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Sample records for medroxyprogesterone acetate residues

  1. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  2. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Christian; Brauchli, Yolanda B.; Jick, Susan S.; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Meier, Christoph R.

    2010-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which has a high rate of use among teenagers in Europe and the United States, has been associated with impaired bone mineral acquisition during adolescence and accelerated bone loss in later life. Studies on the association between DMPA use and fracture risk are limited.; We aimed at evaluating the relationship between use of hormonal contraceptives, specifically DMPA, and fracture risk.; We conducted a case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-b...

  3. Treatment of canine benign prostatic hyperplasia with medroxyprogesterone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg-Thalen, B.; Linde-Forsberg, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen dogs with clinical signs of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were given a subcutaneous injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). At the first follow-up four to six weeks after treatment, 16 (84%) showed no signs of prostatic disease, and in 10 (53%) radiography revealed that the prostate had decreased in size. The dogs were followed for an average of 17 months. Twelve (64%) showed no signs of prostatic disease for at least 10 months. Relapses occurred in 10 between 10 and 24 months after treatment. Based on the results of this study and an earlier study on the effects of estrogen on BPH, it was concluded that MPA was a good alternative for treatment of canine BPH

  4. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  5. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  6. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  7. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  8. Analytical Method Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Stability-Indicating Study of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Intravaginal Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medroxyprogesterone acetate is widely used in veterinary medicine as intravaginal dosage for the synchronization of breeding cycle in ewes and goats. The main goal of this study was to develop reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of medroxyprogesterone acetate in veterinary vaginal sponges. A single high-performance liquid chromatography/UV isocratic run was used for the analytical assay of the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone. The chromatographic system consisted of a reverse-phase C18 column as the stationary phase and a mixture of 60% acetonitrile and 40% potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as the mobile phase; the pH was adjusted to 5.6. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were also performed to evaluate the stability-indicating properties and specificity of the method. Medroxyprogesterone was eluted at 5.9 minutes. The linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 0.0576 to 0.1134 mg/mL ( R 2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification was shown to be 3.9 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy ranges were found to be %RSD <0.2 and 98% to 102%, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone capacity factor value of 2.1, tailing factor value of 1.03, and resolution value of 3.9 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results, a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone in vaginal sponges. This analytical method is the only available method to analyse medroxyprogesterone in veterinary intravaginal dosage form.

  9. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  10. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates estrogen-induced nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Akira; Ohmichi, Masahide; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Mori-Abe, Akiko; Kawagoe, Jun; Otsu, Reiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2004-01-01

    We report the novel observation that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) attenuates the induction by 17β estradiol (E2) of both nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Although MPA had no effect on basal NO production or basal eNOS phosphorylation or activity, it attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Moreover, we examined the mechanism by which MPA attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. MPA attenuated the E2-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that phosphorylates eNOS. Treatment with pure progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, the effects of actinomycin D were tested to rule out the influence of genomic events mediated by nuclear PRs. Actinomycin D did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the potential roles of PRA and PRB were evaluated. In COS cells transfected with either PRA or PRB, MPA attenuated E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that MPA attenuated E2-induced NO production via an Akt cascade through PRA or PRB in a non-genomic manner

  11. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  12. A comparative study of Cyclofem and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) effects on endometrial vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Zeinab; Zham, Hananeh; Fraser, Ian S

    2007-10-01

    The most common reason for discontinuation of long-acting progestogen-only contraceptives is irregular bleeding following local endometrial vascular changes. To reduce unpredictable bleeding episodes among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users, the combined injectable contraceptive, Cyclofem, was offered as an alternative. However, there is a gap in our knowledge about the effects of Cyclofem on the endometrial vasculature and patterns of bleeding. This study aimed to compare the effects of Cyclofem and DMPA on endometrial vascular density, endometrial histology and pattern of bleeding. Sixty-eight healthy women with regular menstrual bleeding and seeking injectable long-acting contraceptives were recruited. Two endometrial samples (before and 3 to 6 months after initial exposure to DMPA or Cyclofem) were collected from each participant. The samples were stained using an immunohistochemical method and anti-CD34 to visualise the endometrial vasculature. Endometrial vascular density was assessed using standard techniques. Sixty-eight women were randomly assigned to Cyclofem (38 women) or DMPA (30 women). Endometrial vascular density was 149.3 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD)/mm(2) before injection. This significantly decreased to 132.4 +/- 12.2 after DMPA use, and from 151.9 +/- 5.8 to 131.8 +/- 12.8 vessels/mm(2) following Cyclofem use (paired t-test, p Spotting was the most common type of bleeding experienced, and atrophic endometrium was the most common histological pattern observed in both groups. This study demonstrated that both Cyclofem and DMPA use are associated with decreased endometrial vascular density and atrophic endometrium, in addition to irregular bleeding, mainly spotting. There was no significant difference in bleeding patterns or endometrial findings observed for these two injectable contraceptives in Iranian women.

  13. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  14. Long-term outcomes of fertility-sparing treatment of atypical polypoid adenomyoma with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Yuko; Tanigawa, Terumi; Matoda, Maki; Kanao, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long-term oncologic outcomes of fertility-preserving hormonal treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in patients with APA. In a retrospective chart review, we identified patients with APA who were treated with MPA for fertility preservation at our hospital between 2001 and 2011. Eighteen patients with histologically diagnosed APA were identified. Clinical data including treatment, obstetrical, and oncologic outcomes were recorded. The mean observation period was 77.6 months (median 73.5, range 22-142), and the mean age was 33.6 years. Four patients also developed well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma. After the treatment, 14 patients (77.8 %) achieved either a complete response or partial response. Eight patients experienced recurrence, while four experienced persistent disease. Ten patients (55.6 %) eventually underwent hysterectomy. The median time to hysterectomy was 40.3 months (range 24-68). Nine patients progressed to endometrial cancer, and one experienced persistent APA. Among younger patients (years of age), four out of five patients who were married could have children. Seven patients (38.9 %) showed no evidence of the disease during the observation period (median 60 months, range 22-117 months). No one died because of the disease during the observation period. MPA yields a high response rate in APA, and if only younger patients are considered, a favorable pregnancy rate can be obtained. However, because recurrence rate is high, long-term follow-up under supervision of a trained gynecologic oncologist is required. To confirm MPA's utility, multi-center collaboration would be warranted.

  15. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) after the menopause is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other hormone preparations. We compared the effect of a combined HT and tibolone on the inhibition of haemostasis. METHODS......: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  17. Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D

    2015-06-01

    Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in

  18. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Caroline M; McLemore, Leslie; Westerberg, Katharine; Astronomo, Rena; Smythe, Kimberly; Gardella, Carolyn; Mack, Matthias; Magaret, Amalia; Patton, Dorothy; Agnew, Kathy; McElrath, M Juliana; Hladik, Florian; Eschenbach, David

    2014-08-15

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining. Over 12 months, the proportion with H2O2-positive lactobacilli decreased (n = 32; 53% vs 27%; P = .03). Median vaginal CD3(+) cells also decreased (n = 15; 355 vs 237 cells/mm(2); P = .03), as did CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells (195 vs 128 cells/mm(2); P = .04), HLA-DR(+) cells (130 vs 96 cells/mm(2); P = .27), and HLA-DR(+)CCR5(+) cells (18 vs 10 cells/mm(2); P = .33). DMPA contraception does not increase vaginal mucosal CCR5(+) HIV target cells but does decrease CD3(+) T lymphocytes and vaginal H2O2-producing lactobacilli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Effect of Depo Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Cerebral Food Motivation Centers: A Pilot Study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tania; Bao, Pinglei; Lerner, Alexander; Anderson, Lindsey; Page, Kathleen; Stanczyk, Frank; Mishell, Daniel; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects. fMRI scans were performed at baseline and 8 weeks after participants received one intramuscular dose of DMPA 150 mg. fMRI data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library. Changes in adiposity and circulating leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. There was a greater BOLD signal response to food cues in brain regions associated with food motivation (anterior cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex) 8 weeks after DMPA administration compared to baseline (z>2.3, pmotivation may guide the development of interventions to prevent weight gain in DMPA users. These data support a neural origin as one of the mechanisms underlying weight gain in DMPA users and may guide future research examining weight gain and contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing into the binding interaction between medroxyprogesterone acetate and bovine serum albumin (BSA): spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Dong-Qi; Qiu, Min-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min; Wang, Qi; Shi, Jie-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To further understand the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the binding interaction of MPA with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4) was studied using fluorescence emission spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking methods. The experimental results reveal that the fluorescence of BSA quenches due to the formation of MPA-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) and the binding constant for MPA-BSA complex are ~1 and 4.6 × 10(3)  M(-1) at 310 K, respectively. However, it can be concluded that the binding process of MPA with BSA is spontaneous and the main interaction forces between MPA and BSA are van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction due to the negative values of ΔG(0) , ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) in the binding process of MPA with BSA. MPA prefers binding on the hydrophobic cavity in subdomain IIIA (site II'') of BSA resulting in a slight change in the conformation of BSA, but BSA retaining the α-helix structure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Lu, Xuefeng; Hong, Qingqing; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer cycles using human menopausal gonadotrophin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 4596 live born babies. During January 2014-June 2016, children born after either hMG + MPA treatment, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist short protocol, or mild ovarian stimulation were included. The main outcome measures were neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations. Neonatal outcomes both for singletons and twins such as mean birth weight and length, gestational age, the frequency of preterm birth were comparable between groups. Rate of stillbirth and perinatal death were also similar. No significant differences were found in the overall incidence of congenital malformations between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that hMG + MPA regimen did not significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations compared with short protocol and mild ovarian stimulation, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.44] and 1.38 (CI 0.65-2.93), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our data suggested that compared with conventional ovarian stimulations, hMG + MPA treatment neither compromised neonatal outcomes of IVF newborns, nor did increase the prevalence of congenital malformations.

  2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  3. Medroxy-Progesterone Acetate in the Treatment of Paraphilic Sexual Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Followed 46 male patients with paraphilic sexual disorders for 5 or more years in Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Unit. All patients received equivalent amounts of group psychotherapy. Of these, 17 relapsed. Rate of relapse among subjects receiving treatment with medroxy-progestorone acetate was 15 percent whereas rate of relapse among subjects not…

  4. Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-04-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.

  5. Effects of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of human breast tissue in organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigėlienė, Natalija; Härkönen, Pirkko; Erkkola, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Human breast tissue undergoes phases of proliferation, differentiation and regression regulated by changes of the levels of circulating sex hormones during the menstrual cycle or aging. Ovarian hormones also likely play a key role in the etiology and biology of breast cancer. Reports concerning the proliferative effects of steroid hormones on the normal epithelium of human breast have been conflicting. Some studies have shown that steroid hormones may predispose breast epithelial cells to malignant changes by stimulating their proliferation, which is known to be regulated tightly by stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate on proliferation, apoptosis, expression of differentiation markers and steroid hormone receptors in breast epithelium using an in vitro model of freshly isolated human breast tissue, in which a proper interaction of breast epithelium and stroma has been maintained. Human breast tissues were obtained from women undergoing surgery for breast tumours. Peritumoral tissues were excised and explants were cultured for 3 weeks in medium supplemented with E 2 or MPA or with E 2 +MPA. Endpoints included histopathological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical assessment of the breast explants. Culture of breast explants for 14 or 21 days with steroid hormones increased proliferative activity and the thickness of acinar and ductal epithelium. E 2 -treatment led to hyperplastic epithelial morphology, MPA to hypersecretory single-layered epithelium and E 2 +MPA to multilayered but organised epithelium. The proliferative response to E 2 in comparison to control (p < 0.001) was more pronounced than to MPA (p < 0.05) or E 2 +MPA (p < 0.05) at 7 and 14 days for Ki-67 and PCNA. E 2 treatment also decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells after 7 (p < 0.01) and 14 (p < 0.01) days. In addition, the relative number of ERα, ERβ and PR positive epithelial cells was decreased by all

  6. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated human, primary endometrial epithelial cells reveal unique gene expression signature linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Matthew W; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Dizzell, Sara; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) form the mucosal lining of the female genital tract (FGT) and provide the first line of protection against HIV-1. The impact of endogenous sex hormones or MPA on the gene expression profile of GECs has not been comprehensively documented. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial epithelial cells grown in physiological levels of E2, P4, and MPA. Each hormone treatment altered the gene expression profile of GECs in a unique manner. Interestingly, although MPA is a progestogen, the gene expression profile induced by it was distinct from P4. MPA increased gene expression of genes related to inflammation and cholesterol synthesis linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility. The analysis of gene expression profiles provides insights into the effects of sex hormones and MPA on GECs and allows us to posit possible mechanisms of the MPA-mediated increase in HIV-1 acquisition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of fluorgestone and medroxyprogesterone intravaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for synchronizing oestrus in lactating Saanen goats was investigated during the transition from non-breeding to natural breeding season. Does were treated for 11 days with 60 mg MAP (n=19) or 40 mg FGA (n=24) sponges.

  9. Effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate on incident hypertension in the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swica, Yael; Warren, Michelle P; Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Bassuk, Shari S; Shimbo, Daichi; Kaunitz, Andrew; Rossouw, Jacques; Stefanick, Marcia L; Womack, Catherine R

    2018-01-29

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on incident hypertension in the two Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials and in extended postintervention follow-up. A total of 27,347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers. This analysis includes the subsample of 18,015 women who did not report hypertension at baseline and were not taking antihypertensive medication. Women with an intact uterus received conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n = 5,994) or placebo (n = 5,679). Women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone (0.625 mg/d) (n = 3,108) or placebo (n = 3,234). The intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in the CEE plus MPA trial and 7.2 years in the CEE-alone trial with 13 years of cumulative follow-up until September 30, 2010. The primary outcome for these analyses was self-report of a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or high blood pressure requiring treatment with medication. During the CEE and CEE plus MPA intervention phase, the rate of incident hypertension was 18% higher for intervention than for placebo (CEE: hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27). This effect dissipated postintervention in both trials (CEE: HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.20; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10). CEE (0.625 mg/d) administered orally, with or without CEE plus MPA, is associated with an increased risk of hypertension in older postmenopausal women. Whether lower doses, different estrogen formulations, or transdermal route of administration offer lower risks warrant further study.

  10. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus metformin as a fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, A; Sato, Y; Kiyokawa, T; Koshizaka, M; Hanaoka, H; Shozu, M

    2016-02-01

    Metformin, widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduces the risk of cancer and relapse after treatment. Fertility-sparing treatment for endometrial cancer (EC) with progestin is associated with a high chance of disease regression, and the high relapse rate continues to be a problem. We assessed the efficacy of metformin in preventing recurrence after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) as fertility-sparing treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and EC. This phase II study enrolled 17 patients with AEH and 19 patients with EC limited to the endometrium (age, 20-40 years). MPA (400 mg/day) and metformin (750-2250 mg/day) were administered for 24-36 weeks to achieve a complete response (CR). Metformin was administered until conception, even after MPA discontinuation. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS) after remission. We analyzed all efficacy end points in the full analysis set. The body mass index was ≥25 kg/m(2) in 27 patients (mean, 31 kg/m(2); range, 19-51 kg/m(2)), and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index was ≥2.5 in 24 patients (mean, 4.7; range, 0.7-21). Two patients showed progression at 12 weeks [6%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2-18]. At 36 weeks, 29 (81%; 95% CI 65-90) patients achieved CR, and 5 (14%; 95% CI 6-29) patients achieved partial response. During a median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-66 months) after remission, relapse was confirmed in three of the patients who had achieved CR (relapse rate, 10%). The 3-year estimated RFS rate was 89%. No patients experienced severe toxicity. Metformin inhibited disease relapse after MPA therapy. The combination of metformin and MPA in EC treatment should be studied further. UMIN 000002210. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Endocrine and Ovarian Changes in Response to the Ram Effect in Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-primed Corriedale Ewes During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubianes E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to determine the endocrine and ovarian changes in medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP-primed ewes after ram introduction. Experiment 1 was performed during the mid-breeding season with 71 ewes primed with an intravaginal MAP sponge for 12 days. While the control (C ewes (n = 35 were in permanent contact with rams, the ram effect (RE ewes (n = 36 were isolated for 34 days prior to contact with rams. At sponge withdrawal, all ewes were joined with eight sexually experienced marking Corriedale rams and estrus was recorded over the next 4 days. The ovaries were observed by laparoscopy 4–6 days after estrus. Four weeks later, pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In eight ewes from each group, ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned; FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β were measured every 12 hours until ovulation or 96 hours after estrus. The response to the rams was not affected by the fact that ewes had been kept or not in close contact with males before teasing. No differences were found in FSH, LH, estradiol-17β concentrations, growth of the ovulatory follicle, onset of estrus, ovulation rate, or pregnancy rate. Experiment 2 was performed with 14 ewes during the nonbreeding season. Ewes were isolated from rams for 1 month, and received a 6-day MAP priming. Ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned every 12 hours, and FSH, LH, estradiol-17β, and progesterone were measured. Ewes that ovulated and came into estrus had higher FSH and estradiol-17β levels before introduction of the rams than did ewes that had a silent ovulation. The endocrine pattern of the induced follicular phase of ewes that came into estrus was more similar to a normal follicular phase, than in ewes that had a silent ovulation. The follicle that finally ovulated tended to emerge earlier and in a more synchronized fashion in those ewes that did come into estrus. All ewes that ovulated had an LH surge and reached higher maximum FSH

  12. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  13. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with [3H]trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group

  14. The pregnancy outcome of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation using 4 versus 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate per day in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J; Wang, Y; Chai, W R; Hong, Q Q; Wang, N L; Sun, L H; Long, H; Wang, L; Tian, H; Lyu, Q F; Lu, X F; Chen, Q J; Kuang, Y P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the clinical outcome and endocrinological characteristics of progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) using 4 versus 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) per day in infertile women with normal ovary reserve. A randomised parallel controlled trial. Tertiary-care academic medical centre. A cohort of 300 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG; 225 iu per day) and MPA (group A, 10 mg per day; group B, 4 mg per day) were started simultaneously from cycle day 3 onwards. Ovulation was co-triggered by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 1000 iu) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist; 0.1 mg) when dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later frozen embryo transfer (FET) in both groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes retrieved. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of a premature surge in luteinising hormone (LH), the number of viable embryos, and clinical pregnancy outcomes. The number of oocytes retrieved and viable embryos were similar between two groups (9.8 ± 6.3 versus 9.6 ± 5.9; 4.2 ± 2.6 versus 3.7 ± 3.0; P > 0.05). No significant difference was found in clinical pregnancy rate (58.0 versus 48.7%) and live birth rate per participant (48.7 versus 42.0%; P > 0.05). No premature LH surge and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurred in either group. Progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) using 4 or 10 mg of MPA per day was comparable in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy outcome after FET. The administration of 4 mg of MPA per day was sufficient to prevent an untimely LH rise in women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. An RCT confirmed similar pregnancy outcome in P-primed ovarian stimulation with a daily dose of 4 or 10 mg MPA. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Fermentative utilization of glycerol residue for the production of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Joli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Glycerol residue, frequently known as pitch, is a waste produced from the downstream product of crude glycerine distillation. With the increasing need of pure glycerine in the world, the glycerol residue produced is also increasing. Glycerol residue is a solid waste at room temperature, highly alkaline (pH > 13), corrosive, and categorized as hazardous and poisonous waste. In this research, acetic acid was produced from glycerol residue through the anaerobic fermentation process by using purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of concentration change of glycerol residue on time and to find out the possibility of glycerol residue to be utilized as acetic acid. In this research, at first 400 g of glycerol residue was diluted with 200 ml of distilled water to change the glycerine phase, from solid to liquid at room temperature, acidified by using hydrochloric acid until pH 2. The top layer formed was fatty acid and triglycerides that should be removed. Meanwhile, the bottom layer was diluted glycerol residue which was then neutralized with caustic soda. To produce acetic acid, glycerol residue with various concentrations, salt, and purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were put together into a 100 ml bottle which had been previously sterilized, then incubated for four weeks under the light of 40-watt bulb. The result showed that on the 28th day of fermentation, the produced acetic acid were 0.28, 1.85, and 0.2% (w/w) by using glycerine with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w), respectively.

  16. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The record cards of all clients who accepted medroxyprogesterone ... center. With the establishment of the college of. Health Sciences, University of Uyo in 2001, the ... and surgical sterilization (both male and female).

  17. The residue of trenbolone from male Garut sheep which implanted by trenbolone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Widiastuti

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Trenbolone acetate (TBA is a growth hormone promoter which is implanted into animal to increase the body weight. The implantation of TBA in animal may cause the occurrence of residues of TBA and its metabolite (17-β-trenbolone. The presence of the residue might threat to human health. The aim of this research work was to study the presence of the residue of trenbolone in male Garut sheep which is implanted by TBA. The sheep were divided into 2 groups, those were D1 which were implanted by 40 mg TBA and D2 which were implanted by 60 mg TBA. One animal each from D1 and D2 were killed in the week 1, 2, 3 and 4 after implantation. And 24 hours before slaughtering the urine of D1 and D2 were collected using the metabolism cages. The samples for residue analysis were the organs such as liver, kidney, and the muscles around the implantation sites i.e inner and outer, upper front leg and upper back leg. The samples were extracted by organic solvents and analysed by HPLC. The residue of trenbolone occured in all samples of D1 and D2 which killed on 1 and 2 weeks after implantation. The residues occured on those which were killed 3 weeks after implantation were only in inner and outer samples. The residues in meat and organs were not detected in D1 nor D2 which were killed 4 weeks after implantation. The residue of trenbolone was also detected in the urine and still were detected in D1 and D2 which implanted by TBA for 4 weeks.

