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Sample records for medroxyprogesterone acetate potential

  1. The use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate in contraception and its potential impact on skeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith R; Brown, Jacques P; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Bérubé, Jocelyn; Charbonneau, Louise; Francoeur, Diane; Gilbert, Andrée; Gilbert, François; Roy, Geneviève; Senikas, Vyta; Jacob, Robert; Morin, Réal

    2009-03-01

    In the fall of 2007, the controversy about the contraceptive use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and its potential impact on skeletal health reached the media in the province of Quebec, Canada, thereby becoming a matter of concern for the lay public and physicians. In order to discuss this subject openly, the National Institute of Public Health of Quebec (INSPQ) organized a scientific meeting on February 15, 2008, with targeted physicians delegated by their medical associations in the fields of general practice, obstetrics and gynaecology, rheumatology, orthopaedic surgery, physiatry and endocrinology. Participants reviewed the scientific literature using the study classification method according to the level of evidence, reviewed published guidelines of medical societies and organizations on the subject and reached a consensus position. This manuscript presents a review of the literature and describes the consensus position of the targeted medical associations. The consensus position adopted by all the targeted medical associations determined that DMPA was a cost-effective contraceptive option that must be considered in the light of the clinical situation and preference of each woman. Candidates for injectable contraception should be informed that the use of DMPA is associated with a slight decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), which is largely, if not completely, reversible. There should not be an absolute limit to the length of time that the DMPA contraceptive is used, regardless of the woman's age. Monitoring BMD is not recommended among users of DMPA for contraceptive purposes. Finally, the consensus statement declared that, although supplements of calcium and vitamin D are beneficial for skeletal health for women in general, such supplementation should not be recommended solely based on a woman's use of DMPA. Given the scientific evidences, DMPA use remains a valid contraceptive option for women. Its potential impact on BMD must be balanced

  2. Medroxyprogesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uterus (womb) and may decrease the risk of cancer of the uterus in patients who are taking estrogen. Medroxyprogesterone is ... doctor if you have or have ever had cancer of the breasts or female ... unborn child died in the uterus but was not expelled from the body); blood ...

  3. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  4. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2 or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2. In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The

  5. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  6. D:epot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-07-17

    Jul 17, 1971 ... Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7335 patients for a total of. 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18'3% and the failure rate 0'35 per 100 women-years of use. This compares very well with all other methods of ...

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates estrogen-induced nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Akira; Ohmichi, Masahide; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Mori-Abe, Akiko; Kawagoe, Jun; Otsu, Reiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2004-01-01

    We report the novel observation that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) attenuates the induction by 17β estradiol (E2) of both nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Although MPA had no effect on basal NO production or basal eNOS phosphorylation or activity, it attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Moreover, we examined the mechanism by which MPA attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. MPA attenuated the E2-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that phosphorylates eNOS. Treatment with pure progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, the effects of actinomycin D were tested to rule out the influence of genomic events mediated by nuclear PRs. Actinomycin D did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the potential roles of PRA and PRB were evaluated. In COS cells transfected with either PRA or PRB, MPA attenuated E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that MPA attenuated E2-induced NO production via an Akt cascade through PRA or PRB in a non-genomic manner

  8. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  9. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  10. Analytical Method Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Stability-Indicating Study of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Intravaginal Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medroxyprogesterone acetate is widely used in veterinary medicine as intravaginal dosage for the synchronization of breeding cycle in ewes and goats. The main goal of this study was to develop reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of medroxyprogesterone acetate in veterinary vaginal sponges. A single high-performance liquid chromatography/UV isocratic run was used for the analytical assay of the active ingredient medroxyprogesterone. The chromatographic system consisted of a reverse-phase C18 column as the stationary phase and a mixture of 60% acetonitrile and 40% potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as the mobile phase; the pH was adjusted to 5.6. The method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were also performed to evaluate the stability-indicating properties and specificity of the method. Medroxyprogesterone was eluted at 5.9 minutes. The linearity of the method was confirmed in the range of 0.0576 to 0.1134 mg/mL ( R 2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification was shown to be 3.9 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy ranges were found to be %RSD <0.2 and 98% to 102%, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone capacity factor value of 2.1, tailing factor value of 1.03, and resolution value of 3.9 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines. Based on the obtained results, a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone in vaginal sponges. This analytical method is the only available method to analyse medroxyprogesterone in veterinary intravaginal dosage form.

  11. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    : Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  12. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DMPA treatment induces oxidative stress in visceral fat. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  13. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie; Taylor, Lauren; Pallas, Sarah Wood; Cherlin, Emily; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-08-02

    Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations.

  14. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  15. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) after the menopause is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other hormone preparations. We compared the effect of a combined HT and tibolone on the inhibition of haemostasis. METHODS......: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...

  16. The Effect of Depo Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) on Cerebral Food Motivation Centers: A Pilot Study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tania; Bao, Pinglei; Lerner, Alexander; Anderson, Lindsey; Page, Kathleen; Stanczyk, Frank; Mishell, Daniel; Segall-Gutierrez, Penina

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects. fMRI scans were performed at baseline and 8 weeks after participants received one intramuscular dose of DMPA 150 mg. fMRI data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library. Changes in adiposity and circulating leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. There was a greater BOLD signal response to food cues in brain regions associated with food motivation (anterior cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex) 8 weeks after DMPA administration compared to baseline (z>2.3, pfood motivation may guide the development of interventions to prevent weight gain in DMPA users. These data support a neural origin as one of the mechanisms underlying weight gain in DMPA users and may guide future research examining weight gain and contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  18. Safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy: ACTG A5093.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D Heather; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cohn, Susan E; Yu, Song; Hitti, Jane; Stek, Alice; Clax, Pamela A; Muderspach, Laila; Lertora, Juan J L

    2008-02-01

    Concomitant use of antiretroviral (ARV) and hormonal contraceptives may change the metabolism of each and the resulting safety profiles. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) among women on ARV. HIV-infected women on selected ARV regimens or no ARV were administered DMPA 150 mg intramuscularly and evaluated for 12 weeks for adverse events, changes in CD4+ count and HIV RNA levels, and ovulation. Seventy evaluable subjects were included, 16 on nucleoside only or no ARV, 21 on nelfinavir-containing regimens, 17 on efavirenz-containing regimens and 16 on nevirapine-containing regimens. Nine Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in seven subjects; none were judged related to DMPA. The most common findings possibly related to DMPA were abnormal vaginal bleeding (nine, 12.7%), headache (three, 4.2%), abdominal pain, mood changes, insomnia, anorexia and fatigue, each occurring in two (2.9%) subjects. No significant changes in CD4+ count or HIV RNA levels occurred with DMPA. No evidence of ovulation was detected, and no pregnancies occurred. The clinical profile associated with DMPA administration in HIV-infected women, most on ARV, appears similar to that seen in HIV-uninfected women. DMPA prevented ovulation and did not affect CD4+ counts or HIV RNA levels. In concert with previously published DMPA/ARV interaction data, these data suggest that DMPA can be used safely by HIV-infected women on the ARV studied.

  19. Probing into the binding interaction between medroxyprogesterone acetate and bovine serum albumin (BSA): spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Pan, Dong-Qi; Qiu, Min-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min; Wang, Qi; Shi, Jie-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To further understand the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the binding interaction of MPA with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4) was studied using fluorescence emission spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking methods. The experimental results reveal that the fluorescence of BSA quenches due to the formation of MPA-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) and the binding constant for MPA-BSA complex are ~1 and 4.6 × 10(3)  M(-1) at 310 K, respectively. However, it can be concluded that the binding process of MPA with BSA is spontaneous and the main interaction forces between MPA and BSA are van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction due to the negative values of ΔG(0) , ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) in the binding process of MPA with BSA. MPA prefers binding on the hydrophobic cavity in subdomain IIIA (site II'') of BSA resulting in a slight change in the conformation of BSA, but BSA retaining the α-helix structure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Lu, Xuefeng; Hong, Qingqing; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer cycles using human menopausal gonadotrophin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 4596 live born babies. During January 2014-June 2016, children born after either hMG + MPA treatment, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist short protocol, or mild ovarian stimulation were included. The main outcome measures were neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations. Neonatal outcomes both for singletons and twins such as mean birth weight and length, gestational age, the frequency of preterm birth were comparable between groups. Rate of stillbirth and perinatal death were also similar. No significant differences were found in the overall incidence of congenital malformations between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that hMG + MPA regimen did not significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations compared with short protocol and mild ovarian stimulation, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.44] and 1.38 (CI 0.65-2.93), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our data suggested that compared with conventional ovarian stimulations, hMG + MPA treatment neither compromised neonatal outcomes of IVF newborns, nor did increase the prevalence of congenital malformations.

  1. Medroxy-Progesterone Acetate in the Treatment of Paraphilic Sexual Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Followed 46 male patients with paraphilic sexual disorders for 5 or more years in Johns Hopkins Sexual Disorders Unit. All patients received equivalent amounts of group psychotherapy. Of these, 17 relapsed. Rate of relapse among subjects receiving treatment with medroxy-progestorone acetate was 15 percent whereas rate of relapse among subjects not…

  2. Administration of Cabergoline Contributes to Preserving Fertility in Young Hyperprolactinemic Patients With Endometrial Cancer Treated With Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenebaatar, Chimeddulam; Yamaguchi, Munekage; Saito, Fumitaka; Monsur, Mahina; Honda, Ritsuo; Tashiro, Hironori; Ohba, Takashi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2018-03-01

    An association between high levels of serum prolactin and endometrial cancer (EC) has been reported. However, the effect of antiprolactin drugs on hyperprolactinemic patients with EC has not been determined. The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of cabergoline on young hyperprolactinemic patients treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for the preservation of fertility. A retrospective observational study was conducted to identify patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or early-stage EC aged 40 years or younger who were treated with oral MPA in Kumamoto University Hospital between 1998 and 2016. Thirty-four patients were identified and divided into two groups of 17 patients each, including a nonadministration of cabergoline group (noncabergoline group) and an administration of cabergoline group (cabergoline group). The ratio of pathological diagnoses of EC in the noncabergoline group was significantly lower than that in the cabergoline group (29.4% vs 70.6%, P = 0.016). The mean serum prolactin levels showed a significant decrease after the administration of cabergoline in the cabergoline group (25.2 [24.0] vs 5.2 [4.2] ng/mL, P = 0.003), and this decreased level was also significantly lower than that in the noncabergoline group (5.2 [4.2] vs 12.0 [5.0] ng/mL, P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis conducted for 150 months revealed that the estimated mean period until hysterectomy in the noncabergoline group was significantly shorter than that in the cabergoline group (83.5 vs 140.8 months, P = 0.007). Significant differences were observed in EC but not atypical endometrial hyperplasia based on histological classification (25.6 vs 138.0 months, P = 0.001). The administration of cabergoline may contribute to preserving fertility in young hyperprolactinemic patients with EC who were treated with MPA.

  3. Choice of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, etonogestrel implant or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception after aspiration abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Jody E; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Sokoloff, Abby; Harper, Cynthia C; Diedrich, Justin T; Drey, Eleanor A

    2015-12-01

    Women who have abortions are at high risk of contraception discontinuation and subsequent unintended pregnancy. The objective of this analysis was to identify factors associated with choice of highly effective, long-acting, progestin-only contraceptive methods after abortion. Women presenting for surgical abortion who selected the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD), the progestin implant or the progestin injection (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or DMPA) as their postabortion contraceptives were recruited to participate in a 1-year prospective cohort study. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to identify factors associated with choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (IUD or implant) compared to DMPA. A total of 260 women, aged 18-45 years, enrolled in the study, 100 of whom chose the IUD, 63 the implant and 97 the DMPA. The women were 24.9 years old on average; 36% were black, and 29% were Latina. Fifty-nine percent had had a previous abortion, 66% a prior birth, and 55% were undergoing a second-trimester abortion. In multivariable analyses, compared with DMPA users, women who chose the IUD or the implant were less likely to be currently experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV); reported higher stress levels; weighed more; and were more likely to have finished high school, to have used the pill before and to report that counselors or doctors were helpful in making the decision (all significant at p<.05, see text for relative risk ratios and confidence intervals.) In addition, women who chose the IUD were less likely to be black (p<.01), and women who chose the implant were more likely to report that they would be unhappy to become pregnant within 6 months (p<.05) than DMPA users. A variety of factors including race/ethnicity, past contraceptive use, feelings towards pregnancy, stress and weight were different between LARC and DMPA users. Notably, current IPV was associated with choice of DMPA over the IUD or implant, implying

  4. The safety of subcutaneously administered depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (104mg/0.65mL): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Monica V; Gaffield, Mary E

    2016-09-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a progestogen-only contraceptive injectable, has traditionally been formulated as a crystalline suspension delivered intramuscularly (IM) at a dose of 150mg/1.0mL. A new, lower dose formulation of DMPA (104mg/0.65mL) has been developed for subcutaneous administration (SC). Given its increasing global availability and public health relevance, DMPA-SC was prioritized for inclusion as a new method referenced in the World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), 5th Edition. This systematic review evaluated the published peer-reviewed literature regarding the safety of DMPA-SC among women with various characteristics or medical conditions. Results of this review informed the decision-making of a WHO Guideline Development Group in order to include recommendations on contraceptive eligibility within the revised MEC. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library databases to identify all relevant evidence published in peer-reviewed journals regarding the safety of DMPA-SC when used by women of reproductive age, particularly those with select characteristics or conditions specified in the MEC, from inception through June 2015. The quality of each individual study was assessed using the system for grading evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Fourteen studies met criteria for inclusion. Ten reported results relevant to DMPA users of varying age or with obesity, endometriosis or HIV; four compared the safety of DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM when used by general populations of healthy women. A randomized trial evaluating changes in bone mineral density among adult DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM users demonstrated no differences at 2years of follow-up. Limited evidence reported no consistent differences in weight change or bleeding patterns according to age; however, adolescents (<18years) were not included in any studies. Similar contraceptive efficacy, weight change, bleeding patterns

  5. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  6. Comparison of two strategies for the administration of injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate: among women who returned to a family planning clinic at three- or six-month intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jéssica M; Bottura, Bruna F; Gonçalves, Mayara P; Monteiro, Ilza; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in women who received injections every 3 months at the Family Planning Clinic, and those who received every other injection at a health care facility near their place of residence, only returning to the clinic every 6 months. The medical charts of DMPA users from 2 January 1980 through 31 December 2012 were evaluated for this study. Two cohorts of women were created and compared: those who regularly received DMPA injections every 3 months (3-month group) at the clinic and those who received alternating 3-month injections at a health care facility near their residence house, returning to the clinic every 6 months for an injection (6-month group). In addition, effectiveness rates, reasons for discontinuation, and continuation rates were evaluated. Overall, 2637 women received all injections at 3-month intervals at the clinic, and 1190 women received every other injection at a health care facility near their residence. The women in the 3-month group had higher pregnancy rates and higher discontinuation rates (with the exception of discontinuation due to the loss of libido). The women who received alternating injections near their homes were more likely to continue using DMPA as a contraception method and presented lower pregnancy and discontinuation rates (for the majority of reasons), when compared to those women who returned to the clinic every 3 months.

  7. Body composition, resting energy expenditure and inflammatory markers: impact in users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate after 12 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Gisele Almeida; Souza, Aglécio Luiz de; Marin, Daniela Miguel; Sider, Marina; Melhado, Vaneska Carvalho; Fernandes, Arlete Maria; Alegre, Sarah Monte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate for 12 months the changes of body weight using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) and if these changes are related to inflammatory markers. Twenty women of childbearing age who chose the DMPA, without previous use of this method, BMI HOMA-IR were assessed. After 12 months of evaluation, we could observe a significant increase in the DMPA group in weight (3,01 kg) and BMI, while the IUD group's only significant increase was observed in the BMI. Relative to REE there was an increase of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in both groups after one year. The sub-group DMPA that gained HOMA-IR and waist circumference, with RQ significantly reduced. Our study found significant changes in weight, body composition and metabolic profile of the population studied in the first 12 months of contraceptive use. These changes mainly increased body weight, leptin levels and HOMA-IR which can contribute to the development of some chronic complications, including obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  8. Weight variation in users of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and a copper intrauterine device for up to ten years of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Waleska; de Nazaré Silva dos Santos, Priscila; Correia, Vinicius Machado; Borges, Luiza; Bahamondes, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Data on record regarding weight variation in depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users are controversial. To date, no studies have yet evaluated weight variation in DMPA and LNG-IUS users in up to ten years of use compared to non-hormonal contraceptive users. A retrospective study analysed weight variations in 2138 women using uninterruptedly DMPA (150 mg intramuscularly, three-monthly; n = 714), the LNG-IUS (n = 701) or a copper-intrauterine device (Cu-IUD; n = 723). At the end of the first year of use, there was a mean weight increase of 1.3 kg, 0.7 kg and 0.2 kg among the DMPA-, LNG-IUS- and Cu-IUD users, respectively, compared to weight at baseline (p < 0.0001). After ten years of use, the mean weight had risen by 6.6 kg, 4.0 and 4.9 kg among the DMPA-, LNG-IUS- and Cu-IUD users, respectively. DMPA-users had gained more weight than LNG-IUS- (p = 0.0197) and than Cu-IUD users (p = 0.0294), with the latter two groups not differing significantly from each other in this respect (p = 0.5532). Users of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods gained a significant amount of weight over the years. DMPA users gained more weight over the treatment period of up to ten years than women fitted with either a LNG-IUS or a Cu-IUD.

  9. Comparison of fluorgestone and medroxyprogesterone intravaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for synchronizing oestrus in lactating Saanen goats was investigated during the transition from non-breeding to natural breeding season. Does were treated for 11 days with 60 mg MAP (n=19) or 40 mg FGA (n=24) sponges.

  10. Effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate on incident hypertension in the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swica, Yael; Warren, Michelle P; Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Bassuk, Shari S; Shimbo, Daichi; Kaunitz, Andrew; Rossouw, Jacques; Stefanick, Marcia L; Womack, Catherine R

    2018-01-29

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of menopausal hormone therapy on incident hypertension in the two Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials and in extended postintervention follow-up. A total of 27,347 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled at 40 US centers. This analysis includes the subsample of 18,015 women who did not report hypertension at baseline and were not taking antihypertensive medication. Women with an intact uterus received conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 2.5 mg/d) (n = 5,994) or placebo (n = 5,679). Women with prior hysterectomy received CEE alone (0.625 mg/d) (n = 3,108) or placebo (n = 3,234). The intervention lasted a median of 5.6 years in the CEE plus MPA trial and 7.2 years in the CEE-alone trial with 13 years of cumulative follow-up until September 30, 2010. The primary outcome for these analyses was self-report of a new diagnosis of hypertension and/or high blood pressure requiring treatment with medication. During the CEE and CEE plus MPA intervention phase, the rate of incident hypertension was 18% higher for intervention than for placebo (CEE: hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.29; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27). This effect dissipated postintervention in both trials (CEE: HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.20; CEE plus MPA: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.10). CEE (0.625 mg/d) administered orally, with or without CEE plus MPA, is associated with an increased risk of hypertension in older postmenopausal women. Whether lower doses, different estrogen formulations, or transdermal route of administration offer lower risks warrant further study.

  11. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the introduction of post-abortal and puerperal administrations of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and its new formulation; depo sub-Q provera in all our .... disease, uterine fibroids, ectopic pregnancy, iron- deficiency anemia and ovarian .... contraception. Clinical Gynaecologic Endocrinology and. Infertility. 15th ed.

  12. LPS-challenged TNFα production, prostaglandin secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs expression in the endometrium of domestic cats in estrus or diestrus, and in cats with pyometra or receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jursza, Ewelina; Szóstek, Anna Z; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Boos, Alois; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Siemieniuch, Marta J

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i) to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii) to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii) to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2), but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  13. LPS-Challenged TNFα Production, Prostaglandin Secretion, and TNFα/TNFRs Expression in the Endometrium of Domestic Cats in Estrus or Diestrus, and in Cats with Pyometra or Receiving Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Jursza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 derivatives which are commonly used to block the cyclicity of domestic cats disturb the endocrine balance in the endometrium. The aims of this study were (i to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS is responsible for enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secretion by the feline endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vitro, (ii to know whether immunolocalization of TNFα/TNFR1 and TNFR2 differs in cats at estrus or diestrus, receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate and suffering from pyometra, and (iii to determine if TNFα-challenged prostaglandin secretion is stopped by prostaglandin synthases inhibitors. A total of 37 domestic adult cats in estrus or diestrus, receiving octane medroxyprogesterone or having clinical symptoms of pyometra, were enrolled in this study. The results obtained showed a distinct increase in LPS-challenged TNFα secretion in endometrial epithelial, but not stromal cells. TNFα augmented PG secretion was blocked by phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor. TNFα/TNFR1 and 2 protein expressions were limited mostly to the surface and glandular epithelium. TNFα/TNFRs protein was upregulated in the inflammatory uterus and hence may be involved in development of pathologic changes in the endometrial glands in cats receiving exogenous P4 as a hormonal contraceptive.

  14. Sonar findings of the uterus in patients on medroxyprogesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depo Provera shows excellent results in comparison to oral contraceptive agents as well as the contraceptive patch. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of the chronic use of medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg injections on the endometrium and myometrium of the uterus as measured by means of ...

  15. Effect of levonorgestrel IUD and oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on glandular and stromal progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB), and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in human endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereide, Anne Beate; Kaino, Turid; Sager, Georg; Arnes, Marit; Ørbo, Anne

    2006-05-01

    The effect on progesterone and estrogen receptor expression in glands and stroma after two different treatment regimens of endometrial hyperplasia was determined. Pre- and post-treatment paraffin-embedded endometrial hyperplasia specimens from women treated with levonorgestrel (LNG) intrauterine device (n = 21) and women treated with 10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 10 days per cycle (n = 29) were examined immunohistochemically and evaluated by H-score (a semi-quantitative microscopical method evaluating staining intensity and number of stained cells, scale 0-3) for changes in expression of PRA (progesterone receptor A), PRB (progesterone receptor B), ER-alpha (estrogen receptor-alpha), ER-beta (estrogen receptor-beta) and AR (androgen receptors) after 3 months of treatment. All the patients in the LNG IUD group responded to treatment with no sign of hyperplasia after 3 months, while only about half of the patients given MPA orally responded. Expression of PRA, PRB, ER-alpha and ER-beta were markedly reduced after progestin treatment in both treatment groups but the reduction was much more pronounced in the LNG group (H-score for PRA was reduced from 2.61 to 0.11 in glands and from 2.26 to 0.09 in stroma in LNG group. Corresponding reduction for PRB in the LNG group was from 1.96 to 0.11 and from 0.83 to 0.01. PRA was reduced from 2.53 to 1.78 in glands and from 1.93 to 1.30 in stroma in the MPA group. Corresponding reduction for PRB in the MPA group was from 2.02 to 1.25 in glands and from 0.80 to 0.34 in stroma). Weak and focal stromal expression of AR was demonstrated in 22% of the specimens before but not after therapy. There was a statistically significant reduction in both PR and ER among the responders whereas non-responders showed no statistical change after treatment. The present study shows that LNG IUD causes an almost complete down-regulation (lack of immunohistochemical expression) of PR expression and a considerable down-regulation of ER

  16. The effectiveness of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIle progestaten was effective in synchronizing oestrus and resulted in a compact batch lambing interval. PMSG shortened the interval between sponge withdrawal and the onset of oestrus. It also increased the incidence of multiple births. About 80 per cent of animals in MAP treated groups exhibited oestrus within a ...

  17. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Acetate Succinate: Potential Drug–Excipient Incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zedong; Choi, Duk Soon

    2008-01-01

    The stability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and its potential incompatibility with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) carrying hydroxyl group(s) were investigated in this research. HPMC-AS may undergo hydrolysis under harsh processing conditions with the generation of succinic acid and acetic acid, which can form ester bond(s) with the hydroxyl group(s) in API. In this case, the hot-melt extrusion (HME) product prepared from HPMC-AS and our model compound (...

  18. The sensitizing potential of primary amyl acetate in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, B; Tyler, T R; Auletta, C S

    1986-06-01

    Primary amyl acetate is a liquid mixture of the isomeric forms of pentyl acetate, which is used as a volatile organic solvent. Because of the possibility for skin contact, primary amyl acetate was investigated for its potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Using a guinea pig maximization procedure, primary amyl acetate was found to be a possible marginal skin sensitizer.

  19. Depo-medroxyprogesterone in women on antiretroviral therapy: effective contraception and lack of clinically significant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S E; Park, J-G; Watts, D H; Stek, A; Hitti, J; Clax, P A; Yu, S; Lertora, J J L

    2007-02-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug interactions among HIV-infected women treated with depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) while on nucleoside analogues plus nelfinavir (N=21), efavirenz (N=17), or nevirapine (N=16); or nucleosides only or no antiretroviral therapy as a control group (N=16). PK parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analysis, with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of ARV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone levels were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after DMPA dosing. There were no significant changes in MPA area under the concentration curve, peak or trough concentrations, or apparent clearance in the nelfinavir, efavirenz, or nevirapine groups compared to the control group. Minor changes in nelfinavir and nevirapine drug exposure were seen after DMPA, but were not considered clinically significant. Suppression of ovulation was maintained.

  20. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    Clarissa Lam,1 Amitasrigowri S Murthy2,3 1New York University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York University School of Medicine, 3New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mas...

  1. Variação de peso de usuárias de acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito segundo índice de massa corporal em seguimento de seis anos Variation of weigth among users of the contraceptive with depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate according to body mass index in a six-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a variação de peso de mulheres com diferentes Índices de Massa Corporal (IMC, usuárias do injetável trimestral de acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD e compará-la à de mulheres em uso de método não hormonal. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com revisão de prontuários de 226 usuárias de AMPD e 603 controles usuárias de DIU TCu380A. As mulheres foram distribuídas conforme o IMC inicial nas categorias de peso normal (30 kg/m² e seguidas anualmente durante seis anos com medidas de peso e IMC. Aplicou-se o teste estatístico ANOVA para medir a variação de peso entre os grupos em cada categoria de IMC a cada ano. RESULTADOS: a média de idade no início do uso do método foi maior no grupo de estudo do que no controle em todas as categorias de IMC 31,6 ± DP 7,1 X 27,4 ± DP 5,5 na categoria peso normal (pPURPOSE: to determine weight variation in women with different Body Mass Index (BMI in use of trimestral injections of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, and compare it to women users of a non-hormonal method. METHODS: retrospective study with the chart review of 226 DMPA users and 603 controls, users of DIU TCu380A. Women were distributed in categories, according to their initial BMI, as having normal weight (30 kg/m², and were followed-up for six years, with yearly measurements of weight and BMI. The statistic test ANOVA was used to measure the weight variation among the groups in each BMI category every year. RESULTS: the average age at the onset of the method employed was higher in the study group than in the controls, in all the BMI categories: 31.6±SD 7.1 X 27.4±SD 5.5 in the normal weight category (p<0.0001; 37.3±SD 6.8 X 29.2±SD 6.0 in the overweight category (p<0.0001; and 35.3±SD 6.4 X 29.7±SD 5.8 among obese women (p<0.0001. DMPA users showed weight increase as compared to the controls in the overweight category (p=0.0082; and the weight increase along the observation period

  2. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcrA) transcr......Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcr......(VI) reduction was observed in inactive controls. These results demonstrate that Methanosarcina species could play an important role in the long-term bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers after depletion of Fe(III) oxides limits the growth of Geobacter species. The results also suggest...... that Methanosarcina have the potential to influence uranium geochemistry in a diversity of anaerobic sedimentary environments....

  3. Variação de peso em usuárias de sistema intra-uterino liberador de levonorgestrel, DIU T-cobre e acetato de medroxiprogesterona no Brasil Weight variation in users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, of the copper IUD and of medroxyprogesterone acetate in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Angerame Yela

    2006-02-01

    comparison with a cohort of users of the TCu 380A intrauterine device (IUD and a cohort of users of the injectable contraceptive, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA over a period of five years. METHODS: A total of 163 users of the LNG-IUS, who had the device inserted in 1998, were admitted to the study. At the time of enrollment, each woman was matched by weight (± 1kg and age (± 1year to a woman using a TCu 380A IUD and to another woman using DMPA. All women were followed up for a period of five years. Each year weight was measured and the body mass index (BMI, kg/m² was calculated. RESULTS: Age of the LNG-IUS users was 27.0 ± 6.7 years (mean ± SD, while age of the copper IUD users was 28.0 ± 6.6 years and that of DMPA users was 26.9 ± 6.5 years. Weight recorded at the onset of the study was 62.9 ± 0.8 kg, 62.8 ± 0.8 kg, and 62.5 ± 0.9 kg (Mean ± SD for users of the LNG-IUS, the copper IUD, and DMPA, respectively. The BMI of women was initially 25.0 (±0.3, 26.4 (±0.3, and 25.5 (±0.4, (Mean ± SD, for users of the LNG-IUS, copper IUD, and DMPA, respectively. Weight increases of 3.1 kg, 4.9kg and 8.2kg were observed at the end of the fifth year among users of the LNG-IUS, copper IUD, and DMPA, respectively (p = 0.009. Increase of the BMI was also observed among all groups (final BMI was 26.3 ± 0.7, 28.5 ± 0.8 and 28.7 ± 1.3 for users of the LNG-IUS, copper IUD and DMPA, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant association between weight increase and length of use of the contraceptive method and of the DMPA. CONCLUSION: The use of a LNG-IUS during five years caused no significant weight increase and the difference in weight was of the same magnitude as that of copper IUD users.

