Sample records for medium-scale traveling ionospheric

  1. Sounding rocket/ground-based observation campaign to study Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTID) (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ishisaka, K.; Saito, S.; Larsen, M.; Pfaff, R. F.; Bernhardt, P. A.


    An observation campaign is under preparation. It is to launch sounding rockets S-520-27 and S-310-42 from Uchinoura Space Center of JAXA while ground-based instruments measure waves in the ionosphere. It is scheduled in July/August 2013. The main purpose of the experiment is to reveal generation mechanism of Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (MSTID). The MSTID is the ionospheric wave with 1-2 hour periodicity, 100-200 km horizontal wavelength, and southwestward propagation. It is enhanced in the summer nighttime of the mid-latitude ionosphere. The MSTID is not only a simple atmospheric-wave modulation of the ionosphere, but shows similarity to characteristics of the Perkins instability. A problem is that growth rate of the Perkins instability is too small to explain the phenomena. We now hypothesize a generation mechanism that electromagnetic coupling of the F- and E-regions help rapid growth of the MSTID especially at its initial stage. In the observation campaign, we will use the sounding rocket S-520-27 for in-situ measurement of ionospheric parameters, i.e., electron density and electric fields. Wind velocity measurements in both F- and E-regions are very important as well. For the F-region winds, we will conduct Lithium-release experiment under the full-moon condition. This is a big technical challenge. Another rocket S-310-42 will be used for the E-region wind measurement with the TMA release. On the ground, we will use GEONET (Japanese vast GPS receiver network) to monitor horizontal distribution of GPS-TEC on the realtime bases. In the presentation we will show MSTID characteristics and the proposed generation mechanism, and discuss plan and current status of the project.

  2. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) resulting from Chelyabinsk Meteor Blast (United States)

    Sheeks, B. J.; Warren, N.; Coster, A. J.


    A global network of GPS receivers continuously make line-of-sight (LOS) measurements of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. This TEC measurement data can be analyzed to 'persistently monitor' natural and man-made activity in the atmosphere (such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rocket launches, etc) which propagate into the ionosphere to produce TIDs (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances). As an example we have analyzed in detail the TIDs resulting from the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor blast as observed by the Artu GPS receiver site in Arti, Russia close to the event. Seven of the GPS satellite measurements with LOS pierce points within 1000 km of the blast show disturbances. Four of these clearly show VTEC oscillations with ~12 minute periods. The other three show much weaker responses, but their LOS pierce points are far from the blast and their aspects between the geomagnetic field & blast propagation vector are unfavorable (near broadside). By fitting all seven measurements we estimate a propagation speed of ~380 m/s for these medium-scale TIDs. As future 'persistent surveillance' efforts we intend to investigate the observability of man-made activities such as static rocket engine firings in TEC measurements. Analysis of MSTIDs resulting from the Chelyabinsk meteor blast

  3. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Nepartak (2016) (United States)

    Chou, M. Y.; Lin, C. C. H.; Yue, J.; Chang, L. C.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, C. H.


    Two remarkable typhoon-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with concentric andnorthwest-southeast (NW-SE) alignments, respectively, associated with concentric gravity waves (CGWs) andionospheric instabilities possibly seeded by CGWs, were observed in total electron content (TEC) derived fromground-based Global Navigation Satellite System networks in Taiwan and Japan when the Category 5 SuperTyphoon Nepartak approached Taiwan on 7 July 2016. The concentric TIDs (CTIDs) first appear withhorizontal phase velocities of 161-200 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 160-270 km, and periods of 15-22 min during 08:00-11:20 UT. Following the CTIDs, the NW-SE aligned nighttime medium-scale TIDs(MSTIDs) are formed on the west edge of the CTIDs over the Taiwan Strait during 11:30-14:00 UT. It issuggested that the MSTIDs are produced by the electrodynamical coupling of Perkins instability andCGW-induced polarization electric fields. This study proposes connections of typhoon-induced CTIDs andsubsequently occurring MSTIDs in the low-latitude ionosphere.