  18. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with Veramix sponge (medroxyprogesterone acetate) or CIDR (natural progesterone) in combination with an injection of estradiol-17β on ovarian activity, endocrine profiles, and embryo yields in cyclic ewes superovulated in the multiple-dose Folltropin-V (porcine FSH) regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Szpila, Patrycja; Oliveira, Maria E F; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Kridli, Rami T; Zieba, Dorota A

    2015-10-15

    Follicular wave status at the beginning of exogenous FSH administration is an important contributor to variability in superovulatory responses in ruminants. Studies in ewes have shown a decrease in the number of ovulations when superovulation is initiated in the presence of ostensibly ovulatory-sized ovarian follicles. Hormonal ablation of large antral follicles with the progestin-estradiol (E2-17β) treatment significantly reduces this variability in superovulated anestrous ewes, but the effects of the treatment in cycling ewes have not yet been assessed. Sixteen Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes (November-December) received either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP)-releasing intravaginal sponges (60 mg) or controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices (containing 300 mg of natural progesterone) for 14 days (Days 0-14), with a single intramuscular injection of 350 μg of E2-17β on Day 6. The superovulatory treatment consisted of six injections of porcine FSH (Folltropin-V) given twice daily, followed by a bolus GnRH injection (50 μg intramuscular) on Day 15. There were no differences (P ewes. In both subsets of animals, the next follicular wave emerged ∼2.5 days after an E2-17β injection (P > 0.05). A decline in maximum follicle size after an E2-17β injection was more abrupt in CIDR- compared with MAP-treated animals, and the ewes pretreated with exogenous progesterone had significantly more 3-mm follicles at the start of the superovulatory treatment. The metabolic clearance rate of exogenous E2-17β appeared to be greater in MAP-treated ewes, but circulating concentrations of porcine FSH failed to increase significantly after each Folltropin-V injection in CIDR-treated animals. The CIDR-treated ewes exceeded (P ewes receiving E2-17β before ovarian superstimulation, there were no differences in superovulatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mas...

  20. [Use of medroxyprogesterone in human hepatic cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A; Ríos, B; Bruno, M; Heinrichs, G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of medroxyprogesterone in 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis demonstrated with histological technics was studied. Eight of the 14 patients were controlled over a period of one year and three months. Six of this eight patients presented subjective clinical improvement and the ascitis disappeared in 5/7 cases, so that the doses of lactona could be diminished. Three of the male patients recovered their sexual potency although all were in alcoholic abstinence for more than one year. Histologically 5/6 patients presented a diminishing fibrosis in the control biopsy and the 3 patients controlled with hemodynamic studies presented lower portal pression. We didn't found secondary effects, except obesity in 3 cases. We concluded that it would be important to continue this experience with a greater number of patients and adding appropriate biochemical controls.

  1. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  2. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohgi Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA, which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  3. Acetic acid can catalyze succinimide formation from aspartic acid residues by a concerted bond reorganization mechanism: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-12

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  4. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The lack of a cardioprotective effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as suggested by the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and Women's Health Initiative (WHI) may in part be explained by the progestin used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect...... equine estrogens (CEE) (1.25 mg/day); 17beta-estradiol (E2) (4 mg/day); MPA + CEE (10 mg/day + 1.25 mg/day); NETA + E2 (3 mg/day + 4 mg/day); or placebo. Segments from the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries were mounted in myographs for tension recordings. Concentration-response curves to potassium...

  5. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  6. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  7. D:epot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... pelvic infection, cerVICItis. moniliasis, trichomoniasis and gynaecological malignancies. These conditions, if suspected clinically, should be diagnosed and treated by the appro- priate methods and with the usual drugs before assuming that the D\\1PA is causing the menstrual disorganizati9n. Only in this ...

  8. Neurons in the brain of the male cynomolgus monkey accumulate 3H-medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    MPA is a synthetic progestin with androgen-depleting activity. It is used clinically to reduce sexual motivation and aggression in male sex offenders. The mechanisms for its behavioral effects are not known. The authors used steroid autoradiography to help identify sites where MPA may act in the brain of male primates. Twenty-four hours after castration, two adult male cynomolgus macaques, weighing 4.9 and 6.6 kg, were administered 5 mCi 3 H-MPA (NEN, 47.7 Ci/mmol) i.v., and were killed 1 h later. Left sides of the brains and samples of pituitary glands were frozen and 4-micron sections were cut and processed for thaw-mount autoradiography. Radioactivity was concentrated in the nuclei of many neutrons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (n.), arcuate n., medial preoptic n., and anterior hypothalamic area. Virtually no labeled cells were seen in the bed n. of stria terminalis, lateral septal n., amygdala, or pituitary gland. Right sides of the brains were analyzed by HPLC which demonstrated that 98% of the radioactivity in cell nuclei from the hypothalamus was in the form of unmetabolized 3 H-MPA. The distribution of labelling in the brain following 3 H-MPA administration resembled that previously seen following 3 H-ORG 2058 in female cynomolgus monkeys. These data indicate that MPA has a circumscribed localization in the brain

  9. Quantification of bupivacaine hydrochloride and isoflupredone acetate residues in porcine muscle, beef, milk, egg, shrimp, flatfish, and eel using a simplified extraction method coupled with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hyun; Park, Jin-A; Zheng, Weijia; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Choi, Jeong-Min; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Afifi, Nehal A; Shim, Jae-Han; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a simple analytical approach has been developed and validated for the determination of bupivacaine hydrochloride and isoflupredone acetate residues in porcine muscle, beef, milk, egg, shrimp, flatfish, and eel using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A 0.1% solution of acetic acid in acetonitrile combined with n-hexane was used for deproteinization and defatting of all tested matrices and the target drugs were well separated on a Waters Xbridge™ C18 analytical column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid (A) and 0.1% solution of acetic acid in methanol (B). The linearity estimated from six-point matrix-matched calibrations was good, with coefficients of determination ≥0.9873. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for bupivacaine hydrochloride and isoflupredone acetate were 1 and 2ngg -1 , respectively. Recovery percentages in the ranges of 72.51-112.39% (bupivacaine hydrochloride) and 72.58-114.56% (isoflupredone acetate) were obtained from three different fortification concentrations with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of bupivacaine hydrochloride and isoflupredone acetate from porcine muscle, beef, milk, egg, shrimp, flatfish, and eel samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-12-18

    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long QTc Syndrome Type 2 Presenting in a Postpartum Patient on Medroxyprogesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2 is a rare inherited cardiac abnormality resulting in increased risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT. Case Description. A 21-year-old postpartum female presented with syncopal episode after phone alarm. She was noted to have PVT on telemetry monitoring in the emergency department. EKG revealed QTc of 530. The patient’s only medication was medroxyprogesterone. She ultimately received a dual chamber pacemaker with ICD. Discussion. LQTS2 is associated with alarm sounds as a precipitating factor. Postpartum hormonal shifts as well as medroxyprogesterone have significant effect on native QTc duration.

  12. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  13. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) alone and in combination with two progestins on K+ and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms in coronary...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca2+, activated or ATP-sensitive K+ channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity. Conclusion......: When E-2 is administered with MPA, effects of E-2 on nitric oxide and Ca2+ mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects of estrogen...

  14. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms...... and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca(2+) activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity....... CONCLUSION: When E(2) is administered with MPA, effects of E(2) on nitric oxide and Ca(2+)-mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects...

  15. Caracterização de resíduos de copolímeros de etileno-acetato de vinila - EVA Characterization of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir J. Zattera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O poli[(etileno-co-(acetato de vinila] (EVA possui grande aplicação na indústria calçadista, sendo utilizado na confecção de placas expandidas para posterior corte de palmilhas e entressolas. Estudos realizados na região sul do Brasil mostraram que os resíduos gerados pela indústria calçadista foram superiores a 200 toneladas/mês em 2001, sendo o maior volume oriundo de recortes de placas expandidas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar resíduos de EVA de chapas expandidas, visando à reciclagem mecânica desse material. Análises em MEV demonstraram que o resíduo de EVA apresenta uma morfologia microcelular que é destruída após o processo de moagem. O resíduo de EVA moído apresenta duas fases, uma reticulada (matriz e uma não-reticulada (dispersa. O resíduo de EVA apresentou teor de gel de aproximadamente 75% em massa, cerca de 20% em massa de acetato de vinila (VAc, fora processado a partir de EVA com aproximadamente 28% de VAc e possui teor de carga inorgânica de 20% em massa, segundo análises em TGA. O EVA resíduo apresentou maiores valores de módulo elástico e de dureza, e menores valores de elongação na ruptura e de resistência ao impacto Izod. O custo energético da moagem do resíduo de EVA foi calculado como sendo inferior a 5% do valor do EVA virgem.Poly[(ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate] (EVA has large application in the shoes industries, especially as expanded sheets, in order to produce insoles and innersoles. Studies carried out in the south region of Brazil in 2001 have demonstrated that the residues generated by shoes industries were higher than 200 ton/month, the major part of which is composed by EVA expanded sheets. With this in mind, the objective of this work was to characterize the residues of expanded EVA and also to analyze the milling cost in order to make the recycling possible. The EVA residues presented originally a microcellular structure, which was destroyed after milling

  16. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  17. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar... a maximum permissible level for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar. DATES: This... humans. It is also naturally produced during the fermentation process in a wide range of foods. In plants...

  19. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  20. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  1. Acetic acid sclerotheraphy of renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hoon Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kong, Keun Young; Kim, Eui Jong; Goo, Jang Sung

    1998-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for renal cysts was performed, using 50% acetic acid as new sclerosing agent. We report the methods and results of this procedure. Fifteen patients underwent sclerotherapy for renal cyst, using 50% acetic acid. Because four patients were lost to follow-up, only 11 of the 15 were included in this study. The renal cysts, including one infected case, were diagnosed by ultrasonograpy (n=3D10) ormagnetic resonance imaging (n=3D1). The patient group consisted of four men and seven women(mean age, 59 years; range, 23-77). At first, the cyst was completely aspirated, and 25 volume% of aspirated volume was replaced with 50% sterile acetic acid through the drainage catheter. During the follwing 20 minutes, the patient changed position, and the acetic acid was then removed from the cyst. Finally, the drainage catheter was removed, after cleaning the cyst with saline. After treatment of infection by antibiotics and catheter drainage for 7 days, sclerotherapy in the infected case followed the same procedure. In order to observe changes in the size of renal cysts and recurrence, all patients were followed up by ultrasound between 2 and 8 months. We defined response to therapy as follows:complete regression as under 5 volume%, partial regression as 5-50 volume% and no response as more than 50 volume% of initial cyst volume. No clinically significant complication occured during the procedures or follow-up periods. All cysts regressed completely during follow-up of 8 months. Complete regression occurred as follows: two cysts at 2 months, seven cysts at 4 months, two cysts at 6 months. Two cysts showed residues at the last follow-up, at 4 and 6 months, respectively. The volume of residual cysts decreased to under 5 volume% of initial volume, however. Completely regressed cysts did not recurr during follow-up. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for renal cysts showed good results, regardless of the dilution of sclerosing agent with residual cyst fluid, and no significant

  2. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.......Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...

  3. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  4. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  5. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of

  6. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... days of incubation, 2.2% of the labelled carbon originally added to the soil was located in carbohydrate metabolites, 7% in amino acid metabolites and 5% in the insoluble residue. The carbon in these fractions accounted for 77% of the total, residual, labelled carbon in the soil; 12% in carbohydrates...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  8. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  9. [Phase II trial evaluating the effect of megestrol acetate-prednisolone combination in the treatment of anorexia during the palliative-care phase of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanfaivre, T; Souday, V; Chaleil, D; Maillet, F; Tuchais, E

    2000-09-01

    Anorexia is one of the most frequent complaints in patients who have reached the palliative-care phase of lung cancer. Megestrol acetate (or medroxyprogesterone acetate) and corticosteroids have been used with success, but the effect of their combination remains unknown. We conducted a phase II trial to assess the impact of combination therapy. Patients with lung cancer given palliative care and who developed anorexia with or without weight loss were given 320 mg/d megestrol acetate in 2 doses and 40 mg/d prednisolone in one dose in the morning for 1 month. The principal outcome criterion was anorexia assessed on a visual analog scale prior to treatment and then at day 15 and day 30. Variation in daily calorie intake and weight were also recorded. We used an Armitage sequential plan to determine the number of inclusions necessary and the preference method (closed schema) to evaluate the principal outcome criterion. Inclusions were stopped after the eighth patient (giving panorexia in patients with lung cancer in the palliative-care phase and allowed a significant improvement in calorie intake and body weight.

  10. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  11. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  12. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  14. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. γ radiolysis of cellulose acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.; Clay, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The major degradative process in γ-irradiated cellulose acetate is chain scission. For the dry powder the G/sub s/ value (number of scissions per 100 eV of energy absorbed) was found to be 7.1. The water-swollen material was found to degrade at the higher rate of G/sub s/ = 9.45. Additions of ethanol and methanol to the water brought about reductions in G/sub s/, whereas dissolved nitrous oxide produced an increase in G/sub s/. The useful life of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes exposed to γ radiation was estimated by observations of the water permeation rate during irradiation. Membrane breakdown occurred at 15 Mrad in pure water, but the dose to breakdown was extended to 83 Mrad in the presence of 4% methanol. 3 figures, 1 table

  16. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves.

  19. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  20. 78 FR 79359 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... derivatization steps that was required for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), but not for... residues of ammonium acetate (CAS Registry No. 631-61-8), under 40 CFR 180.920, when used at not more than... ammonium acetate, there is little likelihood of foliar residues remaining on treated crops. Ammonium...

  1. Cellulose acetate propionate coated titanium: characterization and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of pure titanium and Ti coated with cellulose acetate propionate (CAP have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy X ray coupled with elemental microanalysis (SEM-EDS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Coating Ti surfaces with CAP ultrathin films reduced original surface roughness. Surface energy and wettability of CAP covered Ti surfaces pure Ti surfaces were similar. The adsorption of lysozyme (LYZ, an antibacterial protein, onto Ti and CAP-coated Ti surfaces has been studied by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The adsorption of LYZ was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction between protein hydrophobic residues and CAP propyl groups. Pure Ti and CAP coated Ti surfaces presented no cytotoxicity effect and proved to be adequate substrates for cell adhesion. The biocompatibility of CAP coated Ti surfaces was attributed to the surface enrichment in glucopyranosyl residues and short alkyl side groups.

  2. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  3. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  4. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  5. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  6. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  7. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  8. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  9. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    337–343. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... 1Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Johor, Malaysia ... concentrations were prepared by dissolving the polymer in a mixture of acetic acid/acetone ...

  10. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  11. Computational and comparative investigations of syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Today's main energy sources are the fossil fuels petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are depleting rapidly and are major contributors to global warming. Methane is produced during anaerobic biodegradation of wastes and residues and can serve as an alternative energy source with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In the anaerobic biodegradation process acetate is a major precursor and degradation can occur through two different pathways: aceticlastic methanogenesis and syntrop...

  12. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride in a CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica N. Coraci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimal reactor volume and temperature for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride at the lowest possible cost with a 90% conversion of acetic anhydride, a formula for the total cost of the reaction was created. Then, the first derivative was taken to find a value for the temperature. This value was then inputted into the second derivative of the equation to find the sign of the value which would indicate whether that point was a minima or maxima value. The minima value would then be the lowest total cost for the optimum reaction to take place.

  13. Characterization of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, depending on varying acetate concentrations, in a biogas plant. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains the results of a project concerning behaviour of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, collected in 1992 - 1994 period. Labelled acetates (2-C 14 -CH 3 COOH) have been used to characterize the types of methane bacteria populations in the Danish biogas plants, the optimum acetate concentration for these bacteria and acetate metabolism in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors with low acetate concentrations. 2 publications are included. (EG)

  14. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  15. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  16. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  17. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  18. Simultaneous determination of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine hydrochloride in amorolfine liniment by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Shu, Wenjuan; Gao, Liqiong

    2012-04-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine in marketed pharmaceutical liniment. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu VP-ODS C(18) column using the mixture of citric acid-hydrochloric acid-sodium hydrate buffer (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol (32:30:38) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV-detection at 215 nm. The method separated the four components simultaneously in less than 10 min. The validation of the method was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 35.1-81.9 μ/mL for triacetin, 431.1-1005.9 μ/mL for acetic ether, 167.0-389.7 μ/mL for butyl acetate and 151.0-352.3 μ/mL for amorolfine. The mean 100% spiked recovery for triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine is 99.43 ± 0.42, 101.5 ± 1.09, 101.4 ± 1.02 and 100.8 ± 0.69, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were liniment.

  19. Novel Synthesis of Phytosterol Ester from Soybean Sterol and Acetic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuming; Oyeyinka, Samson A; Ma, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Phytosterols are important bioactive compounds which have several health benefits including reduction of serum cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The most widely used method in the synthesis of its ester analogous form is the use of catalysts and solvents. These methods have been found to present some safety and health concern. In this paper, an alternative method of synthesizing phytosterol ester from soybean sterol and acetic anhydride was investigated. Process parameters such as mole ratio, temperature and time were optimized. The structure and physicochemical properties of phytosterol acetic ester were analyzed. By the use of gas chromatography, the mole ratio of soybean sterol and acetic anhydride needed for optimum esterification rate of 99.4% was 1:1 at 135 °C for 1.5 h. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of phytosterol ester with strong absorption peaks at 1732 and 1250 cm(-1) , which corresponds to the stretching vibration of C=O and C-O-C, respectively. These peaks could be attributed to the formation of ester links which resulted from the reaction between the hydroxyl group of soybean sterol and the carbonyl group of acetic anhydride. This paper provides a better alternative to the synthesis of phytosterol ester without catalyst and solvent residues, which may have potential application in the food, health-care food, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... acid under certain culture conditions similar to cocoa fermentation stress. However ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions ..... American Society Microbiology Press, pp.

  1. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  2. Neutron scattering studies of Mn12-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The S=10 magnetic molecule Mn 12 -acetate, which crystallises into a tetragonal crystal structure, has attracted substantial recent attention by virtue of its low temperature bulk magnetic properties, which give evidence for resonant quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation. We report a full neutron crystal structure including positions of all protons/deuterons, including the solvated water and acetic acid, a polarised-neutron study of the real space magnetisation, which confirms a simple magnetic-structure model for the molecule, albeit with reduced Mn moments, and inelastic neutron scattering data containing both the excitations within the 21-fold degenerate S=10 manifold, and those from S=10 to the S=9 manifolds. Both manifolds are split by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and we report coefficients for 2nd and 4th-order terms in the magnetic Hamiltonian

  3. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  4. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Port, L.

    1966-03-01

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO 4 - HBr - H 2 SO 4 - HCl - HNO 3 - H 3 PO 4 ) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl) m MCl n . (author) [fr

  5. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzymatic Systems for Cellulose Acetate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Haske-Cornelius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA-based materials, like cigarette filters, contribute to landscape pollution challenging municipal authorities and manufacturers. This study investigates the potential of enzymes to degrade CA and to be potentially incorporated into the respective materials, enhancing biodegradation. Deacetylation studies based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight (LC-MS-TOF, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and spectrophotometric analysis showed that the tested esterases were able to deacetylate the plasticizer triacetin (glycerol triacetate and glucose pentaacetate (cellulose acetate model compound. The most effective esterases for deacetylation belong to the enzyme family 2 (AXE55, AXE 53, GAE, they deacetylated CA with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.8. A combination of esterases and cellulases showed synergistic effects, the absolute glucose recovery for CA 1.8 was increased from 15% to 28% when an enzymatic deacetylation was performed. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO, and cellobiohydrolase were able to cleave cellulose acetates with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.4, whereas chitinase showed no activity. In general, the degree of substitution, chain length, and acetyl group distribution were found to affect CA degradation. This study shows that, for a successful enzyme-based deacetylation system, a cocktail of enzymes, which will randomly cleave and generate shorter CA fragments, is the most suitable.

  7. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  11. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  12. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  13. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  14. Preparation, thermogravimetric study and infrared spectra of rare earth acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graehlert, X.; Starke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The anhydrous and the hydrated acetates of Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu have been prepared. The compounds obtained have been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition of the rare earth acetates may proceed via various steps. It depends on both the number of crystal water molecules in the acetates and the rare earth element's behaviour. (orig.)

  15. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse by 1H-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Carvalho, Rui A.; Valente, Artur J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by 1 H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms present at the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH 3 ) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression was carried out in order to remove the peak of residual water in the materials and the peak related to impurities in cellulose triacetate. Degree of substitution values obtained through the resonance deconvolution were compared to those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. The determined degrees of substitution of the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60. (author)

  17. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  18. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  19. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  20. Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Shah, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  3. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  4. Heterotrophic utilization of acetate and glucose in Swartvlei, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robarts, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The utilization of dissolved organic compounds in Swartvlei was measured by the addition of single concentrations of 14 C-labelled acetate and glucose to water samples. The results indicated acetate uptake was greatest in the aerobic zone while glucose was predominantly utilized in the anaerobic zone. With the exception of two months, integral glucose uptake was usually greater than the uptake of acetate. In August and September 1971 acetate was indicated as being utilized predominantly by flagellates and in December 1971 by dinoflagellates. During the remainder of the study, bacteria were assumed to be responsible for the uptake of acetate. The extensive weed beds which surround the upper reaches of Swartvlei may be a major source of acetate and glucose in the pelagic water column

  5. Teratogenic effects of lead acetate on kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.; Tahir, M.; Waqas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead remains a considerable occupational and public health problem, which is known to cause a number of adverse effects in both men and women. Conflicting reports have appeared on lead induced nephrotoxicity in experimental studies in the past. There is hardly any work on its teratogenic effects on kidney. Present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of lead acetate on developing kidney. Methods: Twelve mice were used as experimental model and were divided into two groups of six animals each; group A served as control group and B was used as an experimental group. Lead acetate (10 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.02 ml of distilled water was administered as a single daily dose orally to group B whereas weight related amount of distilled water was given to group A for the entire period of experiment. On 18 day of gestation foetuses were dissected free of uterine wall under the dissecting microscope and were sacrificed; kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in xylene and infiltrated with filtered paraffin. The paraffin blocks were made and five micron thin sections were obtained using a rotary microtome. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and, PAS; these were examined under light microscope. Results: Significant decrease in cortical thickness was observed which varied from 578.6 +- 1.4 mu m in group A to 515.6 +- 5 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Diameter of renal corpuscles varied from 57.7 +- 0.07 mu m in group A to 50.5 +- 0.07 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Moderate cortical tubular atrophy showing thickening of endothelial basement membrane in glomeruli, desquamated epithelium with degenerated nuclei in proximal and distal tubules were observed in group B in contrast to group A. Conclusion: The results of the investigation indicated that lead acetate administration to the dams produced deleterious effects on the developing kidney in mice. (author)

  6. Proton conductivity and relaxation properties of chitosan-acetate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, E.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.; González-Campos, J.B.; Kovalenko, Yu.; García-Carvajal, Z.Y.; Mota-Morales, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of conductivity, the number of density and proton mobility in chitosan-acetate film. - Highlights: • DD, conductivity, Vogel temperature dependent on the concentration of acetic acid. • Proton conductivity of CS-acetate films interpreted using two Grotthuss mechanisms. • Transformation between two mechanisms observed at the glass transition temperature. - Abstract: The effect of aqueous acetic acid solution concentration during the preparation of chitosan-acetate (CS-acetate) films on the conductivity and relaxation properties were studied by dielectric and FTIR spectroscopies, TGA measurements and X-Ray diffraction. Analyses of the experimental results on the degree of deacetylation, water absorption, conductivity, Vogel temperature and activation energy demonstrate a strong dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the acid acetic solutions from which the films have been obtained. The proton conductivity and relaxation properties of CS-acetate films have been interpreted using two Grotthuss “structural diffusion” and “pack-acid” mechanisms. The transformation between these two mechanisms observed at temperature higher than CS-acetate glass transition temperature is due to an increase in the thermal motion of CS chains, water evaporation, hydrogen bond between water molecules and side groups of CS breaking and formation of new bonds between NH 3 + and acetate ions. Additionally, application of the Rice and Roth model allowed estimating the temperature dependence of proton number and their mobility in CS-acetate films. A systematic interpretation on the appropriate conductivity mechanism will help trigger the design of smart materials used in flexible electronic, solid polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and solid polymer batteries based on CS-acetate films.