  4. Olfactory event-related potentials to amyl acetate in congenital anosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, L; Evans, W J

    1997-04-01

    Olfactory function was evaluated by olfactory event-related potentials and standardized psychophysical measures including the Smell Identification Test and odor detection threshold tests for 3 chemosensory stimulants in 9 subjects with isolated congenital anosmia and 9 age- and gender-matched normosmic controls. There was a significant difference in Smell Identification Test scores (P acetate (P amyl acetate and air control stimuli presented at volume flow rate of 5 l/min, stimulus duration of 40 ms, and randomized interstimulus intervals of 6-30 s. In the control subjects, evoked potentials to amyl acetate were characterized by 4 reproducible components (P1, N1, P2, and N2). In the subjects with congenital anosmia, no reproducible evoked potential components were identified in response to amyl acetate. No reproducible evoked potential components were seen in response to the air control stimulus in either the anosmic or normosmic groups. These data suggest that olfactory evoked potentials provide a specific measure of olfactory function.

  5. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The lack of a cardioprotective effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as suggested by the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and Women's Health Initiative (WHI) may in part be explained by the progestin used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect...... equine estrogens (CEE) (1.25 mg/day); 17beta-estradiol (E2) (4 mg/day); MPA + CEE (10 mg/day + 1.25 mg/day); NETA + E2 (3 mg/day + 4 mg/day); or placebo. Segments from the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries were mounted in myographs for tension recordings. Concentration-response curves to potassium...

  6. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    equine estrogens (CEE) (1.25 mg/day); 17beta-estradiol (E2) (4 mg/day); MPA + CEE (10 mg/day + 1.25 mg/day); NETA + E2 (3 mg/day + 4 mg/day); or placebo. Segments from the basilar and posterior cerebral arteries were mounted in myographs for tension recordings. Concentration-response curves to potassium...

  7. A Potential Life-Threatening Reaction to Glatiramer Acetate in Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenkorn, Andreea; Kidon, Mona; Ben-Zeev, Bruria

    2017-03-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting with severe intellectual disability in females caused by various mutations in the MECP2 gene. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the main proteins regulated by the MECP2 protein; its overexpression in the MeCP2 mouse model partially corrects the Rett phenotype. Pharmacologic manipulations that lead to increased BDNF in individuals with Rett syndrome are expected to have a positive effect on the disorder. Glatiramer acetate, a well-known and safe multiple sclerosis immune modulator, increases BDNF levels in multiple sclerosis animal models and patients responding to treatment, as well as in Rett mouse models. Fourteen patients with mutation-proven Rett syndrome were recruited for a clinical trial with glatiramer acetate. Baseline data and follow-up data were collected during the trial, which had to be stopped because of a severe adverse event. Our objective is to describe this unexpected potentially life-threatening event in response to glatiramer in patients with Rett syndrome. Four of 14 patients with Rett syndrome who were recruited and treated with daily injections of glatiramer acetate as part of an open-label clinical trial developed an exaggerated immediate postinjection response, which was experienced as life threatening in three of the patients, necessitating arrest of the trial. Despite the known safety profile of glatiramer acetate in adult and pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis, its use in Rett syndrome should be cautiously reconsidered. The described severe adverse event can be related to these patients' primary autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

    2011-11-01

    Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    A (mcrA) transcripts during an acetate-injection field experiment demonstrated that acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosarcina were enriched after 40 days of acetate amendment. The increased abundance of Methanosarcina corresponded with an accumulation of methane in the groundwater....... An enrichment culture dominated by a Methanosarcina species with the same Methanosarcina mcrA sequence that predominated in the field experiment could effectively convert acetate to methane. In order to determine whether Methanosarcina species could be participating in U(VI) reduction in the subsurface, cell......Previous studies of in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater with acetate injections have focused on the role of Geobacter species in U(VI) reduction because of a lack of other abundant known U(VI)-reducing microorganisms. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit...

  10. Ethyl acetate fraction of Eclipta alba: a potential phytopharmaceutical targeting adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Durgesh; Nandan, Shiv; Shankar, Kripa; Varshney, Salil; Rajan, Sujith; Srivastava, Ankita; Gupta, Sanchita; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Narender, T; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth

    2017-12-01

    Natural products have always fascinated mankind for their miraculous properties. Eclipta alba (E. alba), a medicinal herb has long been used in traditional medicine for curing several pathologies. It has been shown to have anti-diabetic effect as well as hepato-protective activity. Here, in order to address metabolic derangements, the study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of E. alba and its fractions in adipogenesis inhibition and dyslipidemia. Of the crude extract and fractions screened, ethyl acetate fraction of E. alba inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and hMSC derived adipocytes. It inhibited mitotic clonal expansion and caused cell cycle arrest in G1 and S phase as suggested by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. It was also shown to have lipolytic effects. Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction of E. alba to hamsters unveiled its anti-adipogenic as well as anti-dyslipidemic activity in-vivo. Mass spectrometry analysis of ethyl acetate fraction confirmed the presence of several bioactive components, projecting it as an effective phytopharmaceutical agent. In conclusion, ethyl acetate fraction of E. alba possesses potent anti-adipogenic as well as anti-dyslipidemic activity and could be projected as an herbal formulation towards obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Antioxidative potential of a combined therapy of anti TNFα and Zn acetate in experimental colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barollo, Michela; Medici, Valentina; D’Incà, Renata; Banerjee, Antara; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Marco; Patak, Surajit; Ruffolo, Cesare; Cardin, Romilda; Sturniolo, Giacomo Carlo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether combination therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) antibody and Zn acetate is beneficial in dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in CD1-Swiss mice with 5% DSS for 7 d. The experimental mice were then randomised into the following subgroups: standard diet + DSS treated (induced colitis group); standard diet + DSS + subcutaneous 25 μg anti-TNFα treated group; Zn acetate treated group + DSS + subcutaneous 25 μg anti-TNFα; standard diet + DSS + subcutaneous 6.25 μg anti-TNFα treated group and Zn acetate treated group + DSS + subcutaneous 6.25 μg anti-TNFα. Each group of mice was matched with a similar group of sham control animals. Macroscopic and histological features were scored blindly. Homogenates of the colonic mucosa were assessed for myeloperoxidase activity as a biochemical marker of inflammation and DNA adducts (8OH-dG) as a measure of oxidative damage. RESULTS: DSS produced submucosal erosions, ulcers, inflammatory cell infiltration and cryptic abscesses which were reduced in both groups of mice receiving either anti-TNFα alone or combined with zinc. The effect was more pronounced in the latter group (vs Zn diet, P < 0.02). Myeloperoxidase activity (vs controls, P < 0.02) and DNA adducts, greatly elevated in the DSS fed colitis group (vs controls, P < 0.05), were significantly reduced in the treated groups, with a more remarkable effect in the group receiving combined therapy (vs standard diet, P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: DSS induces colonic inflammation which is modulated by the administration of anti-TNFα. Combining anti-TNFα with Zn acetate offers marginal benefit in colitis severity. PMID:22039323

  12. Antifungal potential of eugenyl acetate against clinical isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Hmoteh, Jutharat; Thamjarungwong, Benjamas; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of eugenyl acetate (EA), a phytochemical in clove essential oil, against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EA against Candida isolates were in the range between 0.1% and 0.4% (v/v). Spot assay further confirmed the susceptibility of Candida isolates to the compound upon treatment with respective 1 × MIC. Growth profile measured in time kill study evidence that the compound at 1 × MIC and 1/2 × MIC retarded the growth of Candida cells, divulging the fungicidal activity. Light microscopic observation demonstrated that upon treated with EA, rough cell morphology, cell damage, and fragmented patterns were observed in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Furthermore, unusual morphological changes of the organism were observed in scanning electron microscopic study. Therefore, it is validated that the compound could cause cell damage resulting in the cell death of Candida clinical isolates. Eventually, the compound at sub-MIC (0.0125% v/v) significantly inhibited serum-induced germ tube formation by C. albicans. Eugenyl acetate inhibited biofilm forming ability of the organisms as well as reduced the adherence of Candida cells to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In addition, upon treatment with EA, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was increased significantly against C. albicans (P Candida infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal Decomposition of Potential Ester Biofuels. Part I: Methyl Acetate and Methyl Butanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porterfield, Jessica P.; Bross, David H.; Ruscic, Branko; Thorpe, James H.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2017-06-09

    Two methyl esters have been examined as models for the pyrolysis of biofuels. Dilute samples (0.06 - 0.13%) of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and methyl butanoate (CH3CH2CH2COOCH3) were entrained in (He, Ar) carrier gas and decomposed in a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from the methyl esters were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the pulsed micro-reactor were roughly 20 Torr and residence times through the reactors were approximately 25 - 150 µs. Reactor temperatures of 300 – 1600 K were explored. Decomposition of CH3COOCH3 commences at 1000 K and the initial products are (CH2=C=O and CH3OH). As the micro-reactor is heated to 1300 K, a mixture of (CH2=C=O and CH3OH, CH3, CH2=O, H, CO, CO2) appears. The thermal cracking of CH3CH2CH2COOCH3 begins at 800 K with the formation of (CH3CH2CH=C=O, CH3OH). By 1300 K, the pyrolysis of methyl butanoate yields a complex mixture of (CH3CH2CH=C=O, CH3OH, CH3, CH2=O, CO, CO2, CH3CH=CH2, CH2CHCH2, CH2=C=CH2, HCCCH2, CH2=C=C=O, CH2=CH2, HCΞCH, CH2=C=O). Based on the results from the thermal cracking of methyl acetate and methyl butanoate, we predict several important decomposition channels for the pyrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters, R CH2-COOCH3. The lowest energy fragmentation will be a 4-center elimination of methanol to form the ketene, RCH=C=O. At higher temperatures, concerted

  14. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  15. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  16. Long QTc Syndrome Type 2 Presenting in a Postpartum Patient on Medroxyprogesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2 is a rare inherited cardiac abnormality resulting in increased risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT. Case Description. A 21-year-old postpartum female presented with syncopal episode after phone alarm. She was noted to have PVT on telemetry monitoring in the emergency department. EKG revealed QTc of 530. The patient’s only medication was medroxyprogesterone. She ultimately received a dual chamber pacemaker with ICD. Discussion. LQTS2 is associated with alarm sounds as a precipitating factor. Postpartum hormonal shifts as well as medroxyprogesterone have significant effect on native QTc duration.

  17. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  18. A potential tocopherol acetate loaded palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions for nanocosmeceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Raja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic-pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty of the skin. Nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized system for the delivery of active ingredients to the targeted cells for better penetration. In this work, nanoemulsion from palm oil esters was developed as a delivery system to produce nanocosmeceuticals. The stability of the resulting formulation was tested using various methods. In addition, the effect of components i.e. Vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 on the formulation was also studied. Results Both vitamin E and Pluronic F-68 were found to co-emulsify and co-stabilized the formulations. The best formulation was found to be the one having the composition of 10% Palm Oil Esters (POEs, 10% vitamin E, 24% Tween 80, 2.4% Pluronic F-68 and 53.6% deionised water. Those compositions are considered to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small particle size (94.21 nm, low occurrence of Ostwald ripening and stable at different storing temperatures (5, 25 and 45°C for four weeks. Conclusions Palm oil esters-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with vitamin E was successfully formulated and has the potential for the use as nanocosmeceuticals.

  19. Detection of active, potentially acetate-oxidizing syntrophs in an anaerobic digester by flux measurement and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Daisuke; Haruta, Shin; Shigematsu, Toru; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    Syntrophic oxidation of acetate, so-called reversed reductive acetogenesis, is one of the most important degradation steps in anaerobic digesters. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of the micro-organisms involved. Here we investigated the activity and composition of potentially acetate-oxidizing syntrophs using a combinatorial approach of flux measurement and transcriptional profiling of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene, an ecological biomarker for reductive acetogenesis. During the operation of a thermophilic anaerobic digester, volatile fatty acids were mostly depleted, suggesting a high turnover rate for dissolved H(2), and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaeal members. Batch cultivation of the digester microbiota with (13)C-labelled acetate indicated that syntrophic oxidation accounted for 13.1-21.3 % of methane production from acetate. FTHFS genes were transcribed in the absence of carbon monoxide, methoxylated compounds and inorganic electron acceptors other than CO(2), which is implicated in the activity of reversed reductive acetogenesis; however, expression itself does not distinguish whether biosynthesis or biodegradation is functioning. The mRNA- and DNA-based terminal RFLP and clone library analyses indicated that, out of nine FTHFS phylotypes detected, the FTHFS genes from the novel phylotypes I-IV in addition to the known syntroph Thermacetogenium phaeum (i.e. phylotype V) were specifically expressed. These transcripts arose from phylogenetically presumed homoacetogens. The results of this study demonstrate that hitherto unidentified phylotypes of homoacetogens are responsible for syntrophic acetate oxidation in an anaerobic digester.

  20. [{sup 14}C]Benzyl acetate is a potential radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momosaki, Sotaro [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: momosaki@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hosoi, Rie; Sanuki, Tomoya [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Todoroki, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Gee, Antony [GlaxoSmithkline, Clinical Research Unit, ACCI, CB2 2GC Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Inoue, Osamu [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    In order to develop a suitable radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism, we synthesized four different types of ester derivatives of [{sup 14}C]acetate, namely, [{sup 14}C]phenyl acetate, [{sup 14}C]para-nitrophenyl acetate, [{sup 14}C]2,4-dinitrophenyl acetate and [{sup 14}C]benzyl acetate ([{sup 14}C]BA), and evaluated their potencies in rats. Among the derivatives, the highest brain uptake at 30 s postinjection was observed for [{sup 14}C]BA, which was more than 23 times higher than that of [{sup 14}C]acetate itself. A long-term retention of [{sup 14}C]BA radioactivity in the brain was observed, whereas rapid clearance of radioactivity was seen in the heart. [{sup 14}C]BA was rapidly hydrolyzed in the intact rat brain, and less than 5% of radiolabeled parent was observed 1 min after the injection. Radiochemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography revealed that [{sup 14}C]BA was rapidly converted to [{sup 14}C]glutamine and [{sup 14}C]glutamate in the cortex within 10 min after injection. Furthermore, the uptake of [{sup 14}C]BA was significantly decreased following microinjection of fluorocitrate, a selective glial toxin. These results strongly suggest that [{sup 14}C]BA may be a useful radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the intact rat brain.

  1. Restoration of reproductive potential after expiration or removal of melengestrol acetate contraceptive implants in Tigers (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuei, Jason Y; Asa, Cheryl S; Hall-Woods, Monica; Ballou, Jonathon; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy

    2007-07-01

    The need for contraception in the successful management of captive wild animals is becoming increasingly apparent. Because concerns exist regarding the reversibility of the contraceptive implant melengestrol acetate (MGA), reproductive data for 94 female Amur (Panthera tigris altaica) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) were analyzed using survival analyses to evaluate return to reproductive status after implant removal or assumed expiration. Females placed in potential breeding situations after MGA implants were surgically removed showed a 62% return to reproduction by 5.25 years, whereas females with implants that were assumed to have expired showed only a 30% return to reproduction by 6 years. Implanted females did not reproduce as successfully as non-implanted control females, which showed an 85% probability of reproducing after placement in a new breeding situation by 2.66 years. Parturition increased the probability of reproducing in non-implanted females, but not in implanted females. Litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significantly different between non-implanted, implant-removed and implant-expired female tigers. Ten female tigers reproduced both before and after implant placement, and the differences in litter size, stillbirths, and offspring survival were not significant, nor were they significantly different from non-implanted females. Prior parturition, age when implant was removed, and duration of implantation did not affect the probability of reproducing for females after implant removal. These results show substantial reversibility of MGA implants, leading to 62% successful reproduction after implant removal. The reasons for lower successful reproduction in animals previously treated with the contraceptive compared to non-implanted females are not known, but a greater delay in reversibility was seen when implants were left in place and only presumed expired. Zoo Biol 26:275-288, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera in Downregulating the NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we prepared four different solvent fractions (chloroform, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate of Moringa oleifera extract to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential and cellular mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Cell cytotoxicity assay suggested that the solvent fractions were not cytotoxic to macrophages at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner and was more effective than the other fractions. Immunoblot observations revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor (NF-κB p65 through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of the inhibitor of κB (IκBα and blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera in Downregulating the NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Muniandy, Katyakyini; Fakurazi, Sharida; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Kumar, S Suresh

    2016-10-31

    In the present investigation, we prepared four different solvent fractions (chloroform, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate) of Moringa oleifera extract to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential and cellular mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Cell cytotoxicity assay suggested that the solvent fractions were not cytotoxic to macrophages at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner and was more effective than the other fractions. Immunoblot observations revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of the inhibitor of κB (IκBα) and blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  5. Characterisation of phenolic compounds of the ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis and its potential antidepressant-like effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleti, Nathielli Nayara; Mello, Jonas; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; de Albuquerque, Cláudia Almeida Coelho; Alberton, Michele Debiasi; Barauna, Sara Cristiane

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluates the antidepressant-like effect and analysed the qualitative and quantitative 74 phenolic standards of ethyl acetate fraction from Tabernaemontana catharinensis leaves. Acute administration of fraction in mice reduced the immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests confirming its antidepressant-like activity. The anti-immobility effect elicited by this fraction was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg kg -1 ), ketanserin (5 mg kg -1 ), SCH 23,390 (0.05 mg kg -1 ) or yohimbine (1 mg kg -1 ). A sub effective dose of the fraction produced a synergistic effect with fluoxetine (5 mg kg -1 ). Chromatographic analysis identified 4-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids in the ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis. Capillary electrophoresis presented 7.34 ± 0.02 mg g -1 of p-coumaric acid concentration in the fraction. Therefore, it is possible that antidepressant-like effect elicited by ethyl acetate fraction from T. catharinensis be dependent on the p-coumaric acid.

  6. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) alone and in combination with two progestins on K+ and Ca2+-mediated mechanisms in coronary...

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms...

  8. Oxidative activation of indole-3-acetic acids to cytotoxic species- a potential new role for plant auxins in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkes, L K; Wardman, P

    2001-01-15

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. Upon treatment with IAA/HRP, liposomes undergo lipid peroxidation, strand breaks and adducts are formed in supercoiled plasmid DNA, and mammalian cells in culture lose colony-forming ability. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; no effects are seen when IAA or HRP is incubated independently in these systems at equivalent concentrations. Toxicity is similar in both hamster fibroblasts and some human tumour cells. The effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to the formation of 3-methylene-2-oxindole, which may conjugate with DNA bases and protein thiols. Our hypothesis is that IAA/HRP could be used as the basis for targeted cancer therapy involving antibody-, polymer-, or gene-directed approaches. HRP can thus be targeted to a tumour allowing non-toxic IAA delivered systemically to be activated only in the tumour. Exposure to newly synthesised analogues of IAA shows a range of four orders of magnitude difference in cellular toxicity but no structure-activity relationships are apparent, in contrast to well-defined redox dependencies of oxidation by HRP intermediates or rates of decarboxylation of radical-cation intermediates.

  9. Clostebol acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maccaroni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H29ClO3 [systematic name (8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S-4-chloro-3-oxoandrost-4-en-17β-yl acetate], is a 4-chloro derivative of testosterone, used as an anabolic androgenic agent or applied topically in ophthalmological and dermatological treatments. The absolute configurations at positions 8, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17 were established by refinement of the Flack parameter as R, S, R, S, S, and S, respectively. Rings B and C of the steroid ring system adopt chair conformations, ring A has a half-chair conformation, while ring D is in a C13 envelope conformation. Ring B and C, and C and D are trans fused. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a weak C—H...O interaction.

  10. Investigating potential roles of extruded flaxseed and α-tocopherol acetate supplementation for production of healthier broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, R; Khan, M I; Anjum, F M; Sheikh, M A

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of extruded flaxseed (EFS) and α-tocopherol acetate (ATA) for the enhancement of polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA) over saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat as a source of healthier meat. A total of 96 one-d-old Cobb 550 broilers were randomly divided into 8 treatments with three replicates having 4 birds in each. EFS (extruded at 155°C) at 100, 150 and 200 g/kg alone and in combination with ATA at 200 mg/kg were supplemented through normal feed from the third week onward. During the 6-week growth period, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality were recorded. At slaughter, weight of liver, heart and kidney and fat content in breast and leg meat were measured. Fatty acid profiles in breast and leg meat were developed to estimate the PUFA to SFA ratio. The results revealed that FI and FCR changed significantly in all groups and BWG increased in all the supplemented groups. The weight of liver, kidney and heart increased more in the supplemented group containing the maximum level of EFS with ATA compared with single supplementation of EFS. The fat content in breast and leg meat decreased as the inclusion level of EFS increased. The level was low in leg meat compared with breast meat. Mortality decreased in all supplemented groups. The PUFA to SFA ratio was significantly higher in leg meat (3.23) compared with breast meat (1.81) and the study therefore indicates that ATA and EFS supplementation could be used to improve the PUFA to SFA ratio in broiler meat.

  11. Anti-ulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori potentials of the ethyl acetate fraction of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Solanaceae) in rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Sui Lou; Zhang, Jiong Yi; Song, Xiao Ning; Zhang, Zhi Yong; Li, Jing Feng; Li, Song

    2018-01-30

    Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Solanaceae) has been widely used in Chinese folk medicine due to its wide distribution throughout the country, for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including heat and cold, sore throat, fever, fungal infection, inflammation, toothache, rheumatism, burn, analgesic, ulcer and urinary diseases. However, the effect of P. alkekengi var. franchetii on ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection has not been reported to date. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-Helicobacter pylori and analgesic properties of ethyl acetate fraction of the crude aqueous methanolic extract from the aerial parts of the plant P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii in rodents. Acute toxicity of the crude extract of P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii (PAF) was evaluated in rats. The petroleum ether fraction (PEF), butanol fraction (BF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and aqueous fraction (AF) of crude aqueous methanolic extract from PAF were screened for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer potential at doses of 100, 250 and 500mg/kg (p.o.), using carrageenin-induced hind paw edema and ethanol-induced gastric lesions test in rats. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of EAF was assayed subsequently. In addition, three doses of EAF were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate and writhing tests, respectively. Finally, we performed a phytochemical analysis of EAF. Four fractions of crude extract from PAF significantly reduced the paw volume in carrageenin-induced hind paw edema model at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.). The fraction EAF at a dose of 500mg/kg exhibited the highest (75.92%) (0.150 ± 0.045***, ***p < 0.001) anti-inflammatory potential, which is similar to indomethacin (***P < 0.001)(0.120 ± 0.014***, 80.74% inhibition of inflammation) at 5mg/kg. Pretreatment with EAF (500mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the intensity of gastric mucosal damage and showed higher gastroprotective

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Potential for Metal-Ligand Speciation in Aqueous Solution via the Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source: Uranyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lynn X; Manard, Benjamin T; Powell, Brian A; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2015-07-21

    The determination of metals, including the generation of metal-ligand speciation information, is essential across a myriad of biochemical, environmental, and industrial systems. Metal speciation is generally affected by the combination of some form of chromatographic separation (reflective of the metal-ligand chemistry) with element-specific detection for the quantification of the metal composing the chromatographic eluent. Thus, the identity of the metal-ligand is assigned by inference. Presented here, the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) is assessed as an ionization source for metal speciation, with the uranyl ion-acetate system used as a test system. Molecular mass spectra can be obtained from the same source by simple modification of the sustaining electrolyte solution. Specifically, chemical information pertaining to the degree of acetate complexation of uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) is assessed as a function of pH in the spectral abundance of three metallic species: inorganic (nonligated) uranyl, UO2Ac(H2O)n(MeOH)m(+), and UO2Ac2(H2O)n(MeOH)(m)H(+) (n = 1, 2, 3, ...; m = 1, 2, 3, ...). The product mass spectra are different from what are obtained from electrospray ionization sources that have been applied to this system. The resulting relationships between the speciation and pH values have been compared to calculated concentrations of the corresponding uranyl species: UO2(2+), UO2Ac(+), UO2Ac2. The capacity for the LS-APGD to affect both atomic mass spectra and structurally significant spectra for organometallic complexes is a unique and potentially powerful combination.

  13. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  14. High-dose oral medroxyprogesterone for inappropriate hypersexuality in elderly men with dementia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Bethany S; DeYoung, G Robert; Furmaga, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively examine the utility of high-dose oral medroxyprogesterone (MPA) for the treatment of inappropriate hypersexuality (IH) in elderly men with dementia. Ten men aged 65 years or older (median 79.5 years, range 65-93 years) were identified from all admissions at a 170-bed tertiary referral psychiatric hospital between December 2005 and January 2011. Admission records were used to identify subjects who received at least 100 mg daily of oral MPA. The primary outcome of successful treatment was chart documentation of a substantial decline in IH, such that subjects could return to preadmission residence. Data were collected to assess trends in dose, adverse effects, use of other symptom-modifying medications prior to MPA initiation, and successful return to preadmission placement. A trial serotoneric agent was used in 70% of subjects prior to MPA initiation. Sixty percent of subjects failed a trial of an antipsychotic, while 40% did not have response to the use of both a serotonergic agent and an antipsychotic before MPA was initiated. The average daily dose of MPA was 300 mg (range 100-400 mg/day). No adverse effects were documented from physician, nursing, or behavioral health rounding notes; however, adverse effects may not have been systematically assessed at the time of MPA administration. Seventy percent of subjects experienced favorable changes in target behaviors from MPA. Few data exist on effective therapy options for treatment of IH. The minimum concentration of MPA needed to suppress IH in the male body is unknown. MPA was titrated upward, with the efficacy measure being a decrease in inappropriate behaviors. Use of MPA likely contributed to decreased IH; however, other factors involved in hospitalization could have contributed to improved behavior. While requiring further study, high-dose (100-400 mg/day) oral MPA may represent an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for subjects displaying IH.

  15. Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol-ecule of pallidol hexa-acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis-[4-(acet-yloxy)phen-yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra-hydro-indeno-[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra-acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol-ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa-acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å) is 54.73 (6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol-ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C-O(carb-oxy)-C-C torsion angles = -70.24 (14), -114.43 (10) and -72.54 (13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol-ecules reside.

  16. Template-assisted hydrothermally obtained titania-ceria composites and their application as catalysts in ethyl acetate oxidation and methanol decomposition with a potential for sustainable environment protection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Mileva, A.; Issa, G.; Dimitrov, M.; Kovacheva, D.; Henych, Jiří; Scotti, N.; Kormunda, M.; Atanasova, G.; Štengl, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 396, FEB (2017), s. 1289-1302 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) BAS-17-13 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ceria-titania binary oxides * Template assisted hydrothermal synthesis * Methanol decomposition * Ethyl acetate oxidation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  17. The use of the SPASIBA spectroscopic potential for reproducing the structures and vibrational frequencies of a sries of acids: acetic acid, pivalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid and ?-glutamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhiba, M.; Derreumaux, P.; Vergoten, G.

    1994-01-01

    Normal coordinate analyses have been performed on acetic, pivalic, succinic and adipic acid dimers (including their deutero analogues) and the L-glutamic acid dimer. It is shown that the calculated potential energy surfaces and harmonic vibrational frequencies are in very good accordance with the experimental results. For all the observed vibrational modes below 1750 cm -1, the standard deviation between the 381 calculated and observed frequencies is approximately 12 cm -1. Comparison with previous assignments underlines a quasi-agreement for the four former molecules. In contrast, new assignments are given for some vibrational bands of L-glutamic acid.

  18. Characterization of membranes based on cellulose acetate butyrate/poly(caprolactone)triol/doxycycline and their potential for guided bone regeneration application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Morgana Souza; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Petronilho, Fabrícia Cardoso; Soldi, Valdir; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using membranes based on cellulose acetate butyrate/poly(caprolactone)triol loaded with doxycycline for guided bone regeneration. Those membranes were obtained by solvent casting varying the cellulose acetate butyrate: poly(caprolactone)triol:doxycycline (CAB:PCL-T:DOX) mass ratios and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamical mechanical analysis, swelling and weight loss, drug release, in vitro antimicrobial activity and in vivo inflammatory response. Neat CAB and CAB:PCL-T:DOX membranes exhibited inner porous structure, which has a pore-size reduced with increasing of the PCL-T ratio. DSC results demonstrated that the molecular dispersion of the DOX into the CAB:PCL-T membrane was conditioned by PCL-T amount. Elastic modulus reduced noticeably with increased of the PCL-T ratio in the membrane from 2 to 3, while the strain at failure showed an increase of ca. 10-fold on the same condition. The DOX release mechanism from the membranes was found to be Fickian or quasi-Fickian diffusion. Membranes assessed immediately after the preparation, and even as the membranes immersed in synthetic saliva during 7 days, demonstrated significant inhibition in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Subcutaneous implant test on rat in vivo showed that the CAB:PCL-T:DOX membrane (7:3:1) did not trigger chronic inflammatory responses. These results suggest the feasibility in applying the CAB:PCL-T:DOX membrane as a barrier for guided bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  20. Comparison of Continuation Rates and Reasons of Discontinuation for Cyclofem and Depot -medroxyprogesterone acetate in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study continuation rate and reasons for discontinuation of Depot-medroxyprogestroneacetate (DMPAand Cyclofem have been compared.Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 422 women (202 Cyclofemand220 DMPA userswho had started using the methods 12-24 months before the study in East Azerbaijanhealth houses. Data were collected by reviewing the records and interview with the clients and analysedusing Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression.Results: The 3, 6, 9, 12 months continuation rate were 56%, 37%, 30%, 27% respectively for Cyclofemversus 75%, 59.5%, 48%, 42.5% for DMPA. Menstrual changes were reported significantly more by theDMPA users than the Cyclofem users (85% vs. 73%, P=0.008 as the main reason for thediscontinuation, the difference mainly reflected of amenorrhea (50% vs. 23%, P=0.003. None of DMPAusers and 11% of Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits and lack of method supplies as their maindiscontinuation reason.Conclusion: Discontinuation rate was high for the both methods but it was higher for Cyclofem.Thecommon side effects mentioned as the main reasons for discontinuation of the both methods are nothealth threatening. Therefore, health care providers may help to improve their continuation rate byappropriate consultation.

