protocols. This retrospective cohort study included all patients undergoing either modified NC-FET or down-regulated HC-FET using frozen-thawed day 5 embryos. Cycles with donor blastocysts were excluded. Four hundred twenty eight patients underwent a total of 493 FET cycles. Patients with regular menses and evidence of ovulation underwent modified NC-FET. These patients were given hCG 10,000 IU IM on the day of LH-surge. Vaginal progesterone (P4) was started two days later and blastocyst transfer was planned seven days after detecting the LH surge. Anovulatory patients and some ovulatory patients underwent down-regulated HC-FET. These patients were placed on medroxy-progesterone acetate (10mg) for 10days to bring on menses and were also given a half-dose of GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) on the third day of medroxy-progesterone acetate. Exogenous estradiol was initiated on the third day of menses. Once serum E2 levels reached >500pg/mL and endometrial lining reached >8mm, intramuscular (IM) P4 in oil was administered. Blastocyst FET was planned 6days after initiating P4. The primary outcomes included clinical pregnancy and delivery rates. There were 197 patients in the modified NC-FET protocol and 181 in the down-regulated HC-FET protocol. Mean age (years), day-3 FSH levels (mIU/mL) and percentage of patients with male factor infertility were significantly higher and mean BMI (kg/m 2 ) was significantly lower in modified NC-FET compared to HC-FET, respectively. Analysis of the first cycle pregnancy outcomes revealed no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (54.3% vs. 52.5%) and delivery rate (47.2% vs. 43.6%) between modified NC-FET and HC-FET. Logistic regression analysis showed age (OR=0.939, 95% CI 0.894-0.989, p=0.011), number of blastocysts transferred (OR

  2. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HIV were diagnosed by PCR, genital herpes serostatus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), altered microflora by Nugent score, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection by wet mount. Generalized linear models utilizing Box-Cox-Power transformation examined associations between levels of mediators, infection status, and HCs. In no-HC users, T. vaginalis was associated with broadest spectrum of aberrant immunity (higher interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α [MIP-3α], β-defensin 2 [BD2], and IL-1 receptor antigen [IL-1RA]). In women with a normal Nugent score and no genital infection, compared to the no-HC group, COC users showed higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA, while DMPA users showed higher levels of RANTES and lower levels of BD2, both associated with HIV seroconversion. These effects of COC were blunted in the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and an abnormal Nugent score; however, RANTES was increased among COC users with herpes, chlamydia, and abnormal Nugent scores. The effect of DMPA was exacerbated by lower levels of IL-1RA in gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes, SLPI in gonorrhea, and IL-1β, MIP-3α, and IL-1RA/IL1β ratio in trichomoniasis. Thus, the effects of HC on cervical immunity depend on the genital tract microenvironment, and a weakened mucosal barrier against HIV may be a combined resultant of genital tract infections and HC use. PMID:26330510

  3. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. An exploratory analysis of contraceptive method choice and symptoms of depression in adolescent females initiating prescription contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jenny; Presser, Liandra; Malbon, Katherine; Braun-Courville, Debra; Linares, Lourdes Oriana

    2015-04-01

    We examine the association between depressive symptoms and contraceptive method choice among adolescents initiating prescription contraception. This cross-sectional study analyzes baseline data of 220 urban, minority adolescent females (ages 15-19 years) presenting for prescription contraceptive initiation at a comprehensive, free-of-cost, adolescent health center in New York City. All participants met with a health care provider who provided standard contraception counseling before initiating contraception. Each participant then selected a short- or long-acting contraceptive: a 3-month supply of the pill, patch, ring or a medroxyprogesterone acetate depot injection (short-acting), or placement/referral for an intrauterine device (IUD; long-acting). We assess the independent association between contraceptive method selection and symptoms of depression [assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale]. Ten percent (n=21/220) of adolescent females selected an IUD. Bivariate analysis revealed that those with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to select an IUD as compared to those with minimal symptoms (mean CES-D score 20 vs. 13; t=3.052, p=.003). In multivariate logistic regressions, adolescent females had increased odds of selecting an IUD if they reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=4.93; confidence interval, 1.53-15.83; p=.007) after controlling for ethnicity/race, education, number of lifetime partners and gravidity. Inner-city, minority adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression who present for prescription contraceptive initiation may be more likely to select an IUD rather than shorter-acting methods. By recognizing adolescent females with depressive symptoms, providers can strategize their approach to effective contraception counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Progestins inhibit estradiol-induced vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor 1 in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Rika; Tsuzuki, Tomoko; Tsuji, Shoko; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and progestins exert direct effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and thereby to clarify the regulatory function of these local angiogenic factors in the endometrium. In vitro experiment. Research laboratory at Kansai Medical University. Fourteen patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons. ESCs were cultured with E(2) and/or various clinically relevant progestins (medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA], norethisterone [NET], levonorgestrel [LNG], dienogest [DNG], and progesterone [P]). The mRNA levels and production of VEGF and SDF-1 were assessed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. E(2) significantly induced the mRNA levels and protein production of VEGF and SDF-1 in ESCs. MPA could antagonize the E(2)-stimulated effects in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and this effect could be reversed by RU-486 (P receptor antagonist). All of the progestins (MPA, NET, LNG, and DNG; 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol/L) attenuated E(2)-induced VEGF and SDF-1 production, whereas P showed these inhibitory effects only when present in a high concentration (10(-7) mol/L). Progestins have inhibitory effects on E(2)-induced VEGF and SDF-1 in ESCs. These results may indicate a potential mechanism for action of the female sex steroids in the human endometrium that can be helpful for various clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Considerations for the use of progestin-only contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sarah; Shulman, Lee P

    2010-02-01

    To highlight the characteristics of progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) currently available in the United States, and to explore the potential of these agents as first-line contraceptive options for women seeking health promotion by prevention of an unwanted pregnancy. The progestin-only pills (Micronor and Ovrette), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections (Depo-Provera and depo-subQ provera 104), levonorgestrel intrauterine system (IUS) (Mirena), and etonogestrel implant (Implanon) will be reviewed. The use of levonorgestrel (Plan B) as an emergency contraceptive will also be considered briefly. Worldwide medical literature and the prescribing information for the specified products. A number of POCs are currently available for routine birth control in the United States, ranging from the daily progestin-only pill to nondaily contraceptive options such as injectable DMPA, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUS, and the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant. Each of these methods has specific advantages, but also specific drawbacks that can result in discontinuation of treatment if users are not given adequate information about what to expect in terms of side effects. It is critical that clinicians provide adequate and accurate information along with detailed counseling to women who are considering using POCs, as well as providing periodic reinforcement of the information at regular clinic visits for those already using POCs. Given that a large number of pregnancies are unplanned and create a significant impact on social, economic, and health outcomes, it is important for the clinician to have a vast knowledge of contraceptive options. POCs offer significant choices in contraception. By proactively addressing common concerns (such as potential effects on weight, mood, menstrual bleeding patterns, and bone mineral density), clinicians may improve the likelihood of adherence and continuation with POCs for routine birth control.

  7. Determination of steroid hormones and their metabolite in several types of meat samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Marina; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2018-03-09

    A new analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) has been developed for the determination of steroid hormones (hydrocortisone, cortisone, progesterone, prednisone, prednisolone, testosterone, melengesterol acetate, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, cortisone-21-acetate, testosterone propionate, 17α-methyltestosterone, 6α-methylprednisolone and medroxyprogesterone) and their metabolite (17α-hydroxyprogesterone) in three meat samples (chicken, pork and beef). Two different extraction approaches were tested (QuEChERS "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" and "dilute and shoot"), observing that the QuEChERS method provided the best results in terms of recovery. A clean-up step was applied comparing several sorbents, obtaining the best results when florisil and aluminum oxide were used. The optimized method was validated, obtaining suitable results for all validation parameters in the three meat matrices evaluated. Recovery values ranged from 70% to 103% (except for prednisone in beef samples), meanwhile repeatability and reproducibility were obtained at values lower than 18% and 21%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established for most of the compounds at 1.0 μg/kg, except for testosterone in chicken and hydrocortisone-21-acetate and cortisone-21-acetate in pork at 2.0 μg/kg. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) values ranged from 1.0-2.7 μg/kg and 1.9-5.5 μg/kg, respectively, in the three matrices. Finally, thirty one meat samples were analyzed and two hormones, progesterone and hydrocortisone, were detected in a beef and pork sample at 1.7 and 2.8 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  9. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, L H; Hogan, P E; Bryan, N R; Kuller, L H; Margolis, K L; Bettermann, K; Wallace, R B; Lao, Z; Freeman, R; Stefanick, M L; Shumaker, S A

    2009-01-13

    The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) hormone therapy (HT) trials reported that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases risk for all-cause dementia and global cognitive decline. WHIMS MRI measured subclinical cerebrovascular disease as a possible mechanism to explain cognitive decline reported in WHIMS. We contacted 2,345 women at 14 WHIMS sites; scans were completed on 1,424 (61%) and 1,403 were accepted for analysis. The primary outcome measure was total ischemic lesion volume on brain MRI. Mean duration of on-trial HT or placebo was 4 (CEE+MPA) or 5.6 years (CEE-Alone) and scans were conducted an average of 3 (CEE+MPA) or 1.4 years (CEE-Alone) post-trial termination. Cross-sectional analysis of MRI lesions was conducted; general linear models were fitted to assess treatment group differences using analysis of covariance. A (two-tailed) critical value of alpha = 0.05 was used. In women evenly matched within trials at baseline, increased lesion volumes were significantly related to age, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lower post-trial global cognition scores, and increased incident cases of on- or post-trial mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Mean ischemic lesion volumes were slightly larger for the CEE+MPA group vs placebo, except for the basal ganglia, but the differences were not significant. Women assigned to CEE-Alone had similar mean ischemic lesion volumes compared to placebo. Conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy was not associated with a significant increase in ischemic brain lesion volume relative to placebo. This finding was consistent within each trial and in pooled analyses across trials.

  10. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  11. Budget impact analysis of 8 hormonal contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Simone; Kerrigan, Matthew; Sood, Vipan

    2013-07-01

    To develop a model comparing costs of 8 hormonal contraceptives and determine whether acquisition costs for implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were offset by decreased pregnancy-related costs over a 3-year time horizon from a managed care perspective. A model was developed to assess the budget impact of branded or generic oral contraceptives (OCs), quarterly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone, etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, etonogestrel implant, levonorgestrel IUD, norelgestromin/ethinyl estradiol transdermal contraceptive, and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel extended-cycle OC. Major variables included drug costs, typical use failure rates, discontinuation rates, and pregnancy costs. The base case assessed costs for 1000 women initiating each of the hormonal contraceptives. The etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD resulted in the fewest pregnancies, 63 and 85, respectively, and the least cost, $1.75 million and $2.0 million, respectively. In comparison, generic OC users accounted for a total of 243 pregnancies and $3.4 million in costs. At the end of year 1, costs for the etonogestrel implant ($800,471) and levonorgestrel IUD ($949,721) were already lower than those for generic OCs ($1,146,890). Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of pregnancies, not product acquisition cost, was the primary cost driver. Higher initial acquisition costs for the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD were offset within 1 year by lower contraceptive failure rates and consequent pregnancy costs. Thus, after accounting for typical use failure rates of contraceptive products, the etonogestrel implant and levonorgestrel IUD emerged as the least expensive hormonal contraceptives.

  12. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  13. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Expression of human aldo-keto reductase 1C2 in cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis: potential implications in metabolism of progesterone and dydrogesterone and inhibition by progestins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranič, Nataša; Brožič, Petra; Brus, Boris; Sosič, Izidor; Gobec, Stanislav; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea

    2012-05-01

    The human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C2 converts 5α-dihydrotestosterone to the less active 3α-androstanediol and has a minor 20-ketosteroid reductase activity that metabolises progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone. AKR1C2 is expressed in different peripheral tissues, but its role in uterine diseases like endometriosis has not been studied in detail. Some progestins used for treatment of endometriosis inhibit AKR1C1 and AKR1C3, with unknown effects on AKR1C2. In this study we investigated expression of AKR1C2 in the model cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis, and examined the ability of recombinant AKR1C2 to metabolise progesterone and progestin dydrogesterone, as well as its potential inhibition by progestins. AKR1C2 is expressed in epithelial and stromal endometriotic cell lines at the mRNA level. The recombinant enzyme catalyses reduction of progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone with a 10-fold lower catalytic efficiency than the major 20-ketosteroid reductase, AKR1C1. AKR1C2 also metabolises progestin dydrogesterone to its 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, with 8.6-fold higher catalytic efficiency than 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Among the progestins that are currently used for treatment of endometriosis, dydrogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone act as AKR1C2 inhibitors with low μM K(i) values in vitro. Their potential in vivo effects should be further studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  16. Use of industrial wireless endoscope in intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez EF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an industrial wireless endoscope on the pregnancy rate of Hampshire Down sheep with intrauterine insemination. The work was carried out in a farm of the community Sullkataca Baja of the municipality of Laja, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The conditioning of an endoscopy equipment (Wifi Endoscope®, Teslong which had a portable and multifunctional Wi-Fi camera with fiber optic 8.5mm diameter, LED light and real-time video transmission at 720P. Also, 2 metal trocars (used in cattle were adapted to facilitate the entrance of the endoscopy and the insemination pipette. The estrus synchronization was performed in 10 nulliparas and 10 multiparas by means of intravaginal sponges with 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Progespon®, Lab. Syntex Argentina for 14 days. A dose of 500 IU of eCG (Sergon®, Lab. Bioveta Czech Republic is applied to the removal of the sponges. At 52.31 ± 0.31 hours post removal of the sponges, artificial insemination fixed time (FTAI was performed with frozen semen in straws of 0.25cc with 40 million spermatozoa. During insemination, the values of 80% and 100% of uterine horn turgor were determined for the group of pluriparas and nulliparas respectively. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 50 days post insemination using ultrasound transrectal (EMP 820 vet plus®, Emperor China. Gestation rates were 60% for lambs and 70% for ewes (P≥0.05. In conclusion, the industrial wireless endoscope is an economical, versatile equipment and can be used efficiently to perform intrauterine IATF with frozen semen in sheep.

  17. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J; Hillier, Sharon L; Mahal, Lara K

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  18. Choice of Postpartum Contraception: Factors Predisposing Pregnant Adolescents to Choose Less Effective Methods Over Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Mariam R; Wiemann, Constance M; Buzi, Ruth S; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Peskin, Melissa; Smith, Peggy B

    2016-06-01

    The purposes were to determine contraceptive methods pregnant adolescents intend to use postpartum and to understand factors that predispose intention to use less effective birth control than long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Participants were 247 pregnant minority adolescents in a prenatal program. Intention was assessed by asking "Which of the following methods of preventing pregnancy do you intend to use after you deliver?" Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with intent to use nonhormonal (NH) contraception (male/female condoms, abstinence, withdrawal and no method) or short-/medium-acting hormonal (SMH) contraception (birth control pill, patch, vaginal ring, injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate) compared with LARC (implant and intrauterine device) postpartum. Twenty-three percent intended to use LARC, 53% an SMH method, and 24% an NH method. Participants who intended to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC were significantly more likely to believe that LARC is not effective at preventing pregnancy, to report that they do not make decisions to help reach their goals and that partners are not important when making contraceptive decisions. Other important factors were having a mother who was aged >19 years at first birth and had not graduated from high school, not having experienced a prior pregnancy or talked with parents about birth control options, and the perception of having limited financial resources. Distinct profiles of factors associated with intending to use NH or SMH contraceptive methods over LARC postpartum were identified and may inform future interventions to promote the use of LARC to prevent repeat pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of piascledine (avocado and soybean oil) and hormone replacement therapy in menopausal-induced hot flashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; Dadjo, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone.