  7. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  8. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  9. The method of quantitative determination of iodine in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, A.B.; Kalinchenko, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Method for separate determination of J 2 and J - concentrations in acetic acid is suggested. Iodine concentration in acetic acid is determined by measuring potential of iodine-selective electrode first in the initial solution of acetic acid, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 0.5, and then in acetic acid, with alkali (NaOH) addition up to pH > 3, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 1. Determination is conducted in 5x10 -7 -5x10 -6 mol/l concentration range with relative standard deviation not more than 0.1. 1 fig

  10. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  11. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  12. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.

  13. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena; Chouaia, Bessem; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Bourtzis, Kostas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  14. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  15. Emergency Contraception Options: Focus on Ulipristal Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulipristal acetate (UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC and can be taken up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UPA with levonorgestrel (LNG for EC, demonstrated that UPA has higher efficacy than LNG. This higher efficacy is supported by biomedical studies that have demonstrated that UPA is a more potent inhibitor of ovulation, being able to delay ovulation in the immediate preovulatory period, when LNG is no longer effective. A recent study that explored risk factors for failure of EC, demonstrated that obese women were at increased risk of EC failure, with either UPA or LNG. However, failure was significantly less amongst women receiving UPA than those receiving LNG. There is growing evidence therefore, that UPA should be the preferred oral method of EC.

  16. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Chun-Xia MengDepartment of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment.Keywords: emergency contraception, ulipristal acetate, levonorgestrel

  17. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  18. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  19. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  20. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  1. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Mehl, Marco; Lokachari, Nitin; Nilsson, Elna J.K.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Wagnon, Scott W.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  2. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  3. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  4. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  5. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  6. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri dish and characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  7. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Acetalization is a viable method to protect carbonyl functionalities in organic compounds and offers apotential synthetic strategy for synthesizing derived chemicals. In this work, several families of commer-cial zeolites have been employed as solid acid catalysts in the acetalization of furfural...

  8. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic. The kinetic modelling of ... integral method of analysis to determine the kinetic parameters .... Equation (5) is applied to all the components ... In common chemical engineering terminology, the degree of ..... of Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 25, Number ...

  9. Bioelectrochemical Ethanol Production through Mediated Acetate Reduction by Mixed Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Kampman, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate

  10. Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

    2002-07-01

    The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046].

  11. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  12. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...

  13. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  14. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  15. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  16. Noradrenaline, oxymetazoline and phorbol myristate acetate induce distinct functional actions and phosphorylation patterns of α1A-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Pupo, André S; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2017-12-01

    In LNCaP cells that stably express α 1A -adrenergic receptors, oxymetazoline increased intracellular calcium and receptor phosphorylation, however, this agonist was a weak partial agonist, as compared to noradrenaline, for calcium signaling. Interestingly, oxymetazoline-induced receptor internalization and desensitization displayed greater effects than those induced by noradrenaline. Phorbol myristate acetate induced modest receptor internalization and minimal desensitization. α 1A -Adrenergic receptor interaction with β-arrestins (colocalization/coimmunoprecipitation) was induced by noradrenaline and oxymetazoline and, to a lesser extent, by phorbol myristate acetate. Oxymetazoline was more potent and effective than noradrenaline in inducing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunopurified α 1A -adrenergic receptors from cells treated with adrenergic agonists and the phorbol ester clearly showed that phosphorylated residues were present both at the third intracellular loop and at the carboxyl tail. Distinct phosphorylation patterns were observed under the different conditions. The phosphorylated residues were: a) Baseline and all treatments: T233; b) noradrenaline: S220, S227, S229, S246, S250, S389; c) oxymetazoline: S227, S246, S381, T384, S389; and d) phorbol myristate acetate: S246, S250, S258, S351, S352, S401, S402, S407, T411, S413, T451. Our novel data, describing the α 1A -AR phosphorylation sites, suggest that the observed different phosphorylation patterns may participate in defining adrenoceptor localization and action, under the different conditions examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of kaolin silver complex on the control of populations of Brettanomyces and acetic acid bacteria in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Cañas, P M; López-Martín, R; García-Romero, E; González-Arenzana, L; Mínguez-Sanz, S; Chatonnet, P; Palacios-García, A; Puig-Pujol, A

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effects of kaolin silver complex (KAgC) have been evaluated to replace the use of SO 2 for the control of spoilage microorganisms in the winemaking process. The results showed that KAgC at a dose of 1 g/L provided effective control against the development of B. bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria. In wines artificially contaminated with an initial population of B. bruxellensis at 10 4 CFU/mL, a concentration proven to produce off flavors in wine, only residual populations of the contaminating yeast remained after 24 days of contact with the additive. Populations of acetic bacteria inoculated into wine at concentrations of 10 2 and 10 4  CFU/mL were reduced to negligible levels after 72 h of treatment with KAgC. The antimicrobial effect of KAgC against B. bruxellensis and acetic bacteria was also demonstrated in a wine naturally contaminated by these microorganisms, decreasing their population in a similar way to a chitosan treatment. Related to this effect, wines with KAgC showed lower concentrations of acetic acid and 4-ethyl phenol than wines without KAgC. The silver concentration from KAgC that remained in the finished wines was below the legal limits. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of KAgC to reduce spoilage microorganisms in winemaking.

  18. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  20. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  1. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffo, Elisangela Fabiana; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C 3 , C 4 , and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C 3 and C 4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  2. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  3. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial

  4. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  5. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...... operating under different ammonia levels were sampled, and the residual biogas production was followed in fed-batch reactors. Acetate, labelled in the methyl group, was used to determine the methanogenic pathway by following the 14CH4 and 14CO2 production. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used...... to determine the methanogenic communities’ composition. Results obtained clearly demonstrated that syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway in all digesters with high ammonia levels (2.8–4.57 g NH4 +-N L−1), while acetoclastic methanogenic pathway...

  6. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  7. Calcination of calcium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate: effect of the reacting atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adanez, J.; Diego, L.F. de; Garcia-Labiano, F. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    1999-04-01

    The calcination process of the calcium acetate (CA) and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was investigated as a previous step for coal gas desulfurisation during sorbent injection at high temperatures because the excellent results demonstrated by these sorbents as sulfur removal agents both in combustion and gasification processes. As pore structure developed during calcination is one of the most important characteristics of the sorbent related with the later reaction with the gaseous pollutants, several calcination tests were conducted in a drop tube reactor at temperatures from 700{degree}C to 1100{degree}C, and residence times from 0.8 to 2.4 s. Four different gas atmospheres were used for comparative purposes: inert, oxidising, reducing, and non-calcining (pure CO{sub 2}). Despite the advantage of the high porous cenospheric structure developed by these sorbents during their injection at high temperature, calcination of the CaCO{sub 3} was not complete even at the longest residence time, 2.4 s, and the highest temperature, 1100{degree}C, tested. An important effect of the reacting atmosphere on the calcination conversion and on the sorbent pore structure was detected. The CO{sub 2} concentration around the particle, both that fed in the reacting gases or that generated by organic material combustion, seems to be responsible for the final calcination conversions obtained in each case, also affecting the sintering suffered by the sorbents. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, N.

    1968-10-01

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4 ); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO 4 ); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author) [fr

  9. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer ... properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily ..... vision software). The ease of ...

  10. Analysis of acetal toilet fill valve supply line nut failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Timpanaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of product liability cases involving the failure of toilet water supply line acetal plastic nuts. These nuts can fail in service, causing water leaks that result in significant property and financial losses. This study examines three possible failure modes of acetal plastic toilet water supply nuts. The three failure modes tested were all due to over load failure of the acetal nut and are as follows: (1 Overtightening of the supply line acetal nut, (2 Supply line lateral pull and, (3 Embrittled supply line lateral pull. Additionally, a “hand-tight” torque survey was conducted. The fracture surfaces and characteristics of these failure tests were examined with Stereo Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The failure modes were compared and contrasted to provide guidance in determination of cause in these investigations.

  11. α-Mangostin suppresses 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Mangostin, Matrix metalloproteinase, Osteosarcoma, Cell migration, 12-O-. Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus, JournalSeek .... The results were analyzed using Student's t-test, and differences were.

  12. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  13. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  14. The study of 2-acetylaminotoluene ozonolysis in acetic ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Галстян, Андрій Генрійович

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of ozone reaction with 2-aminotoluene and its acylated derivative in acetic acid were studied in order to determine the possibility of obtaining 2-aminobenzoic acid.It is shown that the 2-aminotoluene ozonolysis reaction in acetic acid solution runs at high speed, and preferably on the free electron pair of the amino group to form mainly resinous compounds; oxidation products by the methyl group of the substrate are not formed under these conditions. The ozone attac...

  15. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  16. Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

    2012-03-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina FUCKERER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9 were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.

  18. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysoyu, D.; Tiryaki, O.; Secer, E.; Aydin, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 1 4C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 1 4C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  19. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Thermochemical properties of cellulose acetate blends with acetosolv and sawdust lignin: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Karol; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Sawdust (SD) and cotton-lignin blends (CLB) were acetylated and the effect of lignin type and content on thermoplastic properties of the acetate produced was studied. The lignin in samples did not significantly affect the degree of acetylation. An increase in acetyl groups of 1-3% was observed in acetylated SD (ASD) unlike acetylated CLB (ACLB). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two thermal degradation zones; one at 190-200°C and the other at 330-370°C. The early degradation in ASD corresponds to galactoglucomannans while that in ACLB corresponds to the low-molecular-weight lignin. The second degradation is due to decomposition of cellulose acetate and high-molecular-weight lignin. DSC analysis showed homogeneous behaviour in ASD with only one glass transition temperature (Tg) at 170-180°C, unlike ACLB that showed two Tgs at 170-180°C. Sawdust acetylation, taking advantage of its residual lignin, showed higher reactivity and miscibility as compared to the same material produced by adding previously extracted lignin on cotton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

    2010-12-15

    This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

  2. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  3. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  4. Contraception With Medroxyprogesterone Injections in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five accidental pregnancies occurred (Pearl Index 0.22 per hundred woman years). Defaults from scheduled injections and discontinuations of use were common with a low continuation rate (7.6%) at the end of the observation period. Secondary amenorrhoea was responsible for 33.3% of discontinuations. Conclusion: ...

  5. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  6. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Katoh, Harumi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okado, Kohta; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg −1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg −1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L −1 and 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L −1 to 3.33 mol L −1 . It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg -1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  7. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of the vinyl acetate elimination process in an axenic aerobic culture isolated from an aerobic-methanogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, I.; Duran, U.; Arana, A.; Ramirez, F.

    2009-01-01

    The vinyl acetate (VA) is a chemical compound, commonly used in the elaboration of a wide variety of commercial products as paints, adhesives, paper, etc. Because of that, it is founded as contaminant of residual waste water of industries that used it, representing a big risk to aquatic life and human health. The physical-chemical treatment of the waste waters that contain this compound, doesn't eliminate the problem and only produce more gaseous emission into the environment. (Author)

  8. Monitoring of substrate and product concentrations in acetic fermentation processes for onion vinegar production by NIR spectroscopy: value addition to worthless onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Sánchez-Gallardo, C; Pizarro, C

    2008-08-01

    Wastes and by-products of the onion-processing industry pose an increasing disposal and environmental problem and represent a loss of valuable sources of nutrients. The present study focused on the production of vinegar from worthless onions as a potential valorisation route which could provide a viable solution to multiple disposal and environmental problems, simultaneously offering the possibility of converting waste materials into a useful food-grade product and of exploiting the unique properties and health benefits of onions. This study deals specifically with the second and definitive step of the onion vinegar production process: the efficient production of vinegar from onion waste by transforming onion ethanol, previously produced by alcoholic fermentation, into acetic acid via acetic fermentation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with multivariate calibration methods, has been used to monitor the concentrations of both substrates and products in acetic fermentation. Separate partial least squares (PLS) regression models, correlating NIR spectral data of fermentation samples with each kinetic parameter studied, were developed. Wavelength selection was also performed applying the iterative predictor weighting-PLS (IPW-PLS) method in order to only consider significant spectral features in each model development to improve the quality of the final models constructed. Biomass, substrate (ethanol) and product (acetic acid) concentration were predicted in the acetic fermentation of onion alcohol with high accuracy using IPW-PLS models with a root-mean-square error of the residuals in external prediction (RMSEP) lower than 2.5% for both ethanol and acetic acid, and an RMSEP of 6.1% for total biomass concentration (a very satisfactory result considering the relatively low precision and accuracy associated with the reference method used for determining the latter). Thus, the simple and reliable calibration models proposed in this study suggest that they

  9. Elimination of glycerol production in anaerobic cultures of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered to use acetic acid as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Medina, Víctor; Almering, Marinka J H; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    In anaerobic cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerol production is essential to reoxidize NADH produced in biosynthetic processes. Consequently, glycerol is a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the single largest fermentation process in industrial biotechnology. The present study investigates the possibility of completely eliminating glycerol production by engineering S. cerevisiae such that it can reoxidize NADH by the reduction of acetic acid to ethanol via NADH-dependent reactions. Acetic acid is available at significant amounts in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues. Consistent with earlier studies, deletion of the two genes encoding NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1 and GPD2) led to elimination of glycerol production and an inability to grow anaerobically. However, when the E. coli mhpF gene, encoding the acetylating NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.10; acetaldehyde+NAD++coenzyme Aacetyl coenzyme A+NADH+H+), was expressed in the gpd1Delta gpd2Delta strain, anaerobic growth was restored by supplementation with 2.0 g liter(-1) acetic acid. The stoichiometry of acetate consumption and growth was consistent with the complete replacement of glycerol formation by acetate reduction to ethanol as the mechanism for NADH reoxidation. This study provides a proof of principle for the potential of this metabolic engineering strategy to improve ethanol yields, eliminate glycerol production, and partially convert acetate, which is a well-known inhibitor of yeast performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, to ethanol. Further research should address the kinetic aspects of acetate reduction and the effect of the elimination of glycerol production on cellular robustness (e.g., osmotolerance).

  10. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi, Sihem

    2010-01-01

    Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

  11. Analysis of a bio-electrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles for the anaerobic digestion of tomato plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio

    2018-02-01

    A bio-electrochemical system packed with supporting material can promote anaerobic digestion for several types of organic waste. To expand the target organic matters of a BES, tomato plant residues (TPRs), generated year-round as agricultural and cellulosic waste, were treated using three methanogenic reactors: a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), a carbon fiber textile (CFT) reactor, and a bio-electrochemical reactor (BER) including CFT with electrochemical regulation (BER + CFT). CFT had positive effects on methane fermentation and methanogen abundance. The microbial population stimulated by electrochemical regulation, including hydrogenotrophic methanogens, cellulose-degrading bacteria, and acetate-degrading bacteria, suppressed acetate accumulation, as evidenced by the low acetate concentration in the suspended fraction in the BER + CFT. These results indicated that the microbial community in the BER + CFT facilitated the efficient decomposition of TPR and its intermediates such as acetate to methane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  13. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg+-acetic acid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg+-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC2H4O2]+ complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg+-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg+-based 3p←3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg+, MgOH+, Mg(H2O )+, CH3CO+, and MgCH3+. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H2O)+, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  14. Secondary deuterium isotope effects in the hydrolysis of some acetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, R.V.

    Secondary α-deuterium kinetic isotope effects have been determined in the hydrolyses of some acetals. Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal and 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan show isotope effects in agreement with an A1 mechanism. 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3-dioxolan, which has been shown to undergo hydrolysis by an A2 type mechanism, has an isotope effect in agreement with participation by water in the transition state. Hydrolysis of benzylidene norbornanediols, although complicated by isomerisation, has an isotope effect in agreement with an A2 mechanism. Kinetic isotope effects in acetals which have a neighbouring carboxyl group have also been determined. Hydrolysis of 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dimethyl acetal in aqueous and 82% w/w dioxan-water buffers has isotope effects in agreement with a large degree of carbonium ion character in the transition state. Anderson and Capon proposed nucleophilic participation in the hydrolysis of this acetal in 82% dioxan-water. The isotope effect determined in this study is not in agreement with this finding. Hydrolysis of 2-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3-dioxolan shows an isotope effect larger than the corresponding dioxolan without the carboxyl group in agreement with some carbonium ion character in the transition state. A new synthesis of a deuterated aldehyde is described which might be general for aldehydes which will not form benzoins readily. (author)

  15. Catalytic oxidation of butyl acetate over silver-loaded zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheng Teng; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-01-01

    The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) = 15,000-32,000 h -1 , reaction temperature between 150 and 500 deg. C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 deg. C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively

  16. Bioelectrochemical ethanol production through mediated acetate reduction by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Schaap, Joris D; Kampman, Christel; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate reduction in conjunction of an electron mediator. Initially, the effect of three selected mediators on metabolic flows during acetate reduction with hydrogen was explored; subsequently, the best performing mediator was used in a bioelectrochemical system to stimulate acetate reduction at the cathode with mixed cultures at an applied cathode potential of -550 mV. In the batch test, methyl viologen (MV) was found to accelerate ethanol production 6-fold and increased ethanol concentration 2-fold to 13.5 +/- 0.7 mM compared to the control. Additionally, MV inhibited n-butyrate and methane formation, resulting in high ethanol production efficiency (74.6 +/- 6%). In the bioelectrochemical system, MV addition to an inoculated cathode led directly to ethanol production (1.82 mM). Hydrogen was coproduced at the cathode (0.0035 Nm(3) hydrogen m(-2) d(-1)), so it remained unclear whether acetate was reduced to ethanol by electrons supplied by the mediator or by hydrogen. As MV reacted irreversibly at the cathode, ethanol production stopped after 5 days.

  17. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  18. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  19. Radiation-induced grafting from binary mixture of monomers onto cellulose acetate film and the characterization of the graft copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Maldas, D.

    1984-01-01

    Binary mixtures of styrene and acrylamide in methanol-water were grafted onto cellulose acetate films by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting technique. The extent of total grafting was determined from the measured weight increase. The percent acrylamide residue in the graft copolymer was calculated from the observed nitrogen content but the polystyrene residue in the grafted sample was determined by IR spectral studies. When the specific permeability of water vapour through the grafted films is measured, it is observed that the specific permeability increases with the increase of grafting of acrylamide in all humidities, but in case of styrene which is a nonpolar molecule the permeability is found to show a reversed order. In the case of mixed graft the permeability pattern pertains to that when both styrene and acrylamide have their effective roles to play. (author)

  20. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  1. Evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on Piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Richu; Ganguli, Abhijit; Ghosh, Moushumi; Sohal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of Piper betle leaves were determined. Betel leaves artificially inoculated with Aeromonas, Salmonella and Yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. Pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees C, indicating a residual antimicrobial effect on pathogen during storage. Antioxidant potential ethanolic extracts of both raw and treated P. betle leaves were assayed for free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Polyphenols, flavonoids and the reducing power of treated and untreated P. betle were also compared. No significant (P>0.05) changes were observed in antioxidant status; flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing power of treated betel leaves. Results indicate the feasibility of a simple intervention strategy for inactivating pathogens in edible leaves of P. betle.

  2. Radiation chemical grafting of vinyl acetate and styrene on nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapiro, A.; Foex, M.; Jendrychowska-Bonamour, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Vinyl acetate and styrene were grafted onto nitrocellulose using the direct radiation grafting technique with 500 and 3000 Ci 60 Co γ sources. For vinyl acetate, the reaction proceeds homogeneously. The kinetics are dominated by degradative chain transfer to the nitrocellulose. The polymerization of vinyl acetate was examined in the presence of isoamyl nitrate, a model for nitrocellulose; the transfer constant was determined and the results are treated semi-quantitatively. For styrene, grafting occurs in a swollen film irradiated in the presence of excess monomer. The diffusion of styrene into nitrocellulose is extremely slow; methanol was added to the reaction mixture to favour diffusion which was found to obey Fick's law. The diffusion constant and activation energy of diffusion are evaluated. The grafting kinetics are controlled by monomer diffusion, accounting for the increase of dose-rate exponent with temperature. A spontaneous grafting process occurs in the absence of irradiation. It is initiated by macroradicals arising from thermal decomposition of nitrocellulose. (author)

  3. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  4. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclic Acetalization of Furfural on Porous Aluminosilicate Acid Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous aluminosilicate materials included microporous and mesoporous ZSM-5, hierarchical aluminosilicates, and mesoporous aluminosilicate were tested for acetalization of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde with propylene glycol. The existing synthesis methods for aluminosilicate and ZSM-5 were modified to produce aluminosilicate material with hierarchical porous structure. Catalytic activity in acetalization of furfural by propylene glycol were conducted by refluxed of the mixture of furfural, propylene glycol and catalyst, using toluene as solvent and nitrobenzene as internal standard, at 106 °C for 4 h. The result showed that a combination of two structure directing agents, tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and modification of catalytic crystallization produced an active aluminosilicate framework that provides a wide access for a bulky reactants and strong acid sites to catalyze the reaction. The pore structure and the strength of the Brønsted acid sites were crucial for the high conversion of furfural to produce a cyclic acetal.