  1. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    A significant (P<0.05) increase was recorded in GPT, creatinine and uric acid levels ... chemical composition of the compound containing lead, ... their body weight. Each group comprised five chicks. Treatment. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were treated once a day with lead acetate at a dose rate of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and ...

  3. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Ethanol Production through Mediated Acetate Reduction by Mixed Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Kampman, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate

  5. 2-Phenylimidazolium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two 2-phenylimidazole cations and two acetate anions in the asymmetric unit of the title molecular salt, C9H9N2+·C2H3O2−. The dihredral angles between the five- and six-membered rings are 5.50 (2 and 6.90 (2° in the two molecules. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the cations and anions, resulting in chains propagating in [110].

  6. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  7. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  8. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  9. Gastroprotective potential of Pentahydroxy flavone isolated from Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves against acetic acid-induced ulcer in rats: The role of oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, Smeeta M; Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-04-22

    Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. (Sapotaceae) has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective potential. It has been traditionally used as laxative, tonic, anti-burn, anti-earthworm, wound healing and headache. To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. leaves methanolic extract (MI-ALC) and its isolated chloroform fraction (D3) against experimental induced gastric ulcers. D3 was isolated from MI-ALC, well characterized (HPTLC, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS) and evaluated for its gastroprotective activity by using acetic acid induced ulcer in male Wistar rats (150-200g). D3 (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for the period of 14 days. At the end of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect the stomach sample for evaluation of antioxidant (SOD, GSH, and MDA) enzyme, oxido-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1, iNOs) and prostaglandins (COX-II) markers by using RT-PCR. The structure and molecular weight (MW) of the isolated compound (D3) were confirmed by 1D and 2D spectral data and characterized as 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone with MW C15H10O7. Administration of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited (Pstomach also attenuated by 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone treatment. Finding of present investigation suggests that MI-ALC possessed potent antiulcer activity due to the presence of 3,5,7,3',4'-Pentahydroxy flavone via its oxido-inflammatory and prostaglandins modulatory potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  11. Inert Reassessment Document for Amyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both acetates have a number of industrial uses such as solvents for lacquers, paints, and inks. Pharmaceutically, ethyl acetate is a flavoring aid and amyl acetate is used in extraction of penicillin.

  12. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  13. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  14. Radioluminescence of solid ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, J.; Plonka, A.; Wyszywacz, K.

    1977-01-01

    In the crystalline environment the reaction of thermalized electrons with ethyl acetate molecules is less effective than in glassy environment. Therefore more excess electrons are observed in crystalline ethyl acetate by isothermal luminescence and radiothermoluminescence. In the glassy environment other trapped species, like radical-anions CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 - or radicals CH 3 COOCHCH 3 , become reactive at lower temperatures than in the crystalline environment because of glass transition. (author)

  15. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester.

  16. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are...

  17. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by this...

  18. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...... species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing...

  19. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  20. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  1. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  2. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  3. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  4. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

    2008-11-01

    Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  6. Solubility determination and thermodynamic models for dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao; Cong, Yang; Du, Cunbin; Wang, Jian; Yao, Ganbing; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents were determined. • The measured solubility data were correlated with three thermodynamic models. • The standard dissolution enthalpies of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in binary solvent mixtures of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) was determined experimentally by using an isothermal dissolution equilibrium method within the temperature range from (273.15 to 313.15) K under atmosphere pressure (101.1 kPa). The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate increases with increasing temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate in each binary system. At the same temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate, the solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate was greater in (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) than in the other two mixed solvents. The measured solubility values were correlated with the Jouyban-Acree model, van’t Hoff-Jouyban-Acree model, and modified Apelblat-Jouyban-Acree model. The Jouyban-Acree model was proven to give better representation for the experimental solubility, which provided the lowest relative average deviation and root-mean-square deviation (0.49 × 10 −2 and 0.97 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + methanol, 0.44 × 10 −2 and 0.82 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + ethanol, and 0.92 × 10 −2 and 3.05 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + isopropanol, respectively). Based on the solubility values obtained, the standard dissolution enthalpies for the dissolution process were computed. The dissolution process of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in these mixed solvents was endothermic. The experimental solubility and the equations presented in the present work can be employed as essential data and models in the practical process for production and purification of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate.

  7. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  9. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacteri...

  10. The effect of enhanced acetate influx on Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Kati; Vuorio, Eerika; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kallio, Pauli Tapio

    2017-02-02

    Acetate is a common microbial fermentative end-product, which can potentially be used as a supplementary carbon source to enhance the output of biotechnological production systems. This study focuses on the acetate metabolism of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 which is unable to grow on acetate as a sole carbon source but still can assimilate it via acetyl-CoA-derived metabolic intermediates. In order to gain insight into the acetate uptake, associated limitations and metabolic effects, a heterologous acetate transporter ActP from Escherichia coli was introduced into Synechocystis to facilitate the transport of supplemented acetate from the medium into the cell. The results show that enhanced acetate intake can efficiently promote the growth of the cyanobacterial host. The effect is apparent specifically under low-light conditions when the photosynthetic activity is low, and expected to result from increased availability of acetyl-CoA precursors, accompanied by changes induced in cellular glycogen metabolism which may include allocation of resources towards enhanced growth instead of glycogen accumulation. Despite the stimulated growth of the mutant, acetate is shown to suppress the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, further emphasizing the contribution of glycolytic metabolism in the acetate-induced effect. The use of acetate by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is at least partially restricted by the import into the cell. This can be improved by the introduction of a heterologous acetate transporter into the system, thereby providing a potential advantage by expanding the scope of acetate utilization for various biosynthetic processes.

  11. Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, C; Silva, S F O; Castanheira, M; GonzálezAguilar, G; Frazão, O; Jorge, P A S; Baptista, J M

    2009-01-01

    An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry–Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol–gel–PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes with acetic acid concentration, enabling its quantification. Coupling the fibre probe with a serrodyne modulated readout interferometer enables pseudo-heterodyne interrogation and the detection of acetic acid with a sensitivity of 92.6 deg/% L/L and a resolution of 0.2% L/L. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme to operate as a sensitive chemical sensor platform

  12. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  14. Expression of human aldo-keto reductase 1C2 in cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis: potential implications in metabolism of progesterone and dydrogesterone and inhibition by progestins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranič, Nataša; Brožič, Petra; Brus, Boris; Sosič, Izidor; Gobec, Stanislav; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea

    2012-05-01

    The human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C2 converts 5α-dihydrotestosterone to the less active 3α-androstanediol and has a minor 20-ketosteroid reductase activity that metabolises progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone. AKR1C2 is expressed in different peripheral tissues, but its role in uterine diseases like endometriosis has not been studied in detail. Some progestins used for treatment of endometriosis inhibit AKR1C1 and AKR1C3, with unknown effects on AKR1C2. In this study we investigated expression of AKR1C2 in the model cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis, and examined the ability of recombinant AKR1C2 to metabolise progesterone and progestin dydrogesterone, as well as its potential inhibition by progestins. AKR1C2 is expressed in epithelial and stromal endometriotic cell lines at the mRNA level. The recombinant enzyme catalyses reduction of progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone with a 10-fold lower catalytic efficiency than the major 20-ketosteroid reductase, AKR1C1. AKR1C2 also metabolises progestin dydrogesterone to its 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, with 8.6-fold higher catalytic efficiency than 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Among the progestins that are currently used for treatment of endometriosis, dydrogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone act as AKR1C2 inhibitors with low μM K(i) values in vitro. Their potential in vivo effects should be further studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  16. Positron emission tomography with [11C]-acetate for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, I.S.; Litvinov, M.M.; Rozhkova, G.G.; Leont'eva, I.V.; Sebeleva, I.A.; Tumanyan, M.R.; Koledinskij, D.G.; Sukhorukov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic potentials of positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C]-acetate as applied to mitochondrial disorders in children with cardiomyopathies (CMP) are evaluated. PET examinations are performed in 17 patients of the mean age of 7.5 ± 3.1 years with CMP. A dynamic study with [ 11 C]-acetate is conducted to evaluate the Krebs cycle activity. The experiments have indicated to a fewer accumulation of [ 11 C]-acetate and to its slower clearance in the ischemic zone as compared with the normal myocardium. The Krebs cycle activity has been reduced. By means of PET with [ 11 C]-acetate the oxidation rate constant of the Krebs cycle and the [ 11 C]-acetate-activity clearance half-time can be quantified. This makes possible to assess the extent of oxidative metabolism malfunction, including the case of perfusion reduction [ru

  17. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  18. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2017-03-15

    Twenty-four 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid)-based amides, esters and 5-arylalkylidene derivatives were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents against a panel of bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. All of the derivatives were active against mycobacteria. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide demonstrated the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8-16μM. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were the most susceptible to 2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids (MIC values ⩾32μM). The highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exhibited 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (MIC⩾15.62μM). Several structure-activity relationships were identified. The activity against Gram-negative and fungal pathogens was marginal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed ortho-Olefination of Phenyl Acetic and Phenyl Propylacetic Esters via C-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jundie; Guan, Mingyu; Han, Jian; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Shi, Da-Qing; Zhao, Yingsheng

    2015-08-21

    A highly regioselective palladium-catalyzed ester-directed ortho-olefination of phenyl acetic and propionic esters with olefins via C-H bond activation has been developed. A wide variety of phenyl acetic and propionic esters were tolerated in this transformation, affording the corresponding olefinated aromatic compounds. The ortho-olefination of heterocyclic acetic and propionic esters also took place smoothly giving the products in good yields, thus proving the potential utility of this protocol in synthetic chemistry.

  2. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  3. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity study of amyl acetate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M W; Tyler, T R; Beyrouty, P C

    2000-01-01

    An inhalation toxicity study was conducted with rats to examine the potential for amyl acetate vapor to produce alterations in nervous system structure and function following repeated exposure. The study was performed as part of a USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 4e Enforceable Consent Agreement for amyl acetate. Rats (CD) were exposed to amyl acetate vapor at concentrations of 0, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm, 6 h per day, 4 or 5 days per week, for at least 65 exposures. Treatment groups consisted of 15 rats per gender for the control and 1200 ppm groups and 10 rats per gender for the 300 and 600 ppm groups. Evaluations included clinical observations before, during and after each exposure, weekly detailed clinical examinations, weekly body weight and food consumption measurements and monthly functional observational battery and motor activity measurements conducted on non-exposure days. Neuropathology examination of the central and peripheral nervous system was performed at the end of the study. Exposure to amyl acetate did not result in overt clinical signs of toxicity or changes in body weight or food consumption. Transient, subtle decreases in general activity level during the 6-h exposure period were noted for animals in the 600 and 1200 ppm groups during the first 2 weeks of the study. Functional observational battery evaluations, automated motor activity measurements and neuroanatomy were unaffected by exposure. The no observed-effect level for subchronic neurotoxicity for this study was at least 1200 ppm, which is greater than an order of magnitude above the occupational threshold limit value (8-h, time-weighted average) for amyl acetate (100 ppm). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Acetate enhances startup of a H₂-producing microbial biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3)  reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  7. Model of acetic acid-affected growth and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudkla, Jaruwan; Lee, Wen-Chien; Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2018-02-20

    Acetic acid, a potential growth inhibitor, commonly occurs in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The growth of Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by this bacterium in a glucose-based medium supplemented with various initial concentrations of acetic acid are reported. The bacterium could use both glucose and acetic acid to grow and produce PHB, but acetic acid inhibited growth once its initial concentration exceeded 0.5 g/L. As acetic acid is an unavoidable contaminant in hydrolysates used as sugar sources in commercial fermentations, a mathematical model was developed to describe its impact on growth and the production of PHB. The model was shown to satisfactorily apply to growth and PHB production data obtained in media made with acetic-acid-containing hydrolysates of Napier grass and oil palm trunk as carbon substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. complexes containing acetate and tetradentate Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12039-015-0842-x. Syntheses, structures and luminescence behaviour of some zinc(II) complexes containing acetate and tetradentate Schiff bases. ASHIS KUMAR MAJI, SUBHASIS ROY, SOMNATH CHOUBEY, RAJARSHI GHOSH∗ and.

  9. Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

  10. Measurement of acetates in air using differential ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Zajiczek, Żaneta; Maziejuk, Mirosław

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds are one of the most important group of air pollutants. Potential health and environmental problems resulting from their emission prompted the requirement for monitoring these species. It motivates development of new measurement techniques which are fast, cost effective, reliable and field deployable. One of novel approaches is ion mobility spectrometry. It dwells on ion separation in electric field, based on differences in ion mobility. Many variants of this method are developed. In this wok, differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) was considered in respect of acetate measurements in air. It was demonstrated that DMS offers linear response to methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl acetate in concentration range from 0.3 ppm to 7 ppm. Positive ions spectrum has to be utilised for this purpose. We showed that fragments of DMS spectrum which secure linearity are compound-specific. The obtained results are promising from the application point of view.

  11. Hemo-De as substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Neimeister, R; Logan, A L; Gerber, B; Egleton, J H; Kleger, B

    1987-01-01

    In comparative studies, Hemo-De (PMP Medical Industries, Inc., Irving, Tex.) was found to be a suitable replacement for ethyl acetate in the Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. With essentially equivalent recovery rates for both procedures, the Formalin-Hemo-De concentration technique is considered to be the preferred technique because Hemo-De is less toxic and less flammable and does not present disposal problems, and its cost is approximately one-fourth that of ethyl acetate.

  12. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  13. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  14. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL -1 acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-07-01

    Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure.

  16. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    ) Moderate ammonia flux. The advantages of producing acetic acid by fermentation include its appropriateness for small-scale production, lower cost feedstocks, low energy membrane-based purification, and lower temperature and pressure requirements. Potential energy savings of using fermentation are estimated to be approximately 14 trillion Btu by 2020 from a reduction in natural gas use. Decreased transportation needs with regional plants will eliminate approximately 200 million gallons of diesel consumption, for combined savings of 45 trillion Btu. If the fermentation process captures new acetic acid production, savings could include an additional 5 trillion Btu from production and 7 trillion Btu from transportation energy.

  17. Coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis for elevated acetate production: Experimental and mathematical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Liu, He; Nie, Yan-Qiu; Zeng, Raymond J; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Homoacetogenesis is an important potential hydrogen sink in acetogenesis, in which hydrogen is used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate. So far the acetate production from homoacetogenesis, especially its kinetics, has not been given sufficient attention. In this work, enhanced production of acetate from anaerobic conversion of glucose through coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis is investigated with both experimental and mathematical approaches. Experiments are conducted to explore elevated acetate production in a coupled anaerobic system. Acetate production could be achieved by homoacetogenesis with a relative high acetate yield under mixed fermentation conditions. With the experimental observations, a kinetic model is formulated to describe such a homoacetogenic process. The maximum homoacetogenic rate (k(m,homo)) is estimated to be 28.5 ± 1.7 kg COD kg⁻¹ COD day⁻¹ with an uptake affinity constant of 3.7 × 10⁻⁵± 3.1 × 10⁻⁶kg COD m⁻³. The improved calculation of homoacetogenic kinetics by our approach could correct the underestimation of homoacetogenesis in anaerobic fermentation processes, as it often occurs in these systems supported by literature analysis. The model predictions match the experimental results in different cases well and provide insights into the dynamics of anaerobic glucose conversion and acetate production. Furthermore, acetate production via homoacetogenesis increases by about 40% through utilizing the fed-batch coupling system, attributed to a balance between the hydrogen production in the acetogenesis phase and the hydrogen consumption in the homoacetogenesis phase. This work provides an effective way for increased anaerobic acetate production, and gives us a better understanding about the homoacetogenic kinetics in the anaerobic fermentation process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets... having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance...

  19. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 3 H, 14 C, 125 I and 45 Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  20. Formic and acetic acid aggregation in the liquid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imberti, Silvia; Bowron, Daniel T, E-mail: silvia.imberti@stfc.ac.u [STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-13

    The microscopic structure of neat formic and acetic acid have been measured by neutron diffraction with H/D substitution on SANDALS at the ISIS neutron spallation source. These data, together with complementary x-ray data, have been modeled via the empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) method, which integrates information obtained from the diffraction data in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to provide a three-dimensional model of the system under study compatible with the measured structure factors. Two models have been generated for each acid, in order to test their consistency, with positive results. The final structure obtained is that of two liquids that are very similar to each other, with high connectivity although rather disordered. They present a hierarchy of probability for hydrogen bond formation, where weaker bonds involving the carbonyl hydrogen for formic acid or the methyl hydrogen for acetic acid are more abundant than the stronger bonds involving the hydroxyl hydrogen. Cooperative effects are found to be fundamental for the description of aggregation of formic and acetic acid, but the structure in the liquid presents a greater variety of bonds than in the solid state.

  1. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C. [Centro de Biologia Molecular, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: {sup 32}P,{sup 33}P, {sup 35}S,{sup 3}H,{sup 14}C,{sup 125}I and {sup 45}Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  2. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z. Abbas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3% of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10-19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  3. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Um, Byung Hwan [Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l{sup -1} acetic acid and 5.0 g l{sup -1} ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  4. Mitigation of radiation injury by polyphenolic acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kavya; Singh, Saurabh; Agrawala, Paban K.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are naturally occurring heterocyclic compounds, which have diverse biological and pharmacological implications. Calreticulin mediated protein acetylation (CRTase) system has been recently demonstrated by our groups using semi-synthetic polyphenolic acetates (PA) as the acetyl group donor. Owing to the anti-oxidant property of the parental moiety (polyphenols) coupled with the acetyl group donating ability; PAs have the potential to be developed as countermeasure agents against radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective and mitigative potential of PAs namely 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) and 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin (DAMTC) in total body irradiated (TBI) mice. These compounds exhibited protective as well as mitigative potential against lethal dose of radiation, with ∼ 80% survival conferred by DAMTC when administered 24 h post TBl. A 3.8 fold increase in the number of splenic colonies at day 10 post TBI in the DAMTC treated mice as visualised by the endogenous spleen colony forming assay suggested amelioration of radiation induced hematopoietic injury. A significant recovery in the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes was noted on day 21 post TBI by DAMTC with a ∼ 2.6 fold increase for WBCs and ∼ 6.5 for lymphocytes. DAMTC reduced the radiation induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation in the bone marrow and spleen at days 3 and 21 post TBI corroborating its potency in stimulating hematopoietic recovery after TBl. Histopathology revealed ∼ 3 fold and ∼ 2.2 fold increases in the numbers of intestinal crypts on days 3 and 7 respectively in the DAMTC treated mice. A significant increase (∼ 3.5 and ∼ 2.9 fold) in the villi length was observed on days 3 and 7 respectively, accompanied by a concomitant increase in the crypt height by ∼ 3.5 folds. These results establish the potential of DAMTC to mitigate acute effects of radiation that appear to stem from its ability to ameliorate radiation induced

  5. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  7. Fed-batch fermentation of nipa sap to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (f. Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dung Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient process for conversion of nipa sap to acetic acid was developed. Nipa sap was hydrolyzed with invertase and provided glucose as well as fructose as main sugars. Batch fermentation of glucose and fructose was inadequate with increased substrate concentration. By contrast, fed-batch technique on hydrolyzed nipa sap with high feeding rate drastically increased acetic acid concentration and productivity to be 42.6 g/L and 0.18 g/(L/h, respectively. All the sugars in hydrolyzed nipa sap were consumed, with acetic acid yield of 0.87 g/g sugar. Overall, nipa sap as hydrolyzed with invertase was efficiently fermented to acetic acid, which is a valuable chemical and a potential biorefinery intermediate.

  8. Producing Acetic Acid of Acetobacter pasteurianus by Fermentation Characteristics and Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2018-03-19

    The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A. pasteurianus JST-S was 57.14 ± 1.09 g/L, whereas that of A. pasteurianus CICC 20001 reached 48.24 ± 1.15 g/L in a 15-L stir stank. Metabolic flux analysis was also performed to compare the reaction byproducts. Our findings revealed the potential value of the strain in improvement of industrial vinegar fermentation.

  9. Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

    2008-06-30

    Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically.

  10. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  11. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  12. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Díaz-Galindo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5 th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1 st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury.

  13. Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella L. Morgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8–2.9 mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %. Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study, and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties than similarities (as in some morphological aspects, most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned.

  14. Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Daniella L; Rodrigues, Bruno V M; Almeida, Erika V R; Seoud, Omar A El; Frollini, Elisabete

    2013-06-14

    This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8-2.9) mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %). Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i) they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii) the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii) AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv) the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study), and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties) than similarities (as in some morphological aspects), most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned.

  15. Effect of acetate to biomass ratio on simultaneous polyhydroxybutyrate generation and direct microbial growth in fast growing microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biros, Yester; Çokgör, Emine Ubay; Yağcı, Nevin; Pala-Ozkok, Ilke; Çakar, Zeynep Petek; Sözen, Seval; Orhon, Derin

    2014-11-01

    The study investigated the effect of variations in the acetate to biomass ratio on substrate storage potential, and the kinetics of substrate utilization. A series of batch experiments were conducted with biomass taken from the fill and draw reactor operated at a sludge age of 2 d. One of the batch reactors duplicated the substrate loading in the main reactor. The others were started with different initial acetate to biomass ratios both in lower and higher ranges. Increasing available acetate did not totally divert excess substrate to storage; the microbial culture adjusted the kinetics of the metabolic reactions to a higher growth rate so that more substrate could be utilized for direct growth at high acetate levels. Conversely, storage rate was increased, utilizing a higher substrate fraction for polyhydroxybutyrate generation when acetate concentration was lowered. The physiological and molecular bases of storage at low substrate levels were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  17. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 2. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication, characterization, drug loading and antibacterial properties. NAZNIN SULTANA ... The CA nanofibrous membrane was non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells. Thus the CA ...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements... displayed thereon: CAUTION: Contains lead acetate. For external use only. Keep this product out of children...

  19. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  20. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for 14 ...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Successful examples of drugs repurposing are anti- diabetic drug metformin and the birth control hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate . In this study...membrane potential (Dym), we utilized tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) as described (12). Xenograft study A total of 12 athymic nude male mice

  3. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  4. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant... estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate... trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (G...

  5. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  6. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process.

  8. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  9. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  10. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Port, L.

    1966-03-01

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO 4 - HBr - H 2 SO 4 - HCl - HNO 3 - H 3 PO 4 ) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl) m MCl n . (author) [fr

  13. The fate of acetic acid during glucose co-metabolism by the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Ludovico, Paula; Santos, Helena; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo(13)C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2-(13)C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C(2), C(3) and C(4). The incorporation of [U-(14)C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production.

  14. The fate of acetic acid during glucose co-metabolism by the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bailii is one of the most widely represented spoilage yeast species, being able to metabolise acetic acid in the presence of glucose. To clarify whether simultaneous utilisation of the two substrates affects growth efficiency, we examined growth in single- and mixed-substrate cultures with glucose and acetic acid. Our findings indicate that the biomass yield in the first phase of growth is the result of the weighted sum of the respective biomass yields on single-substrate medium, supporting the conclusion that biomass yield on each substrate is not affected by the presence of the other at pH 3.0 and 5.0, at least for the substrate concentrations examined. In vivo(13C-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the gluconeogenic pathway is not operational and that [2-(13C]acetate is metabolised via the Krebs cycle leading to the production of glutamate labelled on C(2, C(3 and C(4. The incorporation of [U-(14C]acetate in the cellular constituents resulted mainly in the labelling of the protein and lipid pools 51.5% and 31.5%, respectively. Overall, our data establish that glucose is metabolised primarily through the glycolytic pathway, and acetic acid is used as an additional source of acetyl-CoA both for lipid synthesis and the Krebs cycle. This study provides useful clues for the design of new strategies aimed at overcoming yeast spoilage in acidic, sugar-containing food environments. Moreover, the elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the resistance phenotype of Z. bailii to acetic acid will have a potential impact on the improvement of the performance of S. cerevisiae industrial strains often exposed to acetic acid stress conditions, such as in wine and bioethanol production.

  15. Acetic acid sclerotheraphy of renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hoon Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kong, Keun Young; Kim, Eui Jong; Goo, Jang Sung

    1998-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for renal cysts was performed, using 50% acetic acid as new sclerosing agent. We report the methods and results of this procedure. Fifteen patients underwent sclerotherapy for renal cyst, using 50% acetic acid. Because four patients were lost to follow-up, only 11 of the 15 were included in this study. The renal cysts, including one infected case, were diagnosed by ultrasonograpy (n=3D10) ormagnetic resonance imaging (n=3D1). The patient group consisted of four men and seven women(mean age, 59 years; range, 23-77). At first, the cyst was completely aspirated, and 25 volume% of aspirated volume was replaced with 50% sterile acetic acid through the drainage catheter. During the follwing 20 minutes, the patient changed position, and the acetic acid was then removed from the cyst. Finally, the drainage catheter was removed, after cleaning the cyst with saline. After treatment of infection by antibiotics and catheter drainage for 7 days, sclerotherapy in the infected case followed the same procedure. In order to observe changes in the size of renal cysts and recurrence, all patients were followed up by ultrasound between 2 and 8 months. We defined response to therapy as follows:complete regression as under 5 volume%, partial regression as 5-50 volume% and no response as more than 50 volume% of initial cyst volume. No clinically significant complication occured during the procedures or follow-up periods. All cysts regressed completely during follow-up of 8 months. Complete regression occurred as follows: two cysts at 2 months, seven cysts at 4 months, two cysts at 6 months. Two cysts showed residues at the last follow-up, at 4 and 6 months, respectively. The volume of residual cysts decreased to under 5 volume% of initial volume, however. Completely regressed cysts did not recurr during follow-up. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for renal cysts showed good results, regardless of the dilution of sclerosing agent with residual cyst fluid, and no significant

  16. Lipase Mediated Isoamyl Acetate Synthesis in Solvent-Free System Using Vinyl Acetate as Acyl Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of isoamyl acetate, a flavour ester extensively used in food industry, has been carried out in a solvent-free system. In the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the isoamyl acetate synthesis yield by transesterification of isoamyl alcohol with vinyl acetate using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase. In the present synthesis, substrates had no inhibitory effect on immobilized lipase. The effects of various reaction parameters on isoamyl acetate synthesis were studied and maximum conversion was achieved at 16 % (by mass per volume of immobilized lipase, 40 °C and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, 8-hour reaction time was sufficient to reach a high ester conversion of 95 % with 0.5 mol/L of isoamyl alcohol. The structure of the transesterified product was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Immobilized lipase had Km and vmax values of 306.53 mmol/L and 99 µmol/(h·g respectively, for isoamyl acetate synthesis in a solvent-free system.

  17. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  18. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  19. Toxicity of clove essential oil and its ester eugenyl acetate against Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Cansian

    Full Text Available Abstract The production of compounds via enzymatic esterification has great scientific and technological interest due to the several inconveniences related to acid catalysis, mainly by these systems do not fit to the concept of “green chemistry”. Besides, natural products as clove oil present compounds with excellent biological potential. Bioactives compounds are often toxic at high doses. The evaluation of lethality in a less complex animal organism can be used to a monitoring simple and rapid, helping the identification of compounds with potential insecticide activity against larvae of insect vector of diseases. In this sense, the toxicity against Artemia salina of clove essential oil and its derivative eugenyl acetate obtained by enzymatic esterification using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst was evaluated. The conversion of eugenyl acetate synthesis was 95.6%. The results about the evaluation of toxicity against the microcrustacean Artemia salina demonstrated that both oil (LC50= 0.5993 µg.mL–1 and ester (LC50= 0.1178 µg.mL–1 presented high toxic potential, being the eugenyl acetate almost 5 times more toxic than clove essential oil. The results reported here shows the potential of employing clove oil and eugenyl acetate in insecticide formulations.