  20. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye [Jeil Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously.

  1. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  2. Progesterone increases resistance of ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in climacteric women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M A M De; Souza, B M De; Geber, S

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a synthetic progestin on the vascular resistance of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in climacteric women, compared to placebo, using transorbital ultrasound with Doppler velocimetry. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with 216 climacteric women. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two groups: either the group receiving placebo (one pill/day for 30 days) (n = 108) or the group receiving progestin (5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate/day for 30 days) (n = 108). Transorbital Doppler velocimetric ultrasound was performed, before and after treatment; we measured the pulsatility index, resistance index and systole/diastole ratio. The mean ages of the participants in the study group and the control group were 54 ± 6.2 years (range 48-59 years) and 55 ± 6.8 years (range 46-60 years), respectively. When we compared the effect of the progestin on the central retinal artery before and after treatment, we observed a significant increase after the treatment in all Doppler indices. The same was observed when we compared the effect of the progestin on the ophthalmic artery. In the group of women receiving placebo, the Doppler indices were similar before and after treatment. Our results demonstrate the existence of a progestogenic vasoconstrictive effect in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries. As this study provides new data, the observed effect needs further investigations to better elucidate its extent. Moreover, our findings may be particularly useful to others interested in understanding the vascular dynamics of the cerebral vessels and to researchers running clinical trials related to hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Menstrual management in developmentally delayed adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Irene; McRae, Alexandra; Matthews, Kim; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2017-06-01

    Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Eighty adolescent patients with developmental delay were identified. A third (n = 28) of the patients were pre-menarcheal at first review with parent/caregivers seeking anticipatory advice. Of the post-menarcheal patients, the median age of menarche was 12 years (range 10-15 years). First and second line interventions were documented as were reasons for change where applicable. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) was the most frequently used therapy (67%), and 19 patients in total had a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) inserted (31%). Our study population differs from similar previously published groups in the marked absence of the use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or the subdermal etonogestrel releasing device. As a paediatrician, it is important to address menstrual management issues and allay caregiver concerns with appropriate advice. Our study supports the use of the COCP as sound first line management in achieving menstrual suppression. The LNG-IUS appears to be a favourable second line option. Further investigation into longer-term outcomes and potential complications of device insertion is recommended. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of changes in lipid composition in breast and prostate cancer cells treated with MPA and R1881 hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Futia, Gregory L.; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel; Gibson, Emily A.

    2014-03-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation or resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells is therefore of great importance for research. Using Raman micro-spectroscopy we investigated whether the female hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the synthetic androgen R1881 affect the lipid expression in breast (T47D) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells. Differences were noted in the spectral regions at 830-1800 cm-1 and 2800-3000 cm-1 when comparing different drug treatments. Significant changes were noticed for saturated (1063 - 1125 cm-1, 1295 cm-1 and 1439 cm-1), unsaturated (1262 cm-1 and 1656 cm-1, and 1720 - 1748 cm-1) chemical bonds, suggesting that the composition of the lipid droplets was changed by the hormone treatments. Also, significant differences were observed in the high frequency regions of lipids and proteins at 2851 cm-1 and around 2890 cm-1. Principal component analysis with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA) of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881 or vehicle (P < 0.05). Future work includes analysis to determine exact lipid composition and concentrations as well as development of clinical techniques to characterize differences in patient tumor lipid profiles to determine response to drug treatment and prognosis.

  5. Menopausal hormone therapy and new-onset diabetes in the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Fournier, A; Fabre, A; Simon, N; Mesrine, S; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Balkau, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F

    2009-10-01

    Two US randomised trials found a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in women treated by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) with oral conjugated equine oestrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various MHTs, according to their formulation and route of administration, on new-onset diabetes in a cohort of postmenopausal French women. The association between MHT use and new-onset diabetes was investigated by Cox regression analysis in 63,624 postmenopausal women in the prospective French cohort of the Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N). Cases of diabetes were identified through self-reporting or drug-reimbursement record linkage, and further validated. 1,220 new-onset diabetes cases were validated. We observed a lower risk of new-onset diabetes among women who had ever used MHT (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]), compared with those who had never used MHT. Adjustment for BMI during follow-up (rather than according to baseline BMI) did not substantially modify this association. An oral route of oestrogen administration was associated with a greater decrease in diabetes risk than a cutaneous route (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.55-0.85] vs 0.87 [95% CI 0.75-1.00], p for homogeneity = 0.028). We were not able to show significant differences between the progestagens used in combined MHT. Use of MHT appeared to be associated with a lower risk of new-onset diabetes. This relationship was not mediated by changes in BMI. Further studies are needed to confirm the stronger effect of oral administration of oestrogen compared with cutaneous administration.

  6. Socioeconomic Status As a Risk Factor for Unintended Pregnancy in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.

  7. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 synthesis and secretion by progestin and relaxin in long term cultures of human endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.C.; Jackson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.; Zhu, H.H.; Tseng, L. (Univ. of Leicester, (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    The decidualized endometrium during the first trimester of pregnancy synthesizes and secretes a 32-kDa insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (termed hIGFBP-1) at high levels. IGFBP-1 is the major soluble protein product of this tissue and is principally localized to the differentiated endometrial stromal cell, the decidual cell. In the present study long term culture of stromal cells from the nonpregnant endometrium have been employed to elucidate the hormonal requirements for IGFBP-1 production. Immunoreactive IGFBP-1 was undetectable in control cultures. However, inclusion of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induced rates of 0.35 +/- 0.09 microgram/0.1 mg cell DNA.day after 20-30 days. In these cultures cells exhibited morphological changes consistent with decidual cell differentiation. In all cultures removal of MPA after exposure for 10-16 days, with or without subsequent inclusion of relaxin (RLX), increased production of IGFBP-1 450- to 4600-fold to rates of 150-710 micrograms/0.1 mg cell DNA.day or 26-131 micrograms/10(6) cells.day on days 24-26. The rates tended to be higher with the inclusion of RLX and were sustained in contrast to cultures without RLX, where rates fell by day 30. Individual cultures responded differently to RLX when added from the initiation of culture, with either a response similar to MPA alone or a cyclical change in production, achieving maximal rates of 190-290 micrograms/0.1 mg cell DNA.day. Cultures in which RLX alone induced high IGFBP-1 high production were obtained from endometrium during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. In cultures exhibiting high rates of immunoreactive IGFBP-1 production, the protein represented their major secretory protein product. This was confirmed by ({sup 35}S)methionine incorporation and the presence of IGFBP-1 as the predominant protein in serum-free culture medium.

  8. Mammographic changes in postmenopausal women : comparative effects between continuous combined hormone and single estrogen replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sug; Choi, Jong Tae; Jung, Kyoon Soon; Jung, Seung Hye

    1997-01-01

    As the use of hormone replacement therapy for the menopausal women increases, some caution is advised, since there is an increased risk of breast cancer. Accordingly, the importance of regular mammography has been addressed. This cross-setional study analyzed the effects of different hormone therapies on mammographic density. Sixty-seven postemenopausal women who had completed one year of hormone therapy and had undergone follow-up mammography, were divided into two groups : Group I : continuous conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625mg, plus continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5mg (n=48), Group II : continuous conjugated equine estrogen 0.625mg (n=19). The mammograms were read by two radiologists. With regard to the radiologists involved, interobserver reliabillity (kappa) was 0.70 and intraobserver reliability (kappa) was 0.51 and 0.67. Before hormone therapy, factors related to decreased mammographic density were age and number of full term pregnancies (p<0.05). After one year of hormone therapy, body fat showed a significant increase (p<0.05), but in spite of this, increased mammographic density induced by hormone therapy remained significantly high (p<0.05). Compared with Group II, Group I showed a significant increase in mammographic density (p<0.05). In Group I, mammographic density increased from P2 to DY pattern in two cases, but there was no such change in Group II. The increase of mammographic density seen in Group II was much more significant statistically than that seen in Group I. The mammograms of women who have undergone continuous combined hormone therapy should therefore be interpreted very cautiously

  9. Effect of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphism on high density lipoprotein levels in response to hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nogueira-de-Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. However, HDL cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT. A significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. Therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphisms on HDL levels in response to postmenopausal HRT. We performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used HRT before the study and had no significant general medical illness. HRT consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. The lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of HRT. ESR1 polymorphism (MspI C>T, HaeIII C>T, PvuII C>T, and XbaI A>G frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A general linear model was used to describe the relationships between HDL levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. A significant increase in HDL levels was observed after HRT (P = 0.029. Women with the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype showed a statistically significant increase in HDL levels after HRT (P = 0.032. No association was found between other ESR1 polymorphisms and HDL levels. According to our results, the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype was associated with increased levels of HDL after 1 year of HRT.

  10. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  11. PI3K/Akt-independent NOS/HO activation accounts for the facilitatory effect of nicotine on acetylcholine renal vasodilations: modulation by ovarian hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Y Gohar

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of chronic nicotine on cholinergically-mediated renal vasodilations in female rats and its modulation by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS/heme oxygenase (HO pathways. Dose-vasodilatory response curves of acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol were established in isolated phenylephrine-preconstricted perfused kidneys obtained from rats treated with or without nicotine (0.5-4.0 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks. Acetylcholine vasodilations were potentiated by low nicotine doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day in contrast to no effect for higher doses (2 and 4 mg/kg/day. The facilitatory effect of nicotine was acetylcholine specific because it was not observed with other vasodilators such as 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist or papaverine. Increases in NOS and HO-1 activities appear to mediate the nicotine-evoked enhancement of acetylcholine vasodilation because the latter was compromised after pharmacologic inhibition of NOS (L-NAME or HO-1 (zinc protoporphyrin, ZnPP. The renal protein expression of phosphorylated Akt was not affected by nicotine. We also show that the presence of the two ovarian hormones is necessary for the nicotine augmentation of acetylcholine vasodilations to manifest because nicotine facilitation was lost in kidneys of ovariectomized (OVX and restored after combined, but not individual, supplementation with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estrogen (E2. Together, the data suggests that chronic nicotine potentiates acetylcholine renal vasodilation in female rats via, at least partly, Akt-independent HO-1 upregulation. The facilitatory effect of nicotine is dose dependent and requires the presence of the two ovarian hormones.

  12. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  13. Cyclin G1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cell in decidualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine stromal cell decidualization is a dynamic physiological process in which cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are orchestrated and occur in a temporal and cell-specific manner. This process is important for successful embryo implantation. Many cell-cycle regulators are involved in decidualization. The protein cyclin G1 is a unique regulator of the cell cycle with dual functions in cell proliferation. It was reported that cyclin G1 is expressed in mouse uterine stromal cells during the period of peri-implantation. To prove the function of cyclin G1 in mouse uterine stromal cells during this period, immunohistochemistry was used to stain mouse uterine tissues on days 4-8 of pregnancy. The results showed obvious spatial and temporal expression of cyclin G1 in uterine stromal cells, and that it is expressed in the cells of the primary decidual zone (PDZ on day 5 and secondary decidual zone (SDZ on days 6 and 7, when the stromal cells experienced active proliferation and differentiation was initiated. Applying the decidualization model of cultured primary stromal cells in vitro, we further revealed that the expression of cyclin G1 is associated with decidualization of stromal cells induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estradiol-17β (E2. RNA interference was used for the knockdown of cyclin G1 in the induced decidual cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the S stage was increased, and decreased in the G2/M phase. Our study indicates that cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, plays an important role in the process of decidualization in mouse uterine stromal cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression.

  14. The study on mechanism of the modified Chinese herbal compound, jianpijiedu, on a mouse model of hepatic carcinoma cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguo; Luo, Haoxuan; Deng, Liuxiang; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Zexiong

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have investigated hepatic carcinoma cachexia, however, there is little published information regarding the effect of Chinese Medicine carcinoma cachexia. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of modified Chinese herbal compound jianpijiedu (MJPJD) on a mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia. C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups: Control (Group A); xenograft tumor (Group B); low concentration of MJPJD (Group C); high concentration of MJPJD (Group D) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) combined with indometacin (IND; Group E). The mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia was established by abdominal injection of H22 hepatic carcinoma cells. Subsequently, the body weight, food intake and gastrocnemius weight were recorded, and the levels of interleukin (IL)‑lα, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in ascites were detected by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression levels of muscle RING‑finger protein‑1 (MU‑RF1) and atrogin 1 were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels in gastrocnemius were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the xenograft tumor group, the administration of MJPJD inhibited the increase in body weight and the volume of ascites, the consumption of gastrocnemius was reduced, the net weight of ascites was maintained, the food intake was enhanced and the levels of the cytokines IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α in ascites and the levels of MU‑RF1 and atrogin 1 proteins were reduced. These results indicated that MJPJD delays the pathological process of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia, and the mechanism of action may be correlated with a reduction in the levels of IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α and inhibiting the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome pathway.

  15. Associations of hormonal contraceptive use with measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Maura K; Jeng, Gary; Samarina, Anna; Akatova, Natalia; Martirosyan, Margarita; Kissin, Dmitry M; Curtis, Kathryn M; Marchbanks, Polly A; Hillis, Susan D; Mandel, Michele G; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between hormonal contraceptive use and measures of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. A prospective cohort study of women with prevalent HIV infection in St. Petersburg, Russia, was conducted. After contraceptive counseling, participants chose to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a copper intrauterine device (IUD) or male condoms for pregnancy prevention. Among participants not using ART at enrollment, we used multivariate Cox regression to assess the association between current (time-varying) contraceptive use and disease progression, measured by the primary composite outcome of CD4 decline to contraceptive method. During a total of 5233 months follow-up among participants not using ART with enrollment CD4 ≥350 cells/mm(3) (n=315), 97 experienced disease progression. Neither current use of COCs [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-1.48] nor DMPA (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 0.71-2.31) was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for disease progression compared with use of nonhormonal methods (IUD or condoms). Among participants using ART at enrollment (n=77), we found no statistically significant differences in the predicted mean changes in CD4 cell count comparing current use of COCs (p=.1) or DMPA (p=.3) with nonhormonal methods. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Hormonal contraceptive use was not significantly associated with measures of HIV disease progression or ART effectiveness among women with prevalent HIV infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Valeria Bahamondes, M; Shulman, Lee P

    2015-01-01

    Most contraceptive methods present benefits beyond contraception; however, despite a large body of evidence, many healthcare professionals (HCPs), users and potential users are unaware of those benefits. This review evaluates the evidence for non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods. We searched the medical publications in PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS for relevant articles, on non-contraceptive benefits of the use of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, which were published in English between 1980 and July 2014. Articles were identified using the following search terms: 'contraceptive methods', 'benefits', 'cancer', 'anaemia', 'heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB)', 'endometrial hyperplasia', 'endometriosis' and 'leiomyoma'. We identified, through the literature search, evidence that some combined oral contraceptives have benefits in controlling HMB and anaemia, reducing the rate of endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancer and ectopic pregnancy as well as alleviating symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Furthermore, the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also controls HMB and anaemia and endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, reduces rates of endometrial polyps in users of tamoxifen and alleviates pain associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate controls crises of pain associated with sickle cell disease and endometriosis. Users of the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant have the benefits of a reduction of pain associated with endometriosis, and users of the copper intrauterine device have reduced rates of endometrial and cervical cancer. Despite the high contraceptive effectiveness of many hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, many HCPs, users and potential users are concerned mainly about side effects and safety of both hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods, and there is scarce information

  17. Brief Report: Dapivirine Vaginal Ring Use Does Not Diminish the Effectiveness of Hormonal Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Siva, Samantha; Harkoo, Ishana; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Kintu, Kenneth; Nair, Gonasangrie; Chappell, Catherine; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Kabwigu, Samuel; Naidoo, Logashvari; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Marzinke, Mark; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use. A secondary analysis of women participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. Use of a highly effective method of contraception was an eligibility criterion for study participation. Urine pregnancy tests were performed monthly. Pregnancy incidence by arm was calculated separately for each hormonal contraceptive method and compared using an Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model stratified by site and censored at HIV-1 infection. Of 2629 women enrolled, 2310 women returned for follow-up and reported using a hormonal contraceptive method at any point during study participation (1139 in the dapivirine arm and 1171 in the placebo arm). Pregnancy incidence in the dapivirine arm versus placebo among women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was 0.43% vs. 0.54%, among women using injectable norethisterone enanthate was 1.15% vs. 0%, among women using hormonal implants was 0.22% vs. 0.69%, and among women using oral contraceptive pills was 32.26% vs. 28.01%. Pregnancy incidence did not differ by study arm for any of the hormonal contraceptive methods. Use of the dapivirine ring does not reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives for pregnancy prevention. Oral contraceptive pill use was associated with high pregnancy incidence, potentially because of poor pill adherence. Injectable and implantable methods were highly effective in preventing pregnancy.