  4. Study of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTID) with sounding rockets and ground observations (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Abe, Takumi; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Bernhardt, Paul; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Larsen, Miguel; Saito, Susumu; Tsugawa, Takuya; Ishisaka, Keigo; Iwagami, Naomoto; Nishioka, Michi; Kato, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Takao; Tanaka, Makoto; Mr

    Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) is an interesting phenomenon in the F-region. The MSTID is frequent in summer nighttime over Japan, showing wave structures with wavelengths of 100-200 km, periodicity of about 1 hour, and propagation toward the southwest. The phenomena are observed by the total electron content (TEC) from GEONET, Japanese dense network of GPS receivers, and 630 nm airglow imagers as horizontal pattern. It was also measured as Spread-F events of ionograms or as field-aligned echoes of the MU radar. MSTID was, in the past, explained by Perkins instability (Perkins, 1973) while its low growth rate was a problem. Recently 3D simulation study by Yokoyama et al (2009) hypothesized a generation mechanism of the MSTID, which stands on electromagnetic E/F-region coupling of the ionosphere. The hypothesis is that the MSTID first grows with polarization electric fields from sporadic-E, then show spatial structures resembling to the Perkins instability. We recently conducted a observation campaign to check this hypothesis. We launched JASA ISAS sounding rockets S-310-42 and S-520-27 at 23:00 JST and 23:57JST on July 20, 2013 while an MSTID event was monitored in real-time by the GPS-TEC from GEONET. We found 1-5mV/m northeastward/eastward electric fields during the flight. Variation of electric fileds were associated with horizontal distribution of plasma density. Wind velocity was measured by the TME and Lithium releases from S-310-42 and S-520-27 rockets, respectively, showing southward wind near the sporadic-E layer heights. These results are consistent to the expected generation mechanism shown above. In the presentation we will discuss electric-field results and its relationship with plasma density variability together with preliminary results from the neutral-wind observations.

  5. Relative amplitude of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network (United States)

    Voeykov, S. V.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.; Perevalova, N. P.; Zhivetiev, I. V.

    We worked out a new method for estimation of relative amplitude dI I of total electron content TEC variations corresponding to medium-scale 30-300 km traveling ionospheric disturbances MS TIDs Daily and latitudinal dependences of dI I and dI I probability distributions are obtained for 52 days of 1999-2005 with different level of geomagnetic activity Statistical estimations were obtained for the analysis of 10 6 series of TEC with 2 3-hour duration To obtain statistically significant results three latitudinal regions were chosen North America high-latitudinal region 50-80 r N 200-300 r E 59 GPS receivers North America mid-latitudinal region 20-50 r N 200-300 r E 817 receivers equatorial belt -20 20 r N 0-360 r E 76 receivers We found that average daily value of the relative amplitude of TEC variations dI I changes from 0 3 to 10 proportionally to the value of geomagnetic index Kp This dependence is strong at high latitudes dI I 0 37 cdot Kp 1 5 and it is some weaker at mid latitudes dI I 0 2 cdot Kp 0 35 At the equator belt we found the weakest dependence dI I on the geomagnetic activity level dI I 0 1 cdot Kp 0 6 The most important and the most interesting result of our work is that during geomagnetic quiet conditions the relative amplitude of TEC variations at night considerably exceeds daily values by 3-5 times at equatorial and at high latitudes and by 2 times at mid latitudes But during strong magnetic storms the relative amplitude dI I at high

  6. Wind effect on the motion of medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances in the E region of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikvilashvili, G.B.; Sharadze, Z.S.; Mosashvili, N.V.


    Madium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTID) in the ionosphere E region in Tbilisi area are investigated by means of spectral analysis of f 0 E s and f b E s variations, synchronously recorded in the three scattered points. The winds at the E s layers formation heights were measured simultaneously by D1 method in one of these points. It is established, that the MSTID motion direction in summer-time E region is controlled by the background thermospheric winds: disturbances mostly more across and against the wind. Tidal winds make the main contribution into the MSTID rate day variations

  7. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Taiwan observed with HF Doppler sounding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišer, Jiří; Chum, Jaroslav; Liu, J. Y.


    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 131. ISSN 1880-5981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Ionosphere * MSTIDs * HF Doppler sounding * atmospheric gravity-waves * f-region * radar * midlatitudes * GPS * thermosphere * typhoon * propagation * origin * model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  8. Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; Marini, J. P.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.