  20. Toxicity of clove essential oil and its ester eugenyl acetate against Artemia salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansian, R L; Vanin, A B; Orlando, T; Piazza, S P; Puton, B M S; Cardoso, R I; Gonçalves, I L; Honaiser, T C; Paroul, N; Oliveira, D

    2017-03-01

    The production of compounds via enzymatic esterification has great scientific and technological interest due to the several inconveniences related to acid catalysis, mainly by these systems do not fit to the concept of "green chemistry". Besides, natural products as clove oil present compounds with excellent biological potential. Bioactives compounds are often toxic at high doses. The evaluation of lethality in a less complex animal organism can be used to a monitoring simple and rapid, helping the identification of compounds with potential insecticide activity against larvae of insect vector of diseases. In this sense, the toxicity against Artemia salina of clove essential oil and its derivative eugenyl acetate obtained by enzymatic esterification using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst was evaluated. The conversion of eugenyl acetate synthesis was 95.6%. The results about the evaluation of toxicity against the microcrustacean Artemia salina demonstrated that both oil (LC50= 0.5993 µg.mL-1) and ester (LC50= 0.1178 µg.mL-1) presented high toxic potential, being the eugenyl acetate almost 5 times more toxic than clove essential oil. The results reported here shows the potential of employing clove oil and eugenyl acetate in insecticide formulations.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF METABOLITES OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE IN ANDROGENIC RUNOFF FROM A BEEF FEEDLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known concerning the potential ecological effects of hormonally-active substances associated with discharges from animal feeding operations. Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic anabolic steroid that is widely used in beef production to promote growth in the US. - - -The p...

  2. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, J.; Dornez, E.; Benjelloun-Mlayah, B.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Wild, de P.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Gerritsma, J.; Courtin, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized

  3. Development of functional ZnS nanospheres as active material for acetic acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguit, A. D. M. V.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Alguno, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    We have successfully synthesized zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanospheresdeposited on glass and silicon on insulator substrates as an acetic acid sensor. Results show that nanospheresdeposited on silicon on insulator substrate at lower ZnCl2 concentration show better response and good recovery. We found out that the sensitivity of the ZnSnanosphereswere dependent on the surface morphology and that the morphology is affected by the ZnCl2 concentrations and the substrates used. Our results show a promising potential of ZnSnanospheresas an inexpensive alternative sensing material to the existing acetic acid detectors.

  4. (R)-(-)-linalyl acetate and (S)-(-)-germacrene D from the leaves of Mexican Bursera linanoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noge, Koji; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Becerra, Judith X

    2010-03-01

    The leaf volatile components of Mexican Bursera linanoe were identified as (R)-(-)-linalyl acetate (57.6%; 95.5% ee) and (S)-(-)-germacrene D (39.3%; 100% ee) by solvent extraction and GC-MS and chiral GC analyses. Linalool was previously reported as the major component from the leaves of B. linanoe. However, we believe that this is a decomposition product of linalyl acetate during steam distillation, a common method for extraction of essential oils. The chemically unique blend in the leaves of B. linanoe may act as a chemical barrier against its potential herbivores, Blepharida beetles that have a tendency for attacking chemically similar plants as hosts.

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  6. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  7. ASPECTOS CITOPATOLÓGICOS DA MUCOSA VAGINAL DE CAMUNDONGAS TRATADAS COM PROGESTERONA CYTOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF FEMALE MICES VAGINAL MUCOSA TREATEDS WITH MEDROXYPROGESTERONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liriane Baratella-Evêncio

    2007-07-01

    , Groups E1, E2 e E3 (Experimental groups - female mice treated with 0,375 mg, 0,75 mg and 1,5 mg of medroxiprogesterone acetate and valued during fifteen days. Based on our results, we can conclude that medroxiproges¬terone acetate at once dose at 0,75 mg or 1,5 mg induces to estrus cycle interruption an induces to an increasing number of leucocytes observed at vaginal cytological exam. KEY-WORDS: Colpocytology, estral cycle, interruption of estrus cycle, medroxiprogesterone.

  8. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic engineering on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols during Chinese Baijiu fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Acetate esters and higher alcohols greatly influence the quality and flavor profiles of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor). Various mutants have been constructed to investigate the interactions of ATF1 overexpression, IAH1 deletion, and BAT2 deletion on the production of acetate esters and higher alcohols. The results showed that the overexpression of ATF1 under the control of the PGK1 promoter with BAT2 and IAH1 double-gene deletion led to a higher production of acetate esters and a lower production of higher alcohols than the overexpression of ATF1 with IAH1 deletion or overexpression of ATF1 with BAT2 deletion. Moreover, deletion of IAH1 in ATF1 overexpression strains effectively increased the production of isobutyl acetate and isoamyl acetate by reducing the hydrolysis of acetate esters. The decline in the production of higher alcohol by the ATF1 overexpression strains with BAT2 deletion is due to the interaction of ATF1 overexpression and BAT2 deletion. Mutants with varying abilities of producing acetate esters and higher alcohols were developed by genetic engineering. These strains have great potential for industrial application.

  9. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  10. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly...

  11. Acetic acid modulates spike rate and spike latency to salt in peripheral gustatory neurons of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Sour and salt taste interactions are not well understood in the peripheral gustatory system. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of acetic acid and NaCl on taste processing by rat chorda tympani neurons. We recorded multi-unit responses from the severed chorda tympani nerve (CT) and single-cell responses from intact narrowly tuned and broadly tuned salt-sensitive neurons in the geniculate ganglion simultaneously with stimulus-evoked summated potentials to signal when the stimulus contacted the lingual epithelium. Artificial saliva served as the rinse and solvent for all stimuli [0.3 M NH4Cl, 0.5 M sucrose, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.02 M quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), 0.1 M KCl, 0.003–0.1 M acetic acid, and 0.003–0.1 M acetic acid mixed with 0.1 M NaCl]. We used benzamil to assess NaCl responses mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The CT nerve responses to acetic acid/NaCl mixtures were less than those predicted by summing the component responses. Single-unit analyses revealed that acetic acid activated acid-generalist neurons exclusively in a concentration-dependent manner: increasing acid concentration increased response frequency and decreased response latency in a parallel fashion. Acetic acid suppressed NaCl responses in ENaC-dependent NaCl-specialist neurons, whereas acetic acid-NaCl mixtures were additive in acid-generalist neurons. These data suggest that acetic acid attenuates sodium responses in ENaC-expressing-taste cells in contact with NaCl-specialist neurons, whereas acetic acid-NaCl mixtures activate distinct receptor/cellular mechanisms on taste cells in contact with acid-generalist neurons. We speculate that NaCl-specialist neurons are in contact with type I cells, whereas acid-generalist neurons are in contact with type III cells in fungiform taste buds. PMID:22896718

  12. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  13. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  14. Addressing a Common Misconception: Ammonium Acetate as Neutral pH "Buffer" for Native Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit. NH4 + and CH3-COO- are not a conjugate acid/base pair, which means that they do not constitute a buffer at pH 7. Dissolution of ammonium acetate salt in water results in pH 7, but this pH is highly labile. Ammonium acetate does provide buffering around pH 4.75 (the pKa of acetic acid) and around pH 9.25 (the pKa of ammonium). This implies that neutral ammonium acetate solutions electrosprayed in positive ion mode will likely undergo acidification down to pH 4.75 ± 1 in the ESI plume. Ammonium acetate nonetheless remains a useful additive for native ESI-MS. It is a volatile electrolyte that can mimic the solvation properties experienced by proteins under physiological conditions. Also, a drop from pH 7 to around pH 4.75 is less dramatic than the acidification that would take place in pure water. It is hoped that the habit of referring to pH 7 solutions as ammonium acetate "buffer" will disappear from the literature. Ammonium acetate "solution" should be used instead. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term continuous evolution of acetate resistant Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-10-05

    Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the moderately acetate-resistant Acetobacter aceti wild-type and acetate-sensitive Escherichia coli in long-term continuous cultures with increasing acetate concentrations at near neutral pH. While E. coli did not acquire any significant resistance after 125 generations of selection, A. aceti evolved the capability to grow at acetate concentrations exceeding 50 g/L within 240 generations. This phenotype was found to be stable for several generations in the absence of selective pressure, hence must be genetically determined. Intracellular acetate concentrations were significantly lower in evolved A. aceti, when compared to wild-type A. aceti and E. coli, indicating that cytoplasmatic anion accumulation is an important component of acetate toxicity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 40-44, 2003.

  17. Effect of acetate as a co-feedstock on the production of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoate) by pflA-deficient Escherichia coli RSC10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Cardona, Lucia; Scheel, Ryan A; Mizuno, Kouhei; Bergey, N Scott; Stipanovic, Arthur J; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi; Nomura, Christopher T

    2017-05-01

    Developing Escherichia coli strains that are tolerant to acetate toxicity is important in light of an increased interest in the efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for the biosynthesis of value-added products. In this study, four strains known to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from the typical hemicellulosic sugar xylose were tested for their tolerance to acetate. E. coli RSC10 was found to be tolerant of acetate, both in growth and fermentation studies. In the presence of acetate the strain showed a >2-fold increase in overall yields compared to using xylose alone as the feedstock. More importantly, the strain was found to be able to utilize acetate as a feedstock for biosynthesis of PHAs, with complete depletion of acetate (25 mM) at 9 h when acetate was the sole feedstock. Higher concentrations of acetate showed greater inhibition of fermentation than growth with a reduction of 90% in PHA yields at 100 mM. Additionally, the present work provides data to support the potential of acetate as a modulator for the control of composition of PHAs that incorporate lactate (LA) monomers into the copolymer from hemicellulose derived sugars. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND LUMINESCENCE DETERMINATION OF ABIRATERONE ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the spectrophotometric (SP and fluorimetric (FL determination of a new anticancer drug, abiraterone acetate (AA have been proposed. SP method is based on measurement of light absorbance of ethanol solution of AA at a wavelength 253 nm. The calibration graph (CG is linear in the concentration range 1.0–30.0 AA μg/ml, the limit of detection (LOD is 0.35 μg/ml.Two versions of FL determination of AA: on its native luminescence (λex=253 nm; λlum=350  nm and on quenching sensitized luminescence of the terbium(III complex by abiraterone acetate have been developed. CG in the case of native fluorescence is linear in the range of 0.05–7.0 μg/ml, Stern-Folmer calibration curve is linear in the interval of concentrations of AA 0.5– 70 μg/ml. LOD of both fluorescent methods is 0.017 μg/ml.

  20. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  1. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  2. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  3. A simple cellulose acetate membrane-based small lanes technique for protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Na; Liu, Tingting; Yang, Xiaojun; Sun, Binjie; Ouyang, Jenny; Ouyang, Jin

    2012-08-01

    Combining electrophoresis with a cellulose acetate membrane-based technique, we developed a simple and low-cost method, named cellulose acetate membrane-based small lanes (CASL), for protein electrophoresis. A home-made capillary plotter controlled by a 3D moving stage was used to create milli-to-micro channels by printing poly(dimethylsiloxane) on to a hydrophilic cellulose acetate membrane. In the hydrophilic channels, 5 nL protein mixture was separated on the basis of electro-migration under an electric field. Compared with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), CASL resulted in higher protein signal intensity for separation of mixtures containing the same mass of protein. The platform was easily fabricated at low cost (approx. $0.005 for each 1-mm-wide channel), and separation of three protein mixtures was completed in 15 min. Both electrophoresis time and potential affected the separation. Rather than chromatographic separation, this method accomplished application of microchannel techniques for cellulose acetate membrane-based protein electrophoresis. It has potential in proteomic analysis, especially for rapid, low-cost, and low-volume sample analysis in clinical diagnosis.

  4. Proton conductivity and relaxation properties of chitosan-acetate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, E.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.; González-Campos, J.B.; Kovalenko, Yu.; García-Carvajal, Z.Y.; Mota-Morales, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of conductivity, the number of density and proton mobility in chitosan-acetate film. - Highlights: • DD, conductivity, Vogel temperature dependent on the concentration of acetic acid. • Proton conductivity of CS-acetate films interpreted using two Grotthuss mechanisms. • Transformation between two mechanisms observed at the glass transition temperature. - Abstract: The effect of aqueous acetic acid solution concentration during the preparation of chitosan-acetate (CS-acetate) films on the conductivity and relaxation properties were studied by dielectric and FTIR spectroscopies, TGA measurements and X-Ray diffraction. Analyses of the experimental results on the degree of deacetylation, water absorption, conductivity, Vogel temperature and activation energy demonstrate a strong dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the acid acetic solutions from which the films have been obtained. The proton conductivity and relaxation properties of CS-acetate films have been interpreted using two Grotthuss “structural diffusion” and “pack-acid” mechanisms. The transformation between these two mechanisms observed at temperature higher than CS-acetate glass transition temperature is due to an increase in the thermal motion of CS chains, water evaporation, hydrogen bond between water molecules and side groups of CS breaking and formation of new bonds between NH 3 + and acetate ions. Additionally, application of the Rice and Roth model allowed estimating the temperature dependence of proton number and their mobility in CS-acetate films. A systematic interpretation on the appropriate conductivity mechanism will help trigger the design of smart materials used in flexible electronic, solid polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and solid polymer batteries based on CS-acetate films.

  5. Method for calibrating olfactometer output. Part 2. Amyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolo, K C; Walker, J C; Ogden, M W

    2000-07-01

    A method for measuring amyl acetate in air was developed and validated. Known volumes of air samples from the output of an olfactometer, a device used to generate odor stimuli, were passed through charcoal sorbent tubes. Following extraction of the sorbent with carbon disulfide, the amount of amyl acetate collected on each tube was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The method was used to determine the actual concentrations of amyl acetate presented to experimental participants in odor sensitivity testing.

  6. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    OpenAIRE

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containi...

  7. Spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate treatment of giant uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgovic, Z; Habek, D; Cerkez Habek, J; Hrgovic, I; Jerkovic Gulin, S; Gulin, D

    2018-02-01

    Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator, pharmacologically inhibits endometrial proliferation and thereby prevents pregnancy. It is primarily used as emergency contraception, but also for the treatment of fibroids in women of reproductive age. There have been no published cases of pregnancy, while on therapy with ulipristal acetate. In this article, we present a case report of spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with spontaneous conception, while on ulipristal acetate treatment. There were no drug-related complications, and the pregnancy resulted in the delivery of a healthy baby. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Çehreli

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  10. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL) SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Çehreli S.

    2002-01-01

    Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  11. Emergency Contraception Options: Focus on Ulipristal Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulipristal acetate (UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC and can be taken up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UPA with levonorgestrel (LNG for EC, demonstrated that UPA has higher efficacy than LNG. This higher efficacy is supported by biomedical studies that have demonstrated that UPA is a more potent inhibitor of ovulation, being able to delay ovulation in the immediate preovulatory period, when LNG is no longer effective. A recent study that explored risk factors for failure of EC, demonstrated that obese women were at increased risk of EC failure, with either UPA or LNG. However, failure was significantly less amongst women receiving UPA than those receiving LNG. There is growing evidence therefore, that UPA should be the preferred oral method of EC.

  12. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.

    1964-01-01

    De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

  13. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  14. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.

  15. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Are Protected against Acetic Acid, but Not Hydrochloric Acid, by Hypertonicity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Ross, T.

    2009-01-01

    Chapman et al. (B. Chapman, N. Jensen, T Ross, and M. B. Cole, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5165-5172, 2006) demonstrated that an increased NaCl concentration prolongs survival of Escherichia coli O157 SERL 2 in a broth model simulating the aqueous phase of a food dressing or sauce containing acetic acid. We examined the responses of five other E. coli strains and four Salmonella enterica strains to increasing concentrations of NaCl under conditions of lethal acidity and observed that the average “lag” time prior to inactivation decreases in the presence of hydrochloric acid but not in the presence of acetic acid. For E. coli in the presence of acetic acid, the lag time increased with increasing NaCl concentrations up to 2 to 4% at pH 4.0, up to 4 to 6% at pH 3.8, and up to 4 to 7% (wt/wt of water) NaCl at pH 3.6. Salmonella was inactivated more rapidly by combined acetic acid and NaCl stresses than E. coli, but increasing NaCl concentrations still decreased the lag time prior to inactivation in the presence of acetic acid; at pH 4.0 up to 1 to 4% NaCl was protective, and at pH 3.8 up to 1 to 2% NaCl delayed the onset of inactivation. Sublethal injury kinetics suggest that this complex response is a balance between the lethal effects of acetic acid, against which NaCl is apparently protective, and the lethal effects of the NaCl itself. Compared against 3% NaCl, 10% (wt/wt of water) sucrose with 0.5% NaCl (which has similar osmotic potential) was found to be equally protective against adverse acetic acid conditions. We propose that hypertonicity may directly affect the rate of diffusion of acetic acid into cells and hence cell survival. PMID:19346344

  16. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  17. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  18. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  19. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  20. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-06-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  1. Identification and activity of acetate-assimilating bacteria in diffuse fluids venting from two deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Pjevac, Petra; Kleiner, Manuel; Littmann, Sten; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Mußmann, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse hydrothermal fluids often contain organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, lipids, and organic acids. Microorganisms consuming these compounds at hydrothermal sites are so far only known from cultivation-dependent studies. To identify potential heterotrophs without prior cultivation, we combined microbial community analysis with short-term incubations using (13)C-labeled acetate at two distinct hydrothermal systems. We followed cell growth and assimilation of (13)C into single cells by nanoSIMS combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 55 °C-fluids from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal system/Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a novel epsilonproteobacterial group accounted for nearly all assimilation of acetate, representing the first aerobic acetate-consuming member of the Nautiliales. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria dominated the (13) C-acetate assimilation in incubations of 37 °C-fluids from the back-arc hydrothermal system in the Manus Basin/Papua New Guinea. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to mesophilic Marinobacter, reflecting the high content of seawater in these fluids. The rapid growth of microorganisms upon acetate addition suggests that acetate consumers in diffuse fluids are copiotrophic opportunists, which quickly exploit their energy sources, whenever available under the spatially and temporally highly fluctuating conditions. Our data provide first insights into the heterotrophic microbial community, catalyzing an under-investigated part of microbial carbon cycling at hydrothermal vents. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  3. Acetic acid inhibits nutrient uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: auxotrophy confounds the use of yeast deletion libraries for strain improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Bierma, Jan; Smith, Mark R; Poliner, Eric; Wolfe, Carole; Hadduck, Alex N; Zara, Severino; Jirikovic, Mallori; van Zee, Kari; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2013-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibition of yeast fermentation has a negative impact in several industrial processes. As an initial step in the construction of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with increased tolerance for acetic acid, mutations conferring resistance were identified by screening a library of deletion mutants in a multiply auxotrophic genetic background. Of the 23 identified mutations, 11 were then introduced into a prototrophic laboratory strain for further evaluation. Because none of the 11 mutations was found to increase resistance in the prototrophic strain, potential interference by the auxotrophic mutations themselves was investigated. Mutants carrying single auxotrophic mutations were constructed and found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by acetic acid than an otherwise isogenic prototrophic strain. At a concentration of 80 mM acetic acid at pH 4.8, the initial uptake of uracil, leucine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan, phosphate, and glucose was lower in the prototrophic strain than in a non-acetic acid-treated control. These findings are consistent with two mechanisms by which nutrient uptake may be inhibited. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were severely decreased upon acetic acid treatment, which likely slowed ATP-dependent proton symport, the major form of transport in yeast for nutrients other than glucose. In addition, the expression of genes encoding some nutrient transporters was repressed by acetic acid, including HXT1 and HXT3 that encode glucose transporters that operate by facilitated diffusion. These results illustrate how commonly used genetic markers in yeast deletion libraries complicate the effort to isolate strains with increased acetic acid resistance.

  4. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  5. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO4 for lithium ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhadini, Arcana, I. Made

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO4 membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10-4 S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO4 membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  6. Nomegestrol Acetate Suppresses Human Endometrial Cancer RL95-2 Cells Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Possibly Related to Upregulating Expression of SUFU and Wnt7a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-ying Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC has been successfully used for the treatment of some gynecological disorders, and as a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of NOMAC on human endometrial cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells (RL95-2 and KLE were assessed using CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify the effects of NOMAC on gene expression profiles in RL95-2 cells. RL95-2 xenograft nude mice were treated with NOMAC (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 100 and 200 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that NOMAC significantly inhibited the growth of RL95-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but not in KLE cells. Further investigation demonstrated that NOMAC produced a stronger inhibition of tumor growth (inhibition rates for 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg NOMAC were 24.74%, 47.04%, and 58.06%, respectively than did MPA (inhibition rates for 100 and 200 mg/kg MPA were 41.06% and 27.01%, respectively in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2. NOMAC altered the expression of several genes related to cancer cell proliferation, including SUFU and Wnt7a. The upregulation of SUFU and Wnt7a was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in RL95-2 cells and RL95-2 xenograft tumor tissues, but not in KLE cells. These data indicate that NOMAC can inhibit the proliferation of RL95-2 cell in vitro and suppress the growth of xenografts in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2 in vivo. This effect could be related to the upregulating expression of SUFU and Wnt7a.

  7. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... implicated in conversion of ethanol into acetic acid. (Tayama et al., 1989). Therefore, incapacity of these strains to produce acetic acid at 45 °C is probably due to several factors unexplained in our knowledge especially since Moghadami et al. (2013) have demonstrated that thermotolerant strains have high.

  8. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    TCA cycle intermediates when F. oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that it higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation...

  9. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  10. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri dish and characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  11. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  12. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Alex; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E.; Ploeg, van der Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Oost, van der John; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the

  13. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  14. Antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract isolated from edible fungi, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon, growing in Algeria, was investigated. Extraction was done by the Soxhlet and the fractions obtained were purified with silica-gel column. Two fractions of ethyl acetate extract were tested against ...

  15. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in ...

  16. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were ... [Ignacimuthu S and Shanmugam N 2010 Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub ..... of natural products for antimycobacterial activity by using.

  17. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    to form furfuraldiethyl acetal at room temperature using ethanol as a renewable solvent. Among the tested catalysts,H-USY (6) provided the highest catalytic activity (79% acetal yield), excellent selectivity and reusabilityin five consecutive reaction runs. Process parameters such as, e.g. reaction time...

  18. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  19. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of ...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of. Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  1. Novel Synthesis of Phytosterol Ester from Soybean Sterol and Acetic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuming; Oyeyinka, Samson A; Ma, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Phytosterols are important bioactive compounds which have several health benefits including reduction of serum cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The most widely used method in the synthesis of its ester analogous form is the use of catalysts and solvents. These methods have been found to present some safety and health concern. In this paper, an alternative method of synthesizing phytosterol ester from soybean sterol and acetic anhydride was investigated. Process parameters such as mole ratio, temperature and time were optimized. The structure and physicochemical properties of phytosterol acetic ester were analyzed. By the use of gas chromatography, the mole ratio of soybean sterol and acetic anhydride needed for optimum esterification rate of 99.4% was 1:1 at 135 °C for 1.5 h. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of phytosterol ester with strong absorption peaks at 1732 and 1250 cm(-1) , which corresponds to the stretching vibration of C=O and C-O-C, respectively. These peaks could be attributed to the formation of ester links which resulted from the reaction between the hydroxyl group of soybean sterol and the carbonyl group of acetic anhydride. This paper provides a better alternative to the synthesis of phytosterol ester without catalyst and solvent residues, which may have potential application in the food, health-care food, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Cellulose Acetate 398-10 Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Osmotically Regulated Delivery of Acyclovir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sonkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at developing cellulose acetate asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs of acyclovir for its controlled delivery at the absorption site. The AMCs were prepared by phase inversion technique using wet process. A 23 full factorial design assessed the effect of independent variables (level(s of polymer, pore former, and osmogen on the cumulative drug release from AMCs. The buoyant optimized formulation F7 (low level of cellulose acetate; high levels of both glycerol and sodium lauryl sulphate displayed maximum drug release of 97.88±0.77% in 8 h that was independent of variation in agitational intensity and intentional defect on the cellulose acetate AMC. The in vitro data best fitted zero-order kinetics (r2=0.9898. SEM micrograph of the transverse section confirmed the asymmetric nature of the cellulose acetate capsular membrane. Statistical analysis by Design Expert software indicated no interaction between the independent variables confirming the efficiency of the design in estimating the effects of variables on drug release. The optimized formulation F7 (desirability = 0.871 displayed sustenance of drug release over the drug packed in AMC in pure state proving the superiority of osmotically active formulation. Conclusively the AMCs have potential for controlled release of acyclovir at its absorption site.

  3. Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate by Transesterifacation in Organic Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaquat, M.; Mehmood, T.; Khan, S. U.; Ahmed, Z.; Saeed, M.; Aslam, S.; Khan, J.; Ali, N.; Jahangir, M.; Nawaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl esters are important green top-note components of food flavors and fragrances. Crude acetone powders extracted lipases from five plant seedlings of rapeseed, wheat, barley, linseed and maize were investigated for their use in the synthesis of flavor esters with vinyl acetate by transesterification in organic solvents. Rape seedlings showed the highest degree of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate synthesis with a yield of 76 percentage in 72 h. Rape seedling was chosen as promising biocatalyst to evaluate the effects of some of reaction parameters on (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate synthesis using vinyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol at 40 Degree C in n-hexane with 50 g/L enzyme as catalyst. Acetonitrile proved distinctly superior solvent. The percent remaining activity relative to fresh seedlings powders was highest in wheat and barley. Highest ester yield of 80 percentage was obtained with 0.8 M of substrate concentrations within 48 h. Crude rapeseed lipase afforded a conversion 93 percentage of ethyl alcohol. Higher ester yield was achieved within first 24 h with added molecular. The crude rape seedlings lipase is low cost yet effective, showed potential for the production of green note esters industrially. (author)

  4. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  5. Utilization of catalytic hydrolysis of ethyl acetate for solvent removal during microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjung; Kang, Jookyung; Sah, Hongkee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply the specific acid-catalysed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate to completing solvent extraction during an emulsion-based microencapsulation process. The dispersed phase consisting of poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and ethyl acetate was emulsified in an acid catalyst containing aqueous phase. Catalytic hydrolysis of ethyl acetate led to its continual leaching from the dispersed phase of the emulsion, thereby triggering microsphere hardening with high efficiency. Ketoprofen was successfully encapsulated into microspheres via this technique, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that its structural integrity was preserved during microencapsulation. Compared to typical solvent extraction approaches, the acid-catalysis technique helped minimize the consumption of a quench liquid. Also, the resultant microspheres displayed excellent dispersibility and decreased propensity for aggregation. Furthermore, the new method provided better drug encapsulation efficiency and lower levels of residual ethyl acetate in microspheres. In conclusion, the acid-catalysis approach had great potential for the preparation of versatile microspheres and nanoparticles.

  6. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use.

  7. [Control of acetic acid metabolism of recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica for efficient succinic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuijuan; Zheng, Yaqin

    2018-03-25

    Succinic acid is a high value-added organic acid widely used in food, chemical and pesticide industries. As a new robust non-conventional yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica attracts more and more attention due to its potential for industrial applications. Previously, we obtained a succinic acid-producing strain through gene deletion of succinic acid dehydrogenase subunit encoding gene Ylsdh5, resulting in the strain of PGC01003. However, the recombinant strain produced large amount of acetic acid due to imbalance between glycolysis and TCA cycle which hindered the efficient production of succinic acid. PDH bypass was interfered to decrease the overflow of acetic acid and produce succinic acid under natural pH. Acetic acid was reduced to 4.6 g/L through heterologous expression of acetyl coenzyme A synthase from Salmonella enteric, which was 75.4% of the control strain. Deletion of CoA-transferase gene Ylach1 eliminated acetate formation and improved succinic acid production, and the resulting strain produced as high as 7.0 g/L succinic acid. Our study provides foundation for further construction of efficient cell factory of succinic acid production.

  8. Microbial production of mevalonate by recombinant Escherichia coli using acetic acid as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xie, Meng; Zhao, Qian; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2018-01-01

    We sought to produce mevalonate, an important organic acid, by recombinant Escherichia coli, using acetic acid, a less costly alternative feedstock, as a carbon source. In this study, the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway originating with acetate was constructed in recombinant E. coli, resulting in the production of 1.06 g L -1 mevalonate with a productivity of 0.03 g L -1 h -1 in a 5-L bioreactor. The mevalonate concentration and productivity were significantly enhanced with increased cell density during 2-stage aerobic fermentation, reaching 7.85 g L -1 and 0.13 g L -1 h -1 , respectively. Fed-batch fermentation was further optimized under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, and mevalonate concentrations reached 3.05 g L -1 and 4.97 g L -1 , respectively, indicating that the oxygen supply exerts a large impact on mevalonate production from acetate. This study describes a method with high potential to produce mevalonate with the engineered E. coli strain XU143 using the less costly alternative feedstock acetate as a carbon source.

  9. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 and micro;g/ml, 25 and micro;g/ml, and 50 and micro;g/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  10. Samarium (III) acetate-chloride hydrates: dimers and chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Lossin, A.; Schleid, T.