  18. Perceived racial, socioeconomic and gender discrimination and its impact on contraceptive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Secura, Gina M; Roehl, Kimberly A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. We analyzed the first 2,500 women aged 14-45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to obtaining long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination, and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 52%, pgender-, race- or SES-based discrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43, respectively]. After enrollment, 66% of women with a history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 35% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Discrimination negatively impacts a woman's use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term Effects on Cognitive Trajectories of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy in Two Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A; Rapp, Stephen R; Manson, JoAnn E; Goveas, Joseph S; Shumaker, Sally A; Hayden, Kathleen M; Weitlauf, Julie C; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Baker, Laura D; Padula, Claudia B; Hou, Lifang; Resnick, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy may have long-term effects on cognitive function depending on women's age. Postintervention follow-up was conducted with annual cognitive assessments of two randomized controlled clinical trial cohorts, beginning an average of 6-7 years after study medications were terminated: 1,376 women who had enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative when aged 50-54 years and 2,880 who had enrolled when aged 65-79 years. Women had been randomly assigned to 0.625mg/d conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) for those with prior hysterectomy (mean 7.1 years), CEE with 2.5mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate for those without prior hysterectomy (mean 5.4 years), or matching placebos. Hormone therapy, when prescribed to women aged 50-54 years, had no significant long-term posttreatment effects on cognitive function and on changes in cognitive function. When prescribed to older women, it was associated with long-term mean (SE) relative decrements (standard deviation units) in global cognitive function of 0.081 (0.029), working memory of 0.070 (0.025), and executive function of 0.054 (0.023), all p therapy regimen, prior use, or years from last menstrual period. Mean intervention effects were small; however, the largest were comparable in magnitude to those seen during the trial's active intervention phase. CEE-based hormone therapy delivered near the time of menopause provides neither cognitive benefit nor detriment. If administered in older women, it results in small decrements in several cognitive domains that remain for many years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1 no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2 no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3 no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4 combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5 depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera injections for at least 6 months, (6 levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV. Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  1. Safety and Acceptability of Community-Based Distribution of Injectable Contraceptives: A Pilot Project in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Ana; Mobaracaly, Mahomed Riaz; Ustáb, Momade Bay; Bique, Cassimo; Blazer, Cassandra; Weidert, Karen; Prata, Ndola

    2016-09-28

    Mozambique has witnessed a climbing total fertility rate in the last 20 years. Nearly one-third of married women have an unmet need for family planning, but the supply of family planning services is not meeting the demand. This study aimed to explore the safety and effectiveness of training 2 cadres of community health workers-traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs) (polyvalent elementary health workers)-to administer the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and to provide evidence to policy makers on the feasibility of expanding community-based distribution of DMPA in areas where TBAs and APEs are present. A total of 1,432 women enrolled in the study between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority (63% to 66%) of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and most women (over 66%) did not report side effects at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Very few (less than 0.5%) experienced morbidities at the injection site on the arm. Satisfaction with the performance of TBAs and APEs was high and improved over the study period. Overall, the project showed a high continuation rate (81.1%) after 3 injections, with TBA clients having significantly higher continuation rates than APE clients after 3 months and after 6 months. Clients' reported willingness to pay for DMPA (64%) highlights the latent demand for modern contraceptives. Given Mozambique's largely rural population and critical health care workforce shortage, community-based provision of family planning in general and of injectable contraceptives in particular, which has been shown to be safe, effective, and acceptable, is of crucial importance. This study demonstrates that community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives can provide access to family planning to a large group of women that previously had little or no access. © Jacinto et al.

  2. A long-acting integrase inhibitor protects female macaques from repeated high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Chasity D; Yueh, Yun Lan; Spreen, William R; St Bernard, Leslie; Boente-Carrera, Mar; Rodriguez, Kristina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Blanchard, James; Ford, Susan; Mohri, Hiroshi; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Hong, Zhi; Ho, David D; Markowitz, Martin

    2015-01-14

    Long-acting GSK1265744 (GSK744 LA) is a strand transfer inhibitor of the HIV/SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) integrase and was shown to be an effective preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent in a low-dose intrarectal SHIV (simian-human immunodeficiency virus) rhesus macaque challenge model. We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. When Depo-Provera-treated female rhesus macaques were dosed with GSK744 LA (50 mg/kg) monthly, systemic and tissue drug concentrations were lower than previously observed in male rhesus macaques. GSK744 concentrations were fivefold lower on average in cervical tissues than in rectal tissues. Eight female rhesus macaques were treated with GSK744 LA at week 0, and four female rhesus macaques served as controls. All animals received a high-dose challenge of SHIV162P3 at week 1. No infection was detected in GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques, whereas viremia was detected 1 to 2 weeks after SHIV challenge in all control animals. The GSK744 LA-treated rhesus macaques were given a second administration of drug at week 4 and further challenged at weeks 5 and 7. GSK744 LA treatment protected six of eight female rhesus macaques against three high-dose SHIV challenges, whereas all control animals became infected after the first challenge (P = 0.0003, log-rank test). These results support further clinical development of GSK744 LA for PrEP. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becks, Lisa; Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry; Pruitt, Kevin; Zhang, Songlin; Kleiner-Hancock, Heather E; Prince, Misty; Burson, Hannah; Christophe, Christopher; Broadway, Mason; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Mathis, Michael; Orchard, Elysse

    2010-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals. It is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis. Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment. The 10-week pre-malignant study was performed in which 8 groups of 10 each female wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed either control diet or diets containing auraptene (500 ppm). A carcinogenesis study was also conducted in KO vs. WT mice (n = 30-34). Comparisons between groups were evaluated using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier Survival statistics, and the Mann-Whitney U-test. All mice treated with carcinogen exhibited premalignant lesions but there were no differences by genotype or diet. In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight. Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival. Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed. Many other tumors were observed, including lymphomas. Interestingly, the incidences of lung adenomas in the KO mice were significantly higher than in the WT mice. We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression

  4. Successful long-term treatment of Cushing disease with mifepristone (RU486).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basina, Marina; Liu, Hau; Hoffman, Andrew R; Feldman, David

    2012-01-01

    We describe a girl with Cushing disease for whom surgery and radiation treatments failed and the subsequent clinical course with mifepristone therapy. We present the patient's clinical, biochemical, and imaging findings. A 16-year-old girl presented with classic Cushing disease. After transsphenoidal surgery, Cyberknife radiosurgery, ketoconazole, and metyrapone did not control her disease, and she was prescribed mifepristone, which was titrated to a maximal dosage of 1200 mg daily with subsequent symptom improvement. Mifepristone (RU486) is a high-affinity, nonselective antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor. There is limited literature on its use as an off-label medication to treat refractory Cushing disease. Over her 8-year treatment with mifepristone, her therapy was complicated by hypertension and hypokalemia requiring spironolactone and potassium chloride. She received a 2-month drug holiday every 4 to 6 months to allow for withdrawal menstrual bleeding with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Urinary cortisol, serum cortisol, and corticotropin levels remained elevated during mifepristone drug holidays. While on mifepristone, her signs and symptoms of Cushing disease resolved. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated stable appearance of the residual pituitary mass. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, and mifepristone was discontinued after 95 months of medical therapy. We describe the longest duration of mifepristone therapy thus reported for the treatment of refractory Cushing disease. Mifepristone effectively controlled all signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism. Menstruating women who take the drug on a long-term basis should receive periodic drug holidays to allow for menses. The lack of reliable serum biomarkers to monitor the success of mifepristone therapy requires careful clinical judgment and may make its use difficult in Cushing disease.

  5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Pamela M; Heffron, Renee; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Were, Edwin; Mujugira, Andrew; Kiarie, James; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-07-31

    For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1-uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation, but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing. For women using no contraception, overall pregnancy incidence was 15.4% per year. Women reporting oral contraceptive use had comparable pregnancy incidence to women using no contraception, and this lack of contraceptive effectiveness was similar for those assigned PrEP and placebo (17.7 and 10.0% incidence per year, respectively; P-value for difference in effect by PrEP use = 0.24). Women reporting injectable contraception had reduced pregnancy incidence compared to those reporting no contraception, which did not differ by arm (PrEP 5.1%, placebo 5.3% per year; P-value for difference = 0.47). Contraceptive effectiveness was highest among women using implants (pregnancy incidence <1% per year in both arms). PrEP had no adverse impact on hormonal contraceptive effectiveness for pregnancy prevention. As seen previously in similar populations, women reporting contraceptive pill use had little protection from pregnancy, possibly due to poor adherence. Injectable or implantable hormonal contraception and PrEP provide effective prevention for pregnancy and HIV-1.

  6. Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Incidence Among Women Participating in an HIV Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Carolyne A; Bunge, Katherine E; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Mirembe, Brenda G; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Mishra, Anupam; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Celum, Connie; Balkus, Jennifer E

    2017-06-01

    Recent HIV prevention trials required use of effective contraceptive methods to fulfill eligibility for enrollment. We compared pregnancy rates in a subset of participants enrolled in the Microbicide Trials Network protocol (MTN-003), a randomized trial of chemoprophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition among women aged 18-45 years who initiated depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or combined oral contraceptives (COCs) at enrollment, relative to those already using DMPA or COCs. Data were analyzed from MTN-003 participants from Uganda. Before enrollment, information on contraceptive type and initiation date was obtained. Urine pregnancy tests were performed at monthly follow-up visits. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare pregnancy incidence among new users (initiated ≤60 days before enrollment) and established users (initiated >60 days before enrollment). Of 322 women enrolled, 296 were COC or DMPA users, 82 (28%) were new users, and 214 (72%) were established users. Pregnancy incidence was higher among new contraceptive users compared to established users (20.70% vs. 10.55%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.93-2.96). Among DMPA users, pregnancy incidence was 10.20% in new users versus 3.48% in established users (HR = 2.56; 95% CI 0.86-7.65). Among new COC users, pregnancy incidence was 42.67% in new users versus 23.67% in established COC users (adjusted HR = 1.74; 95% CI 0.87-3.48). New contraceptive users, regardless of method, at the Uganda MTN-003 site had an increased pregnancy risk compared to established users, which may be due to contraceptive initiation primarily for trial eligibility. New users may benefit from intensive contraceptive counseling and additional contraceptive options, including longer acting reversible contraceptives.

  7. Induction of synchronized oestrous and early pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi ewes, outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Merstani, M.R.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on indigenous awassi ewes to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) followed by treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on inducing synchronized oestrous outside the normal breeding season, improving fecundity and on early diagnosis of pregnancy using progesterone profiles. 96 awassi ewes were divided into 2 groups. ewes in the Group T, were fitted with MAP for 14 days and injected with 600 IU PMSG at the sponge withdrawal, whereas ewes in the control Group C, received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced within 36-48 h post sponge withdrawal in 82% of the treated ewes. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between groups T and C in total oestrous response, lambing rate, and fecundity. The means being 96% and 32.6%; 80% and 32.6% and 137.5% and 106.7%, respectively. The accuracy of early diagnosis of pregnancy at 17-19 days post-mating was 100%. The mean birth weight of lambs was similar in both groups (4.3 and 4,4 Kg for groups T and C, respectively).However, single born lambs were significantly (p<0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (5.0 versus 3.9 Kg). It was concluded that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, successful pregnancy and lambing, and that serum progesterone measurement determinations are useful tool for early pregnancy diagnosis in awassi ewes induced oestrous and bred out of season. (author)

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, J A; Gordon, C M

    1999-06-01

    Many adolescents present with hirsutism and irregular menses. The challenge for the clinician is to distinguish physiologic anovulatory cycles from true menstrual disorders such as PCOS, and to differentiate PCOS from other causes of hyperandrogenism in hirsute adolescents. Common clinical features seen in adolescents with PCOS include hirsutism, acne, menstrual irregularity, and obesity. Biochemical abnormalities include hyperandrogenism, acyclic estrogen production, LH hypersecretion, decreased levels of SHBG, and hyperinsulinemia. Management strategies for a patient with PCOS include treatment of features which may cause distress to the adolescent, such as hirsutism, acne, and irregular menses, and prevention of long-term sequelae. Oral contraceptive pills, antiandrogens, and cosmetic treatments are used to treat hirsutism, acne, and menstrual irregularity. Oral contraceptive pills or medroxyprogesterone acetate are given to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Counseling about weight loss and nutrition are essential, as weight loss may improve signs of hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity and may prevent NIDDM and cardiovascular disease. Insulin-sensitizing agents show promise in terms of decreasing hyperandrogenism, restoring ovulatory cycles, treating infertility, and preventing long-term sequelae. Finally, it is important to recognize that adolescents with PCOS may experience psychological distress because of the clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or when confronted with the information that they have a chronic illness. Psychological support should be available for these young women. Future research is likely to further elucidate the pathophysiology of PCOS, identify candidate genes, and clarify which adolescents are at risk for long-term sequelae. Prospective studies are needed to identify which therapies could potentially reduce the risk of infertility, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and endometrial carcinoma in young women

  9. Simultaneous quantitation of multiple contraceptive hormones in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Steven W; Winchell, Andrea J; Kaucher, Amy V; Lieberman, Rachel A; Gilles, Christopher T; Pyra, Maria N; Heffron, Renee; Hou, Xuanlin; Coombs, Robert W; Nanda, Kavita; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Herbeck, Joshua T; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Erikson, David W

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to develop a method to simultaneously quantify five commonly used hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and two endogenous sex steroids by liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and apply this method to human serum samples. We developed a method to simultaneously analyze ethinyl estradiol (EE2), etonogestrel (ENG), levonorgestrel (LNG), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone (NET), along with estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in human serum for a Shimadzu Nexera-LCMS-8050 LC-MS/MS platform. We analyzed serum collected from women self-reporting use of oral contraceptives, contraceptive implants or injectable contraceptives (n=14) and normally cycling women using no HC (n=15) as well as pooled samples from women administered various HCs (ENG, n=6; LNG, n=14; MPA, n=7; NET, n=5). Limits of quantitation were 0.010ng/mL for E2, EE2 and P4; 0.020ng/mL for ENG, LNG and MPA; and 0.040ng/mL for NET. Precisions for all assays, as indicated by coefficient of variation, were less than or equal to 12.1%. Accuracies for all assays were in the range of 95%-108%. Endogenous hormone values obtained from analysis of human serum samples are in agreement with levels previously reported in the literature for normally cycling women as well as for women taking the appropriate HC. We have developed a robust, accurate and sensitive method for simultaneously analyzing commonly used contraceptive steroids and endogenous sex steroids in human serum. This analytical method can be used for quantitating contraceptive steroid levels in women for monitoring systemic exposure to determine drug interactions, nonadherence, misreporting and proper dosing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast density in women with premature ovarian failure or postmenopausal women using hormone therapy: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Magda Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Studies on postmenopausal women have reported increased risk of breast cancer relating to the type and duration of hormone therapy (HT used. Women with premature ovarian failure (POF represent a challenge, since they require prolonged HT. Little is known about the impact of prolonged HT use on these women's breasts. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of one type of HT on the breast density of women with POF, compared with postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: 31 women with POF and 31 postmenopausal women, all using HT consisting of conjugated equine estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and matched according to HT duration, were studied. Mammography was performed on all subjects and was analyzed by means of digitization or Wolfe's classification, stratified into two categories: non-dense (N1 and P1 patterns and dense (P2 and Dy. RESULTS: No significant difference in breast density was found between the two groups through digitization or Wolfe's classification. From digitization, the mean breast density was 24.1% ± 14.6 and 18.1% ± 17.2 in the POF and postmenopausal groups, respectively (P = 0.15. Wolfe's classification identified dense breasts in 51.6% and 29.0%, respectively (P = 0.171. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in breast density between the women with POF and postmenopausal women, who had used HT for the same length of time. These results may help towards compliance with HT use among women with POF.