    A climatology of daytime midlatitude medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed by the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar is presented. MSTIDs were observed primarily from fall through spring. Two populations were observed: a dominant population heading southeast (centered at 147° geographic azimuth, ranging from 100° to 210°) and a secondary population heading northwest (centered at -50° azimuth, ranging from -75° to -25°). Horizontal velocities ranged from 50 to 250 m s-1 with a distribution maximum between 100 and 150 m s-1. Horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 500 km with a distribution peak at 250 km, and periods between 23 and 60 min, suggesting that the MSTIDs may be consistent with thermospheric gravity waves. A local time (LT) dependence was observed such that the dominant (southeastward) population decreased in number as the day progressed until a late afternoon increase. The secondary (northwestward) population appeared only in the afternoon, possibly indicative of neutral wind effects or variability of sources. LT dependence was not observed in other parameters. Possible solar-geomagnetic and tropospheric MSTID sources were considered. The auroral electrojet (AE) index showed a correlation with MSTID statistics. Reverse ray tracing with the HINDGRATS model indicates that the dominant population has source regions over the Great Lakes and near the geomagnetic cusp, while the secondary population source region is 100 km above the Atlantic Ocean east of the Carolinas. This suggests that the dominant population may come from a region favorable to either tropospheric or geomagnetic sources, while the secondary population originates from a region favorable to secondary waves generated via lower atmospheric convection.

  9. Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.


    Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like perturbations of the F-region ionosphere with horizontal wavelengths on the order of 100-250 km and periods between ~15 - 60 min, and are generally thought to be the ionospheric manifestation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). High-latitude MSTIDs have been studied using SuperDARN radars since 1989, and are typically attributed to auroral sources and propagated by the Earth Reflected Wave (ERW) mode. Tropospheric sources and earthquakes are also known to be sources of MSTIDs. Observations of MSTIDs using both mid- and high- latitude SuperDARN radars are presented. North American radar data from November 2010 - November 2011 were searched for signatures of MSTIDs. Initial results suggest that MSTIDs are observed at high latitudes primarily in the fall/winter months, which is consistent with published results. This search also reveals that mid-latitude MSTIDs often appear concurrently with high-latitude MSTIDs and share similar wave parameters. During the fall/winter months, SuperDARN mid-latitude MSTIDs appear more often than high-latitude MSTIDs, likely due to calmer ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the springtime, SuperDARN-observed MSTIDs are less likely to be seen at high-latitudes, but still appear at mid-latitudes. Selected events are analyzed for wave parameters using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique.

  10. A Comparison of High Frequency Angle of Arrival and Ionosonde Data During a Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (United States)

    Knippling, K.; Nava, O.; Emmons, D. J., II; Dao, E. V.


    Geolocation techniques are used to track the source of uncooperative high frequency emitters. Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) make geolocation particularly difficult due to large perturbations in the local ionospheric electron density profiles. Angle of arrival(AoA) and ionosonde virtual height measurements collected at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico in January, 2014 are analyzed during a medium scale TID (MSTID). MSTID characteristics are extracted from the measurements, and a comparison between the data sets is performed, providing a measure of the correlation as a function of distance between the ionosonde and AoA circuit midpoints. The results of this study may advance real-time geolocation techniques through the implementation of a time varying mirror model height.

  11. Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil


    The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...

  12. Pilot Ionosonde Network for Identification of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Belehaki, Anna; Paznukhov, Vadym; Huang, Xueqin; Altadill, David; Buresova, Dalia; Mielich, Jens; Verhulst, Tobias; Stankov, Stanimir; Blanch, Estefania; Kouba, Daniel; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Mouzakis, Angelos; Messerotti, Mauro; Parkinson, Murray; Ishii, Mamoru


    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are the ionospheric signatures of atmospheric gravity waves. Their identification and tracking is important because the TIDs affect all services that rely on predictable ionospheric radio wave propagation. Although various techniques have been proposed to measure TID characteristics, their real-time implementation still has several difficulties. In this contribution, we present a new technique, based on the analysis of oblique Digisonde-to-Digisonde "skymap" observations, to directly identify TIDs and specify the TID wave parameters based on the measurement of angle of arrival, Doppler frequency, and time of flight of ionospherically reflected high-frequency radio pulses. The technique has been implemented for the first time for the Network for TID Exploration project with data streaming from the network of European Digisonde DPS4D observatories. The performance is demonstrated during a period of moderate auroral activity, assessing its consistency with independent measurements such as data from auroral magnetometers and electron density perturbations from Digisondes and Global Navigation Satellite System stations. Given that the different types of measurements used for this assessment were not made at exactly the same time and location, and that there was insufficient coverage in the area between the atmospheric gravity wave sources and the measurement locations, we can only consider our interpretation as plausible and indicative for the reliability of the extracted TID characteristics. In the framework of the new TechTIDE project (European Commission H2020), a retrospective analysis of the Network for TID Exploration results in comparison with those extracted from Global Navigation Satellite System total electron content-based methodologies is currently being attempted, and the results will be the objective of a follow-up paper.