    1991-01-01

    Except for samarium chloride and samarium acetate, the system Sm 3+ /Ac - /Cl - /H 2 0 contains two acetate-chloride hydrates, [SmAc(H 2 0) 6 ]Cl 2 . H 2 0 (1) and [SmAc 2 (H 2 0) 3 ]Cl (2). Single crystals of 1 are obtained from an aqueous acetic-acid solution of SmCl 3 .6H 2 0 by slow isothermal evaporation at room temperature, those of 2 analogously but from a solution of SmOCl. 1 crystallizes with the triclinic system and contains centro-symmetric dimers with nine-coordinate Sm 3+ (six aquo ligands and one tridentate bridging acetate anion). 2 crystallizes with the monoclinic system with one-dimensional infinite chains, and Sm 3+ again in a ninefold oxygen coordination (three aquo and two tridentate bridging acetate ligands)

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Butyl acetate, Ethyl acetate and Isopropyl alcohol on undesirable microorganisms in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, C; Malet, G; Cupferman, S

    2016-10-01

    The microbiological contamination risk of a cosmetic product has to be assessed by the manufacturer, according to the composition, to determine whether microbiological testing is required. Certain ingredients in cosmetic formulations help to create an environment hostile towards microbial growth. In this study, the influence on microbial survival of some solvents used in nail varnishes was evaluated. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to define the thresholds to be considered for the exemption of products from microbiological testing. The second was to assess the cross-contamination risk linked to the use on successive consumers of solvent-based products in beauty salons. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were exposed to various concentrations of ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in culture medium to estimate their MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). These strains are relevant to cosmetic products as they are associated with skin and nail infections. Mixtures of the three solvents, which are characteristic of nail varnish compositions, were also tested for their cidal activity. Ethyl and butyl acetates had a stronger impact than isopropyl alcohol: the MIC of ethyl and butyl acetate is ≤5% for all of the tested strains, whereas that of isopropyl alcohol is ≤10%. Various combinations of the three solvents tested showed a significant effect on both fungal and bacterial strains (greater than 3 log reduction in 15 min for the bacterial test strains and in 30 min for T. rubrum). Products containing more than 5% ethyl or butyl acetate or more than 10% isopropyl alcohol are hostile towards microbial growth. These products can therefore be considered as microbiologically low risk during both production and use, and so do not require microbiological testing (challenge test and end-product testing). Moreover, the nine tested mixtures of these three

  12. Acidic Chitinase-Chitin Complex Is Dissociated in a Competitive Manner by Acetic Acid: Purification of Natural Enzyme for Supplementation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Tabata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic chitinase (Chia has been implicated in asthma, allergic inflammations, and food processing. We have purified Chia enzymes with striking acid stability and protease resistance from chicken and pig stomach tissues using a chitin column and 8 M urea (urea-Chia. Here, we report that acetic acid is a suitable agent for native Chia purification from the stomach tissues using a chitin column (acetic acid-Chia. Chia protein can be eluted from a chitin column using 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 2.8, but not by using Gly-HCl (pH 2.5 or sodium acetate (pH 4.0 or 5.5. The melting temperatures of Chia are not affected substantially in the elution buffers, as assessed by differential scanning fluorimetry. Interestingly, acetic acid appears to be more effective for Chia-chitin dissociation than do other organic acids with similar structures. We propose a novel concept of this dissociation based on competitive interaction between chitin and acetic acid rather than on acid denaturation. Acetic acid-Chia also showed similar chitinolytic activity to urea-Chia, indicating that Chia is extremely stable against acid, proteases, and denaturing agents. Both acetic acid- and urea-Chia seem to have good potential for supplementation or compensatory purposes in agriculture or even biomedicine.

  13. Acidic Chitinase-Chitin Complex Is Dissociated in a Competitive Manner by Acetic Acid: Purification of Natural Enzyme for Supplementation Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Eri; Kashimura, Akinori; Wakita, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Imamura, Yasutada; Shimizu, Hideaki; Matoska, Vaclav; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2018-01-25

    Acidic chitinase (Chia) has been implicated in asthma, allergic inflammations, and food processing. We have purified Chia enzymes with striking acid stability and protease resistance from chicken and pig stomach tissues using a chitin column and 8 M urea (urea-Chia). Here, we report that acetic acid is a suitable agent for native Chia purification from the stomach tissues using a chitin column (acetic acid-Chia). Chia protein can be eluted from a chitin column using 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 2.8), but not by using Gly-HCl (pH 2.5) or sodium acetate (pH 4.0 or 5.5). The melting temperatures of Chia are not affected substantially in the elution buffers, as assessed by differential scanning fluorimetry. Interestingly, acetic acid appears to be more effective for Chia-chitin dissociation than do other organic acids with similar structures. We propose a novel concept of this dissociation based on competitive interaction between chitin and acetic acid rather than on acid denaturation. Acetic acid-Chia also showed similar chitinolytic activity to urea-Chia, indicating that Chia is extremely stable against acid, proteases, and denaturing agents. Both acetic acid- and urea-Chia seem to have good potential for supplementation or compensatory purposes in agriculture or even biomedicine.

  14. Delineation of myocardial oxygen utilization with carbon-11-labeled acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Marshall, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although positron-emission tomography (PET) with labeled fatty acid delineates infarct size and permits qualitative assessment of fatty acid utilization, quantification of oxidative metabolism is limited by complex alterations in the pattern of utilization of fatty acid during ischemia and reperfusion. Because metabolism of acetate by myocardium is less complex than that of glucose or palmitate, we characterized kinetics of utilization of radiolabeled acetate in 37 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and performed a pilot tomographic study in man. Results of initial experiments with carbon-14-labeled acetate ( 14 C-acetate) indicated that the steady-state extraction fraction of acetate averaged 61.5 +/- 4.0% in control hearts (n = 4), 93.6 +/- 0.9% in hearts rendered ischemic (n = 4), and 54.8 +/- 4.0% in hearts reperfused after 60 min of ischemia (n = 3). Oxidation of 14 C-acetate, assessed from the rate of efflux of 14 CO 2 in the venous effluent, correlated closely with the rate of oxygen consumption under diverse metabolic conditions (r = .97, p less than .001). In addition, no significant differences were observed between rates of efflux of total 14 C in all chemical species (reflecting total clearance of tracer from myocardium) and efflux of 14 CO 2 . Clearance of 11 C-acetate, measured externally with gamma probes in normal and ischemic myocardium, correlated closely with clearance of 14 C-acetate measured directly in the effluent (r = .99, p less than .001) and with overall myocardial oxygen consumption (r = .95, p less than .001). Accumulation and clearance of 11 C-acetate from human myocardium with PET demonstrated kinetics comparable to those seen with radiolabeled acetate in vitro

  15. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  16. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  17. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  18. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    OpenAIRE

    Nhi Dinh Bui; Ngo Dinh Vu; Thao Thi Minh; Huong Thi Thanh Dam; Regina Romanovna Spiridonova; Semenovich Alexandr Sirotkin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate group...

  19. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  20. ACEt: An R Package for Estimating Dynamic Heritability and Comparing Twin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Silventoinen, Karri; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2017-11-01

    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Building on the twin models using penalized splines, ACEt provides a unified framework to incorporate a class of ACE models, in which each component can be modeled independently and is not limited by a linear or quadratic function. We demonstrate that ACEt is robust against misspecification of the number of spline knots, and offers a refined resolution of dynamic behavior of the genetic and environmental components and thus a detailed estimation of age-specific heritability. Moreover, we develop resampling methods for testing twin models with different variance functions including splines, log-linearity and constancy, which can be easily employed to verify various model assumptions. We evaluated the type I error rate and statistical power of the proposed hypothesis testing procedures under various scenarios using simulated datasets. Potential numerical issues and computational cost were also assessed through simulations. We applied the ACEt package to a Finnish twin cohort to investigate age-specific heritability of body mass index and height. Our results show that the age-specific variance components of these two traits exhibited substantially different patterns despite of comparable estimates of heritability. In summary, the ACEt R package offers a useful tool for the exploration of age-dependent heritability and model comparison in twin studies.

  1. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  2. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, A J; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1 HNMR and 13 CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum . Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli . Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used : TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR: Fourier Transform Infrared Chromatography, NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

  3. Cellulose acetate membranes functionalized with resveratrol by covalent immobilization for improved osseointegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandele, A. M.; Neacsu, P.; Cimpean, A.; Staras, A. I.; Miculescu, F.; Iordache, A.; Voicu, S. I.; Thakur, V. K.; Toader, O. D.

    2018-04-01

    Covalent immobilization of resveratrol onto cellulose acetate polymeric membranes used as coating on a Mg-1Ca-0.2Mn-0.6Zr alloy is presented for potential application in the improvement of osseointegration processes. For this purpose, cellulose acetate membrane is hydrolysed in the presence of potassium hydroxide, followed by covalent immobilization of aminopropyl triethoxy silane. Resveratrol was immobilized onto membranes using glutaraldehyde as linker. The newly synthesised functional membranes were thoroughly characterized for their structural characteristics determination employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Subsequently, in vitro cellular tests were performed for evaluating the cytotoxicity biocompatibility of synthesized materials and also the osseointegration potential of obtained derivatised membrane material. It was demonstrated that both polymeric membranes support viability and proliferation of the pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, thus providing a good protection against the potential harmful effects of the compounds released from coated alloys. Furthermore, cellulose acetate membrane functionalized with resveratrol exhibits a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization, suggesting its suitability to function as an implant surface coating for guided bone regeneration.

  4. Determination of the fractions of syntrophically oxidized acetate in a mesophilic methanogenic reactor through an (12)C and (13)C isotope-based kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tito; Niedermayr, Andrea; Berzio, Stephan; Immenhauser, Adrian; Wichern, Marc; Lübken, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    In order to accurately describe the carbon flow in anaerobic digestion processes, this work investigates the acetate degradation pathways through the use of stable carbon isotope analysis and a mathematical model. Batch assays using labeled (13)C acetate were employed to distinguish the acetate consumption through methanogenic Archaea and acetate-oxidizing Bacteria. Suspended and sessile biomass, with over 400 days of retention time, from a mesophilic (36.5 °C) upflow anaerobic filter was used as inocula in these assays. A three-process model for acetoclastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) was developed to allow for a precise quantification of the SAO contribution. The model distinguishes carbon atoms in light and heavy isotopes, (12)C and (13)C, respectively, which permitted the simulation of the isotope ratios variation in addition to gas production, gas composition and acetate concentrations. The model indicated oxidized fractions of acetate between 7 and 18%. Due to the low free ammonia inhibition potential for the acetoclastic methanogens in these assays these findings point to the biomass retention times as a driven factor for the SAO pathway. The isotope-based kinetic model developed here also describes the δ(13)C variations in unlabeled assays accurately and has the potential to determine biological (13)C fractionation factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetate oxidation by bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, R; Cruz, F S; Leon, W; Schmunis, G A

    1979-05-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi had a substantial increase in respiration in the presence of acetate. Oxidation of acetate took place via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and involved an antimycin A-sensitive respiratory pathway. Oxygen uptake in the presence of acetate was a sensitive to antimycin A inhibition as was CO2 production. There was a 6--7% residual O2 uptake which was not inhibited by high antimycin concentrations. Human anti-T. cruzi sera had no effect on oxygen uptake.

  6. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, N.

    1968-10-01

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4 ); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO 4 ); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author) [fr

  7. Measurement and correlation of the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, H.; Liu, X. Y.; Zhai, X.; Yao, X. C.

    2018-01-01

    The equilibrium method was used to measure the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate at temperature from 288.15 to 315.15. The Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation model were adopted to correlate the experimental data. For gossypol acetic acid, the root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) were observed in the range of 0.023-4.979 and 0.0112-0.614 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, respectively. For gossypol acetic acid of optical activity, the RMSD were observed in the range of 0.021-2.211 and 0.021-2.243 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, individually. And the maximum relative average deviation was 7.5%. Both equations offered an accurate mathematical expression of the experimental results. The calculated solubility showed a good relationship with the experimental solubility for most of solvents. This study provided valuable datas not only for optimizing the process of purification of gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in industry but also for further theoretical studies.

  8. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis and role of glatiramer acetate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, Jose Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2015-09-01

    Spasticity is one of the most disabling and difficult-to-treat symptoms shown by patients with multiple sclerosis, who often show a suboptimal and unsatisfactory response to classic treatment and new available nonpharmacological alternatives. Due to the progressive nature of this condition, the early management should be essential to improve long-term outcomes. We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of spasticity to the burden of multiple sclerosis and the potential role of classic disease-modifying drugs. Added to the underlying pathophysiology of spasticity, certain external factors and drugs such as interferon may exacerbate the existing condition, hence their awareness is crucial as part of an effective management of spasticity. Furthermore, the evidence for the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in preventing spasticity in naïve patients and in those switching from interferon should not be ignored. This literature review proposes the examination of spasticity and the influence of classic disease-modifying agents on the level of existing condition among the variables to be considered when deciding on therapy for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice.

  10. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  11. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia De Riccardis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4+, the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4+ T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4+ T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4+ T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  12. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riccardis, Lidia; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Danieli, Antonio; Trianni, Giorgio; Zara, Vincenzo; De Robertis, Francesca; Maffia, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4 + , the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4 + T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs) and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4 + T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4 + T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  13. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monleón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  14. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2015-02-18

    academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in authoctonus Lemna gibba plants from. Xochimilco Lake. Orlando Ortega-Acosta.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of rotational isomerism in ethyl halo acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasem, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared spectra of ethyl flouro acetate,ethyl chloro acetate ethyl bromo acetate and ethyl iodo acetate have been recorded in the region 4000-200 cm - 1 in the solid liquid and vapour phases.The spectra have shown that some bands are increasing in intensity upon moving from the solid to the liquid and to the vapour phases and some other bands are decreasing.Vibrational frequency assignments of the fundamental modes of vibration were made enthalpy differences between these isomers were determined for each compound in each phase.The values were used as a measure of the relative stability of the isomers.Furthermore,activation energy for the conformations from one isomer into another were estimated using arrhenius equation.Effects of solvents were investigated in this work too.(39 tabs., 46 figs., 55 refs.)

  16. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  17. Densities, speeds of sound, and refractive indices of the ternary mixtures (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Alejandra; Postigo, Miguel; Gonzalez-Salgado, Diego; Romani, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Density, ρ, speed of sound, u, and refractive index, n D , at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure have been measured over the entire composition range for (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) systems. Excess molar volumes, V E , isentropic compressibility, κ s , isentropic compressibility deviations, Δκ s , and changes of refractive index on mixing, Δn D , for the above systems, have been calculated from experimental data and fitted to Cibulka, Singh et al., and Nagata and Sakura equations, standard deviations from the regression lines are shown. Geometrical solution models, Tsao and Smith, Kholer, Jacob and Fitzner, Rastogi et al. were also applied to predict ternary properties from binary contributions

  18. Recovery of DNA from latent fingerprint tape lifts archived against matte acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Shelly A; Hoofer, Steven R; Geering, Sarah C; King, Stephanie; Bennett, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Sakhawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg. CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD formulations.

  20. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 3, January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    The program for acetic acid production from marine algae has made significant progress in the current quarter. Some of the significant developments during this period are: (1) conversion of the available reducing equivalents in Chondrus crispus to organic acids has been carried to better than 80% completion; (2) thermophilic fermentations produce higher ratios of acetic acid to total acid than is the case for mesophilic fermentations (80% vs. 50%); (3) a membrane extraction process for removing organic acid products has been developed which has potential for commercial use; (4) a large scale fermentation was shown to convert over 50% of the available carbon in five days; (5) a reducing equivalents balance on the large scale fermentation was closed to with 96% of theoretical.

  1. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 1, July 1--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Augenstein, D.C.; Wise, D.L.

    1977-10-14

    Progress is reported in research designed to develop an economically competitive process for producing acetic acid from biomass for the purpose of sparing petroleum for other uses, to evaluate marine algae as a potential source of biomass, and to document the feasibility of running fermentations in fixed packed bed fermenters. It was demonstrated that marine algae can be fermented to acetic acid. Initial rates of up to 168 meq/1 day were observed. These rates are substantially in excess of the 47 meq/1 day used in the economic projections. Also, when using marine algae as a substrate, acid levels were generated equivalent to the highest reported with other substrates. It was also demonstrated that a 4-foot fixed packet bed fermenter may be operated with marine algae as a substrate at 20 percent solids or 200 meq/1.

  2. The reactivity of phenylethanethiolated gold nanoparticles with acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nan; Gan, Zibao; Liao, Lingwen; Zhuang, Shengli; Wu, Zhikun

    2017-10-24

    We report the size-dependent reactivity of phenylethanethiolated gold nanoparticles with acetic acid. Employing this reactivity, we synthesize a novel nanocluster Au 38 (PET) 26 (PET: phenylethanethiolate), which is otherwise difficult to obtain and exhibits remarkably different photoluminescence and electrochemical properties compared with the well-known Au 38 (PET) 24 nanoclusters. And the reaction process between Au 38 (PET) 26 and acetic acid was probed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

  3. Efficient Synthesis of Molecular Precursors for Para-Hydrogen-Induced Polarization of Ethyl Acetate-1-(13) C and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Coffey, Aaron M; Manzanera Esteve, Isaac V; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-05-10

    A scalable and versatile methodology for production of vinylated carboxylic compounds with (13) C isotopic label in C1 position is described. It allowed synthesis of vinyl acetate-1-(13) C, which is a precursor for preparation of (13) C hyperpolarized ethyl acetate-1-(13) C, which provides a convenient vehicle for potential in vivo delivery of hyperpolarized acetate to probe metabolism in living organisms. Kinetics of vinyl acetate molecular hydrogenation and polarization transfer from para-hydrogen to (13) C via magnetic field cycling were investigated. Nascent proton nuclear spin polarization (%PH ) of ca. 3.3 % and carbon-13 polarization (%P13C ) of ca. 1.8 % were achieved in ethyl acetate utilizing 50 % para-hydrogen corresponding to ca. 50 % polarization transfer efficiency. The use of nearly 100% para-hydrogen and the improvements of %PH of para-hydrogen-nascent protons may enable production of (13) C hyperpolarized contrast agents with %P13C of 20-50 % in seconds using this chemistry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of acetic acid on wet patterning of copper/molybdenum thin films in phosphoric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bo.-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Park, In-Sun [Department of Materials Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jong Hyun, E-mail: jhseo@kau.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, HeeHwan; Jeon, Jae-Hong [School of Electronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Hwajeon, Goyang, Gyonggi-do 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Munpyo [Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Uk [PETEC (The Printable Electronics Technology Centre) (United Kingdom); Winkler, Joerg [PLANSEE Metal GmbH, Metallwerk-Plansee-Str. 71A-6600, Reutte (Austria)

    2011-08-01

    Copper metallization is a key issue for high performance thin film transistor (TFT) technology. A phosphoric acid based copper etchant is a potentially attractive alternative to the conventional hydrogen peroxide based etchant due to its longer-life expectancy time and higher stability in use. In this paper, it is shown that amount of the acetic acid in the phosphoric based copper etchant plays an important role in controlling the galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum. As the concentration of acetic acid in the phosphoric mixture solution increased from 0 M to 0.4 M, the measured galvanic current density dropped from 32 mA/cm{sup 2} to 26 mA/cm{sup 2}, indicating that the acetic acid induces the lower galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum in the solution. From the XPS analysis, with the addition of the acetic acid, the thickness of the protective MoO{sub 2} passive film covering the molybdenum surface grew and the dissolution rate of the molybdenum thin film decreased. However, the dissolution rate of the copper thin film increased as the concentration of acetic acid in the mixture solution increased.

  5. Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2014-05-07

    Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O.

  6. New insights into the mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus using iTRAQ-dependent quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kai; Zang, Ning; Zhang, Junmei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yudong; Liu, Ye; Feng, Wei; Liang, Xinle

    2016-12-05

    Acetobacter pasteurianus is the main starter in rice vinegar manufacturing due to its remarkable abilities to resist and produce acetic acid. Although several mechanisms of acetic acid resistance have been proposed and only a few effector proteins have been identified, a comprehensive depiction of the biological processes involved in acetic acid resistance is needed. In this study, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was adopted to investigate the whole proteome of different acidic titers (3.6, 7.1 and 9.3%, w/v) of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 during the vinegar fermentation process. Consequently, 1386 proteins, including 318 differentially expressed proteins (pacetic acid stress, where >150 proteins were differentially expressed. Specifically, proteins involved in amino acid metabolic processes and fatty acid biosynthesis were differentially expressed, which may contribute to the acetic acid resistance of Acetobacter. Transcription factors, two component systems and toxin-antitoxin systems were implicated in the modulatory network at multiple levels. In addition, the identification of proteins involved in redox homeostasis, protein metabolism, and the cell envelope suggested that the whole cellular system is mobilized in response to acid stress. These findings provide a differential proteomic profile of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus and have potential application to highly acidic rice vinegar manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of acetic acid on wet patterning of copper/molybdenum thin films in phosphoric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Bo.-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Park, In-Sun; Seo, Jong Hyun; Choe, HeeHwan; Jeon, Jae-Hong; Hong, Munpyo; Lee, Yong Uk; Winkler, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Copper metallization is a key issue for high performance thin film transistor (TFT) technology. A phosphoric acid based copper etchant is a potentially attractive alternative to the conventional hydrogen peroxide based etchant due to its longer-life expectancy time and higher stability in use. In this paper, it is shown that amount of the acetic acid in the phosphoric based copper etchant plays an important role in controlling the galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum. As the concentration of acetic acid in the phosphoric mixture solution increased from 0 M to 0.4 M, the measured galvanic current density dropped from 32 mA/cm 2 to 26 mA/cm 2 , indicating that the acetic acid induces the lower galvanic reaction between the copper and the molybdenum in the solution. From the XPS analysis, with the addition of the acetic acid, the thickness of the protective MoO 2 passive film covering the molybdenum surface grew and the dissolution rate of the molybdenum thin film decreased. However, the dissolution rate of the copper thin film increased as the concentration of acetic acid in the mixture solution increased.

  8. Roots of Acetate-Vanadium Linkage Isomerism: A QTAIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Filipe; Mosquera, Ricardo; Melo, André; Freire, Cristina; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2016-04-04

    The possibility of linkage isomerism in a number of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) complexes with acetate was surveyed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). The results show that vanadium-acetate linkages may be classified as bidentate symmetrical, bidentate asymmetrical, or monodentate, the latter being observed in about 40% of the cases. These latter ones correspond to situations where the two oxygen atoms of the acetate moiety are not equivalent. They are associated with an energy penalty of about 263 kJ·mol(-1), as determined by the distribution of the scaled kinetic energy of the atomic basins forming the acetate ligand. In the presence of bidentate symmetrical vanadium-acetate linkages, the inner valence-shell charge concentrations on the vanadium atom deviate from the traditional VSEPR-derived arrangement, with an energy penalty of about 780 kJ·mol(-1). A compromise situation is partially accomplished in the case of bidentate asymmetrical linkages, which allow a Gillespiean-like arrangement of the inner valence-shell charge concentrations. In this case, one of these local charge concentrations lies close to a V-OAcO bond, which slightly disrupts the equivalence between the two oxygen atoms in the acetate ligand.

  9. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M.

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc 3 - complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [fr

  10. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Aleksander J; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E; van der Ploeg, Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W M; van der Oost, John; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2017-05-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the discovery of a new enzyme (Eat1) from the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus that resulted in high ethyl acetate production when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purified Eat1 showed alcohol acetyltransferase activity with ethanol and acetyl-CoA. Homologs of eat1 are responsible for most ethyl acetate synthesis in known ethyl acetate-producing yeasts, including S. cerevisiae, and are only distantly related to known alcohol acetyltransferases. Eat1 is therefore proposed to compose a novel alcohol acetyltransferase family within the α/β hydrolase superfamily. The discovery of this novel enzyme family is a crucial step towards the development of biobased ethyl acetate production and will also help in selecting improved S. cerevisiae brewing strains. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-23

    Tous les clients reçus leurs injections dans les sept jours de menstruation. Les effets secondaires plus courantes étaient aménorrhée (12,0%) et spotting. Original Article. [Downloaded from http://www.annalsafrmed.org on Monday, May 23, 2011, IP: 41.185.176.151] || Click here to download free Android application for this ...

  12. Contraception With Medroxyprogesterone Injections in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five accidental pregnancies occurred (Pearl Index 0.22 per hundred woman years). Defaults from scheduled injections and discontinuations of use were common with a low continuation rate (7.6%) at the end of the observation period. Secondary amenorrhoea was responsible for 33.3% of discontinuations. Conclusion: ...

  13. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) for binary mixtures containing diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate, or ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yun; Shu, So-Siou; Wang, San-Jang; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data were measured. • Binary mixtures contain ethyl acetate, diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate. • No azeotrope formed in the systems investigated. • The VLE data were correlated well with Wilson-HOC, NRTL-HOC, UNIQUAC-HOC models. - Abstract: The isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) (P–T–x i –y i ) was determined the binary systems of (ethyl acetate + diethyl carbonate) from T = (373.2 to 453.2) K, (ethyl acetate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, and (diethyl carbonate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, while the VLE (P–T–x i ) of three diphenyl carbonate-containing binary systems was also determined experimentally at temperatures from (373.2 to 453.2) K. The experimental results show no azeotrope formation and near ideal solution behaviour for each binary system. These new VLE (P–T–x i –y i ) data have been passed by the point, area, and infinite dilution thermodynamic consistency tests. The Wilson-HOC, the NRTL-HOC, and the UNIQUAC-HOC models were applied to correlate the VLE results and the optimal values of the model parameters have been determined through data reduction. Comparable results were obtained from these three models.

  14. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komintarachat, Cholada; Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  15. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Katoh, Harumi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okado, Kohta; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg −1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg −1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L −1 and 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L −1 to 3.33 mol L −1 . It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg -1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  17. Alternate fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas: Vinyl acetate monomer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Colberg; Nick A. Collins; Edwin F. Holcombe; Gerald C. Tustin; Joseph R. Zoeller

    1999-01-01

    There has been a long-standing desire on the part of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to replace the existing ethylene-based vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) process with an entirely synthesis gas-based process. Although there are a large number of process options for the conversion of synthesis gas to VAM, Eastman Chemical Company undertook an analytical approach, based on known chemical and economic principles, to reduce the potential candidate processes to a select group of eight processes. The critical technologies that would be required for these routes were: (1) the esterification of acetaldehyde (AcH) with ketene to generate VAM, (2) the hydrogenation of ketene to acetaldehyde, (3) the hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde, and (4) the reductive carbonylation of methanol to acetaldehyde. This report describes the selection process for the candidate processes, the successful development of the key technologies, and the economic assessments for the preferred routes. In addition, improvements in the conversion of acetic anhydride and acetaldehyde to VAM are discussed. The conclusion from this study is that, with the technology developed in this study, VAM may be produced from synthesis gas, but the cost of production is about 15% higher than the conventional oxidative acetoxylation of ethylene, primarily due to higher capital associated with the synthesis gas-based processes.

  18. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  19. Transformation kinetics of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens in urine and feces of implanted steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Johnson, Bradley J; Buser, Michael D; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-11-01

    Biotransformation of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens derived from animal feeding operations in soils, waste storage systems, and in land applied manure has been well characterized. Yet recent data demonstrate potential for steroid transport into the environment directly from feedyard pens via runoff or airborne particulate matter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine steroid transformation rates in beef cattle excreta. Feces and urine were collected from steers recently treated with steroidal implants. Excreta were stored and periodically extracted over 112 d then analyzed for trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Conjugated steroids were present primarily in urine, and conjugates quickly degraded to free steroid with a half-life of 0.6-1.0 d. The primary trenbolone acetate metabolite, 17α-trenbolone, had a half-life of 5.1-9.5 d. Likewise, 17α-estradiol was the predominant estrogen, with a half-life of 8.6-53 d. Secondary trenbolone metabolites formed from 17α-trenbolone biotransformation were observed at low concentrations less than 10% initial 17α-trenbolone concentrations. Estrone was the primary metabolite of 17α-estradiol and concentrations of estrone exceeded initial 17α-estradiol concentration in all sample types. These results suggest manure-borne steroids are more stable in excreta than in soil microcosms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  1. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Lan; Zhang, Jiali; Min, Dong; Hongyan, Zhou; Lin, Niu; Li, Qing-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ) with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (pEthyl acetate fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd showed potential anticancer effects. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action may involve mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways.

  2. The Genealogical Tree of Ethanol: Gas-phase Formation of Glycolaldehyde, Acetic Acid, and Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Dimitrios; Balucani, Nadia; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Vazart, Fanny; Puzzarini, Cristina; Barone, Vincenzo; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand

    2018-02-01

    Despite the harsh conditions of the interstellar medium, chemistry thrives in it, especially in star-forming regions where several interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs) have been detected. Yet, how these species are synthesized is a mystery. The majority of current models claim that this happens on interstellar grain surfaces. Nevertheless, evidence is mounting that neutral gas-phase chemistry plays an important role. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for the gas-phase synthesis of glycolaldehyde, a species with a prebiotic potential and for which no gas-phase formation route was previously known. In the proposed scheme, the ancestor is ethanol and the glycolaldehyde sister species are acetic acid (another iCOM with unknown gas-phase formation routes) and formic acid. For the reactions of the new scheme with no available data, we have performed electronic structure and kinetics calculations deriving rate coefficients and branching ratios. Furthermore, after a careful review of the chemistry literature, we revised the available chemical networks, adding and correcting several reactions related to glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The new chemical network has been used in an astrochemical model to predict the abundance of glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic acid. The predicted abundance of glycolaldehyde depends on the ethanol abundance in the gas phase and is in excellent agreement with the measured one in hot corinos and shock sites. Our new model overpredicts the abundance of acetic acid and formic acid by about a factor of 10, which might imply a yet incomplete reaction network.