  11. Reproductive health outcomes of insured adolescent and adult women who access oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W; Goler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    To assess the level of risk for adolescents and women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and women aged 15-44 years who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531 (67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127 (56.6%) adolescents and women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264 (10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for adolescents and women who accessed it through the call center-1,569 (10.8%) and office visits-695 (10.1%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056 (9.6%) adolescents and women became pregnant. Adolescents and women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however, they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.60). Among adolescents and women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689 (7.8%) and 928 (7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Protocols to routinely address unmet needs for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits, including visits with primary care providers, should be investigated.

  12. Reproductive Health Outcomes of Insured Women Who Access Oral Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W.; Goler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the level of risk for women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. Methods This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among women aged 15-44 who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Results Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531(67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127(56.6%) women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264(10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for women who accessed it through the call center -1,569(10.8%) and office visits – 695(10.1%) (adjusted OR 1.02 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056(9.6%) women became pregnant. Women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37 95%CI 1.16-1.60). Among women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689(7.8%) and 928(7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Conclusions Protocols to routinely address unmet need for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits including visits with primary care providers should be investigated. PMID:25751211

  13. Estrus resynchronization in ewes with unknown pregnancy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vladinis O; Oliveira, Fernando C; Dias, Jenniffer H; Vargas Júnior, Sergio F; Goularte, Karina L; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Sá Filho, Ocilon G de; Baldassarre, Hernan; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Lucia, Thomaz; Gasperin, Bernardo G

    2018-01-15

    Although fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols are available for sheep, estrus resynchronization has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of estrus resynchronization with exogenous progestogen on endogenous progesterone levels and to compare pregnancy rates after two consecutive estrus synchronizations in ewes. In Experiment 1, ewes (n = 20) received an intravaginal device (IVD) containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 10 days. At the IVD withdrawal (D0), ewes received 250 IU eCG and were allocated into two treatments: either no further treatment (Control; n = 10) or estrus resynchronization (Resynch; n = 10) from D12 to D19. Serum progesterone (P4) levels did not differ at D12 and D19 (P > 0.05), but were greater at D15 for the Control compared with the Resynch group (P ewes (n = 250) were submitted to a first synchronization protocol followed by estrus detection and either artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating (NM). Subsequently, ewes were divided into two groups: Control (n = 104): which received no further treatment and were bred by NM; and Resynch (n = 146): which were submitted to a second synchronization starting on D14 (first IVD withdrawal = D0) and to NM after second IVD withdrawal (D20). Cumulative pregnancy rates did not differ between the Control (67.3%, 70/104) and Resynch (62.3%, 91/146) groups. In a third experiment, ewes (n = 83) were bred by two consecutive FTAI within a 20-day interval. Pregnancy rates after the first (30.1%, 25/83) and the second FTAI (36.2%, 21/58) did not differ (P > 0.05). In conclusion, although exogenous progestogen supplementation reduced circulating levels of P4, pregnancy maintenance was unaffected. Estrus resynchronization in ewes is feasible, resulting in similar fertility after the first and the second services. The use of resynchronization coupled with artificial insemination using semen from genetically

  14. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  15. Effect of altering the intervals between consecutive superovulatory doses of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone on ovarian responses and embryo yields in anestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, P M; Murawski, M; Schwarz, T; Oliveira, M E F

    2017-05-01

    The effect of varying intervals between successive gonadotropin injections on the superovulatory outcomes in anestrous Rideau Arcott ewes superstimulated for ovarian follicular development with multiple doses of porcine FSH (pFSH) was evaluated in a single study. Twenty-five animals received six (1×2.5ml and 5×1.25ml) injections of Folltropin ® -V given at 0800 and 1600h or at 0800 and 2000h in Group 1 (n=9) or Group 2 (n=16), respectively. An i.m. injection of 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Folligon ® ) was given concurrently with the first pFSH dose. Time of estrus was synchronized among ewes with intravaginal sponges containing 60mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Veramix ® ) that were left in place for 14days; sponges were removed at the time of the 5th pFSH injection. Six days after insertion of MAP sponges, all ewes received an i.m. injection of estradiol-17β dissolved in 1ml of sesame oil (350μg/ewe) to synchronize follicular wave emergence. Following the last pFSH dose, all animals were given a single i.m. injection of 50μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; Cystorelin ® ) to induce ovulations before placing in a pen with four fertile rams for 36h. The ovarian responses were assessed and embryos recovered surgically 7days after GnRH injections. The mean number of corpora lutea was greater (Pewes (21.0±2.9 compared with 10.4±1.6, respectively; mean±SEM) but there was no difference (P>0.05) in the number of transferable embryos (5.4±2.4 compared with 5.4±1.3/ewe, respectively), and Group 1 animals had significantly more degenerated embryos than Group 2 ewes (2.6±1.2 compared with 0.6±0.3/ewe, respectively). A superovulatory protocol wherein pFSH injections were given at 0800 and 1600h was more effective in terms of inducing multiple ovulations than the protocol with 12-h intervals between consecutive pFSH doses, but it was not associated with an increased production of transferable quality embryos by anestrous ewes

  16. Preventing recurrence of endometriosis by means of long-acting progestogen therapy (PRE-EMPT): report of an internal pilot, multi-arm, randomised controlled trial incorporating flexible entry design and adaption of design based on feasibility of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lee J; Daniels, Jane P; Weckesser, Annalise; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2017-03-11

    Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis. A survey of gynaecologists indicated that there was no consensus about which LARC (Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)) or comparator (combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or no treatment) should be evaluated. Hence, we designed a 'flexible-entry' internal pilot to assess whether a four-arm trial was feasible including a possible design adaption based on pilot findings. In this pilot, women could be randomised to two, three or four treatment options provided that one was a LARC and one was a non-LARC. An assessment of feasibility based on recruitment to these options and a revised substantive trial design was considered by an independent oversight committee. The study ran for 1 year from April 2014 and 77 women were randomised. Only 5 (6%) women accepted randomisation to all groups, with 63 (82%) having a LARC preference and 55 (71%) a non-LARC preference. Four-way and three-way designs were ruled out with a two-way LARC versus COCP design, stratified by prerandomisation choice of LARC and optional subrandomisation to LNG-IUS versus DMPA considered a feasible substantive study. Multi-arm studies are potentially efficient as they can answer multiple questions simultaneously but are difficult to recruit to if there are strong patient or clinician preferences. A flexible approach to randomisation in a pilot phase can be used to assess feasibility of such studies and modify a trial design

  17. Determination of two progestin metabolites (17α-hydroxypregnanolone and pregnanediol) and different classes of steroids (androgens, estrogens, corticosteroids, progestins) in rivers and wastewaters by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Fent, Karl

    2018-01-01

    A highly sensitive and robust method was developed for routine analysis of two progestin metabolites, 17α-hydroxypregnanolone (17OH-Δ5P) and pregnanediol (PD), and 31 other natural and synthetic steroids and related metabolites (estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, progestins) in river water, as well as influents and effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using HPLC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction. For the various matrixes considered, the optimized method showed satisfactory performance with recoveries of 70-120% for most of target steroids. The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.01 to 3ng/L for river water, 0.02 to 10ng/L for WWTP effluents, and 0.1 to 40ng/L for influents with good linearity and reproducibility. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of steroids in rivers and WWTP influent and effluents. WWTP influents concentrations of 17OH-Δ5P and PD were 51-256ng/L and up to 400ng/L, respectively, along with androstenedione (concentration range: 38-220ng/L), testosterone (11-26ng/L), estrone (2.3-37ng/L), 17β-estradiol (N.D.-8.7ng/L), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (N.D.-66ng/L), medroxyprogesterone acetate (N.D.-5.3ng/L), and progesterone (2.0-22ng/L), while only androstenedione (ADD), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3) were detected in effluent with concentrations ranging up to 1.7ng/L, 0.90ng/L and 0.8ng/L, respectively. In river water samples, only ADD and E1 were detected with concentrations up to 1.0ng/L and 0.91ng/L. Our procedure represents the first method for analyzing 17OH-Δ5P and PD in environmental samples along with a large series of steroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Avaliação de programas hormonais para a indução e sincronização do estro em caprinos Evaluation of hormonal programs to induce and synchronize estrus in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Machado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer alternativas para indução e sincronização do estro em cabras leiteiras manejadas semi-intensivamente. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos com 411 cabras na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa deCaprinos, Sobral, CE. No protocolo básico, utilizaram-se esponjas intra-vaginais com 50 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por dez dias e aplicação intra-muscular de 100 mig de cloprostenol e 200 UI de gonadotropina coriônica eqüina (eCG no 8º dia; a inseminação artificial (IA, com sêmen congelado foi feita 38 horas após remoção da esponja. No experimento1 substituiu-se a e CG pelo "efeito macho"; no experimento 2 substituiu-se a dose de MAP para 60 mg; no experimento3 compararam-se diferentes momentos de IA: 38, 44 e 50 horas e no experimento 4 substituiu-se a eCG pela gonadotropina humana (hCG. Nenhuma das alternativas testadas modificou (P>0,05 a prolificidade. A IA em cio natural gerou maior (PThe objective of this study was to establish alternatives to induce and synchronize estrus in dairy goats managed under semi-intensive conditions. Four experiments were carried out using 411 goats at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Caprinos, Sobral, CE, Brazil. In the basic protocol, intra-vaginal sponges were used with 50 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP over ten days, associated with intra-muscular shots of cloprostenol, and equine corionic gonadotropin (eCG at the 8th day. Artificial insemination (AI with frozen semen took place 38 hours after sponge withdrawal. In the first experiment, eCG was replaced by "buck effect"; in the second experiment, 60 mg MAP replaced the usual dose; the third experiment compared different pre-fixed time for AI: 38, 44 and 50 hours and in the fourth experiment, hCG (human corionic gonadotropin given at different moments, replaced eCG. Prolificacy was not influenced (P>0.05 by any changes of basic protocol.After natural estrus, AIprovided higher (P

  19. Efficacy of anti-microbial agents on vaginal microorganisms and reproductive performance of synchronized estrus ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed KM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and identify microflora and fungal species at different phases during estrus synchronization of ewes and estimate their prevalence; compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial administration to intravaginal sponge on the changes in the vaginal microorganisms and reproductive performance. Methods: Sixty Egyptian ewes were allocated into three equal groups (G: 1, 2 and 3. G1 was inserted with vaginal sponge containing medroxyprogesterone acetate and served as control; without antimicrobial additive. The other two groups were treated as G1, but sponges were previously injected with ciprofloxacin (G2, while sponges of G3 were injected with ciprofloxacin and clotrimazole. Vaginal swabs were collected from each treated ewe, prior sponge insertion, at sponge withdrawal and 48 h later for microbiological investigation and bacterial count. On the day of sponge removal, 300 IU/eCG was administered for each treated ewe. The identified bacterial strains before sponge insertion were tested for sensitivity with antimicrobial disks. Results: Bacterial isolates before sponge insertion were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Frequencies of ewes in estrus; the interval from sponge withdrawal to onset estrus and the duration of estrus were statistically similar among treated groups. The pregnancy rate in G2 (100.0% was higher than G1 (66.7% and G3 (82.4%. The total bacterial count before sponge insertion was similar between all treatments and increased significantly in all groups on the day of sponge withdraw. The prevailing bacteria on D0, D14 and 48 h after sponge removal for all treated groups were Staphylococcus spp. followed by Escherichia coli. Regarding to fungus species, percentages of isolation increased from 5.00% (before sponge insertion to 100.00% and 88.89% at sponge withdraw for G1 and G2, respectively. In G3, the fungus was declined from 10% (before sponge insertion to 5% (at sponge removal. Conclusions: The concomitant treatments

  20. Polymerase chain reaction amplification fails to detect aromatase cytochrome P450 transcripts in normal human endometrium or decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulun, S E; Mahendroo, M S; Simpson, E R

    1993-06-01

    It has been proposed that the biosynthesis of estrogens by the human endometrium may be of physiological significance during the menstrual cycle. Local estrogen production was also suggested to be important in the development of endometrial cancer; however, the presence or absence of aromatase enzyme activity in normal human endometrium is controversial. To address this issue, we used a sensitive technique capable of detecting mRNA transcripts present in only very low copy number. The polymerase chain reaction linked to reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the presence or absence of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) transcripts in endometrial tissues (n = 7) and endometrial stromal cells (n = 9) under various culture conditions. RNA was isolated from four proliferative and three secretory tissue samples and from cultured endometrial stromal cells isolated from seven proliferative and two secretory endometria. Five sets of cultures were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), estradiol (E2), and forskolin. Additionally, RNA was isolated from decidualized endometrium obtained from a patient with tubal pregnancy. A single stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and a P450arom-specific oligonucleotide. The single stranded cDNA was used as a template for PCR and was amplified for 20-35 cycles using P450arom-specific primers. RNA from adipose tissue and placenta was amplified to provide positive controls, whereas myometrial RNA was used as a negative control. In two experiments involving two endometrial tissues and three sets of cells in culture, a rat P450arom cRNA was coamplified in each sample as an internal control to demonstrate that the remote possibility of RT-PCR failures in individual test samples cannot account for our negative results. By Southern or slot blot hybridization of the amplified fragments using human and rat P450arom-specific probes, we found no evidence for

  1. Decidual-secreted factors alter invasive trophoblast membrane and secreted proteins implying a role for decidual cell regulation of placentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Melaleuca Menkhorst

    Full Text Available Inadequate or inappropriate implantation and placentation during the establishment of human pregnancy is thought to lead to first trimester miscarriage, placental insufficiency and other obstetric complications. To create the placental blood supply, specialized cells, the 'extravillous trophoblast' (EVT invade through the differentiated uterine endometrium (the decidua to engraft and remodel uterine spiral arteries. We hypothesized that decidual factors would regulate EVT function by altering the production of EVT membrane and secreted factors. We used a proteomics approach to identify EVT membrane and secreted proteins regulated by decidual cell factors. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized in vitro by treatment with estradiol (10(-8 M, medroxyprogesterone acetate (10(-7 M and cAMP (0.5 mM for 14 days. Conditioned media (CM was collected on day 2 (non-decidualized CM and 14 (decidualized CM of treatment. Isolated primary EVT cultured on Matrigel™ were treated with media control, non-decidualized or decidualized CM for 16 h. EVT CM was fractionated for proteins <30 kDa using size-exclusion affinity nanoparticles (SEAN before trypsin digestion and HPLC-MS/MS. 43 proteins produced by EVT were identified; 14 not previously known to be expressed in the placenta and 12 which had previously been associated with diseases of pregnancy including preeclampsia. Profilin 1, lysosome associated membrane glycoprotein 1 (LAMP1, dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1/cathepsin C and annexin A2 expression by interstitial EVT in vivo was validated by immunhistochemistry. Decidual CM regulation in vitro was validated by western blotting: decidualized CM upregulated profilin 1 in EVT CM and non-decidualized CM upregulated annexin A2 in EVT CM and pro-DPP1 in EVT cell lysate. Here, non-decidualized factors induced protease expression by EVT suggesting that non-decidualized factors may induce a pro-inflammatory cascade. Preeclampsia is a pro