  6. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A.; Pedreira, Walter dos R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd 2 O 3 in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in μg g -1 : Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  7. Captive solvent [11C]acetate synthesis in GMP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, Dmitri; Tamburella, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Reliable procedure for the production of 1-[ 11 C]acetate in GMP conditions was developed based on a combination of the captive-solvent Grignard reaction conducted in the sterile catheter followed by the convenient solid-phase extraction purification on a series of ion-exchange cartridges. The described procedure proved to be reliable in more than 30 patient productions. The process provides stable radiochemical yields (65% EOB) of sodium acetate (1-[ 11 C]) of the Ph.Eur. quality (radiochemical purity better than 95%) in a short time (5 min)

  8. Mixed ligand lanthanide complexes with dipivaloylmethane and acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu Fehnkhua; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Mazo, G.N.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1995-01-01

    Methods of elemental, X-ray phase, thermal analyses and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize solid products, formed in MDpm 3 -HAcet-H-hexane systems (M = Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er, Yb, HDpm -dipivaloylmethane, HAcet - acetic acid). It was established that prepared mixed ligand complexes (MLC) had MDpm 2 Acet composition for all studied rare earths. Differenced in properties of cerium and yttrium rare earths are manifested in processes of MLC thermal dissociation, proceeding at low pressure and 170 deg C. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Synthese und Charakterisierung wasserfreier Seltenerdmetall-Nitrate, -Acetate und -Oxyacetate

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrichs, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Durch thermische Entwässerung der Seltenerdmetall(SE)-Nitrat-Hydrate und der SE-Acetat-Hydrate im Argon-Strom/Vakuum konnten wasserfreie SE-Nitrate und SE-Nitrat-Monohydrate bzw. wasserfreie SE-Acetate erhalten werden. Es gelang zudem, SE-Oxyacetate durch thermische Zersetzung der SE-Acetate darzustellen. Des Weiteren wurde beim Erhitzen von Praseodym-Carbonat-Hydrat ein Pr-Carbonat-Hydroxid erhalten. Die Verbindungen wurden mittels Röntgenpulverdiffraktometrie und an ausgewählten Beispielen ...

  10. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.......05 of the emulsifier concentration, but independent of the initiator concentration. The limiting viscosity number of the polymers produced was independent of the initiator concentration and number of polymer particles. It is suggested that the mechanism of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization is similar...

  11. [Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain.

  12. Surface decontamination studies using polyvinyl acetate based strippable polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl acetate based strippable polymer has been developed for surface decontamination. Stainless steel, mild steel, polyvinyl chloride and rubber have been selected as candidate materials for the radioactive decontamination studies. The ease of strippability and homogeneity of the polymer coating has been studied using infrared spectrophotometer. Decontamination of used radioactive respirator has been carried out and the peels obtained have been subjected to leaching and incineration studies. The infrared spectrophotometric studies also have been conducted to study the interaction between polyvinyl acetate and ions, like cesium, strontium and cobalt. (author)

  13. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  14. [Determination of buprofezin, methamidophos, acephate, and triazophos residues in Chinese tea samples by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiba; Yi, Jun; Ye, Jianglei; Zheng, Wenhui; Cai, Xueqin; Gong, Zhenbin

    2004-03-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of buprofezin, methamidophos, acephate and triazophos residues in Chinese tea samples. The pesticide residues were extracted from tea samples with a mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane (50:50, v/v) at 45 degrees C. The extracts were subsequently treated with a column packed with 40 mg of active carbon by gradient elution with ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Buprofenzin and the three organophosphorus pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography using a DB-210 capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The recoveries for spiked standards were 73.4%-96.9%. The relative standard deviations were all within 4.63%. The limits of quantitation (3sigma) in the tea samples were about 7.0-12.0 microg/kg.

  15. Density, refraction index and vapor–liquid equilibria of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate plus (methyl acetate or ethyl acetate or propyl acetate) at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, V.H.; Mattedi, S.; Aznar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities, refraction indices and VLE were measured for ester + m-2-HEAB mixtures. ► V E , apparent molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. ► Peng–Robinson EoS + Wong–Sandler mixing rule + COSMO-SAC predicted the data. -- Abstract: This paper reports the densities, refraction indices, and vapor liquid equilibria for binary systems ester + N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m-2-HEAB): methyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2), ethyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB and propyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2). The excess molar volumes, deviations in the refraction index, apparent molar volumes, and thermal expansion coefficients for the binary systems were fitted to polynomial equations. The Peng–Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, is used to describe the experimental data. Since the predictive activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the vapor–liquid equilibria have a deviation lower than 1.0% and 1.1%, respectively

  16. Preparation of Thermoplastic Poly (vinyl Alcohol), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Vinyl Acetate Versatic Ester Blends for Exterior Masonry Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Nahas, H.H.; Gad, Y.H.; Magida, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Blend systems including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and vinyl acetate versatic copolymer latex (VAcVe) were prepared and used as exterior coatings. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated using a testo meter, shore hardness tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water resistance of the samples was measured. Effect of ionizing irradiation on gel content, tensile strength and surface hardness were also followed. The blend offers binder base for exterior masonry coating systems having superior water resistant and mechanical properties

  17. Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzesi, I.; Susan, M.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

  18. [Simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus by headspace gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyao; Wu, Dike; Sun, Jinhong; Ye, Ruhan; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    A headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven residual solvents (petroleum ether (60-90 degrees C), acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, methylene chloride, ethanol and butyl acetate) in bovis calculus artifactus. The DB-WAX capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) were used for the separation and detection of the residual solvents, and the internal standard method was used for the quantification. The chromatographic conditions, such as equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, all of the seven residual solvents showed good linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.999 3) in the prescribed concentration range. At three spiked levels, the recoveries for the seven residual solvents were 94.7%-105.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0.43-5.23 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.25-16.67 mg/L. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the seven residual solvents in bovis calculus artifactus.

  19. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enriched yeast) and vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets enriched in n-3 PUFAs using fish oil. Day-old Hubbard-JV strain broiler chicks allocated to one ...

  20. Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and Phosphate by a Diacylhydrazine. Ligand via the Formation of a Colour Alkali Metal Complex. Purnandhu Bose, Ranjan Dutta, I. Ravikumar and Pradyut Ghosh. ∗. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja ...

  1. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared ... from solution [3]. In this regard possibilities for the potential use of chitosan as an absorption enhancer in the more basic environment of the large intestine, colon and ..... impregnation of ophthalmic drugs on chitosan.

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200 Section 584.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  3. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I ... Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India ...

  4. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, J.I.; Saad, M.H.; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L−1 min−1 at 10 mg L−1 concentration, using the following

  5. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  6. Protective role of flaxseed oil against lead acetate induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the toxic effects of lead compounds had been studied over many years, inconsistent results have been obtained about their oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) alters the histology of testes as well as enhances lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and testes ...

  7. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  8. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  9. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  10. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A.; Timmers, P.H.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Weijma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its

  11. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shell) Neobuccinum living in the Antarctic ice-covered sea. An open reading frame of 1203 bp, coding for acetate kinase gene, called ack, was amplified, cloned into the expression vector, pETY-16b, and the enzyme was overproduced by ...

  12. In situ acetate separation in microbial electrosynthesis from CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Burg, van den Bart; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Wever, De Heleen; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Pant, Deepak; Strik, David P.B.T.B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to multi-carbon organic compounds particularly acetate has been achieved in microbial electrosynthesis (MES) using the reducing equivalents produced at the electrically polarized cathode. MES based on CO2 reduction

  13. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  14. Inhibition of the anaerobic acetate degradation by formate

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Ramirez, F.

    1989-01-01

    Granular sludge from an UASB reactor fed with VFA showed a very low affinity for formate which provide little support to the theory of interspecies formate transfer. It is shown that formate can inhibit acetate degradation by anaerobic sludge. (Résumé d'auteur)

  15. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mechanism of the reaction involves prior complex formation between the catalyst and substrate, hydrazide, followed by its oxidation by diprotonated bromate in a slow step. Acetic acid was found to be the oxidation product. Other kinetic data like effect of solvent polarity and ionic strength on the reaction support the ...

  16. Cyproterone acetate in the treatment of oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yvonne; Bradford, Jennifer; Fischer, Gayle

    2018-02-01

    Oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis is a rare chronic cyclical vulvovaginitis responsive to oestrogen suppression or antagonism. We present a case series of 16 patients with refractory cyclical vulvovaginitis, all of whom responded to oestrogen suppression with cyproterone acetate. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  17. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work contributes to the knowledge of the phytobacteria diversity in aquatic plants, particularly in Lemnaceae species; here the majority of the isolates have been characterized as higher indole acetic acid producers, recommended as candidates for their use as biofertilizers. Key words: Plant growth-promoting bacteria, ...

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  19. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  20. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... Acetic acid bacteria in Côte d'Ivoire cocoa fermentation ... Six day heap fermentation on banana leaves was conducted at farm level ... reactions responsible for the final quality of the ... harvested from Agboville (geographic coordinates 5°59' .... Figure 1: Evolution of temperature (A) and pH (B) during cocoa ...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and for various stress conditions when corticosteroids are required while the animal is being treated... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1881 Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension. (a) Specifications. Each...

  2. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  3. Topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatment after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S; Ozoğul, C; Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the effects of topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatments on corneal healing response after -10.0 D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits. Thirty-three New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups and -10 D PRK was performed under in vivo conditions. Following PRK, group 1 (n = 9) received no topical treatment and served as control. Group 2 (n = 8) received 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate ointment twice a day, group 3 (n = 8) received 1% vitamin E ointment and group 4 (n = 8) received both 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% vitamin E twice a day for a month. At the end of the third month, corneal haze was graded and the corneal hydroxyproline levels were measured, as a crude indicator of new collagen synthesis. Finally corneal samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Non-homogeneously distributed strong haze was identified in group 1 which was greater than in the other groups; haze was least in groups 2 and 4. Corneal hydroxyproline levels were found to be significantly lower in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared with the control (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). Histopathologically, the most aggressive wound healing response was detected in group 1. The corneal wound healing response of group 2 was less than that of group 1 and equal to or more than that of group 4. Deep corneal photoablation induces an aggressive healing response, and topical hydrocortisone acetate reduces this corneal wound healing effectively. The inhibitory effect of topical vitamin E on corneal wound healing seems to be less than that of hydrocortisone acetate, but combined treatment with these two drugs may have an additive effect in controlling corneal wound healing after PRK.

  4. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim; Lee, Pat M.; Lee, Kong H.

    2008-01-01

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  5. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  6. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  7. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  8. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogr...

  9. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  10. Kinetic stability of the dysprosium(3) complex with tetraazaporphine in acetic acid-water and acetic acid-methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelevina, O.G.; Vojnov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble dysprosium tetraazaporphine with acetylacetonate-ion as extraligand is synthesized for the first time. Its kinetic stability in acetic acid solutions is investigated. It is shown that the complex is dissociated with formation of free tetraazaporphine. Kinetic parameters of dissociation reaction are determined [ru

  11. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  12. New kaolinite phases expanded through intercalation with potassium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, R.L.; Kristof, J.; Kloprogge, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Changes in the hydroxyl surfaces of potassium acetate-intercalated kaolinite have been studied over the ambient to predehydroxylation temperature range using a combination of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Upon intercalation, the kaolinite expanded along the c-axis direction to 13.88 Angstroms. Upon heating the intercalation complex over the 50 to 300 deg C range, X-ray diffraction shows the existence of three additional intercalation phases with d-spacings of 9.09, 9.60, and 11.47 Angstroms. The amount of each phase is temperature dependent. These expansions are reversible and upon cooling the intercalation complex returned to its original spacing. The 13.88 Angstroms phase only existed in the presence of water. It is proposed that the expanded kaolinite intercalation phases result from the orientation of the acetate within the intercalation complex. The Raman spectra of the hydroxyl-stretching region (Frost and van der Gaast, 1997) of potassium acetate-intercalated kaolinite has been obtained under an atmosphere of both air and nitrogen using a thermal stage over the 25 to 300 deg C temperature range (Johansson et al., 1998). Raman spectra of the C-C, C=O stretching and O-C-O bending modes show that at least two types of acetate are present in the intercalation complex. These are assigned to two different orientations of the acetate. At 25 deg C, a new band at 3606 cm -1 attributed to the inner surface hydroxyl hydrogen bonded to the acetate ion is observed with a concomitant loss of intensity in the bands attributed to the inner surface hydroxyls (Frost and Kristof, 1997, Frost et al.,1997). Heating the intercalation complex to 50 deg C results in two hydroxyl-stretching frequencies at 3594 and 3604 cm -1 . This change in frequencies is ascribed to phase changes of the potassium acetate-intercalated kaolinite. At 100 deg C, the bands shift to 3600 and 3613 cm -1 . These shifts in frequencies are assigned to new kaolinite expanded phases. At

  13. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  14. Identification of novel potential acetate-oxidizing bacteria in an acetate-fed methanogenic chemostat based on DNA stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Zhong; Gou, Min; Yi, Yue; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin

    2018-05-11

    Acetate is a significant intermediate of anaerobic fermentation. There are two pathways for converting acetate to CH 4 and CO 2 : acetoclastic methanogenesis by acetoclastic methanogens, and syntrophic acetate oxidation by acetate-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Detailed investigations of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) should contribute to the elucidation of the microbial mechanisms of methanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology. The results indicated that acetoclastic methanogenesis and acetate oxidization/hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis coexisted in the mesophilic chemostat fed with acetate, operated at a dilution rate of 0.1 d -1 . OTU Ace13(9-17) (KU869530), Ace13(9-4) (KU667241), and Ace13(9-23) (KU667236), assigned to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were probably potential SAOB in the chemostat, which needs further investigation. Species in the phyla Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria were probably capable of utilizing acetate for their growth. Methanoculleus was likely to be the preferred hydrogenotrophic methanogen for syntrophy with AOB in the chemostat.

  15. Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS-related cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roenn, J H; Armstrong, D; Kotler, D P; Cohn, D L; Klimas, N G; Tchekmedyian, N S; Cone, L; Brennan, P J; Weitzman, S A

    1994-09-15

    To compare the effects of oral suspensions of megestrol acetate, 800 mg/d, and placebo on body weight in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related weight loss. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient community and university patient care setting. Consecutive patients with AIDS who had substantial weight loss and anorexia were enrolled. Of 271 patients, 270 and 195 were evaluable for safety and efficacy, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or megestrol acetate (100 mg, 400 mg, or 800 mg) daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy criterion was weight gain. Patients were evaluated at 4-week intervals for changes in weight and body composition, caloric intake, sense of well-being, toxic effects, and appetite. For evaluable patients receiving 800 mg of megestrol acetate per day, 64.2% gained 2.27 kg (5 pounds) or more compared with 21.4% of patients receiving placebo (P < 0.001). An intent-to-treat analysis showed significant differences (P = 0.002) between those receiving placebo and those receiving 800 mg of megestrol acetate for the number of patients who gained 2.27 kg (5 pounds) or more (8 of 32 [25%] compared with 38 of 61 [62.3%], respectively). Compared with patients receiving placebo at the time of maximum weight change, evaluable patients receiving megestrol acetate, 800 mg/d, reported improvement in overall well-being and had an increase in mean weight gain (-0.725 compared with 3.54 kg [-1.6 compared with +7.8 pounds]; P < 0.001), lean body mass (-0.772 compared with +1.14 kg [-1.7 compared with +2.5 pounds]; P < 0.001), appetite grade (P < 0.001), and caloric intake (-107 compared with +645.6 calories/d; P = 0.001). In patients with AIDS-related weight loss, megestrol acetate can stimulate appetite, food intake, and statistically significant weight gain that is associated with a patient-reported improvement in an overall sense of well-being.

  16. Conformational changes associated with the binding of zinc acetate at the putative active site of XcTcmJ, a cupin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Kozbial, Piotr; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Tien, Henry J.; Trout, Christina V.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of an RmlC-type cupin with zinc acetate bound at the putative active site reveals significant differences from a previous structure without any bound ligand. The functional implications of the ligand-induced conformational changes are discussed. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the product of the tcmJ gene, XcTcmJ, encodes a protein belonging to the RmlC family of cupins. XcTcmJ was crystallized in a monoclinic space group (C2) in the presence of zinc acetate and the structure was determined to 1.6 Å resolution. Previously, the apo structure has been reported in the absence of any bound metal ion [Chin et al. (2006 ▶), Proteins, 65, 1046–1050]. The most significant difference between the apo structure and the structure of XcTcmJ described here is a reorganization of the binding site for zinc acetate, which was most likely acquired from the crystallization solution. This site is located in the conserved metal ion-binding domain at the putative active site of XcTcmJ. In addition, an acetate was also bound within coordination distance of the zinc. In order to accommodate this binding, rearrangement of a conserved histidine ligand is required as well as several nearby residues within and around the putative active site. These observations indicate that binding of zinc serves a functional role in this cupin protein

  17. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes

  18. The effective reaction of 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline and acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formylquinolines in a single step by treating with sodium acetate and acetic acid under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds have been established by IR, NMR and mass spectral data. Unexpectedly ...

  19. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  20. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  1. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  2. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  3. Suppression of linalool acetate production in Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautels, Amy; Biswas, Kamal; Lane, Alexander; Boeckelmann, Astrid; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2009-11-01

    Linalool acetate, one of the major constituent of several essential oils, is heat-labile and decomposes upon exposure to the high injector temperature during gas chromatography. Here we report the development of an improved method for detection of this compound by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) using cold on-column injection of the sample. By using this sensitive method, it has been demonstrated that a lavandin (L. x intermedia) mutant accumulates trace quantities of linalool acetate and camphor and higher amounts of cineole and borneol compared to its parent. This plant, which very likely carries a point mutation in one or more of the genes involved in essential oil production, provides a unique tool for investigating regulation of essential oil biogenesis in plants.

  4. Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-26

    The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH═CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated.

  5. Measurement of acetates in air using differential ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Zajiczek, Żaneta; Maziejuk, Mirosław

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds are one of the most important group of air pollutants. Potential health and environmental problems resulting from their emission prompted the requirement for monitoring these species. It motivates development of new measurement techniques which are fast, cost effective, reliable and field deployable. One of novel approaches is ion mobility spectrometry. It dwells on ion separation in electric field, based on differences in ion mobility. Many variants of this method are developed. In this wok, differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) was considered in respect of acetate measurements in air. It was demonstrated that DMS offers linear response to methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl acetate in concentration range from 0.3 ppm to 7 ppm. Positive ions spectrum has to be utilised for this purpose. We showed that fragments of DMS spectrum which secure linearity are compound-specific. The obtained results are promising from the application point of view.

  6. First total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol and its acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, C; Miyakoshi, N; Hanaoka, M

    2001-08-24

    The first and stereoselective total syntheses of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2) were achieved by incorporation of the two chiral centers of diethyl L-tartrate. The starting diethyl L-tartrate was converted into trans-2-ethynyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran 14 in a stereoselective manner via the endo mode cyclization of the epoxy-alkyne derivative 12. The alcohol 12 was then transformed into (E)-iodoolefin derivative 15, which was exposed to a coupling reaction with 1-tributylstannyl-1,3,5-heptyne (19), derived from the corresponding 1-trimethylsilyl-1,3,5-heptyne (18), under Stille conditions to produce the all-carbon framework of the target natural products. Chemical modification of the coupled product 20 under conventional conditions completed the first total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2).

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    Six strains of thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from different full-scale thermophilic biogas plants in China and Denmark. The strain isolated from the Chinese biogas plant was designated KN-6P and the isolates from the Danish full-scale biogas plants were......, utilizing the substrates acetate, methanol and methylamines but not hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Strain Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P was able to grow mixotrophically on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide with methane formation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurring after methanol depletion. All six...... designated HG-1P, LVG-4P R1-1P, SO-2P and V-1P. The isolates were characterized morphologically and physiologically, and their immunological and phylogenetic relatedness to already known isolated strains were established. All isolated strains were identified as organisms belonging to genus Methanosarcina...

  8. Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-06-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  9. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

  10. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  11. Vacuum FTIR study on the hygroscopicity of magnesium acetate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Cai, Chen; He, Xiang; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are two important properties, which determine the composition, concentration, size, phase state of SOA and thus chemical and optical properties for SOA. In this work, magnesium acetate (Mg(Ac)2) aerosol was used as a simple SOA model in order to reveal relationship between hygroscopicity and volatility. A novel approach was set up based on a combination of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a home-made relative humidity (RH) controlling system. The striking advantage of this approach was that the RH and the compositions of aerosols could be obtained from a same IR spectrum, which guaranteed the synchronism between RH and spectral features on a sub-second scale. At the constant RH of 90% and 80% for 3000 s, the water content within Mg(Ac)2 aerosol particles decreased about 19.0% and 9.4% while there were 13.4% and 6.0% of acetate loss. This was attributed to a cooperation between volatile of acetic acid and Mg2 + hydrolysis in Mg(Ac)2 aerosols, which greatly suppressed the hygroscopicity of Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. When the RH changed with pulsed mode between 70% and 90%, hygroscopicity relaxation was observed for Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Diffuse coefficient of water in the relaxation process was estimated to be 5 × 10- 12 m2·s- 1 for the Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Combining the IR spectra analysis, the decrease in the diffuse coefficient of water was due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide accompanying acetic acid evaporation in the aerosols.

  12. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    OpenAIRE

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial ...

  13. Tuning magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12 -acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S.; Wen, Bo; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using micron-sized Hall sensor arrays to obtain time-resolved measurements of the local magnetization, we report a systematic study in the molecular magnet Mn12 acetate of magnetic avalanches controllably triggered in different fixed external magnetic fields and for different values of the initial magnetization. The speeds of propagation of the spin-reversal fronts are in good overall agreement with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)].

  14. Propagation of avalanches in Mn12-acetate: magnetic deflagration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M P; Chudnovsky, E M; McHugh, S; Gonzalez-Rubio, R; Avraham, Nurit; Myasoedov, Y; Zeldov, E; Shtrikman, H; Chakov, N E; Christou, G

    2005-09-30

    Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

  15. FTIR studies of chitosan acetate based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Arof, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. As such, depending on the degree of deacetylation, the carbonyl, C=O-NHR band can be observed at ∼1670 cm -1 and the amine, NH 2 band at 1590 cm -1 . When lithium triflate is added to chitosan to form a film of chitosan acetate-salt complex, the bands assigned to chitosan in the complex and the spectrum as a whole shift to lower wavenumbers. The carbonyl band is observed to shift to as low as 1645 cm -1 and the amine band to as low as 1560 cm -1 . These indicate chitosan-salt interactions. Also present are the bands due to lithium triflate i.e. ∼761, 1033, 1182 and 1263 cm -1 . When chitosan and ethylene carbonate (EC) are dissolved in acetic acid to form a film of plasticized chitosan acetate, the bands in the infrared spectrum of the films do not show any significant shift indicating that EC does not interact with chitosan. EC-LiCF 3 SO 3 interactions are indicated by the shifting of the C-O bending band from 718 cm -1 in the spectrum of EC to 725 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. The Li + -EC is also evident in the ring breathing region at 893 cm -1 in the pure EC spectrum. This band has shifted to 898 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. C=O stretching in the doublet observed at 1774 and 1803 cm -1 in the spectrum of pure EC has shifted to 1777 and 1808 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum

  16. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  17. Chemical study of ethyl Acetate fraction of Picrasma Javanica Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hainil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-1 main compound from ethyl acetate fraction of kayu pahit bark (Picrasma Javanica B1 has been isolated and characterized with colom chromatography and continued with preparative chromatography. According to analized from spectrum data used ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, infra red (IR, 1H RMI (Resonansi Magnet Inti, 13 C RMI, Massa , COSY (Correlated Spectroscopy, HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation, HMBC ( Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation and literature study showed that the compound of isolation was javanicin A.