  13. Interpreting Observations of Large-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances by Ionospheric Sounders (United States)

    Pederick, L. H.; Cervera, M. A.; Harris, T. J.


    From July to October 2015, the Australian Defence Science and Technology Group conducted an experiment during which a vertical incidence sounder (VIS) was set up at Alice Springs Airport. During September 2015 this VIS observed the passage of many large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). By plotting the measured virtual heights across multiple frequencies as a function of time, the passage of the TID can be clearly displayed. Using this plotting method, we show that all the TIDs observed during the campaign by the VIS at Alice Springs show an apparent downward phase progression of the crests and troughs. The passage of the TID can be more clearly interpreted by plotting the true height of iso-ionic contours across multiple plasma frequencies; the true heights can be obtained by inverting each ionogram to obtain an electron density profile. These plots can be used to measure the vertical phase speed of a TID and also reveal a time lag between events seen in true height compared to virtual height. To the best of our knowledge, this style of analysis has not previously been applied to other swept-frequency sounder observations. We develop a simple model to investigate the effect of the passage of a large-scale TID on a VIS. The model confirms that for a TID with a downward vertical phase progression, the crests and troughs will appear earlier in virtual height than in true height and will have a smaller apparent speed in true height than in virtual height.

  14. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics


    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances by Medium Frequency Doppler Sounding Using AM Radio Transmissions (United States)

    Chilcote, M. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Lind, F. D.; Coster, A. J.; Galkin, I. A.; Miller, E.; Weatherwax, A. T.


    Nighttime traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) propagating in the lower F region of the ionosphere were detected from time variations in the Doppler shifts of commercial AM radio broadcast stations. Three separately deployed receivers, components of the Intercepted Signals for Ionospheric Science (ISIS) Array software radio instrumentation network, recorded signals from two radio stations during eleven nights in March-April, 2012. Combining these measurements established that variations in the frequencies of the received signals, with amplitudes up to a few tenths of a Hertz, resulted from Doppler shifts produced by the ionosphere. At times, TIDs were detected as large amplitude variations in the Doppler shift with approximately 40-minute period correlated across the array. For one study interval, 0000-0400 UT on April 13, 2012, simultaneous GPS-TEC, digisonde, and superDARN coherent backscatter radar measurements confirmed the detection of TIDs with the same period. Detection of the AM signals at widely spaced receivers allowed the phase velocity and wavelength of the TIDs to be inferred, with some limitations due to differing reflection heights for the different frequencies. These measurements will be compared to phase velocities and wavelengths determined from combining an array of GPS receivers; discrepancies due to the altitude sensitivity of the techniques or other effects will be discussed. These results demonstrate that AM radio signals can be used for detection of nighttime TIDs.

  16. Observation of seasonal effects in traveling ionospheric disturbances by the directional deviation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, E.K.; Bailey, A.D.


    An experiment was performed during the years 1962 through 1964 in which direction of arrival data were collected on pulse signals received over a 450 km east-west path. In order to determine the effect that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) had on these data, a ''corrugation'' model was proposed. The corrugation model assumes that TIDs can be treated as if they were moving cylindrical sinusoidal perturbations on the ionospheric reflecting surface. Lateral deviations in the experimental data of the type predicted by this model were found to be quite common. Variations in the detected TIDs as a function of time of year were found to be consistent with the ''seasonal effect'' studied by Munro in 1958, Jones 1969, and Davies and Jones in 1971

  17. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.


    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  18. A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the space shuttle during launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.