  2. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-24

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  3. Concordance of self-reported hormonal contraceptive use and presence of exogenous hormones in serum among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Maria; Lingappa, Jairam R; Heffron, Renee; Erikson, David W; Blue, Steven W; Patel, Rena C; Nanda, Kavita; Rees, Helen; Mugo, Nelly R; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Studies that rely on self-report to investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as other health outcomes, could have compromised results due to misreporting. We determined the frequency of misreported hormonal contraceptive use among African women with and at risk for HIV. We tested 1102 archived serum samples from 664 African women who had participated in prospective HIV prevention studies. Using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we quantified exogenous hormones for injectables (medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethisterone), oral contraceptives (OC) (levonorgestrel or ethinyl estradiol) and implants (levonorgestrel or etonogestrel) and compared them to self-reported use. Among women reporting hormonal contraceptive use, 258/358 (72%) of samples were fully concordant with self-report, as were 642/744 (86%) of samples from women reporting no hormonal contraceptive use. However, 42/253 (17%) of samples from women reporting injectable use, 41/66 (62%) of samples from self-reported OC users and 3/39 (8%) of samples from self-reported implant users had no quantifiable hormones. Among self-reported nonusers, 102/744 (14%) had ≥1 hormone present. Concordance between self-reported method and exogenous hormones did not differ by HIV status. Among African women with and at risk for HIV, testing of exogenous hormones revealed agreement with self-reported contraceptive use for most women. However, unexpected exogenous hormones were identified among self-reported hormonal contraceptive users and nonusers, and an important fraction of women reporting hormonal contraceptive use had no hormones detected; absence of oral contraceptive hormones could be due, at least in part, to samples taken during the hormone-free interval. Misreporting of hormonal contraceptive use could lead to biased results in observational studies of the relationship between contraceptive use and health

  4. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy every day and every other day on lipid levels according to difference in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Umino, Yuka; Takikawa, Masaya; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Maegawa, Masahiko; Furumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Masakazu; Irahara, Minoru

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of postmenopausal estrogen and progestogen therapy (EPT) every day and every other day on lipid levels, particularly triglyceride (TG) levels, according to difference in body mass index (BMI). Ninety-nine postmenopausal women (mean age, 53.9 +/- 5.6 years; mean BMI, 22.8 +/- 2.8 kg/m) were randomly treated with EPT every other day or every day for 1 year. Fifty women received oral administration of 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every other day, and 49 women received oral administration of 0.625 mg of CEE and 2.5 mg of MPA every day. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 1 year of therapy for measurement of fasting TG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoproteins. Data from 88 of the 99 postmenopausal women were used for analysis. In women whose BMI was 25 kg/m or higher, TG levels during EPT every day increased by 26.8%, while TG levels during EPT every other day decreased by 12.3%. There was a significant (P every day and every other day. In women whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m, TG levels during EPT every day increased by 21.7%, while during EPT every other day TG levels did not change. The mean levels of estradiol during EPT every day in women whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m and in women whose BMI was 25 kg/m or higher were 28.5 and 38.7 pg/mL, respectively, the difference between these levels was significant (P every other day in these two BMI groups. Triglyceride levels during EPT every day with conventional doses of CEE and MPA increased more in overweight and obese postmenopausal women in association with increased estrogen levels.

  5. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  6. The Women's international study of long-duration oestrogen after menopause (WISDOM: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Tom W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the time of feasibility work and final design of the trial there was no randomised control trial evidence for the long-term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Observational studies had suggested that long term use of estrogen was likely to be associated, amongst other things, with reduced risks of osteoporosis and ischaemic heart disease and increased risks of breast and endometrial cancer. Concomitant use of progestogens had been shown to protect against endometrial cancer, but there were few data showing how progestogen might affect estrogen actions on other conditions. Disease specific risks from observational studies suggested that, overall, long-term HRT was likely to be beneficial. Several studies showed that mortality from all causes was lower in HRT users than in non-users. Some secondary cardiovascular prevention trials were ongoing but evidence was also required for a range of outcomes in healthy women. The WISDOM trial was designed to compare combined estrogen and progestogen versus placebo, and estrogen alone versus combined estrogen and progestogen. During the development of WISDOM the Women's Health Initiative trial was designed, funded and started in the US. Design Randomised, placebo, controlled, trial. Methods The trial was set in general practices in the UK (384, Australia (94, and New Zealand (24. In these practices 284175 women aged 50–69 years were registered with 226282 potentially eligible. We sought to randomise 22300 postmenopausal women aged 50 – 69 and treat for ten years. The interventions were: conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg orally daily; conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5/5.0 mg orally daily; matched placebo. Primary outcome measures were: major cardiovascular disease, osteoporotic fractures, breast cancer and dementia. Secondary outcomes were: other cancers, all cause death, venous thromboembolism and cerebro-vascular disease. Results

  7. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause - where we stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Franić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The findings of most relevant randomized clinical studies such as HERS, WHI and MWS, performed in the last decade have shown that hormonal replacement therapy (HRT users are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer, stroke and pulmonary edema. On the other hand they are at a lower risk for the development of large bowel cancer and for hip and vertebral fractures; the incidences of endometrial cancer and coronary heart disease have not been proved to be significantly affected by HRT. As for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the findings of these studies differed from those provided by observational studies, it became an imperative to find the causes of these discrepancies. The major criticism of randomized clinical studies was aimed at the inclusion criteria, as the mean women’s age in HERS and in WHI study was 63 years. The women of that age may no longer be healthy, and are particularly exposed to cardiovascular diseases. In all studies the same type of HRT was used, i.e. conjugated equine estrogen alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate. In Europe, this combination is rarely prescribed; we do not prescribe it in Slovenia either. The same type of HRT used in randomized clinical studies was further criticized, the basic idea of HRT being an individual approach to each woman requiring HRT. For rather sensational and often misinterpreted findings of randomized studies, the largest menopause societies worldwide, the International Menopause Society (IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS and the North American Menopause Society (NAMS, have revised the guidelines for HRT use in postmenopause. These guidelines have been adopted by the Slovene Menopause Society as well.Conclusions: The indications for HRT remain to be markedly expressed and severe climacteric symptoms, prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, urogenital syndrome and premature menopause. However, the

  8. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanni; Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Deiana, Laura

    2006-05-01

    To test the efficacy and safety of an integrated treatment based on a pharmaconutritional support, antioxidants, and drugs, all given orally, in a population of advanced cancer patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. An open early-phase II study was designed according to the Simon two-stage design. The integrated treatment consisted of diet with high polyphenols content (400 mg), antioxidant treatment (300 mg/d alpha-lipoic acid + 2.7 g/d carbocysteine lysine salt + 400 mg/d vitamin E + 30,000 IU/d vitamin A + 500 mg/d vitamin C), and pharmaconutritional support enriched with 2 cans per day (n-3)-PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), 500 mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 200 mg/d selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The treatment duration was 4 months. The following variables were evaluated: (a) clinical (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional [lean body mass (LBM), appetite, and resting energy expenditure]; (c) laboratory [proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes]; (d) quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D, and MFSI-SF). From July 2002 to January 2005, 44 patients were enrolled. Of these, 39 completed the treatment and were assessable. Body weight increased significantly from baseline as did LBM and appetite. There was an important decrease of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a negative relationship worthy of note was only found between LBM and IL-6 changes. As for quality of life evaluation, there was a marked improvement in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D(VAS), and multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form scores. At the end of the study, 22 of the 39 patients were "responders" or "high responders." The minimum required was 21; therefore, the

  9. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Guzeloglu Kayisli

    Full Text Available Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs. Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2 or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO or E2+ progesterone (P4 were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR

  10. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription

  11. TB epidemiology: where are the young women? Know your tuberculosis epidemic, know your response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Rubeshan; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Padayatchi, Nesri

    2018-03-27

    The global predominance of tuberculosis in men has received significant attention. However, epidemiological studies now demonstrate that there is an increased representation of young women with tuberculosis, especially in high HIV burden settings where young women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. The role of the HIV epidemic, as well as changes in behavioural, biological, and structural risk factors are explored as potential explanations for the increasing burden of tuberculosis in young women. As young women are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, it is unsurprising that the TB epidemic in this setting has become increasingly feminised. This age-sex trend of TB in South Africa is similar to WHO estimates for other countries with a high HIV prevalence where there are more female than male cases notified up to the age of 25 years. The high prevalence of anaemia of chronic disease in young women with HIV is an additional potential reason for their increased TB risk. The widespread use of injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception, which has been shown to possess selective glucocorticoid effect and oestrogen suppression, in young women may be an important emerging biological risk factor for tuberculosis in young women. Behavioural factors such as alcohol use and tobacco smoking patterns are further factors which may be responsible for the narrowing of the sex gap in TB epidemiology. In comparison to the significantly higher alcohol consumption rates in men globally, there is a narrowing gap in alcohol consumption between the sexes in South Africa with alarming rates of alcohol abuse in young women. There is a similar narrowing of the tobacco smoking gap between the sexes in South Africa, with increasing smoking prevalence in young women. With nearly 70% of all TB patients being co-infected with HIV in our setting, it is not surprising that the age and sex distribution of TB is increasingly resembling the distribution of HIV

  12. The Effects of Superovulation Prior to Mating and Zinc Supplementation on Milk Yields in Etawah-Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW ranged from 20.4 to 44.2 kg and age ranged from 2.5 to 7 years were used to study the effects of superovulation prior to mating and zinc supplementation on milk yields. The experimental does were assigned into a randomized block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection with 2 levels (0 IU/kg BW [nonsuperovulation–NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [Superovulation–SO]. The second factor was zinc concentration in the diet with 3 levels (40 mg/kg DM [Z-40], 60 mg/kg DM [Z-60], and 80 mg/kg DM [Z-80]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four  hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected  to  stimulate superovulation. After  sponge removal,  5 experimental does  were mixed with 1 buck for natural mating. During  pregnancy  the experimental does were fed and  raised in   individual stables. Udder volume  was measured every other week from weeks 12 to 21 of  pregnancy.  During lactation  (one week to  5 months post partum kids were separated from the does, and   milk was harvested by hand milking. Milk samples were taken every other week for determination of milk quality. The results  indicated that  superovulation increased udder differential growth  by 80% (822.85 vs 1481.25 cm3/head, milk yield by  32% (567.14 vs 746.52 g/head/day.  Zinc concentration  increased udder differential growth and milk yield. Milk productions for does receiving 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg DM were 565.68, 737.88 and 666.92 g/day, respectively.It was concluded that  superovulation and zinc supplementation  increased milk  yield in Etawah Grade does. (Animal Production 6(2: 86-94 (2004   Key Words:  Superovulation, Zinc, Milk  Yield, Etawah-Grade

  13. Current recommendations: what is the clinician to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E

    2014-04-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) has complex biologic effects but continues to have an important clinical role in the management of vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. The rational use of menopausal HT requires balancing the potential benefits and risks of treatment. Findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and other randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of HT and have provided insights to improve decision making. Several clinical characteristics have utility in identifying women for whom benefits of HT are likely to outweigh the risks. Age and time since menopause are strong predictors of health outcomes and absolute risks associated with HT, and differences by age have been particularly apparent for estrogen alone. In the WHI trial of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone, younger women (50-59 years) had more favorable results for all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and the global index, but not for stroke and venous thrombosis. Age trends were less clear for CEE + medroxyprogesterone acetate, owing to increased risks of breast cancer, stroke, and venous thrombosis in all age groups. Absolute risks of adverse events were lower in younger than in older women in both trials, however. Other predictors of lower vascular risk from HT include favorable lipid status and absence of the metabolic syndrome. Transdermal administration may be associated with lower risks of venous thrombosis and stroke, but additional research is needed. The use of risk stratification and personalized risk assessment offers promise for improved benefit-risk profile and safety of HT. One approach to decision making is presented. Key elements include: assessment of whether the patient has moderate to severe menopausal symptoms, the primary indication for initiating systemic HT (vaginal estrogen may be used to treat genitourinary symptoms in the absence of vasomotor symptoms); understanding the patient's own preference regarding therapy

  14. Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of HIV Acquisition: An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles S.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Kwok, Cynthia; Baeten, Jared M.; Brown, Joelle; Crook, Angela M.; Van Damme, Lut; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Francis, Suzanna C.; Friedland, Barbara A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heffron, Renee; Kapiga, Saidi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karpoff, Stephanie; Kaul, Rupert; McClelland, R. Scott; McCormack, Sheena; McGrath, Nuala; Myer, Landon; Rees, Helen; van der Straten, Ariane; Watson-Jones, Deborah; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Stalter, Randy; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational studies of a putative association between hormonal contraception (HC) and HIV acquisition have produced conflicting results. We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies from sub-Saharan Africa to compare the incidence of HIV infection in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or the injectable progestins depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) with women not using HC. Methods and Findings Eligible studies measured HC exposure and incident HIV infection prospectively using standardized measures, enrolled women aged 15–49 y, recorded ≥15 incident HIV infections, and measured prespecified covariates. Our primary analysis estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) using two-stage random effects meta-analysis, controlling for region, marital status, age, number of sex partners, and condom use. We included 18 studies, including 37,124 women (43,613 woman-years) and 1,830 incident HIV infections. Relative to no HC use, the aHR for HIV acquisition was 1.50 (95% CI 1.24–1.83) for DMPA use, 1.24 (95% CI 0.84–1.82) for NET-EN use, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.88–1.20) for COC use. Between-study heterogeneity was mild (I2 HIV acquisition compared with COC use (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23–1.67) and NET-EN use (aHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.61). Effect estimates were attenuated for studies at lower risk of methodological bias (compared with no HC use, aHR for DMPA use 1.22, 95% CI 0.99–1.50; for NET-EN use 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.96; and for COC use 0.91, 95% CI 0.73–1.41) compared to those at higher risk of bias (pinteraction = 0.003). Neither age nor herpes simplex virus type 2 infection status modified the HC–HIV relationship. Conclusions This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence that COC or NET-EN use increases women’s risk of HIV but adds to the evidence that DMPA may increase HIV risk, underscoring the need for additional safe and effective contraceptive options for women at

  15. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Methods: Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Results: Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36

  16. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence S

    2006-02-21

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels. We gave pregnant dams vinclozolin by oral gavage from gestational days 13 through 17. We assessed the fetal genital tubercles from exposed fetuses at E19 to determine location of the urethral opening. After determination of gonadal sex, either genital tubercles were harvested for mRNA quantitation, or urethras were injected with a plastic resin for casting. We analyzed quantified mRNA levels between treated and untreated animals for mRNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor using nonparametric tests or ANOVA. To determine effects on urethral length (males have long urethras compared to females), we measured the lengths of the casts and performed ANOVA analysis on these data. Our morphological results indicated that vinclozolin has morphological effects similar to those of MPA, feminizing males (hypospadias) and masculinizing females (longer urethras). Because these results reflected our MPA results, we investigated the effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the mRNA expression levels of androgen, estrogen alpha and beta, and progesterone receptors. At the molecular level, vinclozolin down-regulated estrogen receptor alpha mRNA in females and up-regulated progesterone receptor mRNA. Vinclozolin-exposed males exhibited up-regulated estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor mRNA, effects we have also seen with exposure to the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol. The results suggest that