  18. Analysing chemical equilibrium conditions when studying butyl acetate synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño; Fernando Leiva Lenis; Luis Alejandro Boyacá Mendivelso; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis María Carballo Suárez

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the liquid phase of acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm = 560 mmHg),using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431) as catalyst. A set of assays were carried out for determining the effect of catalyst load, temperature and molar ratio (acid/alcohol) on chemical equilibrium constant. Components’ selective sorption on the resin matrix was noticed; its effect on equilibrium conditions was verified, by using different acid/alcohol starting ratios. A non-ide...

  19. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  20. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C. [Center of Excellence on Natural Rubber Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2016-03-09

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content were measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.

  1. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  2. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 3 H, 14 C, 125 I and 45 Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  3. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C. [Centro de Biologia Molecular, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: {sup 32}P,{sup 33}P, {sup 35}S,{sup 3}H,{sup 14}C,{sup 125}I and {sup 45}Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  4. The photochemistry of ring-substituted cinnamyl acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.A.; Renault, L.; Grundy, E.C.; Pincock, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The photochemistry of the (E)-cinnamyl acetates ((E)-1-aryl-3-propenyl acetates, 8a-8e) with substituents H, 4-CH 3 O, 3-CH 3 O, 4-CF 3 , and 3-CF 3 , respectively, was examined in both cyclohexane and methanol solvents. Alkene isomerization (E to Z) occurred more efficiently than other reactions and evidence is presented that this process occurs from the excited triplet state. In a slower process, 1,3-migration of the acetoxy group led to the rearranged 3-aryl-3-propenyl acetate isomers (9a-9e) as the major pathway, particularly in cylohexane. In methanol, the isomeric ethers 3-aryl-3-methoxypropene (14) and 1-aryl-3-methoxypropene (15) were formed by reaction of methanol with the photochemically generated cation. The combined yield of 14 and 15 (95% and 5%, respectively) was quantitative for the 4-methoxyphenyl compound (8b). Independent irradiations of the isomers 9a-9c demonstrated that the ethers 14 and 15 were primary photoproducts from 8 and not secondary photoproducts from 9. Fluorescence quantum yields and excited singlet state lifetimes indicated that the reactions, other than the E to Z isomerization, are from the excited singlet state. (author)

  5. Acetate enhances startup of a H₂-producing microbial biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3)  reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, N.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2- 14 C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for 14 C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 deg. C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 deg. C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of 14 C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. (authors)

  7. Methanogenic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria co-cultured on acetate: teamwork or coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozuolmez, D.; Na, H.; Lever, M.A.; Kjeldsen, K.U.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Plugge, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate is a major product of fermentation processes and an important substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Most studies on acetate catabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens have used pure cultures. Less is known about acetate conversion by mixed pure cultures and

  8. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  9. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  10. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  11. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qiuxia [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; College; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Cooper, Alan R. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Wang, Jian-guo [College; Albrecht, Karl O. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Mei, Donghai [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest

    2017-12-13

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxyl groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  12. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  13. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  14. Effect of various solvents on the viscosity-average molecular weight of poly (vinyl acetate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, W.U.; But, M.A.; Chughtai, A.; Jamil, T.; Sattar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solution polymerization of Vinyl Acetate was carried out in various solvents (benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile). Dilute solution viscometry was used to determine the viscosity-average molecular weight of the resulting Poly (Vinyl Acetate) (PV Ac) in each case. The viscosity-average molecular weight (M,J of PVAc was found to increase in the order benzene < toluene < ethyl acetate < acetonitrile, It was concluded that under the same reaction conditions (polymerization time, initiator quantity, solvent/monomer ratio, temperature), acetonitrile served as the best solvent for solution. polymerization of Vinyl Acetate monomer. (author)

  15. X-ray diffraction studies of chitosan acetate-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. This paper presents the x-ray diffraction patterns of chitosan acetate, plasticised chitosan acetate and plasticised-salted chitosan acetate films. The results show that the chitosan acetate based polymer electrolyte films are not completely amorphous but it is partially crystalline. X-ray diffraction study also confirms the occurrence of the complexation between chitosan and the salt and the interaction between salt and plasticizer. The salt-chitosan interaction is clearly justified by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  16. Methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri: Catalysis of acetate formation from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/ by the enzyme system involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, K; Eikmanns, B; Frimmer, U; Thauer, R K

    1987-04-01

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri grown on acetate catalyze the formation of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate as well as an isotopic exchange between the carboxyl group of acetate and CO/sub 2/. Here we report that these cells also mediate the synthesis of acetate from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and reducing equivalents (H/sub 2/ or CO), the methyl group of acetate being derived from methyl iodide and the carboxyl group from CO/sub 2/. Methyl chloride and methyltosylate but not methanol can substitute for methyl iodide in this reaction. Acetate formation from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and reducing equivalents is coupled with the phosphorylation of ADP. Evidence is presented that methyl iodide is incorporated into the methyl group of acetate via a methyl corrinoid intermediate (deduced from inhibition experiments with propyl iodide) and that CO/sub 2/ is assimilated into the carboxyl group via a C/sub 1/ intermediate which does not exchange with free formate or free CO. The effects of protonophores, of the proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and of arsenate on acetate formation are interpreted to indicate that the reduction of CO/sub 2/ to the oxidation level of the carboxyl group of acetate requires the presence of an electrochemical proton potential and that acetyl-CoA or acetyl-phosphate rather than free acetate is the immediate product of the condensation reaction. These results are dicsussed with respect to the mechanism of methanogenesis from acetate.

  17. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  18. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Chen, Yifei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The scission of C–OH bond of acetic acid is the rate-determined step in acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111). • Acetic acid adsorption and reaction barrier of C–OH scission of acetic acid are factors related to acetic acid conversion. • Acetaldehyde adsorption and reaction barriers of O–H formation of C_2–oxygenates are factors related to ethanol selectivity. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH_3COOH → CH_3CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for O−H bond formation of C_2-oxygenates (CH_3CO + H → CH_3COH, CH_3CHO + H → CH_3CHOH and CH_3CH_2O + H → CH_3CH_2OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  19. Improved adaptation of test with lanthanum nitrate for the colorimetric estimation of acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, T [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the determination of acetate based on the production of the blue complex between iodine and lanthanum alkaline acetate has been developed. Optimum concentrations of reagents (acetate, lanthanum nitrate, iodine and ammonia) as well as the volume of acetate were selected to achieve best colour intensity. Coloured complex was stabilized by dilution of reagent mixture with water to the final volume convenient for determinaton. Absorbance of the complex can be measured immediately after dilution and any changes can be observed during at least 15 minutes. Elevation of temperature over 60/sup 0/decreases absorbance. The method fulfills the Beer's law in the range 1,5-3,5 ..mu..moles of acetate, precision of the method 2/sup +/ = 3,7%. Apart from acetate - propionate and fluoroacetate complex is 620 nm, propionate complex - at 590 nm. Propionate complex displayed any relationship between concentration and absorbance. Potassium, sodium, lithium and barium acetates give the identical results as acetic acid, whereas zinc and cupric acetates failed to react. Other derivatives tested, e.g. chloroacetate, trichloroacetate, iodoacetate, chloroporpionate and butyrate are unable to form the coloured complexes. Many compounds interfere with the formation of acetate complex, therefore, in material containing impurities acetate can be determined after purificaton by means of described in literature methods.

  20. [Interlaboratory Study on Evaporation Residue Test for Food Contact Products (Report 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Amano, Homare; Ishihara, Kinuyo; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Takasaka, Noriko; Takenaka, Yu; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Tonooka, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Watanabe, Kazunari; Sato, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using three food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid and 20% ethanol), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. For evaporation, a water bath was used in the official method, and a hot plate in the modified method. In most laboratories, the test solutions were heated until just prior to evaporation to dryness, and then allowed to dry under residual heat. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods, regardless of the heating equipment used. Accordingly, the modified method provides performance equal to the official method, and is available as an alternative method.

  1. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  2. Methylprednisolone acetate induces, and Δ7-dafachronic acid suppresses, Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in NSG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, John B; Bonne-Année, Sandra; Deckman, Jessica; Hess, Jessica A; Torigian, April; Nolan, Thomas J; Wang, Zhu; Kliewer, Steven A; Durham, Amy C; Lee, James J; Eberhard, Mark L; Mangelsdorf, David J; Lok, James B; Abraham, David

    2018-01-02

    Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection causes high mortality rates in humans, and, while hyperinfection can be induced by immunosuppressive glucocorticoids, the pathogenesis remains unknown. Since immunocompetent mice are resistant to infection with S. stercoralis , we hypothesized that NSG mice, which have a reduced innate immune response and lack adaptive immunity, would be susceptible to the infection and develop hyperinfection. Interestingly, despite the presence of large numbers of adult and first-stage larvae in S. stercoralis -infected NSG mice, no hyperinfection was observed even when the mice were treated with a monoclonal antibody to eliminate residual granulocyte activity. NSG mice were then infected with third-stage larvae and treated for 6 wk with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), a synthetic glucocorticoid. MPA treatment of infected mice resulted in 50% mortality and caused a significant >10-fold increase in the number of parasitic female worms compared with infected untreated mice. In addition, autoinfective third-stage larvae, which initiate hyperinfection, were found in high numbers in MPA-treated, but not untreated, mice. Remarkably, treatment with Δ7-dafachronic acid, an agonist of the parasite nuclear receptor Ss -DAF-12, significantly reduced the worm burden in MPA-treated mice undergoing hyperinfection with S. stercoralis Overall, this study provides a useful mouse model for S. stercoralis autoinfection and suggests a therapeutic strategy for treating lethal hyperinfection.

  3. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  4. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  5. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  6. Coagulation performance of a novel poly-ferric-acetate (PFC) coagulant in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yanxin; Lu, Jinpeng; Dong, Xiongzi; Yao, Chengli [Hefei Normal University, Hefei (China); Hao, Jianwen [Anhui Vocational and Technical College, Hefei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The process of coagulation-flocculation is increasingly applied in wastewater treatment. And the polymerized inorganic coagulants are widely used among these coagulation-flocculation processes. However, conventional coagulants using sulfates or chlorides as counter anion may give rise to corrosion. The purpose of this study was to synthesize PFC coagulants in which acetate is used as counter anion. The influences on the preparation of PFC were optimized. The synthesis was done at the optimum conditions, such as temperature of 60 .deg. C, the Fe/CH{sub 3}COOH molar ratio of 1 : 4.0 and reaction time of 6 h, respectively. The prepared PFC coagulants were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PFC was found to mainly form complexation polymeric species and present more cluster and lamellar structure. A series of jar tests were carried out to study the coagulation performance of PFC and PFS in phosphate-kaolin synthetic water treatment. Results showed that the coagulation performance of PFC was more efficient than PFS's in terms of the phosphorus removal efficiency and the residual turbidity. Due to using acetate as counter anion to iron, PFC is less harmful to the processes of water treatment and equipment than that of the conventional coagulants applied chlorides or sulfates. Therefore, PFC is a promising coagulant in the process of corrosion sensitive applications and the process of wastewater containing phosphorus treatment.

  7. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  8. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. E.; Torres Neto, A. B.; Silva, W. B.; Silva, F. L. H.; Swarnakar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent v...

  9. [Use of cyproterone acetate in the treatment of acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero Martín, J; Acosta, H

    1982-01-01

    Forty two female patients with strong acne and oiliness were studied all of them were treated with a tablet daily of 2 mg. of cyprosterone Acetate and 0.05 mg of ethinyl oestradiol for 3 weeks and a week without it. We found intolerance to the treatment in 9 out of 42 patients and a high percentage of cure or marked improvement in 96.9% of patients. In conclusion this drug is a good help to the treatment of female acne with seborrheic skin.

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure analysis of uranyl triple acetates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepov, Vladislav V., E-mail: vladislavklepov@gmail.com [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Samara National Research University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Serezhkina, Larisa B.; Serezhkin, Victor N. [Department of Chemistry, Samara National Research University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Alekseev, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.alekseev@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of triple acetates NaR[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (R=Mg, Co, Ni, Zn), well-known for their use as reagents for sodium determination, were grown from aqueous solutions and their structural and spectroscopic properties were studied. Crystal structures of the mentioned phases are based upon (Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}){sup 2–} clusters and [R(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} aqua-complexes. The cooling of a single crystal of NaMg[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O from 300 to 100 K leads to a phase transition from trigonal to monoclinic crystal system. Intermolecular interactions between the structural units and their mutual packing were studied and compared from the point of view of the stereoatomic model of crystal structures based on Voronoi-Dirichlet tessellation. Using this method we compared the crystal structures of the triple acetates with Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}] and [R(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}][UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and proposed reasons of triple acetates stability. Infrared and Raman spectra were collected and their bands were assigned. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of uranium based triple acetates, analytical reagents for sodium determination, were synthesized and structurally, spectroscopically and topologically characterized. The structures were compared with the structures of compounds from preceding families [M(H{sub 2}O){sub 6})][UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (M = Mg, Co, Ni, Zn) and Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]. Analysis was performed with the method of molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra to reveal a large contribution of the hydrogen bonds into intermolecular interactions which can be a reason of low solubility of studied complexes.

  11. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  12. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  13. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  14. Chemical radiolabeling of carboxyatractyloside by [14C]acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.R.; Pougeois, R.; Vignais, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The authors report the synthesis and biological properties of a radiolabeled derivative of CAT obtained with acetylation of the primary alcohol of CAT with radiolabeled acetic anhydride. They also investigate the question of mutual exclusion of CAT and BA for binding to the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in double labeling experiments based on the use of [ 3 H]BA and [ 14 C]Ac-CAT. The results are consistent with the view that the ADP/ATP carrier possesses two separate interacting binding sites for AT (or CAT) and for BA. (Auth.)

  15. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño; Fernando Leiva Lenis; Luis Alejandro Boyacá Mendivelso; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis María Carballo Suárez

    2006-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar),using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431) as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w) temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C) and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol) on reaction rate was carrie...

  17. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of 59 Fe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of 59 Fe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals

  18. Ferrochelatase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: substrate specificity and role of sulfhydryl and arginyl residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, H.A.; Fleming, J.E.; Harbin, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Purified ferrochelatase from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides was examined to determine the roles of cationic and sulfhydryl residues in substrate binding. Reaction of the enzyme sulfhydryl residues with N-ethylmaleimide or monobromobimane resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity. Ferrous iron, but not porphyrin substrate, had a protective effect against inactivation by these two reagents. Quantitation with 3 H-labeled N-ethylmaleimide revealed that inactivation required one to two sulfhydryl groups to be modified. Modification of arginyl residues with either 2,3-butanedione or camphorquinone 10-sulfonate resulted in a loss of ferrochelatase activity. A kinetic analysis of the modified enzyme showed that the K/sub m/ for ferrous iron was not altered but that the K/sub m/ for the prophyrin substrate was increased. These data suggested that arginyl residues may be involved in porphyrin binding, possibly via charge pair interactions between the arginyl residue and the anionic porphyrin propionate side chain. Modification of lysyl residues had no effect on enzyme activity. The authors also examined the ability of bacterial ferrochelatase to use various 2,4-disubstituted porphyrins as substrates. The authors found that 2,4-bis-acetal- and 2,4-disulfonate deuteroporphyrins were effective substrates for the purified bacterial enzyme and that N-methylprotoporphyrin was an effective inhibitor of the enzyme. Data for the ferrochelatase of R. sphaeroides are compared with previously published data for the eucaryotic enzyme

  19. Characterization of acetate transport in colorectal cancer cells and potential therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Suellen; Azevedo-Silva, João; Casal, Margarida; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Baltazar, Fatima; Preto, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Acetate, together with other short chain fatty acids has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention/therapy. Acetate was shown to induce apoptosis in CRC cells. The precise mechanism underlying acetate transport across CRC cells membrane, that may be implicated in its selectivity towards CRC cells, is not fully understood and was addressed here. We also assessed the effect of acetate in CRC glycolytic metabolism and explored its use in combination with the glycolytic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). We provide evidence that acetate enters CRC cells by the secondary active transporters MCT1 and/or MCT2 and SMCT1 as well as by facilitated diffusion via aquaporins. CRC cell exposure to acetate upregulates the expression of MCT1, MCT4 and CD147, while promoting MCT1 plasma membrane localization. We also observed that acetate increases CRC cell glycolytic phenotype and that acetate-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect was potentiated by 3BP. Our data suggest that acetate selectivity towards CRC cells might be explained by the fact that aquaporins and MCTs are found overexpressed in CRC clinical cases. Our work highlights the importance that acetate transport regulation has in the use of drugs such as 3BP as a new therapeutic strategy for CRC. PMID:28874966

  20. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Kawazoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  1. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate.

  2. The Effect of Cellulose Acetate Concentration from Coconut Nira on Ultrafiltration Membrane Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulina, E.; Widyaningsih, S.; Kartika, D.; Romdoni, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cellulose acetate is one of material in produce ultrafiltration membrane. Many efforts have been done to produce cellulose acetate from natural product to replace commercial one. In this research, ultrafiltration membrane has been produced from coconut flower water (nira). Ultrafiltration membrane is widely used in separation processes. This research aims to determine the characteristics of ultrafiltration membrane at a various concentration of cellulose acetate. The ultrafiltration membrane is conducted by phase inversion method at various concentration of cellulose acetate. The cellulose acetate concentration was 20%, 23% and 25% (w/w) with formamide as additives. The results showed that the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate, the smaller the flux value. The highest flux was a membrane with 20% cellulose acetate concentration with water flux value 55.34 L/(m2. h). But the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate the greater the rejection. The highest rejection value was on a membrane with 25% cellulose acetate concentration of 82.82%. While from the tensile strength test and the pore size analysis, the greater the cellulose acetate concentration the greater the tensile strength and the smaller the pore size

  3. Associação da medroxiprogesterona ao protocolo Ovsynch para inseminação artificial em tempo fixo de búfalas cíclicas (Bubalus bubalis criadas na Amazônia Oriental The association of medroxyprogesterone to the Ovsynch protocol for the fixed time artificial insemination of cyclic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rossetto Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou avaliar os efeitos da associação da medroxiprogesterona (análogo sintético da progesterona ao protocolo Ovsynch sobre o crescimento folicular, a ovulação e a taxa de concepção de búfalas criadas na Amazônia Oriental (Tracuateua-PA. Vinte e sete fêmeas adultas (G1 n=14 e G2 n=13, cíclicas, sem bezerro ao pé e com ECC 3,5 foram submetidas a Ovsynch. Os animais do G2 receberam 60 mg de medroxiprogesterona entre D0 e D7 (D0=início do tratamento. A ultra-sonografia ovariana foi realizada nos D 0, 7, 9 e 10. O contingente de folículos pequenos diferiu no D7 (G1: 4,57±0,60 versus G2: 6,54±0,67; P=0,05. Tempo e tratamento influenciaram o diâmetro folicular no D7. O crescimento do folículo dominante entre D7 e D9 foi maior nos animais tratados (G1: 2,05±0,49 mm/dia versus 3,48±0,41 mm/dia; P0,05. Os achados sugerem que a medroxiprogesterona (1 aumenta recrutamento folicular e retarda o crescimento dos folículos com diâmetro maior que 5,0 mm entre D0 e D7; (2 sua retirada incrementa em 1,7 vezes o crescimento folicular do D7 ao D9; (3 pode contribuir para a ovulação de folículos maiores e, em tese, para maior formação de tecido luteínico; (4 não promove ovulação precoce após o Ovsynch; (5 não eleva as taxas de concepção após sincronização de fêmeas cíclicas e com bom escore corporal, devendo ser avaliada para uso em fêmeas acíclicas ou com ECC mais baixo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the association of medroxyprogesterone with the Ovsynch protocol on the follicular growth, ovulation, and conception rate of buffaloes in the Eastern Amazon (Tracuateua-PA. Twenty-seven cyclic, non-lactating females (G1 n=14 and G2 n=13 with a 3.5 BCS were synchronized with the Ovsynch. Animals from G2 received a supplementation of 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone from D0 to D7 (D0=starting day of treatment. Ultrasonography evaluation on ovaries was realized on Days 0, 7, 9, and 10. A

  4. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  5. The selective generation of acetic acid directly from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knifton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors conclude that each of the ruthenium, cobalt and iodide-containing catalyst components have very specific roles to play in the ''melt'' catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas to acetic acid. C 1 -Oxygenate formation is only observed in the presence of ruthenium carbonyls - [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - is here the dominant species - and there is a direct relationship between liquid yield, ΣOAc - productivity and [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - content. Controlled quantities of iodide ensure that initially formed MeOH is rapidly converted to the more reactive methyl iodide. Subsequent cobalt-catalyzed carbonylation to acetic acid may be preparatively attractive (>80% selectivity, good yields) relative to competing syntheses, where the [Co(CO) 4 ] - concentration is maximized that is, where the Co/Ru ratio is >1, the syngas feedstock is rich in CO, and the initial iodide/cobalt ratios are ca. unity. Formation of cobalt-iodide species appears to be a competing, inhibitory step in this catalysis

  6. Neutron dosimetry using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovan, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal neutron dosimetry system using the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction and liquid scintillation counting of tritium was developed. Lithium acetate was chosen to supply the 6 Li in the aqueous dosimetry solutions. Neutron irradiations were completed using The Ohio State University Research Reactor. After two sets of samples were irradiated, variables in the system such as the mass of lithium acetate in the solutions and the counting window of the liquid scintillation counter used to analyze the sample were chosen. The system was evaluated by completing two sets of 23 minute irradiations with the reactor at 500 kW, 50 kW, 5 kW, and one irradiation at 500 W. The samples irradiated at 500 W were below the threshold of the system, and could not be used. Prompt analysis was essential due to loss of detectable emissions in the dosimetry solutions over time. The thermal neutron fluences calculated with the data from the samples were compared to the fluences determined from gold wire irradiations. The fluence values differed at most by 6%. The fluence values calculated from the samples were consistently less than those determined from the gold wires

  7. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  9. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  10. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio; Gonella, Elena; Crotti, Elena; Vacchini, Violetta; Syrpas, Michail; Pontini, Marianna; Mangelinckx, Sven; Daffonchio, Daniele; Alma, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  11. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  12. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  13. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  14. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  15. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  16. Synthesis and physical-chemical properties of 3-benzyl-8-propylxanthinyl-7-acetic acid and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Mikhalchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heterocyclic compounds play an important role in the metabolic processes of human organism. Structures of vitamins, nucleotides, chromoproteins are based on Nitrogen-containing heterocycles (purine, pyrimidine, thiazole etc. Thus, it was obvious to use these organic substances as basic molecules for synthetic research of biologically active compounds which could be used for treatment of different pathological processes. In their research, some scientist pay special attention to xanthine derivatives that are well-known low toxic natural compounds with wide spectrum of pronounced pharmacological properties (antioxidant, diuretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory etc. Insertion of carboxyl group in the structure of xanthine molecule is a prospective ability of its synthetic potential increasing. Aim of our research was the development of method of 3-benzyl-8-propylxanthinyl-7-acetic acid and its derivatives synthesis and studying their physical-chemical properties. Materials and methods. Melting points were determined using capillary method on DMP (M. 1Н NMR-spectra were recorded by Varian Mercury VX-200 device (company «Varian», USA solvent – (DMSO-d6, internal standard – ТМS. Elemental analysis of obtained compounds was produced on device Elementar Vario L cube. Results and discussion. We selected 3-benzyl-8-propyl xanthine as initial compound for our study. By its interaction with chloroacetic acid, chloroacetamide or propyl chloroacetate in DMF in the presence of calculated amount of NaHCO3 we synthesized 3-benzyl-8-propylxanthinyl-7-acetic acid its ester and amide. At the same time we found that obtaining of xanthinyl-7-acetic acid by hydrolysis of its ester produced with higher yield. On the next stage of our research we synthesized a number of water-soluble salts of 3-benzyl-8-propylxanthinyl-7-acetic acid by reaction of acid with different primary and secondary amines. The structures of all obtained compounds were

  17. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  18. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  19. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  20. [Determination of residual solvents in 7-amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yao, Tong-wei

    2011-01-01

    To develop a gas chromatography method for determination of residual solvents in 7-amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid (7-ACCA). The residual levels of acetone, methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, pyridine and toluene in 7-ACCA were measured by gas chromatography using Agilent INNOWAX capillary column (30 m × 0.32 mm,0.5 μm). The initial column temperature was 70° maintained for 6 min and then raised (10°C/min) to 160°C for 1 min. Nitrogen gas was used as carrier and FID as detector. The flow of carrier was 1.0 ml/min, the temperature of injection port and detector was 200°C and 250°C, respectively. The limits of detection for acetone, methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, pyridine, toluene in 7-ACCA were 2.5 μg/ml, 1.5 μg/ml, 15 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 11 μg/ml, respectively. Only acetone was detected in the sample, and was less than the limits of Ch.P. The method can effectively detect the residual solvents in 7-ACCA.