  3. Surface display for metabolic engineering of industrially important acetic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshal Blank

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria have unique metabolic characteristics that suit them for a variety of biotechnological applications. They possess an arsenal of membrane-bound dehydrogenases in the periplasmic space that are capable of regiospecific and enantioselective partial oxidations of sugars, alcohols, and polyols. The resulting products are deposited directly into the medium where they are easily recovered for use as pharmaceutical precursors, industrial chemicals, food additives, and consumer products. Expression of extracytoplasmic enzymes to augment the oxidative capabilities of acetic acid bacteria is desired but is challenging due to the already crowded inner membrane. To this end, an original surface display system was developed to express recombinant enzymes at the outer membrane of the model acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans. Outer membrane porin F (OprF was used to deliver alkaline phosphatase (PhoA to the cell surface. Constitutive high-strength p264 and moderate-strength p452 promoters were used to direct expression of the surface display system. This system was demonstrated for biocatalysis in whole-cell assays with the p264 promoter having a twofold increase in PhoA activity compared to the p452 promoter. Proteolytic cleavage of PhoA from the cell surface confirmed proper delivery to the outer membrane. Furthermore, a linker library was constructed to optimize surface display. A rigid (EAAAK1 linker led to the greatest improvement, increasing PhoA activity by 69%. This surface display system could be used both to extend the capabilities of acetic acid bacteria in current biotechnological processes, and to broaden the potential of these microbes in the production of value-added products.

  4. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, El-Said; El-Sayed, Gehad; El Shotory, Rehab; Gheith, Nervana; Abou-Alsoud, Mohamed; Harakeh, Steve Mustapha; Karrouf, Gamal I

    2017-09-01

    Lead intoxication has been a major health hazard in humans. It affects people at all ages. Its toxicity is associated with various organs of the body and affects different metabolic pathways. Based on histological data, l-carnitine reduced the severity of tissue damage produced as a result of exposure of rats to lead acetate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying mechanism of protection offered by l-carnitine against lead acetate intoxication using male Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each. The first group (G1) served as the control group and animals received standard diet only. The second group (G2) received lead acetate in their diet. The third group (G3) was the l-carnitine treated group and received the normal standard diet supplemented with l-carnitine. While the fourth group (G4) had a diet supplemented with both lead acetate and l-carnitine. At the end of each experiment, blood (serum and whole blood) were collected from each animal and analyzed for the following parameters: serum testosterone levels, serum nitric oxide and serum malondialdehyde. This is in addition to looking at the enzymatic activities of two important enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and on (glutathione reductase) which are indicative of the antioxidant activities in the whole blood. The results indicated that l-carnitine will counteract the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. It exerted its antioxidant potential by reducing the production of ROS and scavenging free radicals by maintaining and protecting the level of the of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion: l-Carnitine may play an important role in reversing the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. Future studies should be conducted to see whether such an effect is applicable in humans exposed to lead poising.

  5. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  6. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  7. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  8. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion inS. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  9. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes. PMID:29354649

  10. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Storti-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  11. Study on the Reduction of Acetic Acid from Cabinets for Microfilms

    OpenAIRE

    佐野, 千絵; 古田嶋, 智子; 井上, さやか; 津田, 徹英; 呂, 俊民

    2012-01-01

    Concentration of acetic acid in cabinets, film storage and adjacent room were measured. Two cabinets were filled with acetic acid generated from aged microfilms. Absorbents were placed in one of the cabinets to remove acetic acid. It was confirmed thatconcentration of acetic acid decreased one week after setting the absorbents. Concentration in the other cabinet in which acetic-acid-absorbents were not placed remained high. From this result, it may be said that the absorbents were effective i...

  12. Spontaneous Interfacial Dipole Orientation Effect of Acetic Acid Solubilized PFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Luo, Yinqi; Zheng, Jieming; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Huang, Fei; Yang, Bing; Ma, Yuguang

    2018-03-28

    Poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)- alt-(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] (PFN) is a very important interfacial modifier in organic photovoltaic and organic light-emitting diodes to improve device performance, where their molecular dipole has been regarded to play a key role. In this work, we have reported a spontaneous interfacial dipole orientation effect in acetic acid dissolved PFN, which is strongly related to the interfacial dipole and the corresponding device performance. In direct spin-coating, the interfacial dipole is 1.08 Debye with interfacial contact angle 84.8°, whereas after self-assembly of 10 min, the interfacial dipole is balanced at 4.21 Debye, with the interfacial contact angle decreasing to 76.8°. Without strong interaction with the substrate, the energy of upward amine groups is much lower than that of downward ones in theoretical simulation, which would be the driving force of this spontaneous process. The preferred conformations of PFN molecules on hydroxylated substrates have over 99% amine groups outward, and the theoretical average dipole calculated from the weight of these conformations is 4.48 Debye, which is close to the experimental result and indicates a high ratio of upward amine groups in self-assembled films. This effect obviously changes the device performance, such as an obvious positive threshold voltage shift in transistors and a distinct increase of the short-circuit current/open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells. This effect provides a deeper understanding of the PFN interlayer mechanism and has potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with

  14. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  15. Pulse radiolysis of ethyl acetate and its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanan, G.

    1976-01-01

    Pure ethyl acetate was subjected to electron pulse radiolysis in the liquid state and the absorption spectrum of the transient species produced was obtained between 280 and 650 nm. Two different species were produced, one with a short life of about 150 ns absorbing at longer wavelengths attributed to the solvated electron and a much longer lived radical absorbing at wavelengths less than 400 nm. The solute triplet yields were followed using anthracene and biphenyl at different concentrations. An upperlimit for the yield of excited singlet anthracene was estimated from the study of fluorescence to be G approximately equal to 0.1. Anthracene singlet yields in the presence of benzene at different concentrations were measured and the contribution of ethyl acetate positive ions in forming the additional exicted singlets is discussed. The free ion yield is G = 0.25. Yield of ethyl acetate positive ions scavengeable at high benzene concentrations is G = 0.63

  16. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π–π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17 and 3.9296 (17 Å.

  17. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti.

  18. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A., E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.b, E-mail: smrrocha@ipen.b, E-mail: mstela@ipen.b, E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.b, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedreira, Walter dos R., E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.b [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in {mu}g g{sup -1}: Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  19. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  20. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...... of ethylene affording acetic acid, the latter to some extent consecutively yielding ketene, and intramolecular oxygen to oxygen ethyl group migration. Additionally minor amounts of acetaldehyde is formed. The mechanistic aspects are discussed based on 18O and 18O/ 13C labelling....

  1. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyong-Mok; Nam, Hee-Geun; Mun, Sungyong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered.

  2. 4,4′-Bipyridine acetic acid disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ye

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C10H8N2·2C2H4O2, is built up from 4,4′-bipyridine and acetic acid molecules linked by strong O—H...N hydrogen bonds. The 4,4′-bipyridine and the two acetic acid molecules are further connected through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular two-dimensional network parallel to the (001 plane. The two pyridine rings make a dihedral angle of 31.8 (1°.

  3. Retinyl acetate-loaded nanoparticles: dermal penetration and release of the retinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayachukeat, Sunatda; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P; Tree-Udom, Thapakorn

    2011-02-14

    Retinyl acetate (RA) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (NP) carriers were prepared using two different single polymers, ethyl cellulose (EC) and poly (ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC). The stability of RA to aqueous solution and UVA light was significantly improved when encapsulated with PCPLC, whilst EC encapsulation gave some improved stability in water but showed no improved photostability. Ex vivo application of free RA and the RA-loaded PCPLC NPs onto the surface of the freshly excised skin from a baby mouse indicated a significantly slower skin absorption rate for the encapsulated RA. However, 100% retention of the encapsulated RA in the skin tissue was observed after 24h. Confocal fluorescent analysis of the skin pieces applied with the RA-loaded PCPLC NPs indicated likely entry and accumulation of the PCPLC NPs and RA at the hair follicles. Release of RA from the PCPLC NP carriers was confirmed through the detection of an increasingly higher RA/PCPLC fluorescent signal ratio deeper into the dermis and away from the hair follicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Larazotide Acetate to Prevent the Activation of Celiac Disease During Gluten Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, C P; Abdallah, H Z; Colatrella, A M; Harris, L A; Leon, F; Arterburn, L A; Paterson, B M; Lan, Z H; Murray, J A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with celiac disease, enteropathy is caused by the entry of gluten peptides into the lamina propria of the intestine, in which their immunogenicity is potentiated by tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and T-helper type 1–mediated immune responses are triggered. Tight junction disassembly and paracellular permeability are believed to have an important role in the transport of gluten peptides to the lamina propria. Larazotide acetate is a tight-junction regulator peptide that, in vitro, prevents the opening of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of larazotide acetate in protecting against gluten-induced intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptom severity in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: In this dose-ranging, placebo-controlled study, 86 patients with celiac disease controlled through diet were randomly assigned to larazotide acetate (0.25, 1, 4, or 8 mg) or placebo three times per day with or without gluten challenge (2.4 g/day) for 14 days. The primary efficacy outcome was the urinary lactulose/mannitol (LAMA) fractional excretion ratio. Secondary endpoints included gastrointestinal symptom severity, quality-of-life measures, and antibodies to tTG. RESULTS: LAMA measurements were highly variable in the outpatient setting. The increase in LAMA ratio associated with the gluten challenge was not statistically significantly greater than the increase in the gluten-free control. Among patients receiving the gluten challenge, the difference in the LAMA ratios for the larazotide acetate and placebo groups was not statistically significant. However, larazotide acetate appeared to limit gluten-induced worsening of gastrointestinal symptom severity as measured by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale at some lower doses but not at the higher dose. Symptoms worsened significantly in the gluten challenge–placebo arm compared with the placebo–placebo arm

  5. Assessment of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer samples exposed to γ-rays via linearity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Schimidt, Fernando; Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Materials with the potential to become dosimeters are of interest in radiation physics. In this research, the materials were analyzed and compared in relation to their linearity ranges. Samples of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA) were irradiated with doses from 10 Gy to 10 kGy using a 60 Co Gamma-Cell system 220 and evaluated with the FTIR technique. The linearity analyses were applied through two methodologies, searching for linear regions in their response. The results show that both applied analyses indicate linear regions in defined dose interval. The radiation detectors EVA can be useful for radiation dosimetry in intermediate and high doses. (author)

  6. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with [3H]trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group

  7. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  8. Density, refraction index and vapor–liquid equilibria of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate plus (methyl acetate or ethyl acetate or propyl acetate) at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, V.H.; Mattedi, S.; Aznar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities, refraction indices and VLE were measured for ester + m-2-HEAB mixtures. ► V E , apparent molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. ► Peng–Robinson EoS + Wong–Sandler mixing rule + COSMO-SAC predicted the data. -- Abstract: This paper reports the densities, refraction indices, and vapor liquid equilibria for binary systems ester + N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m-2-HEAB): methyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2), ethyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB and propyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2). The excess molar volumes, deviations in the refraction index, apparent molar volumes, and thermal expansion coefficients for the binary systems were fitted to polynomial equations. The Peng–Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, is used to describe the experimental data. Since the predictive activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the vapor–liquid equilibria have a deviation lower than 1.0% and 1.1%, respectively

  9. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  10. Use of acetic and citric acids to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in tabbouleh salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Walid M; Olaimat, Amin N; Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Ajo, Radwan Y; Holley, Richard A

    2018-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different concentrations of acetic (0.3% and 0.4%) or citric (1% and 1.4%) acids and their combinations (1% citric acid plus 0.4% acetic acid and 1.4% citric acid plus 0.3% acetic acid) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in tabbouleh salad stored at 21, 10 and 4 °C. Acetic acid was more inhibitory toward S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 than citric acid at 21 °C; S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 cells were not detected in tabbouleh treated with 0.4% acetic acid after 5 and 7 days, respectively. The combined effect of acetic and citric acid was synergistic against S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, but not against S. aureus. The combinations of acetic and citric acids reduced S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 to below the detection levels after 2 and 3 days at 21 °C, respectively. However, these treatments significantly reduced S. aureus numbers compared to the control at tested temperatures by the end of storage. Acetic and citric acids have the potential to be used in tabbouleh salad to reduce the risk from S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able processes but also to the hydrolysis of environmen- tally friendly polyvinyl alcohol in the film formations, separation and bioprocesses, or coatings (figure 4). 4. Conclusion. The cobalt-mediated controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied in bulk. It indicated a faster rate than solution polymerization.

  12. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation. Wilfried YAO, Honoré G. OUATTARA, Bernadette GOUALIE, Souleymane SOUMAHORO, Sébastien. NIAMKE. Laboratoire de Biotechnologies, UFR Biosciences, Université Félix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY ...

  13. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  14. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enriched yeast) and vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets enriched in n-3 PUFAs using fish oil. Day-old Hubbard-JV strain broiler chicks allocated to one ...

  15. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  16. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I ... Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India ...

  17. In situ acetate separation in microbial electrosynthesis from CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Burg, van den Bart; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Wever, De Heleen; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Pant, Deepak; Strik, David P.B.T.B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to multi-carbon organic compounds particularly acetate has been achieved in microbial electrosynthesis (MES) using the reducing equivalents produced at the electrically polarized cathode. MES based on CO2 reduction

  18. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine Using Activated. Carbon from Waste Wood and Rice Husks. GOODHEAD, T O; DAGDE, K K. Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State university of Science and Technology. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This paper presents the ...

  19. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  20. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 6. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I Ravikumar Pradyut Ghosh. Volume 123 Issue 6 November 2011 pp 869- ...

  1. Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and Phosphate by a Diacylhydrazine. Ligand via the Formation of a Colour Alkali Metal Complex. Purnandhu Bose, Ranjan Dutta, I. Ravikumar and Pradyut Ghosh. ∗. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja ...

  2. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  3. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shell) Neobuccinum living in the Antarctic ice-covered sea. An open reading frame of 1203 bp, coding for acetate kinase gene, called ack, was amplified, cloned into the expression vector, pETY-16b, and the enzyme was overproduced by ...

  4. Antisecretory and antiulcerative effects of ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was carried out to investigate the possible effects of ethyl acetate seed fraction of Nigella sativa on gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretions using the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced (NSAID) model. Phytochemical screening according to Trease and Evans, 2002 and acute toxicity tests ...

  5. Induction of estrus in Sahel goats using Fluorogestone Acetate (FGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on estrus response in Sahel (SH) goats. One hundred (n=100) SH does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponge for 14 days. At the end ...

  6. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARMIE

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment (fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red. Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone ...

  7. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of January 2004 and 31 of December 2013 is presented. This was a descriptive retrospective study aimed at establishing the acceptance, safety and ...

  8. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  9. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of zinc on brain weight, glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in drinking water for two weeks. Results show that protein-undernutrition induced significant ...

  10. Behavioral determination of olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, D; Passe, D; Smith, J C; Jonsson, L

    1984-01-01

    By use of a modified conditioned suppression technique, olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate were determined for four beagle dogs. Using the same odorant and olfactometer and a similar breathing chamber, olfactory thresholds were obtained in eight human subjects. It was determined that the olfactory sensitivity of the dogs was about 2.5 log units better than that of the human subjects.

  11. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions compete with the free radical reaction. Solvent cage in the solution polymerization has been suggested to account for the reduced rate and diffusivity of the radicals, and there- fore, higher branching of the polymer (Semsarzadeh et al. 1997). The ATRP reactions of acrylates with vinyl acetate macroradicals are reported ...

  12. In Vivo Activity of (8-Hydroxymethylen)-Trieicosanyl Acetate against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxymethylen)-trieicosanyl acetate was evaluated in BALB/c mice during the acute phase of Chagas' disease (15 days after infection). Animals were treated during 15 days at doses of 16.8 and 33.6 μg/g, reduced parasitemia of 77.6 and 64.1% was ...

  13. Protective role of flaxseed oil against lead acetate induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the toxic effects of lead compounds had been studied over many years, inconsistent results have been obtained about their oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) alters the histology of testes as well as enhances lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and testes ...

  14. Effect of doping on TSD relaxation in cellulose acetate films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The peak currents, released charge and activation energies associated with the peaks are affected by AA doping. The effect of doping with acrylic acid on the discharge current indicates the formation of molecular aggregates. Keywords. TSD relaxation; cellulose acetate; acrylic acid; molecular aggregates. 1. Introduction.

  15. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  16. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in drinking water ... biochemical changes associated with protein-undernutrition-induced brain damage particularly reduction in brain weight. ... rehabilitation of PEM is important to the survival of protein- ...

  17. Protective effects of ethyl acetate extraction from Gastrodia elata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) during the process of cerebral ischemic injury is a key factor which influences the therapeutic efficacy to the cerebral ischemic injury. The present study was designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extraction from ...

  18. New substituted indene derivatives from bicyclic Baylis-Hillman acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen AMRI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A convenient protocol for the synthesis of highly functionalized indenes 4 has been developed. The coupling reaction of bicyclic Baylis-Hillman acetate 2 with nitroalkane salts in basic conditions led to the corresponding substituted indenes in good yields and high purity.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therapy is started, the animal should be confined for 3 to 8 days or until cessation of bleeding, since...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate... in pregnant animals. (9) Do not use in the presence of a disease of the reproductive system or with...

  20. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  1. π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O-H···π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic acid with Benzene. PUJARINI BANERJEE, INDRANI BHATTACHARYA and TAPAS CHAKRABORTY. ∗. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032, India.

  2. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    NMR spectra showed the appearance of specific peaks for acetate group. Differences between chitosan ... sustained fashion. Propranolol hydrochloride is subject to an extensive and highly variable hepatic first pass metabolism following oral administration with a reported systemic bioavailability of 15 – 23 %, indicating the.

  3. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A.vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97% reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 μg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds ...

  4. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatice BASMANCIOGLU

    vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant ... diet supplemented with 200 mg α-TA/kg feed; (3) OrgSe0.15: Control with inorganic Se replaced with 0.15 ... lipid oxidation, which can impair meat and egg quality such as off-tastes and off-odours, thereby reducing.

  5. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mesoporous silica; heterogeneous catalyst; specific sequences; controlled free radical polymerization; ... copolymers. CRP is a common technique for synthesis of (co)polymers with well-defined molecular parameters. (Mw/Mn), reactive end groups, composition and ... bulk copolymerization of vinyl acetate with butyl acrylate.

  6. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... gluconeogenesis (Bergman, 1990). However, the contri- bution of propionate to blood glucose via gluconeogenesis could probably be covered by the glucose infused into the abomasum. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given individually on rumen papillae size, and IGF-I, IGFBP-. 3, GH and ...

  7. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  8. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...

  9. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  10. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  11. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Wheals, 2004; Romero-Cortes et al., 2012). Generally, AAB emerged after 24 h of fermentation when air comes in fermentation heap (Nielsen et al., 2007) and then oxidize ethanol previously produced by yeasts to acetic acid by exothermic reaction. This acid diffuses into beans and in combination with heat ...

  12. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W. M.; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T9) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  13. Recycling Solvent Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate and Hexanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Timothy J.

    1998-12-01

    A method to recycle ethyl acetate-hexanes mixtures from thin-layer or column chromatography experiments is described. The procedure consists of co-distillation of the mixture followed by estimation of the composition by reference to an Rf vs percent composite graph. The mixture is then diluted with the appropriate solvent to achieve the desired composition.

  14. Phytochemical composition and in vitro effects of the ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distemonanthus benthamianus is a tree used in traditional African medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. The pasty phase and the granular phase obtained from the ethyl acetate bark extract of D. benthamianus were tested for antimicrobial purposes on Staphylococcus aureus and on Streptococcus ...

  15. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigates the acidification capacity under various culture conditions of high acetic acid producer AAB strains previously isolated from Ivoirian cocoa beans fermentation. Methodology and Results: Effect of culture conditions was studied in agar medium and acid production was monitored by ...

  16. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria (AAB), involved in Côte d'Ivoire cocoa fermentation. Methods and results: Six day heap fermentation on banana leaves was conducted at farm level and AAB growth was monitored during this process at 24 h interval by numeration on plate agar.

  17. Cryotherapy Following Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer can be prevented and mortality/morbidity reduced by early detection and referral. Developing countries are likely to benefit from more cost effective methods of screening and treatment. Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol`s iodine (VIA/VILI) offers a see and treat solution thus an ...

  18. Phytochemical Constituents and Analgesic Activity of Ethyl Acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the active fraction of pomegranate fruit extract and screen it for analgesic activity. Methods: The analgesic activity of pomegranate ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) was examined using three models of pain: writhing, hot tail flick and plantar tests. EtOAc was administered by oral gavage in doses of 100, ...

  19. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  20. Tabernaemontana catharinensis ethyl acetate fraction presents antinociceptive activity without causing toxicological effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Brum, Evelyne; da Rosa Moreira, Laís; da Silva, Andreia Regina Haas; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Brandão, Ricardo; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2016-09-15

    Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of painful and inflammatory disorders. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive potential of the ethyl acetate fraction (Eta) from T. catharinensis leaves and assessed its toxic effects in mice to validate its popular use. Adult male Swiss mice (30-35g) were used. The Eta antinociceptive effect (200-800mg/kg, oral route (p.o.)) was evaluated in the acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin and tail-immersion tests. Adverse effects were analyzed using rotarod and open-field tests, body temperature, biochemical analysis and gastric lesions assessment. To evaluate the acute (OECD 423) or sub-acute (OECD 407) toxicity of the Eta, it was administered orally at a single (2000mg/kg) or repeated doses (100-400mg/kg/day for 28 days), respectively. Mortality, behavioral changes, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. The Eta effect on cellular viability also was evaluated. Eta (200-800mg/kg) inhibited the nociception caused by acetic acid (93.9±1.5%), formalin (86.2±10.8%) or capsaicin (75.4±3.3%) without inducing gastric lesions. Moreover, Eta neither altered the body temperature, biochemical parameters, nor forced or spontaneous locomotor activity of mice. The acute administration of the Eta (2000mg/kg) promoted a decrease in blood glucose levels and alanine aminotransferase activity. In the sub-acute toxicity study, Eta increased the aspartate aminotransferase activity (400mg/kg) and platelet distribution width (200mg/kg). Furthermore, Eta did not alter the cellular viability in cortical slices. Eta presents antinociceptive effects and mild toxicity in mice. These results support its traditional use as a potential analgesic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  2. Effectiveness of Alkaline Pretreatment and Acetic Acid Hydrolysis on the Characteristics of Collagen from Fish Skin of Snakehead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari Wulandari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin is one of marine byproducts potential for alternative source of collagen. This studyinvestigated the effectiveness of alkaline and acetic acid pretreatment on the characteristics ofcollagen from skin snakehead fish. The concentrations of alkaline pretreatment were 0.05; 0.1; 0.15and 0.2 M for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours, acetic acid concentrations were 0.05 M, 0.1 M, 0.15 M and0.2 M for 1 and 2 hours. The experimental design used for alkaline and acetic acid pretreatmentwas factorial completely randomized design. The result showed that the concentration of alkaline0.05 M for 6 hours have significant effect on the elimination of non-collagen protein (p<0.05,whereas for the optimum acetic acid at a concentration 0.1 M for 2 hours significantly differenton solubility and swelling. Extraction yields of collagen was 16%, with characteristics of whiteness66.67%, protein content 96.21%, viscosity 10 cP, Tmax 159.9oC and glass transition temperature78.55oC. The dominant amino acid composition were glycine (27.11%, proline (13.87% andalanine (12.58%. Functional groups collagen from skin snakehead fish has β-sheet structurewhich is a characteristic of collagen.

  3. An improved synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhi-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrazoline derivatives have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among various pyrazoline derivatives, 2-pyrazolines seem to be the most frequently studied. A variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of this class of compound. However, in spite of their potential utility, some of the reported methods suffer from drawbacks such as long reaction times, cumbersome product isolation procedures and environmental concerns. Organic reactions in aqueous media have attracted increasing interest recently because of environmental issues and the understanding of biochemical processes. Ultrasound has increasingly been used in organic synthesis in the last three decades. A large number of organic reactions can be carried out in higher yields, shorter reaction time or milder conditions under ultrasound irradiation. Results Preparation of a series of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines through the reaction of chalcones and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride was carried out in 83–96% yield within 1.5–2 h in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation. Conclusion We have described a practical and convenient procedure for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution at room temperature under ultrasound irradiation.

  4. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  6. Zinc, magnesium, and calcium ion supplementation confers tolerance to acetic acid stress in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials produces inhibitory compounds such as acetic acid, which negatively affect ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Supplementation of the medium with three metal ions (Zn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) increased the tolerance of S. cerevisiae toward acetic acid compared to the absence of the ions. Ethanol production from xylose was most improved (by 34%) when the medium was supplemented with 2 mM Ca(2+) , followed by supplementation with 3.5 mM Mg(2+) (29% improvement), and 180 μM Zn(2+) (26% improvement). Higher ethanol production was linked to high cell viability in the presence of metal ions. Comparative transcriptomics between the supplemented cultures and the control suggested that improved cell viability resulted from the induction of genes controlling the cell wall and membrane. Only one gene, FIT2, was found to be up-regulated in common between the three metal ions. Also up-regulation of HXT1 and TKL1 might enhance xylose consumption in the presence of acetic acid. Thus, the addition of ionic nutrients is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance and fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of the FPS1 aquaglyceroporin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Guo; Liu, Xiu-Ying; He, Xiu-Ping; Guo, Xue-Na; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2011-02-01

    The FPS1 gene coding for the Fps1p aquaglyceroporin protein of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was disrupted by inserting CUP1 gene. Wild-type strain, CE25, could only grow on YPD medium containing less than 0.45% (v/v) acetic acid, while recombinant strain T12 with FPS1 disruption could grow on YPD medium with 0.6% (v/v) acetic acid. Under 0.4% (v/v) acetic acid stress (pH 4.26), ethanol production and cell growth rates of T12 were 1.7 ± 0.1 and 0.061 ± 0.003 g/l h, while those of CE25 were 1.2 ± 0.1 and 0.048 ± 0.003 g/l h, respectively. FPS1 gene disruption in an industrial ethanologenic yeast thus increases cell growth and ethanol yield under acetic acid stress, which suggests the potential utility of FPS1 gene disruption for bioethanol production from renewable resources such as lignocelluloses.

  8. [Metabolism of C(14)-acetate by some trematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Seol; Rim, Han Jong; Min, Yong Ok; Rhee, Sang Don; Lee, Tong Hoon; Yun, Myong Soon

    1965-12-01

    The adult trematodes, Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Paramphistomum cervi, employed in this experiment were obtained from the cattle slaughtered at the local abbatoir. The worms selected and washed several times in normal sterilized saline solution. Each about ten of intact F. hepatica, fourty of E. pancreaticum, and twenty of P. cervi were incubated in 50 cc volume of special incubation flasks with incubation medium consisting of 10 cc. of Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer(pH 7.4) The incubation medium was added C(14)-1-acetate and non-radioactive carrier Na-acetate so as to contain acetate concentration of 50 mg per cent. The worms were allowed to incubate for 5 hours in the Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 38 degrees C. After incubation period, respiratory CO2 samples from central well of incubation flask were analysed for total CO2 production rate and their specific activity of respiratory CO2. The lactate and pyruvate appearance rates were determined by analyzing the lactate and pyruvate concentration in a medium after incubation. The glycogen samples isolated from worms were analyzed for the tissue concentration and their radioactivities in order to determine the turnover rate of glycogen pool. Radioactivities of these series of experiments were counted by an endwindow Geiger-Muller counter as an infinitely thin samples. The quantitative analysis of C(14)-acetate utilized by F. hepatica, E. pancreaticum and P. cervi were compared and discussed in this report. According to these data of the experiment, it is suggested that the fatty acid such as acetate may play a part of their oxidative process into the respiratory CO2 and the synthetic process into glycogen in the above species of trematodes.

  9. Topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatment after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S; Ozoğul, C; Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the effects of topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatments on corneal healing response after -10.0 D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits. Thirty-three New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups and -10 D PRK was performed under in vivo conditions. Following PRK, group 1 (n = 9) received no topical treatment and served as control. Group 2 (n = 8) received 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate ointment twice a day, group 3 (n = 8) received 1% vitamin E ointment and group 4 (n = 8) received both 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% vitamin E twice a day for a month. At the end of the third month, corneal haze was graded and the corneal hydroxyproline levels were measured, as a crude indicator of new collagen synthesis. Finally corneal samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Non-homogeneously distributed strong haze was identified in group 1 which was greater than in the other groups; haze was least in groups 2 and 4. Corneal hydroxyproline levels were found to be significantly lower in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared with the control (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). Histopathologically, the most aggressive wound healing response was detected in group 1. The corneal wound healing response of group 2 was less than that of group 1 and equal to or more than that of group 4. Deep corneal photoablation induces an aggressive healing response, and topical hydrocortisone acetate reduces this corneal wound healing effectively. The inhibitory effect of topical vitamin E on corneal wound healing seems to be less than that of hydrocortisone acetate, but combined treatment with these two drugs may have an additive effect in controlling corneal wound healing after PRK.