  17. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskin Laurence S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels. Methods We gave pregnant dams vinclozolin by oral gavage from gestational days 13 through 17. We assessed the fetal genital tubercles from exposed fetuses at E19 to determine location of the urethral opening. After determination of gonadal sex, either genital tubercles were harvested for mRNA quantitation, or urethras were injected with a plastic resin for casting. We analyzed quantified mRNA levels between treated and untreated animals for mRNA levels of estrogen receptors α and β, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor using nonparametric tests or ANOVA. To determine effects on urethral length (males have long urethras compared to females, we measured the lengths of the casts and performed ANOVA analysis on these data. Results Our morphological results indicated that vinclozolin has morphological effects similar to those of MPA, feminizing males (hypospadias and masculinizing females (longer urethras. Because these results reflected our MPA results, we investigated the effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the mRNA expression levels of androgen, estrogen α and β, and progesterone receptors. At the molecular level, vinclozolin down-regulated estrogen receptor α mRNA in females and up-regulated progesterone receptor mRNA. Vinclozolin-exposed males exhibited up-regulated estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor mRNA, effects we have also seen with exposure to the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl

  18. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalova, Marina; McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C G; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-10-01

    Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the recent failure of GSK

  19. Effect of the time in administration of clomiphene on follicular growth, endometrium and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate is very successful in inducing ovulation; there is usually a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rate. If treatment is started early in the cycle this negative effect is reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the time of administration of clomiphene citrate on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was performed on 115 PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome women in Fateme Zahra Fertility and Infertility Research Health Center in April 2012. Patients randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the early group (No. 55 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet for 5 day, whereas the patient in the late group (No. 60 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily for 5 day starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Then on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates by SPSS software, version 16 (Armonk, NY, USA were compared in two groups. Results: 36.4% of patients of early administration of clomiphene and 60% of patients in the later administration of Clomiphene were able to build dominant follicle. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.011. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on age, body mass index, duration of infertility. Findings showed that in the early group 14 (63.6% and in the late groups 8 (36.4% women who made dominant follicle, were pregnant. There was significant difference between these two groups (P<0.001. But, in the number of follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate, there were no significant difference. In the early administration of clomiphene, the pregnancy rate was 25.5%. However in the later administration of clomiphene it was 13.3% (P=0

  20. Increased 1-year continuation of DMPA among women randomized to self-administration: results from a randomized controlled trial at Planned Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Julia E; Simons, Hannah R; Della Badia, Lisa; Draper, Elissa; Morfesis, Johanna; Talmont, Elizabeth; Beasley, Anitra; McDonald, Melanie; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2018-03-01

    Self-administration of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-sc) is feasible, acceptable, and effective. Our objective was to compare one-year continuation of DMPA-sc between women randomized to self-administration versus clinic administration. We randomized 401 females ages 15-44 requesting DMPA at clinics in Texas and New Jersey to self-administration or clinic administration in a 1:1 allocation. Clinic staff taught participants randomized to self-administration to self-inject and observed the first injection; participants received instructions, a sharps container, and three doses for home use. Participants randomized to clinic administration received usual care. All participants received DMPA-sc at no cost and injection reminders via text message or email. We conducted follow-up surveys at six and 12 months. Three hundred thirty-six participants (84%) completed the 12-month survey; 316 completed both follow-up surveys (an 80% response rate excluding eight withdrawals). Participants ranged in age from 16-44. One-year DMPA continuous use was 69% in the self-administration group and 54% in the clinic group (p=.005). There were three self-reported pregnancies during the study period, all occurred in the clinic group; all three women had discontinued DMPA and one reported her pregnancy as intended. Among the self-administration group, 97% reported that self-administration was very or somewhat easy; 87% would recommend self-administration of DMPA-sc to a friend. Among the clinic group, 52% reported interest in self-administration in the future. Satisfaction was similar between groups. No serious adverse events were reported. DMPA self-administration improves contraceptive continuation and is a feasible and acceptable option for women and adolescents. Self-administration of subcutaneous DMPA can improve contraceptive access, autonomy, and continuation, and is a feasible and acceptable option for women and adolescents. It should be made widely available

  1. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Onono, Maricianah; Gandhi, Monica; Blat, Cinthia; Hagey, Jill; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We did this retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive women aged 15-45 years enrolled in 19 HIV care facilities supported by Family AIDS Care and Education Services in western Kenya between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013. Our primary outcome was incident pregnancy diagnosed clinically. The primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, and demographic, behavioural, and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women receiving different contraceptive and ART combinations. 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3337 incident pregnancies. In women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.72-1.5) for nevirapine-based ART users and 3.3 per 100 person-years (1.8-4.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). In women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.7-5.2) for nevirapine-based ART users and 5.4 per 100 person-years (4.0-6.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.91-1.5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, had 3.1-4.1 higher rates of pregnancy than did those using implants, with 1.6-2.8 higher rates in women using efavirenz-based ART. Although HIV-positive women using implants and efavirenz-based ART had a three-times higher risk of contraceptive failure than did those using nevirapine-based ART, these women still had lower contraceptive failure rates than did those receiving all other

  2. Bloqueo del receptor del factor de crecimiento semejante a la Insulina Tipo I utilizando oligodeoxinucleótidos antisentido en cáncer de mama experimental Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor antisense strategies in experimental breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Salatino

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos el efecto del bloqueo de la expresión del receptor del factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina tipo I (IGF-IR sobre el crecimiento in vivo de cáncer de mama empleando una estrategia "antisentido". Utilizamos el adenocarcinoma mamario murino progestágeno-dependiente C4HD. La administración intratumoral o sistémica de oligodeoxinucleótidos antisentido fosfotiolados al ARNm del IGF-IR (AS[S]ODN inhibió el crecimiento tumoral. El efecto antitumoral fue específico debido a su dosis-dependencia y a la falta de efecto en ratones tratados con el S[S]ODN "sentido". Los tumores obtenidos de ratones tratados con AS[S]ODN mostraron: disminución en la expresión de IGF-IR y en la fosforilación del sustrato del receptor de insulina-1, inhibición de la activación de PI-3K/Akt, p42/p44MAPK y ErbB-2, mientras que la expresión y activación del receptor de progesterona no se afectó. Es la primera demostración que el crecimiento de cáncer de mama puede ser inhibido por la administración in vivo de AS[S]ODN al IGF-IR.We addressed the effect of targeting type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR, with antisense strategies in in vivo growth of breast cancer cells. We used C4HD tumors from an experimental model of hormonal carcinogenesis in which medroxyprogesterone acetate induced mammary adenocarcinomas in Balb/c mice. Intratumor or systemic administration of phosphorothiolated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS[S]ODN to IGF-IR mRNA resulted in a significant inhibition of C4HD tumor growth. The antitumor effect was specific since inhibition of tumor growth was dose-dependent and no effect was observed in mice treated with sense S[S]ODN. Tumors from AS[S]ODN-treated mice showed a decrease in IGF-IR expression and in insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Activation of PI-3K/Akt, p42/p44 MAPK and ErbB-2 was abolished in tumors treated with AS[S]ODN. Progesterone receptor expression or activity remained

  3. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 10 5 C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice ( P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) ( P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 10 4 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 10 5 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Gynaecological and obstetric management of women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Christine; Derzko, Christine; David, Michèle; Douglas, Joanne

    2006-10-01

    The prevalence of bleeding disorders, notably von Willebrand disease (vWD), among adult women with objectively documented menorrhagia is consistently reported to be 10% to 20% and is even higher in adolescents presenting with menorrhagia. This consensus document has been developed by a multidisciplinary committee consisting of an anesthesiologist, 2 hematologists, and an obstetrician/gynaecologist and has been endorsed by their relevant specialty bodies. It has been prepared with the express purpose of providing guidelines for both women with inherited bleeding disorders and for their caregivers regarding the gynaecological and obstetric management of these women, including appropriate anesthesia support where indicated. Diagnostic tools and specific medical and, where appropriate, surgical alternatives to management are reviewed and evidence-based recommendations presented. A MEDLINE search of the English literature between January 1975 and November 2003 was performed using the following key words: menorrhagia, uterine bleeding, pregnancy, von Willebrand, congenital bleeding disorder, desmopressin/DDAVP, tranexamic acid, oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, therapy, hysterectomy, anesthesia, epidural, spinal. Recommendations from other society guidelines were reviewed. 1. Inherited bleeding disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with menorrhagia (II-2B). The graphical scoring system presented is a validated tool which offers a simple yet practical method that can be used by patients to quantify their blood loss (II-2B). 2. Because underlying bleeding disorders are frequent in women with menorrhagia, physicians should consider performing a hemoglobin/hematocrit, platelet count, ferritin, PT (INR) and APTT in women with menorrhagia. In women who have a personal history of other bleeding or a family history of bleeding, further investigation should be considered, including a vWD workup (factor VIII, vWF antigen

  5. The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak and primary healthcare delivery in Liberia: Time-series analyses for 2010–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Toomay, Stephen J.; Dunbar, Nelson; Bawo, Luke; Wesseh, Chea Sanford

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the immediate and lasting effects of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak on public-sector primary healthcare delivery in Liberia using 7 years of comprehensive routine health information system data. Methods and findings We analyzed 10 key primary healthcare indicators before, during, and after the EVD outbreak using 31,836 facility-month service outputs from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016 across a census of 379 public-sector health facilities in Liberia (excluding Montserrado County). All indicators had statistically significant decreases during the first 4 months of the EVD outbreak, with all indicators having their lowest raw mean outputs in August 2014. Decreases in outputs comparing the end of the initial EVD period (September 2014) to May 2014 (pre-EVD) ranged in magnitude from a 67.3% decrease in measles vaccinations (95% CI: −77.9%, −56.8%, p < 0.001) and a 61.4% decrease in artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments for malaria (95% CI: −69.0%, −53.8%, p < 0.001) to a 35.2% decrease in first antenatal care (ANC) visits (95% CI: −45.8%, −24.7%, p < 0.001) and a 38.5% decrease in medroxyprogesterone acetate doses (95% CI: −47.6%, −29.5%, p < 0.001). Following the nadir of system outputs in August 2014, all indicators showed statistically significant increases from October 2014 to December 2014. All indicators had significant positive trends during the post-EVD period, with every system output exceeding pre-Ebola forecasted trends for 3 consecutive months by November 2016. Health system outputs lost during and after the EVD outbreak were large and sustained for most indicators. Prior to exceeding pre-EVD forecasted trends for 3 months, we estimate statistically significant cumulative losses of −776,110 clinic visits (95% CI: −1,480,896, −101,357, p = 0.030); −24,449 bacille Calmette–Guérin vaccinations (95% CI: −45,947, −2,020, p = 0.032); −9

  6. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    velocity, sequential movement patterns, higher elbow-flexion to knee-extension strength ratios, higher seat-to-handle velocity during the initial drive, or higher shoulder angle excursion may result in RSF. Gearing may indirectly affect rib loading. Increased risk may be due to low calcium, low vitamin D, eating disorders, low testosterone or use of depot medroxyprogesterone injections. Injury management involves 1-2 weeks cessation of rowing with analgesic modalities followed by a slow return to rowing with low-impact intensity and modified pain-free training. Some evidence shows injury prevention strategies should focus on strengthening the serratus anterior, strengthening leg extensors, stretching the lumbar spine, increasing hip joint flexibility, reducing excessive protraction, training with ergometers on slides or floating-head ergometers, and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Future research should focus on the epidemiology of RSF over 4-year Olympic cycles in elite rowers, the aetiology of the condition, and the effectiveness of RSF prevention strategies for injury incidence and performance in rowing.

  7. In an in-vitro model using human fetal membranes, 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate is not an optimal progestogen for inhibition of fetal membrane weakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Moore, Robert M; Mercer, Brian M; Mansour, Joseph M; Mesiano, Sam; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J; Moore, John J

    2017-12-01

    The progestogen 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is 1 of only 2 agents recommended for clinical use in the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery, and studies of its efficacy have been conflicting. We have developed an in-vitro model to study the fetal membrane weakening process that leads to rupture in preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM). Inflammation/infection associated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induction and decidual bleeding/abruption associated thrombin release are leading causes of preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Both agents (TNF-α and thrombin) cause fetal membrane weakening in the model system. Furthermore, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a critical intermediate for both TNF-α and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening. In a previous report, we demonstrated that 3 progestogens, progesterone, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), each inhibit both TNF-α- and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening at 2 distinct points of the fetal membrane weakening pathway. Each block both the production of and the downstream action of the critical intermediate granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The objective of the study was to characterize the inhibitory effects of 17-OHPC on TNF-α- and thrombin-induced fetal membrane weakening in vitro. Full-thickness human fetal membrane fragments from uncomplicated term repeat cesarean deliveries were mounted in 2.5 cm Transwell inserts and cultured with/without 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (10 -9 to 10 -7 M). After 24 hours, medium (supernatant) was removed and replaced with/without the addition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (20 ng/mL) or thrombin (10 U/mL) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (200 ng/mL). After 48 hours of culture, medium from the maternal side compartment of the model was assayed for granulocyte-macrophage colony

  8. Microbiological and functional evaluation of an alternative device (OB® for estrous synchronization in ewes Avaliação microbiológica e funcional de um dispositivo vaginal alternativo (OB® para sincronização de cio em ovelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tondello Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic progestagens released by vaginal devices is an important tool to overcome the reproductive seasonality in sheep, but cost and/or subsequent vaginitis are limiting factors for their use. To identify economic, simple and innocuous alternative vaginal devices for estrous synchronization/induction protocols in sheep, this study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and functional viability of the human vaginal tampons (OB® impregnated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP on reproductive performance of ewes. The study compared them with commercial vaginal inserts (CIDR® and polyurethane sponges impregnated with MAP. In Experiment 1, the device loss rate, the degree of vaginitis during the device removal, the count and identification of bacterial colonies at the device insertion and removal, and efficiency in estrous synchronization and estrus temporal distribution were evaluated. Pubertal ewes at the beginning of the breeding season were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: CIDR®, PSP (polyurethane sponge and OB®. No device losses occurred in any group, but the use of OB® caused milder signs of vaginitis than polyurethane sponges, with a similar vaginal bacterial growth and microbiota than the CIDR group. The estrus distribution was more disperse in the CIDR than PSP or OB groups. In Experiment 2, pregnancy rates using CIDR® or OB® devices were compared, with estrus manifestation (85.4% and 89.8% and pregnancy rates (58.3% and 49.0% being similar between groups (P>0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the use of human intra-vaginal tampons (OB® impregnated with MAP was proven highly hygienic, practical and effective as a low-cost alternative for estrous synchronization and AI in sheep.O uso de progestágeno sintético liberado por pessários vaginais é uma importante ferramenta para suplantar a sazonalidade reprodutiva em ovelhas. Todavia, seu uso é limitado pelo custo ou pelas subsequentes vaginites. Na busca

  9. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  10. Evaluation of a seasonal-breeding artificial insemination programme in Uruguay using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Juanbeltz, R.; Canclini, E.; ElHordoy, D.; Lanzzeri, S.; Gama, S.; Martinez, E.; Galina, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    synchronised with a combination of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) on Day 0 and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF) + MAP removal on Day 7, followed by oestrus detection and AI. In Farm A, besides the traditional twice per day (AM/PM) oestrus detection, a third period of observation was included at noon. Progesterone was measured in milk samples to monitor treatment response and to evaluate oestrus detection precision. Interval from PGF to heat was reduced in the farm with three times per day oestrus detection system (6.1 vs. 13.2 days). It was concluded that losses in reproductive efficiency in dairy farms of Uruguay in a seasonal AI programme were mainly due to failure rather than incorrect oestrus detection. More oestrus observation periods improved the response to the synchronisation treatment. (author)

  11. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON MENOPAUSE-2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F

    2017-07-01

    cardiovascular disease, age, and time from menopause. 2. the use of transdermal as compared with oral estrogen preparations may be considered less likely to produce thrombotic risk and perhaps the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. 3. when the use of progesterone is necessary, micronized progesterone is considered the safer alternative. 4. in symptomatic menopausal women who are at significant risk from the use of hormone replacement therapy, the use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and possibly other nonhormonal agents may offer significant symptom relief. 5. AACE does not recommend use of bioidentical hormone therapy. 6. AACE fully supports the recommendations of the Comité de l'Évolution des Pratiques en Oncologie regarding the management of menopause in women with breast cancer. 7. HRT is not recommended for the prevention of diabetes. 8. In women with previously diagnosed diabetes, the use of HRT should be individualized, taking in to account age, metabolic, and cardiovascular risk factors. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; BMI = body mass index; CAC = coronary artery calcification; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CEPO = Comité de l'Évolution des Pratiques en Oncologie; CAD = coronary artery disease; CIMT = carotid intima media thickness; CVD = cardiovascular disease; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HRT = hormone replacement therapy; HT = hypertension; KEEPS = Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MBS = metabolic syndrome; MPA = medroxyprogesterone acetate; RR = relative risk; SERM = selective estrogen-receptor modulator; SSRI = selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor; VTE = venous thrombo-embolism; WHI = Women's Health Initiative.