  1. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  2. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  5. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  6. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  7. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  8. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  9. [Construction of a microbial consortium RXS with high degradation ability for cassava residues and studies on its fermentative characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Jian

    2012-03-01

    A microbial consortium with high effective and stable cellulosic degradation ability was constructed by successive enrichment and incubation in a peptone cellulose medium using cassava residues and filter paper as carbon sources, where the inoculums were sampled from the environment filled with rotten lignocellulosic materials. The degradation ability to different cellulosic materials and change of main parameters during the degradation process of cassava residues by this consortium was investigated in this study. It was found that, this consortium can efficiently degrade filter paper, absorbent cotton, avicael, wheat-straw and cassava residues. During the degradation process of cassava residues, the key hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase showed a maximum enzyme activity of 34.4, 90.5 and 15.8 U on the second or third day, respectively. After 10 days' fermentation, the degradation ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of cassava residues was 79.8%, 85.9% and 19.4% respectively, meanwhile the loss ratio of cassava residues reached 61.5%. Otherwise,it was found that the dominant metabolites are acetic acid, butyric acid, caproic acid and glycerol, and the highest hydrolysis ratio is obtained on the second day by monitoring SCOD, total volatile fatty acids and total sugars. The above results revealed that this consortium can effectively hydrolyze cassava residues (the waste produced during the cassava based bioethanol production) and has great potential to be utilized for the pretreatment of cassava residues for biogas fermentation.

  10. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  11. Investigation of gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid in magnesium acetate droplets by the optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xi-Juan; Wang, Yang; Cai, Chen; Pang, Shu-Feng; Ma, Jia-Bi; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-07-05

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of single magnesium acetate (MgAc 2 ) aerosol particles at various relative humidities (RHs) are studied by a single-beam optical tweezers, and refractive indices (RIs) and morphology are characterized by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid (HAc) in MgAc 2 droplets are observed. Due to the formation of amorphous gel structure, water transposition in droplets at RH magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) inclusions are formed in MgAc 2 droplets due to the volatilization of HAc, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of MgAc 2 droplets in the Raman spectrum quench after 50,000 s. In sharp contrast, after 86,000 s at RH ≈ 70%, NaAc droplets are in well-mixed liquid states, containing soluble sodium hydroxide (NaOH). At this state, the RI of NaAc droplet is increased, and the quenching of WGMs is not observable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Micractinium pusillum Fresenius in the presence of acetate and glucose: effect of light and acetate gradient concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, L; Dauta, A; Loudiki, M

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the importance of secondary mechanism of organic carbon utilization (mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes) in addition to CO2 fixation (photoautotrophic mode) in the green alga, Micractinium pusillum Fresenius (chlorophyta), isolated from a waste stabilization pond. The growth was studied in the presence of acetate and glucose. The incorporation rate of 14C- acetate was measured in the light and in the dark at different concentrations. Finally, in order to underline the role of photosynthesis and respiration processes in the acetate assimilation, the effect of two specific metabolic inhibitors, a specific inhibitor of photosystem II (DCMU) and an uncoupler respiratory (DNP), has been studied. The obtained results showed that M. pusillum grows in the presence of organic substrates, i.e., glucose and acetate, in the light (mixotrophic growth) as well as in the dark (Heterotrophic growth). The growth was much more important in the light than in the dark and more in the presence of glucose than of acetate. In the light, the presence of acetate led to a variation of growth parameters mumax, iotaopt, and beta. The effect of acetate gradient on the growth of the microalga was severe as soon as its concentration in the medium was higher. The acetate uptake followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic in the light as well as in the dark. The capacity of assimilation was slightly higher in the dark. The utilization of DNP and DCMU indicates that acetate incorporation is an active process depending on both anabolic (photosynthesis) and catabolic (respiration) metabolisms, corroborating the model of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic.

  13. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  14. Magnetic avalanches in manganese-acetate, "magnetic deflagration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko

    Mn12-acetate, first synthesized in 1980 by Lis, is one example of a class of many molecules called single molecule magnets (SMMs) or molecular nanomagnets. These molecules have several atomic spins strongly coupled together within each molecule. They exhibit interesting quantum mechanical phenomena at low temperatures such as quantum tunneling of magnetization, which was first found with Mn12-acetate in 1996 by Friedman, et al. , and Berry phase oscillations which were measured in Fe8 (another SMM) in 1999 by Wernsdorfer, et al. In addition to possible application as memory storage and qubits for quantum computers, these systems provide the means for studies of mesoscopic physics as well as the interactions of the molecules with their environment, such as phonon, photon, nuclear spin, intermolecular dipole, and exchange interactions. Mn12-acetate has twelve Mn ions magnetically coupled in the center of the molecule yielding a giant spin of S = 10 at low temperature. It also has a large uniaxial anisotropy of 65 K. Below 3 K, magnetization curves show strong hysteresis due to the anisotropy barrier. At thesis temperatures, the spin relaxes through the barrier by quantum tunneling of magnetization, which produces regularly-spaced multiple resonant steps in the hysteresis curve. Magnetic avalanches, first detected by Paulsen et al., also occur for some samples only at low temperature, leading to a very fast single-step reversal of the full magnetization, which clearly differs from relaxation by tunneling. In this thesis, I present the results of detailed experimental studies of two aspects of magnetic avalanche phenomenon: "conditions for the triggering of avalanches" and "propagation of the avalanche front". In the first study, we find the magnetic fields at which avalanches occur are stochastically distributed in a particular range of fields. For the second study, we conducted local time-resolved measurements. The results indicate the magnetization avalanches spread

  15. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  16. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovan, Denise; Almeida, Luis; Romach, Myroslava K; Nunes, Teresa; Rocha, José Francisco; Sokowloska, Marta; Sellers, Edward M; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence of adverse events was lower with eslicarbazepine acetate than with oxcarbazepine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization......Methanogenesis from acetate (aceticlastic methanogenesis or syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) is the most important step for the biogas process. The major environmental factors influencing methanogenesis are volatile fatty acids, ammonia, p...

  18. Synthesis, characterization and thermogravimetric study of zinc and cadmium acetates-polyaniline hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2004-01-01

    By dissolution of respective acetates and conducting polymer in dimethylformamide, homogeneous zinc acetate and cadmium acetate-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and SEM microscopy. The infrared spectra suggests that there are interactions between PANI and the metal cations involving both, imine and amine nitrogens in a typical Lewis acid-base reaction. The thermogravimetric degradation profile of the synthesized hybrids resembles those exhibited by PANI samples

  19. Kinetics of Butyrate, Acetate, and Hydrogen Metabolism in a Thermophilic, Anaerobic, Butyrate-Degrading Triculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, Km, for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hyd...

  20. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  1. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  2. Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

  3. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  4. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  5. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  6. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  7. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  8. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  9. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  10. Effect of lead acetate on learning and memory in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, H; Maeda, H; Ohi, G; Yagyu, H

    1974-01-01

    To study the mental effects of exposure to lead, especially in auto exhaust in the ambient air, adult female Wistar rats were orally dosed with lead acetate at 125 mg(Pb)/30 g food for 6 weeks from the 3rd day of pregnancy to the 3rd week after delivery. Nine week-old male rats were examined as to learning and memory ability using a labyrinth in comparison to the ability of control rats. No significant deterioration of these abilities which might have been caused by exposure to lead in the rats early life stage was noted, although the mothers were given the maximal dose of lead they and the fetuses could tolerate.

  11. Dehydroabiethylamine acetate as metal-containing anion precipitant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Borisov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation is studied of vanadate, tungstate-, molybdate- and chromate-ions by dehydroabiethylamine acetate. The degree of precipitation of metal-bearing anions is a function of the anion and of pH of the treated solutions. There exists a predetermined value of pH for each anion, at which the content of metal-bearing anion in the ultra-filtrate is at a minimum. For vanadate-ions, this pH is 5.0; for tungstate-ions, 3.0; for molybdate-ions, 4.0; for chrommate-ions, 8.0. The heats of solution of methavanadate, paratungstate, paramolybdate and dehydroabiethylamine chromate, calculated in accordance with the Vant-Hoff equation, range between 3.5 and 8.3 kJ/mole; free energy varies between 45.8 and 137.5 kJ/mole; and entropy varies between 110 and 371 J/degree mole

  12. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  13. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  14. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  15. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  16. Fragmentation of acetic acid ions with selected internal energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Qingmei; Nishimura, Toshihide; Bertrand, Michel J.; Meisels, G. G.

    1991-08-01

    The unimolecular dissociation of acetic acid ion in the photon energy range 10.5-17.0 eV was studied using threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence mass spectrometry. The detailed breakdown graph was obtained and the fragmentation pathways were elucidated. The breakdown graph calculated using statistical theories was found to be consistent with the experimental data up to a photon energy of about 12.5 eV. The average kinetic energy release observed is higher than that calculated on the basis of quasi-equilibrium theory for the formation of COOH+ while it seems to be statistical for the formation of CH3CO+. The origin of kinetic energy release accompanying the formation of these two ions is discussed. The structure of [COH3]+ ion (m/z 31) is determined to be hydroxymethyl cation, CH2OH+, which could be formed by a two-step rearrangement prior to dissociation.

  17. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  18. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar,using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431 as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol on reaction rate was carried out and both LHHW and pseudo-homogeneous kinetic expressions were obtained, these being in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  20. Radioimmunoassays for serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.A.; Puizillout, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays for serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were developed. High titer antibodies, having a well-defined high specificity, have been raised by coupling the side-chain of both molecules to human serum albumin. Serotonin is first converted into N-hemisuccinate, and then treated like 5-HIAA, namely, conjugated with HSA for the immunogen. Synthesis of 125 I iodinated analogues was performed by coupling 5-HIAA or N-succinyl serotonin to glycyltyrosine, without any contact between both molecules and the oxidizing reagents. Chemical conversions of biological samples (by succinylation for 5-HT and amidation for 5-HIAA) were carried out. This critical step makes the antigen molecules resemble the immunogen more closely, thus allowing an appreciable gain in specificity and sensitivity. These assays allow the rapid determination of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in small amounts of tissue, blood, cerebral spinal fluid or perfusate without any purification, with a sensitivity threshold of 50 pg

  1. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    Substrates that contain high ammonia levels can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process and unstable biogas production. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of different ammonia levels on pure strains of (syntrophic acetate oxidizing) SAO bacteria and hydrogenotrophic...... methanogens. Two pure strains of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e: Methanoculleus bourgensis and Methanoculleus thermophiles) and two pure strains of SAO bacteria (i.e: Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) were inoculated under four different ammonia (0.26, 3, 5 and 7g NH4+-N......, the total incubation periods of hydrogenotrophic methanogens were significantly shorter compared to the SAO bacteria incubation periods. Thus, it seems that hydrogenotrophic methanogens could be equally, if not more, tolerant to high ammonia levels compared to SAO bacteria....

  2. Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on postnatal day 19. Lead intoxication was confirmed by measuring renal, hepatic and cerebral lead concentration in dams and litters. Lead treatment hastened the day of appearance of the following parameters: eye opening (control: 13.5 ± 0.6, N = 88; lead: 12.9 ± 0.6, N = 72; P<0.05, startle reflex (control: 13.0 ± 0.8, N = 88; lead: 12.0 ± 0.7, N = 72; P<0.05 and negative geotaxis. On the other hand, spontaneous alternation performance was hindered in lead-exposed animals (control: 37.6 ± 19.7; lead: 57.5 ± 28.3% of alternating animals; P<0.05. These results suggest that lead exposure without concomitant undernutrition alters rat development, affecting specific subsets of motor skills.

  3. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  4. Engineered Humicola insolens cutinase for efficient cellulose acetate deacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Saikia, Rakhi; Basu, Aditya; de Maria, Leonardo; Svendsen, Allan; Gross, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Cutinases comprise a family of esterases with broad hydrolytic activity for chain and pendant ester groups. This work aimed to identify and improve an efficient cutinase for cellulose acetate (CA) deacetylation. The development of a mild method for CA fiber surface deacetylation will result in improved surface hydrophilicity and reactivity while, when combined with cellulases, a route to the full recycling of CA to acetate and glucose. In this study, the comparative CA deacetylation activity of four homologous wild-type (wt) fungal cutinases from Aspergillus oryzae (AoC), Thiellavia terrestris (TtC), Fusarium solani (FsC), and Humicola insolens (HiC) was determined by analysis of CA deacetylation kinetics. wt-HiC had the highest catalytic efficiency (≈32 [cm 2 L -1 ] -1 h -1 ). Comparison of wt-cutinase catalytic constants revealed that differences in catalytic efficiency are primarily due to corresponding variations in corresponding substrate binding constants. Docking studies with model tetrameric substrates also revealed structural origins for differential substrate binding amongst these cutinases. Comparative docking studies of HiC point mutations led to the identification of two important rationales for engineering cutinases for CA deacetylation: (i) create a tight but not too closed binding groove, (ii) allow for hydrogen bonding in the extended region around the active site. Rationally designed HiC with amino acid substitutions I36S, predicted to hydrogen bond to CA, combined with F70A, predicted to remove steric constraints, showed a two-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. Continued cutinase optimization guided by a detailed understanding of structure-activity relationships, as demonstrated here, will be an important tool to developing practical cutinases for commercial green chemistry technologies. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Determination of tylosin residues in different animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-01-05

    A HPLC method to determine and quantify tylosin residues from calves, pigs and poultry is reported. This procedure permitted tylosin to be separated from muscle, liver, kidney and fat after a simple extraction with chloroform or ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The analytical methodology showed a high specificity and sensitivity and an adequate precision and accuracy with a limit of quantification of 50 microg/kg. Eight calves were administered 20 mg/kg/day of tylosin for 5 days and slaughtered at 7 and 14 days post-administration. Results showed that at the 14th day tylosin levels were lower than the MRL in all target tissues.

  6. A rapid hydrolysis method and DABS-Cl derivatization for complete amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate by reversed phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Yousef; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Attar, Hossein; Alamir Hoor, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Octreotide as a synthetic cyclic octapeptide is a somatostatin analog with longer half-life and more selectivity for inhibition of the growth hormone. The acetate salt of octreotide is currently used for medical treatment of somatostatin-related disorders such as endocrine and carcinoid tumors, acromegaly, and gigantism. Octreotide contains both cysteine and tryptophan residues which make the hydrolysis part of its amino acid analysis procedure very challenging. The current paper introduces a fast and additive-free method which preserves tryptophan and cysteine residues during the hydrolysis. Using only 6 M HCl, this hydrolysis process is completed in 30 min at 150 °C. This fast hydrolysis method followed by pre-column derivatization of the released amino acids with 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) which takes only 20 min, makes it possible to do the complete amino acid analysis of an octreotide sample in a few hours. The highly stable-colored DABS-Cl derivatives can be detected in 436 nm in a reversed phase chromatographic system, which eliminates spectral interferences to a great extent. The amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate including hydrolysis, derivatization, and reversed phase HPLC determination was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

  7. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  8. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 o C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH ≤ 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: → Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic 14 C compounds in cementitious repositories. → Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH ≤ 11. → Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  9. Low and high acetate amendments are equally as effective at promoting complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-06-01

    Experiments with trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer material demonstrated that TCE, cis-DCE, and VC were completely degraded with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) and sulfate reduction when acetate was amended at stoichiometric concentration; competing TEAPs did not inhibit ethene production. Adding 10× more acetate did not increase the rate or extent of TCE reduction, but only increased methane production. Enrichment cultures demonstrated that ~90 μM TCE or ~22 μM VC was degraded primarily to ethene within 20 days with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) + sulfate reduction. The dechlorination rates were comparable between the low and high acetate concentrations (0.36 vs 0.34 day(-1), respectively), with a slightly slower rate in the 10× acetate amended incubations. Methane accumulated to 13.5 (±0.5) μmol/tube in the TCE-degrading incubations with 10× acetate, and only 1.4 (±0.1) μmol/tube with low acetate concentration. Methane accumulated to 16 (±1.5) μmol/tube in VC-degrading enrichment with 10× acetate and 2 (±0.1) μmol/tube with stoichiometric acetate. The estimated fraction of electrons distributed to methanogenesis increased substantially when excessive acetate was added. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that 10× acetate did not enhance Dehalococcoides biomass but rather increased the methanogen abundance by nearly one order of magnitude compared to that with stoichiometric acetate. The data suggest that adding low levels of substrate may be equally if not more effective as high concentrations, without producing excessive methane. This has implications for field remediation efforts, in that adding excess electron donor may not benefit the reactions of interest, which in turn will increase treatment costs without direct benefit to the stakeholders.

  10. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xianbin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA and monobromoacetate (MBA. While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

  11. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Yifei, E-mail: yfchen@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The scission of C–OH bond of acetic acid is the rate-determined step in acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111). • Acetic acid adsorption and reaction barrier of C–OH scission of acetic acid are factors related to acetic acid conversion. • Acetaldehyde adsorption and reaction barriers of O–H formation of C{sub 2}–oxygenates are factors related to ethanol selectivity. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH{sub 3}COOH → CH{sub 3}CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for O−H bond formation of C{sub 2}-oxygenates (CH{sub 3}CO + H → CH{sub 3}COH, CH{sub 3}CHO + H → CH{sub 3}CHOH and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O + H → CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  12. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  13. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  14. Evaluation of various soaking agents as a novel tool for pesticide residues mitigation from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asghar, Ali; Pasha, Imran; Usman, Rabia; Shamoon, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Arslan; Irshad, Muhammad Asim; Ahmad, Naveed

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up. Eluents were first evaporated and then completely dried under gentle stream of Nitrogen. Finally, the residues were determined using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results revealed the highest reduction of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues with acetic acid (10 %) was 1.133 ± 0.007 (41 %), 0.870 ± 0.022 (60 %) and 0.403 ± 0.003 (75 %), respectively among the tested solutions. However, simple tap water treatment also resulted in 0.990 ± 0.02 (12 %), 1.323 ± 0.015 (14 %) and 1.274 ± 0.002 (21 %) elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively. Moreover, among various solutions, acetic acid depicted maximum reduction potential followed by citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions. The percent reduction by various solutions ranged from 12 to 41, 14 to 60 and 21 to 75 % for the elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively.

  15. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  16. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  17. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  18. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  19. Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics in Microbial Electrolysis Cells – Influence of Acetate and Propionate Concentration

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda; Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Katuri, Krishna; Bagchi, Samik; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms

  20. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately...

  1. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds ...