  10. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  11. Using megestrol acetate to ameliorate protein-energy wasting in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine Skouberdis; Logomarsino, John V

    2016-03-01

    Various populations are affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a low dose appetite stimulant megestrol acetate (MA) is sometimes recommended in patients with CKD to ameliorate protein-energy wasting (PEW). Patients with CKD are at greater risk of developing PEW since the progression of their disease can cause decreased nutrient intake, catabolic effects, systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Providers can detect PEW in CKD by identifying low serum levels ≤3.8 g/dl of albumin, protein and energy intake increases from 27% to 42%. There are potential adverse effects of using MA in CKD. After reviewing the available literature, the benefits of using MA should be evaluated against the potential side effects. For further examination of MA's potential benefits, long-term, prospective, large clinical trials should be carried out. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  13. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogr...

  14. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  15. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2011-04-01

    Specific adsorption of anions to electrode surfaces may alter the rates of electrocatalytic reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) methods are used to predict the adsorption free energy of acetate and phosphate anions as a function of Pt(1 1 1) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep voltammogram (LSV) due to anion adsorption is simulated using the DFT results. The inclusion of solvation at the electrochemical interface is necessary for accurately predicting the adsorption peak position. The Langmuir model is sufficient for predicting the adsorption peak shape, indicating coverage effects are minor in altering the LSV for acetate and phosphate adsorption. Anion adsorption peak positions are determined for solution phase anion concentrations present in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells and discussion is provided as to the impact of anion adsorption on oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction rates in these devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human HDAC isoform selectivity achieved via exploitation of the acetate release channel with structurally unique small molecule inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Lewis; Dobler, Markus R.; Radetich, Branko; Zhu, Yanyi; Atadja, Peter W.; Claiborne, Tavina; Grob, Jonathan E.; McRiner, Andrew; Pancost, Margaret R.; Patnaik, Anup; Shao, Wenlin; Shultz, Michael; Tichkule, Ritesh; Tommasi, Ruben A.; Vash, Brian; Wang, Ping; Stams, Travis (Novartis)

    2013-11-20

    Herein we report the discovery of a family of novel yet simple, amino-acid derived class I HDAC inhibitors that demonstrate isoform selectivity via access to the internal acetate release channel. Isoform selectivity criteria is discussed on the basis of X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling of these novel inhibitors bound to HDAC8, potentially revealing insights into the mechanism of enzymatic function through novel structural features revealed at the atomic level.

  17. The effective reaction of 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline and acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formylquinolines in a single step by treating with sodium acetate and acetic acid under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds have been established by IR, NMR and mass spectral data. Unexpectedly ...

  18. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  19. Synthesis of light-selective poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) nanofilms in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, William (Zhiming)

    Due to the increased requirements of environmental protection, significant effort has been made to develop new "green" chemistry and engineering methods. Two effective approaches for "green" processes are: (1) to employ routes with fewer synthetic and separation steps, and (2) to replace volatile organic solvents with environmentally friendly solvents. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has emerged as such a viable "green" alternative to organic solvents for several applications including extraction, polymerization, and nanotechnology, etc. In addition, it is an enabling solvent, allowing new types of chemistry and materials to be formed. In order to effectively utilize scCO2, it is required to study its effect on the relevant chemical process. This thesis focuses on the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate in scCO2, and the application of scCO2 in the synthesis of novel poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) nanocomposites. Firstly, the kinetics of the process was investigated. The thermal decomposition of the free-radical initiator diethyl peroxydicarbonate (DEPDC) was monitored by in situ attenuate total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in heptane, and in scCO2. The rate constant and activation energy of the thermal decomposition of DEPDC in scCO2 were determined, and a decomposition mechanism was proposed. Further, with a knowledge of the initiator kinetics, in situ ATR-FTIR was employed to monitor the initial formation of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate during polymerization in scCO2. The reactivity ratios for the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate in scCO2 were determined using both the Kelen-Tudos and the non-linear least-squares methods. The potential of scCO2 was further examined to synthesize advanced and novel nanomaterials based on an understanding of the polymerization mechanism. A novel one-step synthesis route was developed for making silica

  20. Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-06-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  1. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

  2. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  3. Effect of levels of acetate on the mevalonate pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia A Van Laar

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal pathogen with limited metabolic capabilities that survives under highly disparate host-specific conditions. However, the borrelial genome encodes several proteins of the mevalonate pathway (MP that utilizes acetyl-CoA as a substrate leading to intermediate metabolites critical for biogenesis of peptidoglycan and post-translational modifications of proteins. In this study, we analyzed the MP and contributions of acetate in modulation of adaptive responses in B. burgdorferi. Reverse-transcription PCR revealed that components of the MP are transcribed as individual open reading frames. Immunoblot analysis using monospecific sera confirmed synthesis of members of the MP in B. burgdorferi. The rate-limiting step of the MP is mediated by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR via conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Recombinant borrelial HMGR exhibited a K(m value of 132 µM with a V(max of 1.94 µmol NADPH oxidized minute(-1 (mg protein(-1 and was inhibited by statins. Total protein lysates from two different infectious, clonal isolates of B. burgdorferi grown under conditions that mimicked fed-ticks (pH 6.8/37°C exhibited increased levels of HMGR while other members of the MP were elevated under unfed-tick (pH 7.6/23°C conditions. Increased extra-cellular acetate gave rise to elevated levels of MP proteins along with RpoS, CsrA(Bb and their respective regulons responsible for mediating vertebrate host-specific adaptation. Both lactone and acid forms of two different statins inhibited growth of B. burgdorferi strain B31, while overexpression of HMGR was able to partially overcome that inhibition. In summary, these studies on MP and contributions of acetate to host-specific adaptation have helped identify potential metabolic targets that can be manipulated to reduce the incidence of Lyme disease.

  4. Synthesis of hierarchical SnO{sub 2} nanoflowers with enhanced acetic acid gas sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, W.X.; Ma, S.Y., E-mail: Jinwenxuan8756@163.com; Tie, Z.Z.; Li, W.Q.; Luo, J.; Cheng, L.; Xu, X.L.; Wang, T.T.; Jiang, X.H.; Mao, Y.Z.

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We use glycol and deionized water as solvent jointly. • Our products have good selectivity and excellent response to acetic acid. • We obtain different morphologies’ hierarchical SnO{sub 2} nanoflowers through changing the volume ratio of glycol and deionized water. - Abstract: Different morphologies hierarchical flower-like tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanostructures were fabricated by changing the volume ratio of glycol and de-ionized water (V{sub g}:V{sub w} = 0, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1) under a template-free and low-cost hydrothermal method and subsequent calcinations. The architectures, morphologies and gas sensing performances of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and gas-sensing measurement device. It can be observed that all the nanoflowers were composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, and the thickness of nanosheets is only about 9 nm when V{sub g}:V{sub w} = 1:1. The sensor based on the product of V{sub g}:V{sub w} = 1:1 exhibited excellent gas sensing performance toward 500 ppm acetic acid at 260 °C, and the response value of this sensor was about 153.6, which was above 7.5 times higher than that of ammonia (about 20.3). In addition, the 3D flower-like SnO{sub 2} nanostructures exhibited not only high response and selectivity to ppm level acetone, but also fast response and recovery time within 10 s, demonstrating it can be used as a potential candidate for detecting acetic acid. Finally, the possible formation mechanism was proposed, too.

  5. Acetate oxidation is the dominant methanogenic pathway from actetate in the absence of Methanosaetaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric

    2006-01-01

    lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-C-14]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation...... was the dominant methanogenic pathway. Acetielastic conversion was observed only in the presence of Methanosaetaceae....

  6. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    1,1-Diacetates, sulfonic acid functionalized silica, acetalization, solvent-free reaction, SiO2-Pr-SO3H. 1. Introduction. Protection of aldehydes is a frequently used and important method in organic chemistry. Many procedures have been developed for this aim. For the acetalization of carbonyl groups, acetic anhydride can be ...

  7. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate,

  8. Methanogenic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria co-cultured on acetate: teamwork or coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozuolmez, D.; Na, H.; Lever, M.A.; Kjeldsen, K.U.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Plugge, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate is a major product of fermentation processes and an important substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Most studies on acetate catabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens have used pure cultures. Less is known about acetate conversion by mixed pure cultures and

  9. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal feed...

  10. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so- butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO

  11. Bazedoxifene acetate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S

    2011-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a gender-related disease that is especially prevalent in postmenopausal women. New drugs have been developed led by issues of interest and concerns about this disease, each one striving to be more effective and safer than the previous one. Bazedoxifene acetate is a new, third-generation, selective estrogen receptor modulator. This drug is used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis in women with a high risk of fracture. Bazedoxifene acetate significantly prevents bone mass loss at 20 mg/day in healthy postmenopausal women with normal or low bone mineral density. The risk of vertebral fractures in women with osteoporosis was reduced by 42% (P menopause and a greater antiestrogen effect at the level of the uterus. This has made this compound an appropriate option in young postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a risk of fractures. Copyright 2011 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  12. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  15. First total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol and its acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, C; Miyakoshi, N; Hanaoka, M

    2001-08-24

    The first and stereoselective total syntheses of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2) were achieved by incorporation of the two chiral centers of diethyl L-tartrate. The starting diethyl L-tartrate was converted into trans-2-ethynyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran 14 in a stereoselective manner via the endo mode cyclization of the epoxy-alkyne derivative 12. The alcohol 12 was then transformed into (E)-iodoolefin derivative 15, which was exposed to a coupling reaction with 1-tributylstannyl-1,3,5-heptyne (19), derived from the corresponding 1-trimethylsilyl-1,3,5-heptyne (18), under Stille conditions to produce the all-carbon framework of the target natural products. Chemical modification of the coupled product 20 under conventional conditions completed the first total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2).

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    Six strains of thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from different full-scale thermophilic biogas plants in China and Denmark. The strain isolated from the Chinese biogas plant was designated KN-6P and the isolates from the Danish full-scale biogas plants were......, utilizing the substrates acetate, methanol and methylamines but not hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Strain Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P was able to grow mixotrophically on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide with methane formation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurring after methanol depletion. All six...... that the similarity level between strains from the Danish biogas plants and Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was higher than 70%, and thus these strains should be considered as organisms belonging to the species Methanosarcina thermophila. DNA of strain KN-6P was only distantly related to the DNA of Methanosarcina...

  17. Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamil

    2000-09-01

    An overhead projector demonstration is described in which 4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water contained in a 10-cm diameter Petri dish. Within a minute or so of the addition, image of a turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames. The phenomenon arises because as ethyl acetate evaporates from the region where it has spread in the form of a monolayer, fresh material gets transferred to take its place. Because of the viscosity effects, this transfer of the surface film causes movement in the bulk of the material as well, making the process visible.

  18. Ulipristal acetate for pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands: cost minimization analysis and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, N; van Asselt, A D I; Postma, M J

    2017-03-01

    Ulipristal acetate has been found to be non-inferior to other pre-operative treatments of uterine fibroids, particularly leuprolide. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacoeconomic profile of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide for the pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands. The analysis was performed and applied within the framework of the ulipristal acetate submission for reimbursement in 2012. A decision model was developed to compare the total costs of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide, the standard care in The Netherlands. The target population of this study corresponded to the type of patients included in the PEARL II clinical trial; i.e. women of reproductive age requiring pre-operative treatment for uterine fibroids. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to assess uncertainties. Data regarding costs, effects, and other input parameters were obtained from relevant published literatures, the Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board, and expert opinion obtained by means of a panel of experts from several medical centers in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, the total costs of ulipristal acetate and leuprolide were estimated at €4,216,027 and €4,218,095, respectively. The annual savings of ulipristal acetate were, therefore, estimated at €2,068. The major driver of this cost difference was the cost of administration for leuprolide. Sensitivity analyses showed that ulipristal acetate mostly remained cost-saving over a range of assumptions. The budget impact analysis indicated that the introduction of ulipristal acetate was estimated to result in cost savings in the first 3 years following the introduction. The results of this study were used in the decision on reimbursement of ulipristal acetate according to the Dutch Reference Pricing system in 2012. Ulipristal acetate was cost saving compared to leuprolide and has the potential to provide substantial savings on

  19. Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

    1995-07-01

    The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

  20. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  1. FTIR studies of chitosan acetate based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Arof, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. As such, depending on the degree of deacetylation, the carbonyl, C=O-NHR band can be observed at ∼1670 cm -1 and the amine, NH 2 band at 1590 cm -1 . When lithium triflate is added to chitosan to form a film of chitosan acetate-salt complex, the bands assigned to chitosan in the complex and the spectrum as a whole shift to lower wavenumbers. The carbonyl band is observed to shift to as low as 1645 cm -1 and the amine band to as low as 1560 cm -1 . These indicate chitosan-salt interactions. Also present are the bands due to lithium triflate i.e. ∼761, 1033, 1182 and 1263 cm -1 . When chitosan and ethylene carbonate (EC) are dissolved in acetic acid to form a film of plasticized chitosan acetate, the bands in the infrared spectrum of the films do not show any significant shift indicating that EC does not interact with chitosan. EC-LiCF 3 SO 3 interactions are indicated by the shifting of the C-O bending band from 718 cm -1 in the spectrum of EC to 725 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. The Li + -EC is also evident in the ring breathing region at 893 cm -1 in the pure EC spectrum. This band has shifted to 898 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. C=O stretching in the doublet observed at 1774 and 1803 cm -1 in the spectrum of pure EC has shifted to 1777 and 1808 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum

  2. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  3. Tuning magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12 -acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S.; Wen, Bo; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using micron-sized Hall sensor arrays to obtain time-resolved measurements of the local magnetization, we report a systematic study in the molecular magnet Mn12 acetate of magnetic avalanches controllably triggered in different fixed external magnetic fields and for different values of the initial magnetization. The speeds of propagation of the spin-reversal fronts are in good overall agreement with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)].

  4. Propagation of avalanches in Mn12-acetate: magnetic deflagration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M P; Chudnovsky, E M; McHugh, S; Gonzalez-Rubio, R; Avraham, Nurit; Myasoedov, Y; Zeldov, E; Shtrikman, H; Chakov, N E; Christou, G

    2005-09-30

    Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

  5. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    dilution. The values Λm o and Ka are reasonably constant at the initial temperature of the reaction. They are respectively 39.1 Sm2 mol-1 and 1.8×10-5. [18]. Table 1: .... model was also able to replicate the experimental concentration of acetic acid produced in the reactor to a high level of confidence. Number of Degrees.

  6. Vacuum FTIR study on the hygroscopicity of magnesium acetate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Cai, Chen; He, Xiang; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are two important properties, which determine the composition, concentration, size, phase state of SOA and thus chemical and optical properties for SOA. In this work, magnesium acetate (Mg(Ac)2) aerosol was used as a simple SOA model in order to reveal relationship between hygroscopicity and volatility. A novel approach was set up based on a combination of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a home-made relative humidity (RH) controlling system. The striking advantage of this approach was that the RH and the compositions of aerosols could be obtained from a same IR spectrum, which guaranteed the synchronism between RH and spectral features on a sub-second scale. At the constant RH of 90% and 80% for 3000 s, the water content within Mg(Ac)2 aerosol particles decreased about 19.0% and 9.4% while there were 13.4% and 6.0% of acetate loss. This was attributed to a cooperation between volatile of acetic acid and Mg2 + hydrolysis in Mg(Ac)2 aerosols, which greatly suppressed the hygroscopicity of Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. When the RH changed with pulsed mode between 70% and 90%, hygroscopicity relaxation was observed for Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Diffuse coefficient of water in the relaxation process was estimated to be 5 × 10- 12 m2·s- 1 for the Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Combining the IR spectra analysis, the decrease in the diffuse coefficient of water was due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide accompanying acetic acid evaporation in the aerosols.

  7. Genome-wide identification of genes involved in the positive and negative regulation of acetic acid-induced programmed cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlene; Duarte, Ana Marta; Fernandes, Tânia R; Chaves, Susana R; Pacheco, Andreia; Leão, Cecília; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Sousa, Maria João

    2013-11-28

    Acetic acid is mostly known as a toxic by-product of alcoholic fermentation carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which it frequently impairs. The more recent finding that acetic acid triggers apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) in yeast sparked an interest to develop strategies to modulate this process, to improve several biotechnological applications, but also for biomedical research. Indeed, acetate can trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, suggesting its exploitation as an anticancer compound. Therefore, we aimed to identify genes involved in the positive and negative regulation of acetic acid-induced PCD by optimizing a functional analysis of a yeast Euroscarf knock-out mutant collection. The screen consisted of exposing the mutant strains to acetic acid in YPD medium, pH 3.0, in 96-well plates, and subsequently evaluating the presence of culturable cells at different time points. Several functional categories emerged as greatly relevant for modulation of acetic acid-induced PCD (e.g.: mitochondrial function, transcription of glucose-repressed genes, protein synthesis and modifications, and vesicular traffic for protection, or amino acid transport and biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, cell growth and differentiation, protein phosphorylation and histone deacetylation for its execution). Known pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes were found, validating the approach developed. Metabolism stood out as a main regulator of this process, since impairment of major carbohydrate metabolic pathways conferred resistance to acetic acid-induced PCD. Among these, lipid catabolism arose as one of the most significant new functions identified. The results also showed that many of the cellular and metabolic features that constitute hallmarks of tumour cells (such as higher glycolytic energetic dependence, lower mitochondrial functionality, increased cell division and metabolite synthesis) confer sensitivity to acetic acid-induced PCD, potentially explaining why

  8. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, N.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2- 14 C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for 14 C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 deg. C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 deg. C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of 14 C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. (authors)

  9. Acetic acid denaturing for RNA capillary polymer electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Keiko; Sasaki, Motoyasu; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2009-05-01

    A strong denaturant to cleave intramolecular hydrogen bonds in RNA is required for RNA size separation in a small sample volume (RNA and the RNA separation performance was dramatically improved by capillary electrophoresis with a sieving matrix containing acetic acid. We revealed that the denaturing ability of 2.0 M acetic acid was stronger than that of either 2.5 M formaldehyde or 7.0 M urea by estimating DNA melting temperature. Consequently, we suggested "in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis" as the RNA size separation methodology to simultaneously denature and separate RNA in a small sample volume without conventional in vitro sample preparation before electrophoresis. The baseline separation of RNA with a size of 100-10,000 nt was achieved in 25 min by "in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis" with the running buffer containing 2.0 M acetic acid. The resolution and the theoretical plates of RNA separation peaks were larger than those of the RNA separation in a conventional CGE with in vitro sample preparation by 7.0 M urea. In addition, we detected RNA peaks from the nucleic acids extracted from NIH 3T3 cells without DNase enzyme treatment.

  10. Elimination of glycerol production in anaerobic cultures of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered to use acetic acid as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Medina, Víctor; Almering, Marinka J H; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    In anaerobic cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerol production is essential to reoxidize NADH produced in biosynthetic processes. Consequently, glycerol is a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the single largest fermentation process in industrial biotechnology. The present study investigates the possibility of completely eliminating glycerol production by engineering S. cerevisiae such that it can reoxidize NADH by the reduction of acetic acid to ethanol via NADH-dependent reactions. Acetic acid is available at significant amounts in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues. Consistent with earlier studies, deletion of the two genes encoding NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1 and GPD2) led to elimination of glycerol production and an inability to grow anaerobically. However, when the E. coli mhpF gene, encoding the acetylating NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.10; acetaldehyde+NAD++coenzyme Aacetyl coenzyme A+NADH+H+), was expressed in the gpd1Delta gpd2Delta strain, anaerobic growth was restored by supplementation with 2.0 g liter(-1) acetic acid. The stoichiometry of acetate consumption and growth was consistent with the complete replacement of glycerol formation by acetate reduction to ethanol as the mechanism for NADH reoxidation. This study provides a proof of principle for the potential of this metabolic engineering strategy to improve ethanol yields, eliminate glycerol production, and partially convert acetate, which is a well-known inhibitor of yeast performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, to ethanol. Further research should address the kinetic aspects of acetate reduction and the effect of the elimination of glycerol production on cellular robustness (e.g., osmotolerance).

  11. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Bansal, Aditya; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2- 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [ 18 F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl- 3 H]choline, [1- 14 C]acetate and [ 18 F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  12. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  13. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  14. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qiuxia [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; College; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Cooper, Alan R. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Wang, Jian-guo [College; Albrecht, Karl O. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Mei, Donghai [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest

    2017-12-13

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxyl groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  15. X-ray diffraction studies of chitosan acetate-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. This paper presents the x-ray diffraction patterns of chitosan acetate, plasticised chitosan acetate and plasticised-salted chitosan acetate films. The results show that the chitosan acetate based polymer electrolyte films are not completely amorphous but it is partially crystalline. X-ray diffraction study also confirms the occurrence of the complexation between chitosan and the salt and the interaction between salt and plasticizer. The salt-chitosan interaction is clearly justified by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  16. The peculiarities of electrooxidation of Mn2+ to MnO2 in acetate electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor F. Vargalyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of Mn2+ electrooxidation mechanism in the presence of acetate ions have been presented. The kinetic measurements were supplemented by quantum-chemical modeling. The calculated value of the redox potential of [Mn(H2O5Ac]+/[Mn(H2O5Ac]2+ system was compared with experimental data obtained at pH 5.2. The similar values have given a reason to assume the direct electrooxidation of ion Mn2+ to Mn3+ like complex [Mn(H2O5Ac]+. The process occurs according to inner-sphere mechanism due to direct contact of the complex with the electrode through the carboxyl group. The quantum-chemical calculations have shown the impossibility of elimination of second electron without considerable reorganization of the complex [Mn(H2O5Ac]2+. The final product of electrooxidation of Mn2+ acetate complex, manganese dioxide, was formed as a result of [Mn(H2O5Ac]2+ disproportionation with subsequent hydrolysis of the [Mn(H2O5Ac]3+ complex. In weakly acidic solution (pH above 4 due to reducing the number of [Mn(H2O5Ac]+ complexes, electrooxidation of manganese ions were occurred by a similar mechanism to the acid sulphate solution, i. e. by radicals, produced by electrooxidation of water molecules.

  17. Glass and cellulose acetate fibers-supported boehmite nanosheets for bacteria adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Svarovskaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, in situ method of producing hybrid fibrous adsorbents in which boehmite nanosheets with high sorption properties formed on the surface of hydrophilic microfibres, such as cellulose acetate and glass fibre, was described. The boehmite nanosheets were fabricated by the reaction of composite AlN/Al nanoparticles with water at 60 °C. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, zeta-potential and specific surface area analyzers. The introduction of microfibres into a diluted aqueous suspension of nanopowders causes heteroadagulation of the nanoparticles and accelerates their further transformation. This effect is most substantial with the glass microfibre, which is thought to have a higher concentration of surface groups capable of generating hydrogen bonds that act as heteroadagulation and nucleation centres. The experimental results showed that the morphology of the resultant hybrid fibrous adsorbents differed accordingly: the nanosheets were attached on-edge to the glass microfibre surface, while on the surface of the cellulose acetate microfibre, they were secured in the form of spherical “nanoflowers” of agglomerated nanosheets. The effect of the morphology of hybrid fibrous adsorbents on adsorption bacteria Escherichia coli was also investigated.

  18. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  19. Responsivity to two odorants, androstenone and amyl acetate, and the affective impact of odors on interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John D; Cohen, Adam B; Ulrich, Patricia M

    2004-03-01

    Substantial variation exists in the importance of olfaction in influencing individuals' preferences, yet the sources of this variation remain elusive. The authors explored responsivity to 2 odorants as 1 potential source. Participants (N = 258) completed the Affective Impact of Odor Scale and were assessed for responsivity to the putative human pheromone androstenone and amyl acetate. Results showed a significant relationship between odorant responsivity and self-reports of the influence of odors. People able to smell androstenone more commonly reported odors as having a negative effect on interpersonal relationships than did people anosmic to androstenone, whereas responsivity to amyl acetate was associated with positive effects of odors on relationships. Responsivity to certain odorants may be an important factor affecting human social interactions. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  20. Can Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma be Cured by Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Fan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of ultrasound (US-guided percutaneous acetic acid (in concentrations of 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% injection for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs for long-term prognosis, percutaneous acetic acid injection using 15% to 50% acetic acid was performed in 91 patients with one to four HCCs smaller than 3 cm during the past 6.5 years. During the series of treatment sessions for each patient, the same concentration of acetic acid was used. All tumors could be treated successfully with percutaneous acetic acid injection despite the differences in acetic acid concentration used. The number of treatment sessions to treat similar size of tumor was less when the higher concentration of acetic acid was used. No serious complications occurred as a direct sequela to percutaneous acetic acid injection. None of the tumor treated regrew. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates for 91 patients were 95%, 87%, 80%, 63%, and 49%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year cancer-free survival rates of these patients were 83%, 54%, 50%, 37%, and 29%, respectively. Both liver function and size of tumor affected both survival rate and cancer-free survival rate significantly, but the number of tumors did not. The concentration of acetic acid did not affect the survival rate. Percutaneous acetic acid using 15% to 50% acetic acid will be effective therapy for small HCCs for long-term prognosis.

  1. A comparison of the acute behavioral effects of inhaled amyl, ethyl, and butyl acetate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1997-02-01

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of three acetates (amyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acetate) were investigated after 20-min inhalation exposures in mice using locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB). Ethyl and n-butyl acetate produced significant decreases in locomotor activity at the highest concentrations examined, while amyl acetate was without effect. Minimally effective concentrations for activity-decreasing effects were 2000 ppm for ethyl acetate and 8000 ppm for n-butyl acetate. The potency order was similar in the FOB where ethyl acetate was more potent in disrupting the neurobehavioral measures. The FOB profile of effects for all three acetates included changes in posture, decreased arousal, increased tonic/clonic movements, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and increased sensorimotor reactivity. Furthermore, handling-induced convulsions were produced in some mice acutely exposed to each of these acetates. Recovery from the acute effects of these acetates was rapid and began within minutes of removal from the exposure chamber. The acetates produced a profile of neurobehavioral effects that were different from those reported for depressant solvents (i.e., toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane) that are subject to abuse. Evidence is emerging for qualitative differences in the acute neurobehavioral effects of various volatile chemicals.

  2. Influence of Alkylammonium Acetate Buffers on Protein-Ligand Noncovalent Interactions Using Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Gavriilidou, Agni F. M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the influence of three volatile alkylammonium acetate buffers on binding affinities for protein-ligand interactions determined by native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Four different types of proteins were chosen for this study. A charge-reduction effect was observed for all the cases studied, in comparison to the ions formed in ammonium acetate solution. When increasing the collision energy, the complexes of trypsin and the ligand were found to be more stable when sprayed from alkylammonium acetate buffers than from ammonium acetate. The determined dissociation constant (Kd) also exhibited a drop (up to 40%) when ammonium acetate was replaced by alkylammonium acetate buffers for the case of lysozyme and the ligand. The prospective uses of these ammonium acetate analogs in native ESI-MS are discussed in this paper as well.

  3. Upgrading oxygenated Fischer-Tropsch derivatives and one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol - examples of the desirability of research on simple chemical compounds transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenates formed as by-products of Fischer-Tropsch syntheses can be transformed into other Fischer-Tropsch derived oxygenates instead of treating them as unwanted chemicals. One-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol is feasible with the use of some heterogeneous catalysts. Despite their apparent simplicity, both transformations are discussed as targeted fields of research. Furthermore, the two concepts are justified due to the environmental protection. Arguments regarding the Fischer-Tropsch process are focused on the opportunities of the utilization of undesirable by-products. The effective striving for their utilization can make the oxygenates the targeted products of this process. Arguments regarding the one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate underline the environmental protection and sustainability as a less waste-generating method but, above all, highlight the possibility of reducing the glycerol overproduction problem. The production of ethyl acetate from bioethanol and then transesterification of fats and oils with the use of ethyl acetate allows managing all the renewable raw materials. Thus, the process enables the biosynthesis of biodiesel without glycerine by-product and potentially would result in the increase in the demand for ethyl acetate. Graphical Abstract.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-05

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid.

  5. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Müller

    Full Text Available This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB. Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention.