  12. Delaying farrowing using intravaginal devices impregnated with progestagen does not affect the proportion of piglets born alive O atraso do parto utilizando dispositivos intravaginais impregnados com progestágeno não afeta a proporção de leitões nascidos vivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Freling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of progestagen intravaginal devices (IVDs in preventing parturition in sows by determining the effect of delaying parturition on the alive/total born piglets ratio. Evaluations of IVDs containing 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5g progesterone (P4 showed they were not effective in delaying parturition at any dosage tested. In a second experiment, seventy-five sows at day 112 of pregnancy were equally distributed (n=15 per group in the following treatments: prostaglandin (PGF2α; 250µg sodium cloprostenol; control group or PGF2α and simultaneous insertion of an IVD containing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA for 48h. Control sows initiated labor 27.7±1.6h after PGF2α injection. The mean time (±SEM between PGF2α administration and parturition was 72.1±8.8h, 72.7±3.8h, 82.7±7.1h and 81.8±3.5h for MPA 100, 200, 400 and 800mg, respectively, differing from control group (P0.05. These findings confirm that IVDs impregnated with MPA can effectively prevent parturition in sows without affecting the alive/total born piglets ratio and therefore represent an alternative to avoid weekend farrowing in swine herds.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de dispositivos intravaginais (DIVs contendo progestágeno na prevenção do parto e determinar o efeito do atraso do parto sobre a proporção de leitões vivos/nascidos totais. DIVs contendo 0,5, 1,0 ou 1,5g de progesterona (P4 não foram eficientes na prevenção do parto em nenhuma das doses. No experimento 2, setenta e cinco porcas aos 112 dias de gestação foram equilibradamente distribuídas (n=15 por grupo nos seguintes tratamentos: prostaglandina (PGF2α; 250µg cloprostenol sódico; grupo controle ou PGF2α e simultânea inserção de DIV contendo acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por 48h. Fêmeas do grupo controle iniciaram o parto 27,7±1,6h após injeção de PGF2α. O tempo médio entre a administração de PGF2α e início do

  13. Prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-07-01

    In the beginning, that is from the 1960's, when a link between menopause and osteoporosis was first identified; estrogen treatment was the standard for preventing bone loss, however there was no fracture data, even though it was thought to be effective. This continued until the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2001 that published data on 6 years of treatment with hormone therapy that showed an increase in heart attacks and breast cancer. Even though the risks were small, 1 per 1500 users annually, patients were worried and there was a large drop off in estrogen use. In later analyses the WHI study showed that estrogen reduced fractures and actually prevented heart attacks in the 50-60 year age group. Estrogen alone appeared to be safer to use than estrogen+the progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate and actually reduced breast cancer. At the same time other drugs were being developed for bone that belong to the bisphosphonate group and the first generation of compounds showed moderate potency on bone resorption. The second and third generation compounds were much more potent and in a series of large trials were shown to reduce fractures. For the last 15 years the treatment of osteoporosis belonged to the bisphosphonate compounds, most of which reduce fracture rates by 50 percent. With the exception of gastrointestinal irritation the drugs are well tolerated and highly effective. The sophistication of the delivery systems now allow treatment that can be given daily, weekly, monthly and annually either orally or intravenously. Bone remodeling is a dynamic process that repairs microfractures and replaces old bone with new bone. In the last 10 years there has been a remarkable understanding of bone biology so that new therapies can be specifically designed on a biological basis. The realization that RANKL was the final cytokine involved in the resorption process and that marrow cells produced a natural antagonist called Osteoprotegerin (OPG) quickly led to two

  14. Efeitos agudos dos estrogênios associados a progestogênios sobre a trigliceridemia e reatividade vascular pós-prandial Acute effects of the use of estrogens in association with progestogens on postprandial triglyceridemia and vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio C.M. Santos

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a terapia de reposição hormonal com estrogênios e progestogênios, em mulheres hipertensas na pós-menopausa, modifica a trigliceridemia e a reatividade vascular pós-prandial. MÉTODOS: Estudo controlado, duplo cego, cruzado contra placebo em 15 mulheres na pós-menopausa (idade de 50 a 70, média = 61,6 ± 6 anos, sorteadas para 2 semanas de placebo ou ingestão oral de 0,625 mg de estrogênios conjugados eqüinos e 2,5 mg de medroxiprogesterona e alimentadas com refeição rica em gorduras (897 calorias; 50,1% de gorduras. Foi medida a reatividade vascular (RV - % de variação dos diâmetros do vaso entre o jejum e 2h após a alimentação, usando-se método ultra-sonográfico automatizado. Foram também determinados o perfil lipídico e a glicose, em jejum e 2h após a alimentação rica em gorduras. RESULTADOS: Com o placebo, a reatividade vascular (RV diminuiu de 3,20 ± 17% em jejum para -2,1 ± 30%, 2h após a alimentação (p = 0,041, e com terapia de reposição hormonal, a reatividade vascular diminuiu de 6,14 ± 27% em jejum para -0,05±18%, 2h após a alimentação (p=NS. A trigliceridemia pós-prandial aumentou, 35 ± 25% com o placebo, e 12 ± 10% com a terapia de reposição hormonal (P OBJECTIVE: To assess whether hormone replacement therapy with estrogens in association with progestogens in postmenopausal hypertensive women alters postprandial triglyceridemia and vascular reactivity. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out with 15 postmenopausal women (age range: 50 to 70 years, mean = 61.6 ± 6 years randomly assigned to 2 weeks of placebo or oral ingestion of 0.625 mg of equine conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone, fed a high-fat diet (897 calories; 50.1% fat. Vascular reactivity (VR - % of vessel diameter variation in the fasting period and 2 hours after meals was measured by using the automated ultrasound method. Lipid profile and glycemia

  15. Estudo piloto dos efeitos da terapia hormonal sobre o tecido mamário normal de mulheres após a menopausa A pilot study of the effects of hormone therapy on normal breast tissue of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Elias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliou-se o tecido mamário de mulheres antes e depois de seis meses de terapia estroprogestativa combinada contínua (0,625 mg de estrogênios conjugados eqüinos associados a 2,5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona. MÉTODOS: todas as pacientes foram avaliadas antes de se instituir o tratamento e consideradas aptas para este. Foram obtidos fragmentos de tecido mamário por meio de biópsia percutânea com agulha grossa (acoplada a um propulsor automático - "core-biópsia". O material foi fixado e os cortes corados por hematoxilina-eosina. Avaliou-se a densidade epitelial e o volume nuclear do epitélio mamário antes e após a terapia hormonal. Esses parâmetros morfométricos foram analisados graficamente com auxílio do programa Imagelab 2000 ®, após captura da imagem microscópica pelo sistema Vidcap 32. Esse programa permite que sejam selecionadas as áreas de interesse, possibilitando o cálculo de área, volume ou a relação da área ocupada entre diferentes estruturas. RESULTADOS: depois do uso da terapia, o volume nuclear nas mulheres em que o tratamento foi instituído em período mais tardio após a menopausa mostrou um aumento de cerca de 33% (de 103,6 para 138,1 µm³. A densidade epitelial não se modificou de forma significativa: o valor médio antes da terapia hormonal foi de 0,08 e após de 0,10. CONCLUSÕES: a terapia estroprogestativa combinada contínua empregada por seis meses induziu à alteração no volume nuclear das células epiteliais das mamas, sugerindo aumento de sua atividade metabólica. Provavelmente, esse evento precede outros que confirmariam o estímulo da proliferação celular por esses hormônios.PURPOSE: to analyze breast tissue of postmenopausal women before and after six months of continuous combined estrogen-progestin replacement therapy (0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens associated with 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate. METHODS: all patients were evaluated before treatment and

  16. Effect of estrogen-progestin hormonal replacement therapy on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal estroprogestativa sobre o sistema de coagulação e de fibrinólise em mulheres na pós-menopausa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio E Bonduki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antithrombin III (AT, thrombin (Fragment 1+2 [F1+2] and thrombin-antithrombin [TAT] generation markers, as well as other coagulation parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial activated thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, euglobulin lysis time, and platelet count, in postmenopausal women after hormonal therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five patients who received either 0.625 mg/day unopposed oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day oral CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MP, or 50 µg/day transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP, were included. Tests were performed before (T0 and after 3 (T3, 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 months of treatment. AT was determined by an amidolytic method, whereas F1+2 and TAT complex were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the AT level of patients who received oral CEE plus MP at T3. There was no AT reduction in patients taking either oral CEE alone or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP. F1+2 increased in all patients, but it reached statistical significance only in patients receiving transdermal 17beta-estradiol MP at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The CEE associated with MP treatment may reduce AT levels, whereas unopposed CEE or transdermal 17beta-estradiol plus MP does not change AT. These changes might not be clinically relevant in the general population; however, hormonal replacement therapy may increase the risk of thrombosis in women with congenital or acquired thrombophilia.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores antitrombina III (AT, fragmento 1 + 2 da trombina (F1+2 e complexo trombina-antitrombina (TAT, bem como outros parâmetros da coagulação, como tempo de pró-trombina, tempo parcial de tromboplastina ativado, tempo de trombina, fibrinogênio e tempo de lise da euglobulina em mulheres na pós-menopausa após terapia hormonal. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Foram incluídas 45 voluntárias que receberam estrogênios conjugados eqüinos (ECE 0,625 mg/dia, isoladamente ou

  17. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows Condição corporal na predição da fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte cruzadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves were separated from the cows for 96 hours, during which time estrous was observed twice a day, and animals artificially inseminated 12 hours after detection. When calves returned to their dams, bulls were introduced until a 60-day mating period was reached. The distribution of BCS differed among calving groups and evaluations. Results indicated that only cows comprising a BCS 3 (1 to 5 scale around the first month postpartum can be used in an artificial insemination program with possibilities of becoming pregnant. There was no statistical difference between the calving groups in pregnancy rate. The evolution of the BCS of the cows during postpartum can be used to adjust the start of the breeding season to coincide with the time of the year where herd pregnancy rates will be highest.A relação entre as modificações no escore de condição corporal (BCS e a fertilidade de vacas de corte durante o pós-parto foi examinada em grupos organizados em função das datas dos partos. Foram efetuadas quatro avaliações com início em torno de um mês pós-parto. Na segunda avaliação, as vacas receberam pessários impregnados com acetato de medroxi-progesterona e uma injeção de benzoato de estradiol. Na sua remoção, foi efetuada a terceira avaliação e separação dos terneiros durante quatro dias. Durante esse período foi observado cio duas vezes ao dia, sendo as inseminações realizadas 12 horas após. Depois do retorno dos terneiros às vacas, foram

  18. Diet-induced obesity impairs endometrial stromal cell decidualization: a potential role for impaired autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Julie S; Saben, Jessica L; Mayer, Allyson L; Schulte, Maureen B; Asghar, Zeenat; Stephens, Claire; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-06-01

    What effect does diet-induced obesity have on endometrial stromal cell (ESC) decidualization? Diet-induced obesity impairs ESC decidualization. Decidualization is important for successful implantation and subsequent health of the pregnancy. Compared with normal-weight women, obese women have lower pregnancy rates (both spontaneous and by assisted reproductive technology), higher rates of early pregnancy loss and poorer oocyte quality. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a high-fat/high-sugar diet (HF/HS; 58% Fat Energy/Sucrose) or a diet of standard mouse chow (CON; 13% Fat) for 12 weeks. At this point, metabolic parameters were measured. Some of the mice (n = 9 HF/HS and 9 CON) were mated with reproductively competent males, and implantation sites were assessed. Other mice (n = 11 HF/HS and 10 CON) were mated with vasectomized males, and artificial decidualization was induced. For in vitro human studies of primary ESCs, endometrial tissue was obtained via biopsy from normo-ovulatory patients without history of infertility (obese = BMI > 30 kg/m(2), n = 11 and lean = BMI treatment with cAMP and medroxyprogesterone. The level of expression of decidualization markers was assessed by RT-qPCR (mRNA) and western blotting (protein). ATP content of ESCs was measured, and levels of autophagy were assessed by western blotting of the autophagy regulators acetyl coa carboxylase (ACC) and ULK1 (Ser 317). Autophagic flux was measured by western blot of the marker LC3b-II. Mice exposed to an HF/HS diet became obese and metabolically impaired. HF/HS-exposed mice mated to reproductively competent males had smaller implantation sites in early pregnancy (P obese women than in those of normal-weight women (Ptreatment abrogated this increase. Many aspects of obesity and metabolic impairment could contribute to the decidualization defects observed in the HF/HS-exposed mice. Although our findings suggest that both autophagy and decidualization are impaired

  19. LEVONORGESTREL-RELEASING INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM AS AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPY IN ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjamma Roy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most frequent reasons for gynaecological consultation, occurring in approximately 30% of women of reproductive age. Menorrhagia by definition implies a menstrual blood loss equal to or greater than 80 mL. Many women seek consultation for bleeding episodes of less than this amount because of the stress associated with it. Most frequently used medications are combinations of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and antifibrinolytic drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, oral progesterone like Norethisterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate and combined oral contraceptives. The usual treatment for women with menorrhagia not desiring further pregnancies and those not responding to medical managements is either hysterectomy or endometrial ablation. Endometrial ablation less commonly performed due to low success rate. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS is a new modality in the treatment of AUB. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of Levonorgestrel intrauterine system as a treatment for women with menorrhagia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective interventional comparative study conducted on women with abnormal uterine bleeding. The duration of study was from March 2012 to October 2013. The respondents include those outpatients attending Gynaecology Department of Government Medical College, Kottayam with menorrhagia. The samples size was 50 of which 25 were in experimental groups and remaining 25 in control group. Experimental group were given LNG IUS for menorrhagia and the remaining 25 patients were given oral progestins for heavy menstrual bleeding. In order to make a comparison of the impact of the two different kinds of interventions, the Hb level as well as the amount of blood loss were systematically estimated at frequent intervals. Accordingly, these measurements were carried for the said both groups at the commencement of research study and thereafter at an

  20. The developmental association of relationship quality, hormonal contraceptive choice and condom non-use among adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, M Aaron; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Shew, Marcia; Orr, Donald P