  2. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  3. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  4. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  5. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Jaksch, S.; Martins, G.; Dang, H. M.; Dampc, M.; Denifl, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Ellis, A. M.; Scheier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by

  6. NMR 11B, 19F of hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinina, G.P.; Brovkina, O.V.; Chernyshov, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroxofluoroborate solutions in acetic and peracetic acids are studied by the 11 B, 19 F NMR method. The reactions of substitutions of acetate- and peracetate ions for nucleophilic hydroxogroups with the formation of the respective complexes are shown to occur in these solutions, with monodentate coordination of BF 3 CH 3 COO - - and BF 3 CH 3 COOO - - groups being accomplished in this case

  7. Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with [8-14C] adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake

  8. Production of itaconic acid from acetate by engineering acid-tolerant Escherichia coli W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Lim, Hyun Gyu; Woo, Sung Hwa; Song, Jinyi; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2018-03-01

    Utilization of abundant and cheap carbon sources can effectively reduce the production cost and enhance the economic feasibility. Acetate is a promising carbon source to achieve cost-effective microbial processes. In this study, we engineered an Escherichia coli strain to produce itaconic acid from acetate. As acetate is known to inhibit cell growth, we initially screened for a strain with a high tolerance to 10 g/L of acetate in the medium, and the W strain was selected as the host. Subsequently, the WC strain was obtained by overexpression of cad (encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase) using a synthetic promoter and 5' UTR. However, the WC strain produced only 0.13 g/L itaconic acid because of low acetate uptake. To improve the production, the acetate assimilating pathway and glyoxylate shunt pathway were amplified by overexpression of pathway genes as well as its deregulation. The resulting strain, WCIAG4 produced 3.57 g/L itaconic acid (16.1% of theoretical maximum yield) after 88 hr of fermentation with rapid acetate assimilation. These efforts support that acetate can be a potential feedstock for biochemical production with engineered E. coli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  10. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  11. Formation of acetals under rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation conditions in alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diebolt, O.H.; Müller, C.; Cruzeuil, C.; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroformylation of terminal alkenes in alcohol solvents leads to the selective formation of the corresponding acetals. The Xantphos ligand gave the best results as well as acetal selectivities higher than 99% and linear/branched ratios of up to 52 were obtained. The scope of the reaction was

  12. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Vogelaar, J.; Ittersum, van A.; Hordijk, K.; Roelofsen, W.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and

  13. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Johannes C M; Bodegom, Peter M; Vogelaar, Jaap; Ittersum, Alexander; Hordijk, Kees; Roelofsen, Wim; Stams, Alfons J M

    2002-12-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without (13)C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the main cause of inhibition of methanogenesis in the sediment. Although nitrate led to a complete inhibition of methanogenesis, acetate-utilising nitrate-reducing bacteria hardly competed with methanogens for the available acetate in the presence of nitrate. Most-probable-number enumerations showed that methanogens (2x10(8) cells cm(-3) sediment) and sulfate reducers (2x10(8) cells cm(-3) sediment) were the dominant acetate-utilising organisms in the sediment, while numbers of acetate-utilising nitrate reducers were very low (5x10(5) cells cm(-3) sediment). However, high numbers of sulfide-oxidising nitrate reducers were detected. Denitrification might result in the formation of toxic products. We speculate that the accumulation of low concentrations of NO (<0.2 mM) may result in an inhibition of methanogenesis.

  14. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  15. Isolation and characterization of acetate-utilizing anaerobes from a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was

  16. 78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes... tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items include the following topics: (1) ACET Chair's report to...

  17. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  18. Assessment of pesticide residues in some fruits using gas chromatography coupled with micro electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, Y.; Sherazi, S.T.H.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A very sensitive analytical method for the determination of 26 pesticides in some fruits based on solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup was developed using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with micro electron capture detector (mu ECD). The identity of the pesticides was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent for the extraction of pesticide residues with assistance of sonication. For cleanup an octadecyl, C18 SPE column was used. A linear response of mu ECD was observed for all pesticides with good correlation coefficients (>0.9992). Proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in the orange, apple, and grape fruits. Average recoveries achieved for all of the pesticides at fortification levels of 0.05, 1.0 and 2.0 mu g g/sup -1/ in analyzed fruits were above 90% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6%. (author)

  19. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  20. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-05-11

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru-Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry.

  1. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, Robert M.; Watson, Jack S.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  2. Positron emission tomography with [11C]-acetate for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, I.S.; Litvinov, M.M.; Rozhkova, G.G.; Leont'eva, I.V.; Sebeleva, I.A.; Tumanyan, M.R.; Koledinskij, D.G.; Sukhorukov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic potentials of positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C]-acetate as applied to mitochondrial disorders in children with cardiomyopathies (CMP) are evaluated. PET examinations are performed in 17 patients of the mean age of 7.5 ± 3.1 years with CMP. A dynamic study with [ 11 C]-acetate is conducted to evaluate the Krebs cycle activity. The experiments have indicated to a fewer accumulation of [ 11 C]-acetate and to its slower clearance in the ischemic zone as compared with the normal myocardium. The Krebs cycle activity has been reduced. By means of PET with [ 11 C]-acetate the oxidation rate constant of the Krebs cycle and the [ 11 C]-acetate-activity clearance half-time can be quantified. This makes possible to assess the extent of oxidative metabolism malfunction, including the case of perfusion reduction [ru

  3. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  4. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  5. Quantum Tunneling Symmetry of Single Molecule Magnet Mn_12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barco, E.; Kent, A. D.; Rumberger, E.; Hendrikson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2003-03-01

    We have studied the symmetry of magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) in single crystals of single molecular magnet (SMM) Mn_12-acetate. A superconducting high field vector magnet was used to apply magnetic fields in arbitrary directions respect to the axes of the crystal. The MQT probability is extracted from the change in magnetization measured on sweeping the field through a MQT resonance. This is related to the quantum splitting of the molecules relaxing in the time window of the experiment [1]. The dependence of the MQT probability on the angle between the applied transverse field and the crystallographic axes shows a four-fold rotation pattern, with maxima at angles separated by 90 degrees. By selecting a part of the splitting distribution of the sample by applying an initial transverse field in the direction of one of the observed maxima the situation changes completely. The resulting behavior of the MQT probability shows a two-fold rotation pattern with maxima separated by 180 degrees. Moreover, if the selection is made by applying the initial transverse field in the direction of a complementary four-fold maximum the behavior shows again two-fold symmetry. However, the maxima are found to be shifted by 90 degrees respect to the first selection. The fact that we observe two-fold symmetry for different selections is a clear evidence of the existence of different molecules with lower anisotropy than the imposed by the tetragonal crystallographic site symmetry. The general four-fold symmetry observed is thus due in large part to equal populations of molecules with opposite signs of the second order anisotropy, as suggested by Cornia et al. and appears to be a consequence of to the existence of a discrete set of lower symmetry isomers in a Mn_12-acetate crystal [2]. [1] E. del Barco, A. D. Kent, E. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrikson and G. Christou, Europhys. Lett. 60, 768 (2002) [2] A. Cornia, R. Sessoli, L. Sorace, D. Gatteschi, A. L. Barra and C. Daiguebonne, Phys. Rev

  6. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H_2SO_4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  7. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; López-Briz, Eduardo; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Gonzalvez Perales, Jose Luis; Bort-Marti, Sylvia

    2013-03-28

    This is an updated version of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (2005, Issue 2) on 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'. Megestrol acetate (MA) is currently used to improve appetite and to increase weight in cancer-associated anorexia. In 1993, MA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of MA in palliating anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with cancer, AIDS and other underlying pathologies. We sought studies through an extensive search of electronic databases, journals, reference lists, contact with investigators and other search strategies outlined in the methods. The most recent search for this update was carried out in May 2012. Studies were included in the review if they assessed MA compared to placebo or other drug treatments in randomised controlled trials of patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to cancer, AIDS or any other underlying pathology. Two independent review authors conducted data extraction and evaluated methodological quality. We performed quantitative analyses using appetite and quality of life as a dichotomous variable, and analysed weight gain as continuous and dichotomous variables. We included 35 trials in this update, the same number but not the same trials as in the previous version of the review. The trials comprised 3963 patients for effectiveness and 3180 for safety. Sixteen trials compared MA at different doses with placebo, seven trials compared different doses of MA with other drug treatments and 10 trials compared different doses of MA. Meta-analysis showed a benefit of MA compared with placebo

  8. Megestrol acetate for cachexia-anorexia syndrome. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Vicente; López-Briz, Eduardo; Carbonell-Sanchis, Rafael; Bort-Martí, Sylvia; Gonzálvez-Perales, José Luis

    2018-03-14

    In 1993, megestrol acetate (MA) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, or unexplained weight loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown, and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic, elderly, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is under investigation. This is an updated version of a Cochrane systematic review first published in 2005 and later updated in 2013 entitled 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'. MA vs. placebo: in studies where MA was compared with placebo, the overall results showed that MA patients gained weight (mean difference, MD 2.25 kg, 95% CI [1.19, 3.3]) but did not gain quality of life (QOL) (standarized mean difference, SMD 0.5, 95% CI [-0.13, 1.13]), with more adverse events (relative risk, RR 1.46, 95% CI [1.05, 2.04]), but no difference in deaths (RR 1.26, 95% CI [0.70, 2.27]). MA vs. no treatment: MA patients gained weight (MD 1.45 kg, 95% CI [0.15, 2.75]) but did not gain QOL (standardized mean difference 3.89 95% CI [-14, 6.28]). There was no increase in adverse events (RR 0.90, 95% CI [0.39, 2.08]) or deaths (RR 1.01, 95% CI [0.42, 2.45]). MA vs. active drugs: MA patients gained weight (MD 2.5 kg, 95% CI [0.37, 4.64]) but did not gain QOL (MD 0.20 95% CI [-0.02, 0.43]) and did not report an increase in adverse events (RR 1.05 95% CI [0.95, 1.16]) or in deaths (RR 1.53, 95% CI [1.02, 2.29]) Different doses of MA: in studies where lower doses of MA were compared with higher doses of MA, we did not find differences either in weight gain (MD -0.94 kg, 95% CI [-3.33, 1.45]), QOL (MD 0.31 95% CI [-0.19, 0.81]), or adverse events (RR 1.34, 95% CI [0.65, 2.76]). Thus, we cannot reach a conclusion for an optimal dose of MA. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of ethoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Ethoxyethanol is an ether alcohol described as a solvent and viscosity-decreasing agent for use in cosmetics. Ethoxyethanol Acetate is the ester of Ethoxyethanol and acetic acid described as a solvent for use in cosmetics. Although these ingredients have been used in the past, neither ingredient is in current use. Ethoxyethanol is produced by reacting ethylene oxide with ethyl alcohol. Ethoxyethanol Acetate is produced via an esterification of Ethoxyethanol and acetic acid, acetic acid anhydride, or acetic chloride. Ethoxyethanol is metabolized to ethoxyacetaldehyde, which is further metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid, which is also a metabolite of Ethoxyethanol Acetate. Low to moderate acute inhalation toxicity is seen in animals studies. Acute oral toxicity studies in several species reported kidney damage, including extreme tubular degeneration. Kidney damage was also seen in acute dermal toxicity studies in rats and rabbits. Minor liver and kidney damage was also seen in short-term studies of rats injected subcutaneously with Ethoxyethanol, but was absent in dogs dosed intravenously. Mixed toxicity results were also seen in subchronic tests in mice and rats. Ethoxyethanol and Ethoxyethanol Acetate were mild to moderate eye irritants in rabbits; mild skin irritants in rabbits, and nonsensitizing in guinea pigs. Most genotoxicity tests were negative, but chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges were among the positive results seen. Numerous reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, across several species, involving various routes of administration, indicate that Ethoxyethanol and Ethoxyethanol Acetate are reproductive toxicants and teratogens. Mild anemia was reported in individuals exposed occupationally to Ethoxyethanol, which resolved when the chemical was not used. Reproductive effects have been noted in males exposed occupationally to Ethoxyethanol. Although there are insufficient data to determine the potential carcinogenic effects of

  10. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  13. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  14. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  15. Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  16. Eslicarbazepine acetate exposure in pregnant women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Magalhães, Luís M; Graça, Joana; Vieira, Mariana; Gama, Helena; Moreira, Joana; Rocha, José F; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2018-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder requiring continued treatment during pregnancy. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is needed for seizure control, but the risk of adverse events has to be minimized for both mother and foetus. Available data on pregnancy and foetal/postnatal outcomes following eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) exposure via parent is herein presented for the first time. ESL's global safety database was reviewed to identify pregnancy cases with exposure to ESL reported up to October 21st, 2017. The EMBASE™ and MEDLINE ® databases were searched to identify literature reports of such cases published between May 1st, 2009 and October 21st, 2017. Overall, 91 notifications of pregnancy were identified, of which 79 involved ESL exposure: 28 during clinical trials and 51 from 8-years of post-marketing surveillance. Thirty pregnancies resulted in live birth without congenital anomalies; in 25 pregnancies the outcome was ongoing and 3 was unknown; 18 cases resulted in abortion (10 spontaneous and 8 induced) and congenital anomalies were identified in 5 cases (no clear relationship with ESL was established). ESL was used concomitantly to other AEDs in 11 of the 15 pregnancies for which the outcome was spontaneous abortion and congenital anomaly. Literature review did not yield additional information. Available data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding ESL use during pregnancy. Although no particular safety problem was identified, ESL exposure during pregnancy will continue to be monitored and evaluated. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  18. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  19. Overnight switching from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, E; Kuchukhidze, G; Kirschner, M; Leitinger, M; Höfler, J; Rohracher, A; Kalss, G; Wendling, A-S; Steinhoff, B J; Trinka, E

    2017-04-01

    There are clinical situations where it might be appropriate to switch patients from immediate-release oxcarbazepine (OXC) to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL). We investigated the effects of transitioning patients overnight from OXC to ESL. A retrospective, single-center study was conducted in which patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy on a stable dose of immediate-release OXC for at least 4 weeks were switched overnight to ESL. Patients were switched because they experienced persistent seizures with OXC but were unable to tolerate increased OXC dosing due to adverse events. Tolerability was assessed using the Adverse Events Profile (AEP), quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory 10 (QOLIE-10), and alertness was assessed as reaction time using a subtest of the Test Battery for Attention Performance version 2.3. Assessments were performed immediately prior to and 5 days after switching from OXC to ESL (days 0 and 5, respectively). The analysis included 21 patients (12 women, 9 men; mean age 36 years). After switching from OXC to ESL, there were significant improvements in mean scores for AEP (Peffects, quality of life, and alertness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transition from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Jussi; Rainesalo, Sirpa; Peltola, Jukka

    2017-03-01

    There is limited clinical evidence for comparison between oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in terms of tolerability, or how to execute the change from OXC to ESL. We report the process of transitioning patients with focal epilepsy from previous OXC treatment to ESL due to tolerability problems. The rationale for change from OXC is reported, and the outcome with respective to this rationale is analyzed in terms of tolerability and efficacy. The subjects were transitioned overnight from OXC to ESL in a hospital inpatient setting. An evaluation of the effects of the transition was made after 1 and 3 months. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded following the transition period. Subjects were classified by outcome in terms of AEs. Twenty-three subjects were transitioned from OXC to ESL. Fifteen patients OXC-related AEs reduced significantly after transition. Particularly, most of (93%) the AEs presented in the morning resolved after transition to ESL. No patient had an increase in seizure frequency following the transition. The incidence of ESL-related AEs was 39% at 1 month and 13% at 3 month follow-up; however, all patients continued ESL throughout the study period. This study demonstrates that patients suffering from OXC-related AEs improve in terms of tolerability after a switch to ESL with maintaining seizure control. This improvement is more pronounced if the OXC-related AEs are most evident following morning dosing of OXC. Transition can be safely executed in an outpatient setting.

  1. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monleón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  2. Antipain and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    1980-01-01

    Antipain (AP) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbooe-13-acetate (TPA) were tested in V79 Chinese hamster cells for cytotoxicity and effects on survival and 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGsup(r)) mutation after UV-irradiation. AP and/or TPA were relatively non-cytotoxic and had no significant effects on UV survival. Despite their non-mutagenicity, the recovery of UV-induced 6TGsup(r) colonies was significantly enhanced by the pretreatment with either AP (0,5-2 mM) or TPA (0.1-1 μg/ml) only during the expression period before the 6TG selection at a low density of cells in the absence of AP or TPA. Such enhancing effects were maximal when AP or TPA was present during the late expression period after the mutation fixation and extensive dilution of DNA lesions. Reconstruction experiments revelaed the antgonisitc actions that TPA and AP tended to eliminate and increase, respectively, the metabolic co-operation. In the TPA-plus-AP treatment, AP abolished the TPA-enhanced recovery of induced mutants. Thus, it seems that TPA increases the mutant recovery langely through decreased metabolic co-operation and AP could modulate the mutation expression. Further, an error-prone inducible repair may not exist or, if it exists, AP may not inhibit it in V79 Chinese hamster cells. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic modeling of the isoamyl acetate reactive distillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Sadiq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cost-effectiveness of reactive distillation (RD processes makes them highly attractive for industrial applications. However, their preliminary design and subsequent scale-up and operation are challenging. Specifically, the response of RD system during fluctuations in process parameters is of paramount importance to ensure the stability of the whole process. As a result of carrying out simulations using Aspen Plus, it is shown that the RD process for isoamyl acetate production was much more economical than conventional reactor distillation configuration under optimized process conditions due to lower utilities consumption, higher conversion and smaller sizes of condenser and reboiler. Rigorous dynamic modeling of RD system was performed to evaluate its sensitivity to disturbances in critical process parameters; the product flow was quite sensitive to disturbances. Even more sensitive was product composition when the disturbance in heat duties of condenser or reboiler led to a temperature decrease. However, positive disturbance in alcohol feed is of particular concern, which clearly made the system unstable.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  5. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia De Riccardis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4+, the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4+ T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4+ T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4+ T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  6. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riccardis, Lidia; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Danieli, Antonio; Trianni, Giorgio; Zara, Vincenzo; De Robertis, Francesca; Maffia, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4 + , the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4 + T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs) and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4 + T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4 + T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  7. Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Shohami, Esther; Kindy, Mark S

    2012-03-14

    The resin of Boswellia species is a major anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including injuries and inflammatory conditions. Incensole acetate (IA), a major constituent of this resin, has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation and concomitant inflammation, as well as the neurological deficit following head trauma. Here, we show that IA protects against ischemic neuronal damage and reperfusion injury in mice, attenuating the inflammatory nature of ischemic damage. IA given post-ischemia, reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological activities in the mouse model of ischemic injury in a dose dependent fashion. The protection from damage was accompanied by inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β expression, as well as NF-κB activation following injury. In addition, IA is shown to have a therapeutic window of treatment up to 6h after ischemic injury. Finally, the protective effects of IA were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels as determined by the TRPV3 deficient mice and channel blocker studies. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of IA may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for ischemic and reperfusion injury, and as a tool in the ongoing research of mechanisms for neurological damage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Acetic acid denaturing pulsed field capillary electrophoresis for RNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Sumitomo, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2010-10-01

    Based on our previous work of in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis, we present a study of RNA molecular separation up to 6.0 kilo nucleotide by pulsed field CE. This is the first systematic investigation of electrophoresis of a larger molecular mass RNA in linear hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) under pulsed field conditions. The parameters that may influence the separation performance, e.g. gel polymer concentration, modulation depth and pulse frequency, are analyzed in terms of resolution and mobility. For denaturing and separating RNA in the capillary simultaneously, 2 M acetic acid was added into the HEC polymer to serve as separation buffer. Result shows that (i) in pulsed field conditions, RNA separation can be achieved in a wide range of concentration of HEC polymer, and RNA fragments between 0.3 and 0.6 kilo nucleotide are sensitive to the polymer concentration; (ii) under certain pulsed field conditions, RNA fragments move linearly as the modulation depth increases; (iii) 12.5 Hz is the resonance frequency for RNA reorientation time and applied frequency.

  9. Low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Samatha; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of fabricating a low-cost and low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate sheets for sensing CO, SO2, H2 and NO2 gases. The array has four sensor elements with an integrated microheater which can be individually controlled enabling the monitoring of four gases. The thermal properties of the microheater characterized by IR imaging are presented. The microheater with an active area of 15 µm  ×  5 µm reaches a temperature of 300 °C, consuming 2 mW power, the lowest reported on flexible substrates. A sensing electrode is patterned on top of the microheater, and a nanogap (100 nm) is created by an electromigration process. This nanogap is bridged by four sensing materials doped with platinum, deposited using a solution dispensing technique. The sensing material characterization is completed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sensing characteristics of ZnO for CO, V2O5 for SO2, SnO2 for H2 and WO3 for NO2 gases are studied at different microheater voltages. The sensing characteristics of ZnO at different bending angles is also studied, which shows that the microheater and the sensing material are intact without any breaking upto a bending angle of 20°. The ZnO CO sensor shows sensitivity of 146.2% at 1 ppm with good selectivity.

  10. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  11. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  12. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  13. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  14. Effect of oral contraceptives containing estradiol and nomegestrol acetate or ethinyl-estradiol and chlormadinone acetate on primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Giovanni; Napolitano, Antonella; Xholli, Anjeza; Tirelli, Alessandra; Di Carlo, Costantino; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2015-10-01

    To study the three cycles effect on primary dysmenorrhea of the monophasic 24/4 estradiol/nomegestrol acetate (E2/NOMAC) and of the 21/7 ethinyl-estradiol/chlormadinone acetate (EE/CMA) oral contraceptive. The tolerability and the effect of both preparations on metabolism and health-related quality of life were also evaluated. Prospective observational cohort study. Tertiary gynecologic center for pelvic pain. Subjects with primary dysmenorrhea requiring an oral contraceptive, who spontaneously selected either E2/NOMAC (n = 20) or EE/CMA (n = 20). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for dysmenorrhea, Short Form-36 questionnaire for health-related quality of life, lipoproteins and days of menstrual bleeding (withdrawal bleeding during oral contraceptive). Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were similar between the two groups. The final analysis was performed on 34 women, 15 in E2/NOMAC and 19 in EE/CMA group. Compliance with treatment was significantly higher with EE/CMA (100%) than E2/NOMAC (75%) (p = 0.02). Both treatments significantly (p dysmenorrhea, similarly (E2/NOMAC by a mean of 74.7%, EE/CMA by a mean of 78.4%; p = 0.973). Only E2/NOMAC significantly increased SF-36 score (p = 0.001), both in physical (p = 0.001) and mental domains (p = 0.004). The mean number of days of menstrual bleeding was significantly reduced in E2/NOMAC group (from 4.86 ± 1.20 d to 2.64 ± 1.59 d, p = 0.0005 versus baseline, p = 0.007 versus EE/CMA group). BMI did not vary in either group. E2/NOMAC did not change lipoproteins and apoproteins while EE/CMA increased total cholesterol (p = 0.0114), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.0008), triglycerides (p = 0.002), apoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1; p = 0.0006) and apopoprotein-B (Apo-B; p = 0.008), decreasing LDL/HDL ratio (p = 0.024). Both oral contraceptives reduced similarly primary dysmenorrhea, with E2/NOMAC also reducing withdrawal bleedings and being neutral on lipid metabolism.