  6. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  7. The maturation state of the auditory nerve and brainstem in rats exposed to lead acetate and supplemented with ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucki, Fernanda; Morata, Thais C; Duarte, Josilene L; Ferreira, Maria Cecília F; Salgado, Manoel H; Alvarenga, Kátia F

    The literature has reported the association between lead and auditory effects, based on clinical and experimental studies. However, there is no consensus regarding the effects of lead in the auditory system, or its correlation with the concentration of the metal in the blood. To investigate the maturation state of the auditory system, specifically the auditory nerve and brainstem, in rats exposed to lead acetate and supplemented with ferrous sulfate. 30 weanling male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar) were distributed into six groups of five animals each and exposed to one of two concentrations of lead acetate (100 or 400mg/L) and supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20mg/kg). The maturation state of the auditory nerve and brainstem was analyzed using Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential before and after lead exposure. The concentration of lead in blood and brainstem was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. We verified that the concentration of Pb in blood and in brainstem presented a high correlation (r=0.951; p<0.0001). Both concentrations of lead acetate affected the maturation state of the auditory system, being the maturation slower in the regions corresponding to portion of the auditory nerve (wave I) and cochlear nuclei (wave II). The ferrous sulfate supplementation reduced significantly the concentration of lead in blood and brainstem for the group exposed to the lowest concentration of lead (100mg/L), but not for the group exposed to the higher concentration (400mg/L). This study indicate that the lead acetate can have deleterious effects on the maturation of the auditory nerve and brainstem (cochlear nucleus region), as detected by the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials, and the ferrous sulphate can partially amend this effect. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  8. Acetobacter aceti possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux system for acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Inoue, Taketo; Adachi, Osao; Toyama, Hirohide

    2005-07-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess a specific mechanism such as an efflux pump by which they can resist the toxic effects of acetic acid. In this study, the efflux pump of Acetobacter aceti IFO 3283 was examined using intact cells and membrane vesicles. The accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in intact cells was increased by the addition of a proton uncoupler and/or cyanide, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux system. To confirm this, right-side-out and inside-out membrane vesicles were prepared from A. aceti IFO 3283, and the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the vesicles was examined. Upon the addition of a respiratory substrate, the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the right-side-out vesicles was largely decreased, while its accumulation was very much increased in the inside-out vesicles. These respiration-dependent phenomena observed in both types of membrane vesicles were all sensitive to a proton uncoupler. Acetic acid/acetate uptake in the inside-out membrane vesicles was dependent not on ATP but on the proton motive force. Furthermore, uptake was shown to be rather specific for acetic acid and to be pH dependent, because higher uptake was observed at lower pH. Thus, A. aceti IFO 3283 possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux pump for acetic acid.

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  11. Deletion of acetate transporter gene ADY2 improved tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against multiple stresses and enhanced ethanol production in the presence of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Keyu; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of deleting acetate transporter gene ADY2 on growth and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of inhibitors. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that three genes encoding plasma membrane carboxylic acid transporters, especially ADY2, were significantly downregulated under the zinc sulfate addition condition in the presence of acetic acid stress, and the deletion of ADY2 improved growth of S. cerevisiae under acetic acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide stresses. Consistently, a concomitant increase in ethanol production by 14.7% in the presence of 3.6g/L acetic acid was observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae BY4741. Decreased intracellular acetic acid, ROS accumulation, and plasma membrane permeability were observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant. These findings would be useful for developing robust yeast strains for efficient ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  14. [Use of cyproterone acetate in the treatment of acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero Martín, J; Acosta, H

    1982-01-01

    Forty two female patients with strong acne and oiliness were studied all of them were treated with a tablet daily of 2 mg. of cyprosterone Acetate and 0.05 mg of ethinyl oestradiol for 3 weeks and a week without it. We found intolerance to the treatment in 9 out of 42 patients and a high percentage of cure or marked improvement in 96.9% of patients. In conclusion this drug is a good help to the treatment of female acne with seborrheic skin.

  15. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response inSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1 Δ and hac1 Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  17. Minimal inhibitory concentration of natural vinegar and of aluminium acetate-tartrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Vinegar and aluminium acetate preparations are used for treatment of ear infections. It is instrumental to know the minimal inhibitory concentration to get effective remedies. This study was performed to assess the lowest dilution of vinegar (specified content, 6% acetic acid) and aluminium acetate-tartrate solution (specified content, 1.4% aluminium and 6% acetic acid) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration against bacteria commonly found in chronic ear infections. Laboratory study on 2 samples of aluminium acetate-tartrate and on 1 sample of natural white wine vinegar on antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Performing of a susceptibility testing-determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the method of microbouillon dilution (DIN 58940 part 7). Acetic acid was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 0.1% to 0.2% against the tested bacteria; aluminium acetate-tartrate solution was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 1.25% to 2.5% against the tested bacteria. Vinegar respectively acetic acid diluted with water and aqueous aluminium acetate-tartrate solution could be effective ototopic preparations caused by one of the tested bacteria. For its effectiveness, an acid pH not higher than 4.5 is essential. Experiments with aluminium acetate-tartrate preparations on animals and clinical trials are required to obtain information about the response rates in ear infections and about any adverse effects.

  18. Hormone therapy modulates ET(A) mRNA expression in the aorta of ovariectomised New Zealand White rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan Helene; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Nina Gros

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone and in combination with norethisterone acetate (NETA) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were treated with E(2), CEE, E(2...... with MPA reduced prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA expression when compared with placebo. ET-1 receptor subtype B mRNA expression and ET-1 induced vasocontraction was unaffected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: E(2) and CEE treatment exert potentially beneficial vascular effects through regulation of the ET...

  19. Selective inhibition of methanogenesis to enhance ethanol and n-butyrate production through acetate reduction in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Arvaniti, E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Acetate reduction is an alternative digestion process to convert organic waste into ethanol. Using acetate for fuel ethanol production offers the opportunity to use organic waste materials instead of sugar-containing feedstock. Methanogenesis, however, competes with acetate reduction for acetate and

  20. Design, synthesis, and in vitro antimicrobial activity of hydrazide-hydrazones of 2-substituted acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek, Łukasz; Biernasiuk, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 30 hydrazide-hydrazones of phenylacetic (3-10) and hydroxyacetic acid (11-32) were synthesized by the condensation reaction of appropriate 2-substituted acetic acid hydrazide with different aromatic aldehydes. The obtained compounds were characterized by spectral data and evaluated in vitro for their potential antimicrobial activities against a panel of reference strains of micro-organisms, including Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi belonging to the Candida spp. The results from our antimicrobial assays indicated that among synthesized compounds 3-32, especially compounds 6, 14, and 26 showed high bactericidal activity (MIC = 0.488-7.81 μg/ml) against reference Gram-positive bacteria, and in some cases, their activity was even better than that of commonly used antibiotics, such as cefuroxime or ampicillin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  2. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  3. Automatic extraction of forward stroke volume using dynamic 11C-acetate PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Hansson, Nils Henrik

    , potentially introducing bias if measured with a separate modality. The aim of this study was to develop and validate methods for automatically extracting FSV directly from the dynamic PET used for measuring oxidative metabolism. Methods: 16 subjects underwent a dynamic 27 min PET scan on a Siemens Biograph...... TruePoint 64 PET/CT scanner after bolus injection of 399±27 MBq of 11C-acetate. The LV-aortic time-activity curve (TAC) was extracted automatically from dynamic PET data using cluster analysis. The first-pass peak was derived by automatic extrapolation of the down-slope of the TAC. FSV...... was then calculated as the injected dose divided by the product of heart rate and the area under the curve of the first-pass peak. Gold standard FSV was measured in the left ventricular outflow tract by cardiovascular magnetic resonance using phase-contrast velocity mapping within two weeks of PET imaging. Results...

  4. Development of Flow Imaging Analysis for Subvisible Particle Characterization in Glatiramer Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Inna; Zigman, Shiri; Komlosh, Arthuer; Kettenring, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    Proteins, peptides, colloids, and polymers present a rapidly growing field of pharmaceutical industry. Bringing these products into market, however, is a huge regulatory challenge, especially because many of these therapeutics are intended for parenteral administration. Physicochemical properties of such products--size, shape, surface potential, and extent of particle-particle interaction-have to be well understood and monitored throughout manufacturing, release, and stability testing. First and foremost, size distribution of subvisible particles (SVP) in these products should be reliably measured. We present development of a flow imaging method to assess SVP in the polypeptide injectable therapeutic product-glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)). Flow imaging comprises optical inspection of a flowing liquid and allows quantitation of particles in the range of 1-500 μm. The challenges of method development are discussed and the method performance characteristics--accuracy, precision, linearity, and specificity--are demonstrated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. A possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2015-08-29

    Teucrium stocksianum (T. stocksianum) is one of the important members of the genus Teucrium which contains numerous biologically active compounds. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, pain, as expectorant and blood purifier. Researchers are trying to discover plants origin, novel and safe remedies for the management of various ailments. The present study was aimed to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of T. stocksianum. Preliminary, the ethanolic extract and sub-fractions were screened for anti-inflammatory potential at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (i.p) body weight, using carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. In-order to determine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect, the ethyl acetate fraction was ascertained with different phlogistic agents like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins E2 and arachedonic acid via paw edema test in mice. The ethanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum displayed marked to moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. Among the sub-fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) demonstrated excellent (66%) anti-inflammatory action at the highest tested dose (300 mg/kg) that reached to the maximum value at 3rd hour after carrageenan injection and remained significant (***P<0.001) till 5th hour of test sample administration. EAF revealed moderate effect against the paw edema induced by histamine (31.048%) while non-significant results (18.148%) were observed against the edema induced by bradykinin. The extract demonstrated significant (66.23-73.076%) anti-inflammatory potential against the edematogenic effect of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, the extract also significantly inhibited (51.33%) the paw edema induced by arachedonic acid. Our results suggest that the EAF has dual action and produced the anti-inflammatory effect by blocking both pathways of arachedonic acid metabolites (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Thus

  6. Modelling bio-electrosynthesis in a reverse microbial fuel cell to produce acetate from CO2 and H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, M; Biria, D; Rismani-Yazdi, H

    2015-05-21

    Bio-electrosynthesis is one of the significant developments in reverse microbial fuel cell technology which is potentially capable of creating organic compounds by combining CO2 with H2O. Accordingly, the main objective in the current study was to present a model of microbial electrosynthesis for producing organic compounds (acetate) based on direct conduction of electrons in biofilms. The proposed model enjoys a high degree of rigor because it can predict variations in the substrate concentration, electrical potential, current density and the thickness of the biofilm. Additionally, coulombic efficiency was investigated as a function of substrate concentration and cathode potential. For a system containing CO2 as the substrate and Sporomusa ovata as the biofilm forming microorganism, an increase in the substrate concentration at a constant potential can lead to a decrease in coulombic efficiency as well as an increase in current density and biofilm thickness. On the other hand, an increase in the surface cathodic voltage at a constant substrate concentration may result in an increase in the coulombic efficiency and a decrease in the current density. The maximum coulombic efficiency was revealed to be 75% at a substrate concentration of 0.025 mmol cm(-3) and 55% at a surface cathodic voltage of -0.3 V producing a high range of acetate production by creating an optimal state in the concentration and potential intervals. Finally, the validity of the model was verified by comparing the obtained results with related experimental findings.

  7. Comparative metabolomics profiling of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae lead to a strategy that improving β-carotene production by acetate supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Bu

    Full Text Available A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid, fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain. To increase β-carotene production in recombinant strain, a strategy that exogenous addition of acetate (10 g/l in exponential phase was developed, which could enhance most intracellular metabolites levels and result in 39.3% and 14.2% improvement of β-carotene concentration and production, respectively, which was accompanied by the enhancement of acetyl-CoA, fatty acids, ergosterol and ATP contents in cells. These results indicated that the amounts of intracellular metabolites in engineered strain are largely consumed by carotenoid formation. Therefore, maintaining intracellular metabolites pool at normal levels is essential for carotenoid biosynthesis. To relieve this limitation, rational supplementation of acetate could be a potential way because it can partially restore the levels of intracellular metabolites and improve the production of carotenoid compounds in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  8. Electrodes Modification Based on Metal-Free Phthalocyanine: Example of Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou L. Ndiaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroanalytical properties of tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu modified electrodes are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The modified electrodes are obtained by CV deposition techniques on gold (Au and glassy carbon (C screen-printed electrodes (SPEs and used for the electrochemical detection of acetic acid (AA. Based on the CV experiments, the electrodeposition mechanism is detailed. The modified PcH2-tBu electrodes reveal one oxidation and one reduction peak within the potential window of the working electrodes. In the presence of the analyte (acetic acid, the modified electrodes show sensitivity in the range of 10 mM to 400 mM. For the PcH2-tBu modified Au electrode, a limit of detection (LOD of 5.89 mM (based on the +0.06 V peak was obtained while for the PcH2-tBu modified C electrode a LOD of 17.76 mM (based on the +0.07 V peak was achieved. A signal decay of 17%, based on 20 experiments, is obtained when gold is used as working electrode. If carbon is used as working electrode a value of 7% is attained. A signal decay is observed after more than 50 cycles of experiments and is more pronounced when higher concentrations of acetic acid are used. A mechanism of sensing is proposed at the end.

  9. GLATIRAMER ACETATE IS A FIRST-LINE DUAL-ACTION DRUG FOR THE TREATMENT OF RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Shmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common and potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system in young people. Not only inflammatory, but also neurodegenerative processes are involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The use of MS-modifying drugs (MSMDs  has led to a substantial reduction in the frequency of MS exacerbations and to the slower development of irreversible neurological deficit. Glatiramer acetate is one of the MSMDs of first choice and has a dual (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective action. The drug has proven to be effective and safe if administered long-term. Therapy with glatiramer acetate has been established to promote the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which prevent the development of a degenerative process and stimulate remyelination, and to slow the progression of cerebral atrophy. Experimental findings suggest that the drug improves the processes of neurogenesis.The efficiency of treatment is known to be associated with patient medication adherence. This largely depends on the frequency and route of drug administration and on the development of adverse events (AEs. To improve treatment adherence to glatiramer acetate, its new 40-mg formulation has been designed, which allows it to be administered only thrice weekly. The use of the formulation has demonstrated its efficacy and safety and resulted in a considerable reduction in the incidence rate of AEs.

  10. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh, G.; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl4-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:21713093

  11. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  12. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-15

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  14. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphorylated Polyacrylonitrile Fibers as an Efficient and Greener Acetalization Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Cao, Jian; Zhao, Yali; Zheng, Lishuo; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2017-10-05

    A novel solid acid catalyst (PAN EAP F) is developed by immobilization of phosphoric acid on polyacrylonitrile fiber through covalent bonding. Various characterization techniques such as elemental analysis (EA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. are utilized to confirm the successful grafting and the stability of the fiber catalysts during application. PAN EAP F shows high catalytic activity in the acetalization of aldehydes owing to the high utilization efficiency of its functionalized acid sites. In addition, the strong polarity micro-environment in the surface layers of PAN EAP F make it highly suitable for catalytic application in both water and alcohol. Furthermore, the fiber catalyst can be applied to the acetalization of aldehydes in a continuous-flow process at room temperature, and shows excellent reactivity and superior recyclability (over 20 times). The many advantages of PAN EAP F such as simple preparation, convenient regulation of acid amount, high durability, and eco-friendly process make it very attractive for fixed-bed reactors in the chemical industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Neutron dosimetry using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovan, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal neutron dosimetry system using the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction and liquid scintillation counting of tritium was developed. Lithium acetate was chosen to supply the 6 Li in the aqueous dosimetry solutions. Neutron irradiations were completed using The Ohio State University Research Reactor. After two sets of samples were irradiated, variables in the system such as the mass of lithium acetate in the solutions and the counting window of the liquid scintillation counter used to analyze the sample were chosen. The system was evaluated by completing two sets of 23 minute irradiations with the reactor at 500 kW, 50 kW, 5 kW, and one irradiation at 500 W. The samples irradiated at 500 W were below the threshold of the system, and could not be used. Prompt analysis was essential due to loss of detectable emissions in the dosimetry solutions over time. The thermal neutron fluences calculated with the data from the samples were compared to the fluences determined from gold wire irradiations. The fluence values differed at most by 6%. The fluence values calculated from the samples were consistently less than those determined from the gold wires

  17. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH 3 COOCH 3 , through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A 1 or A 2 ), EA species (E 1 ), AE species (E 2 ), and EE species (E 3 or E 4 ). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10 15 cm –2 . The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 ± 1.0) × 10 14 cm –2 . Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  18. Protective effect of carvacrol on acetic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Souza, Marilia Trindade; Teixeira, Daiane Franco; de Oliveira, Janaíne Prata; Oliveira, Alan Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Correa, Cristiane Bani; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be problematic, and requires new alternative options. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can treat experimental colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=8/group) were subjected to intrarectal administration of acetic acid (5%) to induce colitis. Mice were pretreated with CAR (25, 50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) every 12h for three days prior to the induction. Abdominal hyperalgesia, macroscopic and microscopic colon damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. Pretreatment with all doses of CAR significantly decreased abdominal hyperalgesia and colon MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels. A reduction in macroscopic and microscopic damage (p<0.05) was observed at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg CAR. Pretreatment with CAR significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (for all doses) and increased sulfhydryl groups (at 100mg/kg). This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. These findings indicate that CAR protected mice from acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing inflammatory, nociceptive, and oxidative damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  20. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  1. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  2. Transport Parameters in a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPolo, R.; Sha'afi, R. I.; Solomon, A. K.

    1970-01-01

    The transport parameters of a cellulose acetate membrane prepared from a mixture of cellulose acetate, formamide, and acetone, 25:25:50 by weight, were studied. The membrane consists of a thin, porous layer, the skin, in series with a thick, highly porous layer, the coarse support. In the skin the diffusional permeability coefficient, ω, of a number of small amides and alcohols depends critically upon the partition coefficient, Ks, the size of the molecule, and the apparent hydrogen-bonding ability, Ns, of the solute. These observations are in general agreement with our earlier conclusions on the properties of nonporous membranes. On the other hand, the corrected reflection coefficient, σ', is not a very sensitive function of either Ns or Ks taken separately. The correlation between σ' and molecular diameter is reasonably good; however, it is much improved when both Ns and Ks are taken into consideration. Isotope interaction was also studied in the present preparation and was found to provide only a small (5–8%) contribution to the diffusional permeability coefficient of ethylene glycol. The contribution of solute-water friction was found to be less than 24% of the total solute friction. PMID:5410490

  3. Inhibitory effect of n-hexane: ethyl acetate fraction from Artemisia vulgaris L. on cell culture of oral epithelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Arundina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudamala herb (Artemisia vulgaris L. is often used in society as an anti tumor for organs of digestive system including oral cavity. Nevertheless, there are still no further scientific researches on active materials which can be used as anti carcinogen in oral cavity. Most of anti carcinogens are actually obtained from the genus Artemisia. Moreover, in Indonesia, the species of the genus Artemisia that grows the most is Artemisia vulgaris L. The problem of this research, however, is that the effect of n-hexane fraction: ethyl acetate from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards the decreasing of oncogene in oral squamous cell carcinoma is still indefinite. Purpose: The objective of this research is to explain the effect of giving n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards the decreasing of oncogene in oral epithelial carcinoma cell line. Methods: The method of this research is laboratory experimental research by using squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity on cell culture. The inhibitory percentage test in vitro, furthermore, is taken during the analysis. The result then is analyzed by probit analysis with drawing relation curve between the inhibitory percentage and concentration. Result: The result of n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. has the smallest IC50, 3.902 μg/ml, less than 20 μg/ml suitable with NCI criteria; thus, it can potentially be used as anti carcinogen. Conclusion: There is the decreasing of oncogenes after being given n-hexane : ethyl acetate (3:7 fraction containing terpenoid from Artemisia vulgaris L. towards oral epithelial carcinoma cell line.

  4. Injectable Colloidal Gold in a Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate Gelating Matrix with Potential Use in Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Binderup, Tina; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy relies on the ability to deliver high radiation doses to tumor cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. Advanced irradiation techniques, including image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), rely on the ability to locate tumors to optimize the therapeu......External beam radiation therapy relies on the ability to deliver high radiation doses to tumor cells with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. Advanced irradiation techniques, including image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), rely on the ability to locate tumors to optimize...

  5. Synergistic effect of radiation on colon carcinogenesis induced by methylazoxymethanol acetate in ACI/N rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Morishita, Yukio; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Suzui, Masumi; Kojima, Toshihiro; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Mori, Hideki

    1993-01-01

    The effect on colon and liver carcinogenicity in rats of a single X-irradiation exposure given either before or after methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate was studied in ACI/N rats of both sexes. A single dose of X-irradiation (3 Gy) was administered either 3 months before or after three weekly s.c. injection of MAM acetate (25 mg/kg body weight). At 365 days after the start, the incidence and multiplicity of MAM acetate-induced intestinal tumors were enhanced by X-irradiation either prior to or after the MAM acetate treatment. In addition, X-irradiation before MAM acetate increased the incidence of hepatocellular foci in either sex. In females, X-irradiation either before or after MAM acetate exposure decreased intestinal tumorigenesis. These findings suggest an apparent synergism of these agents in intestinal carcinogenesis of male rats. (author)

  6. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  7. Anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Boo, Sook Yee; Chua, Joelle Yi Heng; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-07-27

    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

  8. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  9. THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS OF ACETIC ACID BETWEEN WATER AND SOLVENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution coefficients of acetic acid between aqueous phase and solvents (water-C6-C10 alcohols, butyl acetate, ether and benzene were studied. Synergetic effect was obtained for alcohol and ester systems. A slightly positive deviation was obtained for benzene–ester mixtures. The best distribution coefficient was obtained for hexanol-butyl acetate systems. The coefficients of Redlisch-Kister equation were obtained for the deviations.

  10. New Frames for Old Masters. An overview of the British Library's Acetate Transfer programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Ryan

    2005-01-01

    After the second International Round Table on acetate microfilm, the British Library decided to top slice from its annual preservation budget, £200k every year for five years to address its cellulose acetate problem. We did this by instigating a programme of base transfer, transferring the frames from the old acetate masters onto new polyester stock. It proved to be quite a challenge and this paper reproduces largely the presentation given at CAMF, which was an overview of the background to t...

  11. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  12. Non-isothermal crystallization and melting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers with different vinyl acetate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting of three grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique. The DSC crystallization curves show that vinyl acetate (VAc content has the same effect on the onset, peak and final crystallization temperatures, and these copolymers have almost the same spacing of thermal windows under identical crystallization condition. Subsequent melting DSC results suggest that EVA14 (14 wt% VAc has the narrowest distribution of lamellar thickness and the most perfect crystals. Though the instantaneous nucleation was preferred, non-isothermal crystallization kinetics shows that EVA14 could form tridimensional crystallites, whereas EVA18 (18 wt% VAc and EVA28 (28 wt% VAc are prone to crystallize two-dimensionally, as a result of more noncrystallizable VAc co-monomers introduced in the crystallizable ethylene segments. The growth rate falls on the following sequence: EVA14>EVA18>EVA28. Moreover, the kinetic crystallizability G also well characterizes the variation of the non-isothermal crystallization of these EVA materials, in the view of structural impediment caused by the VAc content.

  13. GABA mediated response of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Dicranopteris linearis leaf in Swiss Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billah Mohammad Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was to assess the potential of the leaf of Dicranopteris linearis in altering the CNS functions with three different extracts; aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate.Methods: To evaluate and compare the activities Morris maze, elevated plus maze (EPM,open field, hole cross and head dip tests were performed and many behavioral parameters wereobserved. The forced swim in Morris water maze analyzed the depression of rodents in termsof inability to self-rescue. Alongside, hole cross and open field tests assessed the inhibition oflocomotor activities. Moreover, EPM test screened the anxiolytic potential while the head dippinghole board test supported the previous experiments by evaluating both sedative, depressive andanxiolytic potentials of the extracts.Results: The results showed that the ethanol extract significantly suppressed CNS activity byreducing number of locomotor activities and increasing the stability phase (in EPM and Morrismaze supporting mild sedation, depression and anxiolysis. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extractalso possessed moderate to high potential in reducing locomotor activities depending on gradientdoses. Results were compared with control group and found statistically significant.Conclusion: As this plant mimic the activity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA agonist, itcan be concluded that the plant may have GABA mediated involvement in central nervous system.However, the responsible compounds for these activities are yet to be investigated and this maypotentiate a new source of drug development.

  14. Lead Acetate Induces Epithelium-Dependent Contraction of Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadan B. Sopi; , Kemajl Bislimi; , Fetah Halili; , Mentor Sopjani; , Burim Neziri; , Muharrem Jakupi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) of dog pups was investigated in this study. In addition we studied the role of epithelium and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in counteracting the effects of lead acetate on TSM as well as the modifying effects of lead acetate on contractile responses of TSM to acetylcholine (ACh) . Tracheal rings were excised and placed in in vitro organ baths. In vitro administration of lead acetate in increasing concentrations(10-7–10-3 M) induced...

  15. Unexpected competitiveness of Methanosaeta populations at elevated acetate concentrations in methanogenic treatment of animal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Liu, Jiang; Hazen, Terry C; Huang, Vicki; He, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Acetoclastic methanogenesis is a key metabolic process in anaerobic digestion, a technology with broad applications in biogas production and waste treatment. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is known to be performed by two archaeal genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. The conventional model posits that Methanosaeta populations are more competitive at low acetate levels (<1 mM) than Methanosarcina and vice versa at higher acetate concentrations. While this model is supported by an extensive body of studies, reports of inconsistency have grown that Methanosaeta were observed to outnumber Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. In this study, monitoring of anaerobic digesters treating animal wastewater unexpectedly identified Methanosaeta as the dominant acetoclastic methanogen population at both low and high acetate levels during organic overloading. The surprising competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate was further supported by the enrichment of Methanosaeta with high concentrations of acetate (20 mM). The dominance of Methanosaeta in the methanogen community could be reproduced in anaerobic digesters with the direct addition of acetate to above 20 mM, again supporting the competitiveness of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. This study for the first time systematically demonstrated that the dominance of Methanosaeta populations in anaerobic digestion could be linked to the competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate concentrations. Given the importance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in biological methane production, findings from this study could have major implications for developing strategies for more effective control of methanogenic treatment processes.

  16. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  17. Computer simulations of alkali-acetate solutions: Accuracy of the forcefields in difference concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Emma; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Friedman, Ran

    2017-11-01

    When proteins are solvated in electrolyte solutions that contain alkali ions, the ions interact mostly with carboxylates on the protein surface. Correctly accounting for alkali-carboxylate interactions is thus important for realistic simulations of proteins. Acetates are the simplest carboxylates that are amphipathic, and experimental data for alkali acetate solutions are available and can be compared with observables obtained from simulations. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of alkali acetate solutions using polarizable and non-polarizable forcefields and examined the ion-acetate interactions. In particular, activity coefficients and association constants were studied in a range of concentrations (0.03, 0.1, and 1M). In addition, quantum-mechanics (QM) based energy decomposition analysis was performed in order to estimate the contribution of polarization, electrostatics, dispersion, and QM (non-classical) effects on the cation-acetate and cation-water interactions. Simulations of Li-acetate solutions in general overestimated the binding of Li+ and acetates. In lower concentrations, the activity coefficients of alkali-acetate solutions were too high, which is suggested to be due to the simulation protocol and not the forcefields. Energy decomposition analysis suggested that improvement of the forcefield parameters to enable accurate simulations of Li-acetate solutions can be achieved but may require the use of a polarizable forcefield. Importantly, simulations with some ion parameters could not reproduce the correct ion-oxygen distances, which calls for caution in the choice of ion parameters when protein simulations are performed in electrolyte solutions.

  18. STABILITY OF ETHYL ACETATE IN WHOLE BLOOD DURING STORAGE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Suzuki, Kanako

    2000-01-01

    Various conditions of storage have been tested for stability of ethyl acetate in whole blood. Ethyl acetate (5μg/ml) was spiked to whole blood, and kept at room temperature or at 4℃ for various intervals in the presence or absence of sodium fluoride. Ethyl acetate and ethanol were simultaneously measured by our cryogenic oven trapping gas chromatography. Ethyl acetate was found stable at room temperature for 3 days in the presence of 10 mg sodium azide and 50 mg sodium fluoride in 1 ml whole ...

  19. Mixture effects during the oxidation of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol over a cryptomelane catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V P; Pereira, M F R; Órfão, J J M; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-01-30

    The catalytic oxidation of two-component VOC mixtures (ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene) was studied over cryptomelane. Remarkable mixture effects were observed on the activity and the selectivity. Toluene inhibits both ethyl acetate and ethanol oxidation, this effect being more evident in the case of ethyl acetate. For instance, the temperature for 100% conversion is about 210 °C when ethyl acetate is oxidised alone, and 250 °C or higher, when it is oxidised in mixtures with toluene. On the contrary, toluene oxidation is only slightly inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate, while the presence of ethanol has a promoting effect. Concerning the mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol, both compounds have a mutual inhibitory effect, which is more evident in the case of ethyl acetate (the temperature for 100% conversion of ethyl acetate is about 45 °C higher when ethyl acetate is oxidised in mixtures with ethanol, while in the case of ethanol the corresponding increase is only 10 °C). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C; Oliveira, C S F; Alves, S; Chaves, S R; Coutinho, O P; Côrte-Real, M; Preto, A

    2013-02-21

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. Short-chain fatty acids secreted by dietary propionibacteria from the intestine, such as acetate, induce apoptosis in CRC cells and may therefore be relevant in CRC prevention and therapy. We previously reported that acetic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves partial vacuole permeabilization and release of Pep4p, the yeast cathepsin D (CatD), which has a protective role in this process. In cancer cells, lysosomes have emerged as key players in apoptosis through selective lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins. However, the role of CatD in CRC survival is controversial and has not been assessed in response to acetate. We aimed to ascertain whether LMP and CatD are involved in acetate-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. We showed that acetate per se inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. More importantly, we uncovered that acetate triggers LMP and CatD release to the cytosol. Pepstatin A (a CatD inhibitor) but not E64d (a cathepsin B and L inhibitor) increased acetate-induced apoptosis of CRC cells, suggesting that CatD has a protective role in this process. Our data indicate that acetate induces LMP and subsequent release of CatD in CRC cells undergoing apoptosis, and suggest exploiting novel strategies using acetate as a prevention/therapeutic agent in CRC, through simultaneous treatment with CatD inhibitors.