    2006-09-01

    Consistent condom use is critical to efforts to prevent sexually transmitted infections among adolescents, but condom use may decline as relationships and contraceptive needs change. The purpose of this research is to assess changes in condom non-use longitudinally in the context of changes in relationship quality, coital frequency and hormonal contraceptive choice. Participants were women (aged 14-17 years at enrollment) recruited from three urban adolescent medicine clinics. Data were collected at three-month intervals using a face-to-face structured interview. Participants were able to contribute up to 10 interviews, but on average contributed 4.2 interviews over the 27-month period. Independent variables assessed partner-specific relationship quality (five items; scale range 5-25; alpha = .92, e.g., this partner is a very important person to me); and, number of coital events with a specific partner. Additional items assessed experience with oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use and injected depo medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA). The outcome variable was number of coital events without condom use during the past three months. Analyses were conducted as a three-level hierarchical linear growth curve model using HLM 6. The Level 1 predictor was time, to test the hypothesis that condom non-use increases over time. Level 2 predictors assessed relationship quality and coital frequency across all partners to assess hypotheses that participants' condom non-use increases over time as a function of relationship quality and coital frequency. Level 3 predictors assessed the participant-level influence of OCP or DMPA experience on time-related changes in condom non-use. A total of 176 women reported 279 sex partners and contributed 478 visits. Both average coital frequency and average condom non-use linearly increased during the 27-month follow-up. At any given follow-up, about 35% reported recent OCP use, and 65% reported DMPA use. HLM analyses showed that condom non

  1. Rating the elderly with terminal cancer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros Rios, M.

    2012-01-01

    with bone metastasis of lung cancer progression and no response to chemotherapeutic treatment • Less than half of older women terminalidad presented some criteria to be among the most frequent relapse breast cancer and breast cancer with widespread metastatic bone and liver and no response to treatment, cancer Systemic relapse colon • The completion of the comprehensive geriatric Ranking in older adults of both sexes in terminal stage was verified that the Rating physical took place in more than half, almost a quarter functional assessment was performed in less than one quarter the mental assessment was performed, psychological and social • In older adults with criteria or terminally ill hospice bring accurate indication bypass had the same in less than half • Symptoms reported in the medical history who presented the elderly with end-stage disease were by frequencies: pain almost half of patients, constipation, anorexia and nausea / vomiting in nearly a quarter of patients, dyspne a, fatigue, and dysphagia in one fifth of patients and insomnia represents just three patients. • The pharmacological management mentioned in the medical history of the symptoms presented was: For pain alone or in combination: use of opioids (morphine, codeine, tramadol)almost a little over a quarter, NSAIDs on a quarter of patients and others (paracetamole, gabapentin)less than a fifth For nausea and / or vomiting: metaclopramide less than a fifth, ondansetron and haloperidol was not used in only two patients For dyspne a or as adjuvant pain: steroids in one quarter of patients For constipation: laxatives in one quarter of patients For anxiety: short-acting benzodiazepine only in 3 patients To stimulate appetite: steroids / medroxyprogesterone or cyproheptadine only two patients • The associated co morbidities, we found a frequency of: Hypertension nearly half of the patients, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus fifth pulmonary emphysema, kidney failure and heart disease in less than one

  2. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone has long been linked to breast cancer but its actual role as a cancer promoter has remained in dispute. Previous in vitro studies have shown that progesterone is converted to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) in breast tissue and human breast cell lines by the action of 5α-reductase, and that 5αP acts as a cancer-promoter hormone. Also studies with human breast cell lines in which the conversion of progesterone to 5αP is blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor, have shown that the in vitro stimulation in cell proliferation with progesterone treatments are not due to progesterone itself but to the metabolite 5αP. No similar in vivo study has been previously reported. The objective of the current studies was to determine in an in vivo mouse model if the presumptive progesterone-induced mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5αP. BALB/c mice were challenged with C4HD murine mammary cells, which have been shown to form tumors when treated with progesterone or the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cells and mice were treated with various doses and combinations of progesterone, 5αP and/or the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, and the effects on cell proliferation and induction and growth of tumors were monitored. Hormone levels in serum and tumors were measured by specific RIA and ELISA tests. Proliferation of C4HD cells and induction and growth of tumors was stimulated by treatment with either progesterone or 5αP. The progesterone-induced stimulation was blocked by finasteride and reinstated by concomitant treatment with 5αP. The 5αP-induced tumors expressed high levels of ER, PR and ErbB-2. Hormone measurements showed significantly higher levels of 5αP in serum from mice with tumors than from mice without tumors, regardless of treatments, and 5αP levels were significantly higher (about 4-fold) in tumors than in respective sera, while progesterone levels did not differ between the compartments. The results indicate that

  3. Efeitos da terapia de reposição hormonal na cicatrização de anastomoses de cólon Effects of hormonal replacement therapy on colon anastomosis healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2005-06-01

    and receiving HRT with 50 mg estrogen and 2 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate, one submitted to oophorectomy without HRT, and one of laparotomized but not oophorectomized rats. Hormonal condition was confirmed 28 days after oophorectomy and HRT or physiological saline was then administered daily. Left colotomy was performed after 2 months with end-to-end anastomosis, and resistance and collagen density were determined after 7 and 14 days. RESULTS: the anastomoses of the colons of rats receiving no HRT were less resistant than those of the control group both on the 7th (p=0.0488 and 14th (p=0.0115 day. Collagen density was lower on the 7th day (p=0.0210, with a lower presence of collagen I (p=0.0023 and collagen III (p=0.0470, and these differences continued to be significant on the 14th day. The colon anastomoses of rats receiving HRT did not differ significantly from control. CONCLUSION: The lack of ovarian hormones leads to a lower resistance and delays the maturation of colon anastomosis in rats and these deficiencies are compensated for by HRT.

  4. Non-surgical interventions for the management of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ying C; Smotra, Grisham; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2014-03-05

    . Included studies had high attrition rates, and investigators often did not blind adequately or did not clearly describe randomisation procedures. Medical treatment versus placebo Progestogen (medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)) was more effective than placebo at the end of treatment in terms of the number of women achieving a greater than 50% reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score immediately after treatment (Peto OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.70 to 5.31, two studies, n = 204, I(2) = 22%, moderate-quality evidence). Evidence of benefit was maintained up to nine months after treatment (Peto OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.71, two studies, n = 204, I(2) = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). Women treated with progestogen reported more adverse effects (e.g. weight gain, bloatedness) than those given placebo (high-quality evidence). The estimated effect of lofexidine on pain outcomes when compared with placebo was compatible with benefit and harm (Peto OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.61, one study, 39 women, low-quality evidence). Women in the lofexidine group reported more adverse effects (including drowsiness and dry mouth) than women given placebo (moderate-quality evidence). Head-to-head comparisons of medical treatments Head-to-head comparisons showed that women taking goserelin had greater improvement in pelvic pain score (MD 3, 95% CI 2.08 to 3.92, one study, n = 47, moderate-quality evidence) at one year than those taking progestogen. Women taking gabapentin had a lower VAS pain score than those taking amytriptyline (MD -1.50, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.94, n = 40, low-quality evidence). Study authors reported that no statistically significant difference was observed in the rate of adverse effects among women taking gabapentin compared with women given amytriptyline. The study comparing goserelin versus progestogen did not report on adverse effects. Psychological treatment Women who underwent reassurance ultrasound scans and received counselling were more likely to report improved pain than

  5. Malformação arteriovenosa uterina após doença trofoblástica gestacional Uterine arteriovenous malformation after gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Belfort

    2006-02-01

    trophoblastic disease (GTD. METHODS: retrospective study of 2764 patients with GTD diagnosed from 1987 to 2004. All patients were followed up annually at the "Santa Casa da Misericórdia" Trophoblastic Disease Center (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil with transvaginal ultrasonography (US and color Doppler imaging. Seven patients had a final diagnosis of UVAM based on ultrasonographic analysis - pulsatility index (PI, resistance index (RI, peak systolic velocity (PSV - and pelvic magnetic nuclear resonance (MNR findings. Negative beta-hCG values were of utmost importance to establish differential diagnosis with persistent GTD. RESULTS: the incidence of UVAM after GTD was 0.2% (7/2764. US features of UVAM: PI mean 0.44±0,058 (extremes: 0.38-0.52; RI mean 0.36±0.072 (extremes: 0.29-0.50; PSV mean 64.6±23.99 cm/s (extremes: 37-96. MNR image showed a bulky uterus, myometrial inhomogeneity, serpiginous flow-related signal voids, and prominent parametrial vessels. The most common UVAM clinical presentation was vaginal hemorrhage, present in 52.7% (4/7. Pharmacological management with 150 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was employed to control bleeding, after hemodynamic stabilization. These patients are still being followed and remain asymptomatic nowadays. Two patients with persistent UVAM became pregnant and had successful outcomes. CONCLUSION: patients with antecedent of GTD presenting transvaginal bleeding and negative beta-hCG may be considered to have UVAM and should be investigated through US with Doppler velocimetry. Conservative management is a valuable option in many of the acquired UVAM after GTD.

  6. Pharmacological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Dennis, Jane A; Duggan, Conor

    2015-02-18

    the five community-based studies ranged from 3% to 54% and results were usually analysed on a per protocol basis).Participant characteristics in the seven studies were heterogeneous, but the vast majority had convictions for sexual offences, ranging from exhibitionism to rape and child molestation.Six studies examined the effectiveness of three testosterone-suppressing drugs: cyproterone acetate (CPA), ethinyl oestradiol (EO), and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA); a seventh evaluated two antipsychotics (benperidol and chlorpromazine). Five studies were placebo-controlled; in two, MPA was administered as an adjunctive treatment to a psychological therapy (assertiveness training or imaginal desensitisation). Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity of interventions, comparators, study designs, and other issues. The quality of the evidence overall was poor. In addition to methodological issues, much evidence was indirect. recividism. Two studies reported recidivism rates formally. One trial of intramuscular MPA plus imaginal desensitisation (ID) found no reports of recividism at two-year follow-up for the intervention group (n = 10 versus one relapse within the group treated by ID alone). A three-armed trial of oral MPA, alone or in combination with psychological treatment, reported a 20% rate of recidivism amongst those in the combined treatment arm (n = 15) and 50% of those in the psychological treatment only group (n = 12). Notably, all those in the 'oral MPA only' arm of this study (n = 5) dropped out immediately, despite treatment being court mandated.Two studies did not report recidivism rates as they both took place in one secure psychiatric facility from which no participant was discharged during the study, whilst another three studies did not appear directly to measure recividism but rather abnormal sexual activity alone. The included studies report a variety of secondary outcomes. Results suggest that the frequency of self reported deviant sexual

  7. The effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal hormone therapy on hemostatic, inflammatory, immune factors; cardiovascular biomarkers; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kenna; Neuenschwander, Pierre F; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2013-01-01

    Menopause impacts 25 million women world wide each year, and the World Health Organization estimates 1.2 billion women will be postmenopausal by 2030. Menopause has been associated with symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats, dysphoric mood, sleep disturbance, and conditions of cardiovascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, depression, dementia, and frailty. Conventional hormone replacement therapy results in increased thrombotic events, and an increased risk of breast cancer and dementia as evidenced in large prospective clinical trials including Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study I and the Women's Health Initiative. A possible mechanism for these adverse events is the unfavorable net effects of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hemostatic balance and inflammatory and immune factors. Physiologic sex steroid therapy with transdermal delivery for peri/postmenopausal women may offer a different risk/benefit profile, yet long-term studies of this treatment model are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal sex steroid therapy including estriol, estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone on cardiovascular biomarkers, hemostatic, inflammatory, immune signaling factors; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in peri/postmenopausal women within the context of a hormone restoration model of care. A prospective, cohort, closed-label study received approval from the Human Subjects Committee. Recruitment from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center and the community at large resulted in three hundred women giving signed consent. Seventy-five women who met strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were enrolled. Baseline hormone evaluation was performed along with baseline experimental measures. Following this, women received compounded transdermal bioidentical hormone therapy of BiEst (80%Estriol/20%Estradiol), and

  8. Estimated disability-adjusted life years averted by long-term provision of long acting contraceptive methods in a Brazilian clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Bottura, Bruna F; Bahamondes, M Valeria; Gonçalves, Mayara P; Correia, Vinicius M; Espejo-Arce, Ximena; Sousa, Maria H; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete

    2014-10-10

    What is the contribution of the provision, at no cost for users, of long acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARC; copper intrauterine device [IUD], the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system [LNG-IUS], contraceptive implants and depot-medroxyprogesterone [DMPA] injection) towards the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted through a Brazilian university-based clinic established over 30 years ago. Over the last 10 years of evaluation, provision of LARC methods and DMPA by the clinic are estimated to have contributed to DALY averted by between 37 and 60 maternal deaths, 315-424 child mortalities, 634-853 combined maternal morbidity and mortality and child mortality, and 1056-1412 unsafe abortions averted. LARC methods are associated with a high contraceptive effectiveness when compared with contraceptive methods which need frequent attention; perhaps because LARC methods are independent of individual or couple compliance. However, in general previous studies have evaluated contraceptive methods during clinical studies over a short period of time, or not more than 10 years. Furthermore, information regarding the estimation of the DALY averted is scarce. We reviewed 50 004 medical charts from women who consulted for the first time looking for a contraceptive method over the period from 2 January 1980 through 31 December 2012. Women who consulted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Campinas, Brazil were new users and users switching contraceptive, including the copper IUD (n = 13 826), the LNG-IUS (n = 1525), implants (n = 277) and DMPA (n = 9387). Estimation of the DALY averted included maternal morbidity and mortality, child mortality and unsafe abortions averted. We obtained 29 416 contraceptive segments of use including 25 009 contraceptive segments of use from 20 821 new users or switchers to any LARC method or DMPA with at least 1 year of follow-up. The mean (± SD) age of the women at first consultation ranged from 25

  9. Contraceptive sales in the setting of the Zika virus epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Ali, Moazzam; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders a health emergency on 1 February 2016. The Brazilian government also made recommendations for women who were planning to become pregnant and who reside in ZIKV-affected areas to reconsider or postpone pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The objective of this study was to assess the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil, tracking it from before and through the ZIKV outbreak. We obtained information from all pharmaceutical companies based in Brazil and from the manufacturers of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), including the copper-intrauterine device (IUD), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and implants, about contraceptives sales in the public and private sectors between September 2014 and August 2016. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We analyzed the data for: (i) oral contraceptives, i.e. combined oral contraceptives (COC) and progestin-only pills (POP), and vaginal and transdermal contraceptives, (ii) injectable contraceptives, i.e. once-a-month and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, (iii) LARCs and (iv) emergency contraceptive (EC) pills. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Monthly sales of COC, POP, patches and vaginal rings represent the major sales segment of the market, i.e. 12.7–13

  10. Contraceptive sales in the setting of the Zika virus epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Ali, Moazzam; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete

    2017-01-01

    Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%. The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders a health emergency on 1 February 2016. The Brazilian government also made recommendations for women who were planning to become pregnant and who reside in ZIKV-affected areas to reconsider or postpone pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil, tracking it from before and through the ZIKV outbreak. We obtained information from all pharmaceutical companies based in Brazil and from the manufacturers of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), including the copper-intrauterine device (IUD), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and implants, about contraceptives sales in the public and private sectors between September 2014 and August 2016. We analyzed the data for: (i) oral contraceptives, i.e. combined oral contraceptives (COC) and progestin-only pills (POP), and vaginal and transdermal contraceptives, (ii) injectable contraceptives, i.e. once-a-month and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, (iii) LARCs and (iv) emergency contraceptive (EC) pills. Monthly sales of COC, POP, patches and vaginal rings represent the major sales segment of the market, i.e. 12.7-13.8 million cycles/units per month (90%). The second largest group of sales was injectables, representing 0.8-1.5 million ampoules per month (9.5%). Following this