  15. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to

  16. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  17. 78 FR 14095 - Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0 Milligrams Base/Vial, and GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.05 Milligrams Base/Amp, Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

  18. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  19. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  20. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Furfural Derivative 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran into Pentanediol Acetate and Pentanol Acetate over Pd/C and Sc(OTf)3 Cocatalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Xing-Long; Chen, Shi-Yan; Xu, Hua-Jian; Deng, Jin; Fu, Yao

    2018-02-22

    It is of great significance to convert platform molecules and their derivatives into high value-added alcohols, which have multitudinous applications. This study concerns systematic conversion of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), which is obtained from furfural, into 1-pentanol acetate (PA) and 1,4-pentanediol acetate (PDA). Reaction parameters, such as the Lewis acid species, reaction temperature, and hydrogen pressure, were investigated in detail. 1 H NMR spectroscopy and reaction dynamics study were also conducted to help clarify the reaction mechanism. Results suggested that cleavage of the primary alcohol acetate was less facile than that of the secondary alcohol acetate, with the main product being PA. A PA yield of 91.8 % (150 °C, 3 MPa H 2 , 30 min) was achieved by using Pd/C and Sc(OTf) 3 as a cocatalytic system and an 82 % yield of PDA was achieved (150 °C, 30 min) by using Sc(OTf) 3 catalyst. Simultaneously, the efficient conversion of acetic esters into alcohols by simple saponification was carried out and led to a good yield. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanping [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dong, Xiuqin [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Yingzhe, E-mail: yzhyu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Minhua, E-mail: mhzhangtj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • All dehydrogenation reactions in vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) were studied. • The energy barriers of the transition state of the three reactions were calculated. • The influence of surface Os and OHs on all dehydrogenation actions was discussed. - Abstract: On the basis of a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  2. Structural and mechanistic investigations on Salmonella typhimurium acetate kinase (AckA: identification of a putative ligand binding pocket at the dimeric interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittori Sagar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can utilize acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. Acetate kinase (AckA and phosphotransacetylase (Pta, key enzymes of acetate utilization pathway, regulate flux of metabolites in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, glyoxylate bypass and fatty acid metabolism. Results Here we report kinetic characterization of S. typhimurium AckA (StAckA and structures of its unliganded (Form-I, 2.70 Å resolution and citrate-bound (Form-II, 1.90 Å resolution forms. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with kcat/Km in the order of acetate > propionate > formate. Further, the Km for acetyl-phosphate was significantly lower than for acetate and the enzyme could catalyze the reverse reaction (i.e. ATP synthesis more efficiently. ATP and Mg2+ could be substituted by other nucleoside 5′-triphosphates (GTP, UTP and CTP and divalent cations (Mn2+ and Co2+, respectively. Form-I StAckA represents the first structural report of an unliganded AckA. StAckA protomer consists of two domains with characteristic βββαβαβα topology of ASKHA superfamily of proteins. These domains adopt an intermediate conformation compared to that of open and closed forms of ligand-bound Methanosarcina thermophila AckA (MtAckA. Spectroscopic and structural analyses of StAckA further suggested occurrence of inter-domain motion upon ligand-binding. Unexpectedly, Form-II StAckA structure showed a drastic change in the conformation of residues 230–300 compared to that of Form-I. Further investigation revealed electron density corresponding to a citrate molecule in a pocket located at the dimeric interface of Form-II StAckA. Interestingly, a similar dimeric interface pocket lined with largely conserved residues could be identified in Form-I StAckA as well as in other enzymes homologous to AckA suggesting that ligand binding at this pocket may influence the function of these

  3. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  4. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily, positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days, and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days. On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Results: The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. Conclusion: From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  5. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.

  6. Thermal Analysis and Degradation Kinetics of Dextran and Highly Substituted Dextran Acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Hussain, M. A.; Shahwar, D.; Hussain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dextran acetates were synthesized to study their thermal behavior in comparison with pure dextran. The results have indicated that dextran is significantly stabilized after acetylation. Dextran acetates are thermally 65-74 degree C more stable as compared to pure dextran in terms of maximum decomposition temperature (Td/sub m/). Likewise, degradation of dextran acetates also starts and ends later than dextran as shown by relatively higher initial (Td/sub i/) 3-33 degree C and final decomposition temperature (Td/sub f/) 55-69 degree C. The dextran acetates can be arranged in increasing order of thermal stability: dextran acetate DS 2.91 < dextran DS 2.98 < dextran acetate DS 3. The activation energy (Ea) of dextran and dextran acetates was calculated with the help of Friedman, Broido and Chang kinetic models while order of reaction (n) was calculated from thermal data using Chang and Kissinger models. Several other important parameters were also calculated including frequency factor (Z), enthalpy (delta H), Gibbs free energy (delta G) and entropy (delta S). The integral procedural decomposition temperature (IPDT) and comprehensive index of intrinsic thermal stability (ITS) was also drawn from TG curves using Doyle's method. The dependence of IPDT, ITS and Ea on DS of the acetylation of dextran is also discussed. (author)

  7. Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate-reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA)); Michelson, A.R.; Scranton, M.I. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA)); Banta, G.T.; Hobbie, J.E. (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods, Hole, MA (USA)); Howarth, R.W. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Molecular hydrogen and acetate are believed to be key intermediates in the anaerobic remineralization of organic carbon. The authors have made measurements of the cycling of both these compounds in two marine sediments: the bioturbated sediments of Buzzards Bay, Mass., and the much more reducing sediments of Town Cove, Orleans, Mass. Hydrogen concentrations are similar in these environments (from less than 5 to 30 nM), and are within the range previously reported for coastal sediments. However, apparent hydrogen production rates differ by a factor of 60 between these two sediments and at both sites show strong correlation with measured rates of sulfate reduction. Acetate concentrations generally increased with depth in both environments; this increase was greater in Buzzards Bay (22.5 to 71.5 {mu}M) than in Town Cove (26 to 44 {mu}M). Acetate oxidation rates calculated from measured concentrations and {sup 14}C-acetate consumption rate constants suggest that the measured acetate was not all available to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Using the measured sulfate reduction rates, they estimate that between 2% and 100% of the measured acetate pool is biologically available, and that the bioavailable pool decreases with depth. A diagenetic model of the total acetate concentration suggests that consumption may be first order with respect to only a fraction of the total pool.

  8. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  9. The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-11-12

    Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ΔcrbS or Δacs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of the zinc compound nanostructures in zinc acetate single-source solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Li Yinhua; Zhou Zhengzhi; Zu Xihong; Deng Yulin

    2011-01-01

    A series of nanostructured zinc compounds with different nanostructures such as nanobelts, flake-like, flower-like, and twinning crystals was synthesized using zinc acetate (Zn(Ac) 2 ) as a single-source. The evolution of the zinc compounds from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) to bilayered basic zinc acetate (BLBZA) and twinned ZnO nano/microcrystal was studied. The low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra indicate the layered spacing is 1.34 and 2.1 nm for LBZA and BLBZA, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra results confirmed that the bonding force of acetate anion with zinc cations decreases with the phase transformation from Zn(Ac) 2 to BLBZA, and finally to LBZA. The OH − groups gradually replaced the acetate groups coordinated to the matrix zinc cation, and the acetate groups were released completely. Finally, the Zn(OH) 2 and ZnO were formed at high temperature. The conversion process from Zn(Ac) 2 to ZnO with release of acetate anions can be described as Zn(Ac) 2 → BLBZA → LBZA → Zn(OH) 2 → ZnO.

  11. Comparison of Methods for Bifenthrin Residues Determination in Fermented Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Đorđević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of three different sample preparation methods for GC/MS determinationof bifenthrin residues in wheat (Triticum spelta samples fermented by Lactobacillusplantarum was tested. The first method was based on a methanol:acetone=1:1 extractionfolowed by a purification on columns containing mixture of aluminium oxide and activatedcharcoal slurry-packed and eluted with dichlormethane, the second was based onmethanol:acetone=1:1 extraction folowed by the purification on florisil column and elutionby ethil acetate:acetone=4:1, while the third tested method was based on a combinationof the first two mentioned methods, thus methanol:acetone=1:1 extraction and clean-upthrought columns filled with a mixture of aluminum oxide and activated charcoal slurrypackedand eluted with ethil acetate:acetone=4:1. The second method was the most effectivefor obtaining satisfactory recoveries for bifenthrin in a range of 79-83% for four fortificationlevels, with good reproducibility i.e. RSD% in a range of 2.2-7.4%. The chosen methodwas further optimized by assessing the optimum volume of elution solvent used duringthe clean-up procedures. The highest recovery of 82.1% was obtained after elution with25 ml of solvent. Overall, two-step extraction with 25 ml of methanol:acetone=1:1 solventmix for 30 min, followed by clean-up procedure through a glass column with florisil coupledwith elution with 25 ml of ethyl acetate: acetone=4:1, allows simple, efficient and reliableGC/MS detection of bifenthrin residues from wheat grain fermented by L. plantarum.

  12. Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

    2010-03-15

    Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. (c) 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology

  13. Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of HCO₃⁻ in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved. The effects of basolateral variation in HCO₃⁻ concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14)C-labelled substrates. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side. Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO₃⁻-independent and -dependent parts. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO₃⁻ concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO₃⁻, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO₃⁻ to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate. Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO₃⁻ exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Acetate-Utilizing Anaerobes from a Freshwater Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was non-motile and rod-shaped with blunted ends (0.5-1 mm x 3-4 mm long). Doubling times with acetate at 30-35 degrees C were 5.6-8.1 days. The methanogen grew only on acetate. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence showed that AMPB-Zg is closely related to Methanosaeta concilii. The isolated sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain ASRB-Zg) was rod-shaped with pointed ends (0.5-0.7 mm x 1.5-3.5 mm long), weakly motile, spore forming, and gram positive. At the optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C the doubling times with acetate were 3.9-5.3 days. The bacterium grew on a range of organic acids, such as acetate, butyrate, fumarate, and benzoate, but did not grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and sulfate. The closest relative of strain ASRB-Zg is Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans. The nitrate-reducing bacterium (strain ANRB-Zg) was rod-shaped (0.5-0.7 mm x 0.7-1 mm long), weakly motile, and gram negative. Optimum growth with acetate occurred at 20-25 degrees C. The bacterium grew on a range of organic substrates, such as acetate, butyrate, lactate, and glucose, and did grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and oxygen but not with nitrate. In the presence of acetate and nitrate, thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate. Phylogenetically, the closest relative of strain ANRB-Zg is Variovorax paradoxus.

  15. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  16. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  18. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  19. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  20. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  1. Ethinylestradiol/Chlormadinone acetate for use in dermatological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Vázquez, Mercedes; Navarra Amayuelas, Ramón; Lamarca, Marta; Baquedano, Laura; Romero Ruiz, Sebastián; Vilar-Checa, Eduardo; Iniesta, Maria D

    2011-09-06

    The diagnosis and management of four cases of dermatological disorders, most of which are related to the endocrine disorder of androgen excess, are presented. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) may be useful when well-tolerated hormonal therapy and/or when contraception is required. A female patient with androgenetic alopecia or female pattern balding, without underlying hyperandrogenism, was treated with ethinylestradiol/chlormadinone acetate (EE/CMA) 0.03 mg/2 mg for 6 months and experienced stabilization of hair loss (case report 1). A patient who had previously received a COC for an irregular menstrual pattern but again experienced irregular menses and also acne after stopping treatment was diagnosed with acne associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [case report 2]. After 6 month's treatment with EE/CMA 0.03 mg/2 mg, this patient had fewer acne lesions and became eumenorrheic. A third patient who had excess hair since childhood was diagnosed with idiopathic hirsutism (no underlying gynecological or endocrinological disorder was found) and was treated with EE/CMA 0.03 mg/2 mg (case report 3). Less hair growth was reported after 6 months' treatment. Case report 4 describes a patient who presented with oligomenorrhea and acne. She was diagnosed with PCOS with acne, seborrhea and mild hirsutism. Treatment with EE/CMA 0.03 mg/2 mg for 6 months resulted in improvements in her facial acne, seborrhea and hirsutism; she also became eumenorrheic. These four cases illustrate that EE/CMA may be a useful and well tolerated treatment option in the management of patients with dermatological disorders with or without hyperandrogenization.

  2. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Residue dissipation and processing factor for dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil during raisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar; Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2015-03-01

    A method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of the residues of dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil in grape and raisin matrix by ethyl acetate based extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the dissipation rate kinetics and processing factor (PF) for these pesticides during raisin making. Residue data during the drying process were best fitted to 1st+1st order rate kinetics with half-life ranging between 8-9 days for dimethomorph, 12-13 days for famoxadone and 9-10 days for cymoxanil at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF values calculated were 1.03 and 1.14 for dimethomorph, 1.95 and 2.09 for famoxadone, and 1.99 and 1.35 for cymoxanil at SD and DD, respectively. PF value >1 indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making. The residues of detected pesticides in market samples of raisins were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of six pesticide residues in cowpea with alkaline electrolysed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; An, Quanshun; Pan, Canping

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta-cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. The residue magnitudes were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that the removal effect of AlEW solution on the six pesticides was superior to tap water, 5% sodium chloride, 5% sodium carbonate and 5% acetic acid solution. AlEW with pH 12.2 had more potential to eliminate the six pesticides in cowpeas. Moreover, the reduction of pesticide residues gradually increased with the increase of washing time. This study demonstrated that AlEW solution with pH of 12.2 could be used to reduce pesticide residues on fresh cowpea samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE MEDIA ON ACETIC FERMENTATION WITH SELECTED Acetobacter STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically followed the efficiency of acetic fermentation, by cultivating 14 Acetobacter strains (previously isolated and identified, within a medium obtain out of ethanol and acetic acid, in various proportions, and utilizing corn extract (CE as a nutrient. The purpose of the research was to determine the resistance of the studied Acetobacter strains related to the composition of the cultivation media (acidity and alcohol content of the medium, as well as following the dynamics of the acetic fermentation by calculating the practical yield. The research led to optimal variants which may be industrially exploited in order to obtain vinegar.

  7. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Ya; Zhao Jinping; Halike, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P 0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  8. Comparison of acetate tape impression with squeezing versus skin scraping for the diagnosis of canine demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A V; Pereira, S A; Gremião, I D F; Campos, M P; Ferreira, A M R

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of acetate tape impression and skin squeezing with that of deep skin scraping for the diagnosis of demodicosis in dogs. Demodex canis was detected in 100% of acetate tape impressions obtained after skin squeezing and in 90% of deep skin scrapings. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the techniques in the total number of mites detected. Acetate tape impression with skin squeezing was found to be more sensitive than deep skin scraping and is an alternative diagnostic method for canine demodicosis. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru?Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promot...

  10. Amperometric titration of thorium and some lanthanoids in acetic-acid medium using two indicator electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadeev, V.A.; Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Kostylev, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    The votammetric behaviour of nitriletrimethylphosphonic acid (NTMP) in the medium of anhydrous acetic acid with different backgrounds in the anode region of polarization of a platinum microdisk electrode, is studied. The optimal conditions are found for the amperometric titration with two indicator electrodes of thorium and same lanthanides by a NTMP solution in anhydrous acetic medium. The influence of foreign anions and cations on the results of titration by the NTPM solution in anhydrous acetic acid is studied. The selectivity of titration in anhydrous medium is higher than in aqueous

  11. Highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelenkov, P. G.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there is a great interest in the world to biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers in a composition with natural fillers. Highly filled polymer composite materials based on various grades of synthetic block copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate with wood flour were under investigation. Five grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer differing in the content of vinyl acetate groups and a melt flow index were used in this work in order to find the best one for highly filled biocomposites. Wood flour content in biocomposites was 50, 60, 70 weight %. The rheological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting biocomposites were studied.

  12. Biotransformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate using the plant parasitic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Akazawa, S i; Sakai, H; Nankai, H

    2000-10-01

    The microbial transformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was investigated using the plant parasitic fungus Glomerella cingulata. As a result, (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was converted to dihydromyrcenol, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-7-carboxylate, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene, 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2, 7-triol-7-carboxylate, and 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2,7-triol. In addition, microbial transformation of dihydromyrcenol by G. cingulata was carried out. The metabolic pathway of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate is discussed.

  13. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  14. Free and proteic aminoacids from acetate 14C metabolism in detached leaves of coffee plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, O.G.; Crocomo, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The acetate 14 C was studied as the forerunner of proteic and free aminoacids in detached leaves of coffee (coffea arabica L.cv. Mundo Novo). The detached leaves were incubated with acetate -1- 14 C and -2- 14 C during several times (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes), out of luminosity. The ethanol 80% soluble fraction gave origin to free aminoacid after ion - exchange chromatography. The insoluble fraction through acid hydrolisis furnished proteic aminoacids. The data showed that the acetate molecules contributed for the aminoacids molecules structure, methylic carbon being more incorporated than the carboxylic carbon. (Author) [pt

  15. Lewis Base Activation of Silyl Acetals: Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakarapu, Udaya Sree; Bokka, Apparao; Asgari, Parham; Trog, Gabriela; Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Rahman, Nawal; Jeon, Junha

    2015-12-04

    A Lewis base promoted deprotonative pronucleophile addition to silyl acetals has been developed and applied to the iridium-catalyzed reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of esters and the chemoselective reduction of the resulting enoates. Lewis base activation of silyl acetals generates putative pentacoordinate silicate acetals, which fragment into aldehydes, silanes, and alkoxides in situ. Subsequent deprotonative metalation of phosphonate esters followed by HWE with aldehydes furnishes enoates. This operationally convenient, mechanistically unique protocol converts the traditionally challenging aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl esters to homologated enoates at room temperature within a single vessel.

  16. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend to ......, 0.3–0.5 % (wt.%) Xanthan Gum or 1–2% (wt.%) of some solid or liquid polymers as additives had significantly higher heat contents compared to samples of sodium acetate trihydrate suffering from phase separation....

  17. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin; Fixation d'acetates metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etude Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc{sub 3}{sup -} complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principes theoriques de la fixation des complexes anioniques des elements metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions, nous avons etudie tout particulierement le cas de l'acetate d'uranyle. Le trace des courbes de partage nous a permis de calculer les constantes d'echange dans la resine. L'etude des variations du logarithme du coefficient limite de partage avec le logarithme de la concentration des ions acetate libres nous a conduits aux calculs des constantes de dissociation des complexes en solution. La fixation d

  18. PROPRIEDADES DE ARGAMASSAS COM EVA (ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO PARCIAL AO AGREGADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Carneiro Guimarães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O setor da construção civil apresenta grande potencial para aproveitamento de vários tipos de resíduos industriais. A incorporação dos resíduos, principalmente nas argamassas e concretos, produtos com vasta aplicabilidade no setor, tem se mostrado como uma ótima alternativa na diversificação das matérias-primas e para a economia de recursos naturais. Esse trabalho avaliou as propriedades das argamassas, no estado fresco e endurecido, produzidas com substituição parcial da areia por resíduo de EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. Para isso, foram preparadas argamassas com teores de substituição do agregado 0% (referência, 5%, 10% e 15%, em massa. A relação água/cimento, para cada traço, foi determinada empiricamente e mantida constante para as argamassas com substituição. Os resultados apontam que as argamassas produzidas com agregado de EVA apresentam menor absorção de água e também um decréscimo da resistência mecânica. Desta forma, a produção de argamassas utilizando EVA em substituição ao agregado natural é viável, todavia é necessário avaliar os parâmetros mínimos de aplicação para cada finalidade. Dessa forma, o trabalho apresenta contribuição ao servir de suporte a gestores de empresas de argamassas ou gestores de obra a tomarem decisões acerca da inserção do resíduo de EVA na produção de argamassa. ABSTRACT: The construction sector has great potential for use of various types of industrial waste. The incorporation of waste, especially in mortar and concrete products with wide applicability in the industry, has proven to be a great alternative for diversification of raw materials and the economy of natural resources. This study evaluated the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state, made with partial replacement of sand by waste EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. For this, mortars were prepared with substitution aggregate content 0%(reference, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. The water

  19. Gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: analysis of methanol, ethanol and acetic acid by direct injection of aqueous alcoholic and acetic acid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guomin; Sun, Tong; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2014-08-15

    Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid are not easily extracted from aqueous samples and are susceptible to isotope fractionation in gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) analysis. Developing a direct dilution GC/IRMS method for aqueous samples, by adjusting the sample concentrations in common solvents to be similar to each other and using a fixed GC split ratio, is very convenient and important because any linearity effects caused by amount-dependent isotope fractionation can be avoided. The suitability of acetonitrile and acetone solvents for the GC/IRMS analysis of pure methanol, ethanol and acetic acid, and commercial liquor and vinegar samples was evaluated using n-hexane and water as control solvents. All the solvents including water were separated from the analyte on a HP-INNOWAX column and were diverted away from the combustion interface. The influence of liquor matrix on the ethanol GC/IRMS analyses was evaluated by adding pure ethanol to liquor samples. Acetonitrile and acetone gave similar δ(13) C values for pure ethanol and pure acetic acid to those obtained in water and n-hexane, and also gave similar δ(13) C values of ethanol in liquor and acetic acid in white vinegar to that obtained in water. For methanol analysis, acetonitrile and refined acetone gave similar δ(13) C values to that obtained in water, but n-hexane was not a suitable solvent. In addition, isotopic fractionation caused by solvent and solute interactions was observed. We recommend using acetonitrile for the GC/IRMS analysis of aqueous alcoholic samples, and acetone for the analysis of aqueous acetic acid samples. This direct dilution method can provide high accurate and precise GC/IRMS analysis of the relative changes in δ(13) C values of methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. {sup 1}H-NMR characterization of cellulose acetate obtained from sugarcane bagasse; Caracterizacao de acetato de celulose obtido a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar por {sup 1}H-RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, Daniel A., E-mail: daniel.cerqueira@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Carvalho, Rui de A. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Bioquimica; Valente, Artur J.M. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose from sugarcane bagasse was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate with different degrees of substitution, which were characterized by {sup 1}H-NMR through the relationship between the peak areas of the hydrogen atoms of the acetate groups (-(C=O)OCH{sub 3}) and the peaks of the hydrogen bonded to the carbon atoms of the glycosidic rings. Suppression of some signals was carried out in order to remove the residual water resonance in the materials and those related to impurities in cellulose triacetate as well. A deconvolution method for the computation of the degree of substitution of acetylation is proposed. The degrees of substitution for the cellulose samples were 2.94 and 2.60, in good agreement with those obtained by chemical determination through an acid-base titration. (author)