    The ionosphere was monitored during the fourth space shuttle (STS 4) launch in June 1982 by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. A long-lived, large-amplitude, traveling ionospheric disturbance with dominant wave moles of ∼ 15 and 75 min was observed shortly after the launch. The disturbance wave train is likely the product of a variety of wave modes. The disturbance front traveled with an average group speed of >628 m/s. Such speeds are typical of fast moving shock waves and ducted gravity waves. Either one or both could be responsible for the signatures observed near the leading edge of the STS 4 wave train. Later arriving waves, with their inherently lower propagation speeds, are attributed to additional gravity wave modes. These waves, however, were not explicitly identified in this study. Although atmospheric waves are excited along the entire flight path, the most intense region of excitation is located along a relatively short flight segment (∼70 km) near the launch site where all primary thrusters are firing and over 70% of the propellants are expended. Not since the nuclear bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s has an artificial source of atmospheric gravity waves been more available for upper atmospheric studies. The routine launching of high thrust vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to observe the propagation characteristics of atmospheric waves under controlled conditions and to acquire information on the nature of the upper atmosphere

  19. Ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, C [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)


    This paper comprises four parts. The first one deals with the neutral atmosphere, its structure, its composition, its variations. The second one describes the ionospheric plasma, (the ionized part) and explains its formation. The influence of the geomagnetic field is discussed in the third chapter, the fourth one being concerned with the means of studying the ionosphere: ionograms obtained by ionosondes or incoherent scattering sounding or from satellite measurements.

  20. Discovering Coseismic Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Generated by the 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake (United States)

    Li, J. D.; Rude, C. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Pankratius, V.


    Geophysical events and hazards, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes, have been shown to generate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). These disturbances can be measured by means of Total Electron Content fluctuations obtained from a network of multifrequency GPS receivers in the MIT Haystack Observatory Madrigal database. Analyzing the response of the ionosphere to such hazards enhances our understanding of natural phenomena and augments our large-scale monitoring capabilities in conjunction with other ground-based sensors. However, it is currently challenging for human investigators to spot and characterize such signatures, or whether a geophysical event has actually occurred, because the ionosphere can be noisy with multiple simultaneous phenomena taking place at the same time. This work therefore explores a systematic pipeline for the ex-post discovery and characterization of TIDs. Our technique starts by geolocating the event and gathering the corresponding data, then checks for potentially conflicting TID sources, and processes the raw total electron content data to generate differential measurements. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is applied to evaluate the statistical significance of detected deviations in the differential measurements. We present results from our successful application of this pipeline to the 2016 7.8 Mw Kaikoura earthquake occurring in New Zealand on November 13th. We detect a coseismic TID occurring 8 minutes after the earthquake and propagating towards the equator at 1050 m/s, with a 0.22 peak-to-peak TECu amplitude. Furthermore, the observed waveform exhibits more complex behavior than the expected N-wave for a coseismic TID, which potentially results from the complex multi-fault structure of the earthquake. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI1442997 (PI Pankratius), NASA AISTNNX15AG84G (PI Pankratius), and NSF AGS-1343967 (PI Pankratius), and NSF AGS-1242204 (PI Erickson).

  1. Concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket (United States)

    Lin, Charles C. H.; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Chou, Min-Yang; Chen, Chia-Hung; Yue, Jia; Chen, Po-Cheng; Matsumura, Mitsuru


    We report the first observation of concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances (CTIDs) triggered by the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on 17 January 2016. The rocket-triggered ionospheric disturbances show shock acoustic wave signature in the time rate change (time derivative) of total electron content (TEC), followed by CTIDs in the 8-15 min band-pass filtering of TEC. The CTIDs propagated northward with phase velocity of 241-617 m/s and reached distances more than 1000 km away from the source on the rocket trajectory. The wave characteristics of CTIDs with periods of 10.5-12.7 min and wavelength 200-400 km agree well with the gravity wave dispersion relation. The optimal wave source searching and gravity wave ray tracing technique suggested that the CTIDs have multiple sources which are originated from 38-120 km altitude before and after the ignition of the second-stage rocket, 200 s after the rocket was launched.

  2. GPS network observation of traveling ionospheric disturbances following the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ding


    Full Text Available We use the Global Positioning System (GPS network in northwest China and central Asia to monitor traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs, which were possibly excited by the large meteorite blast over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013. Two TIDs were observed. The first TID was observed 13 min after the blast within a range of 270–600 km from the blast site. It propagated radially from the blast site with a mean velocity and period of 369 m s−1 and 12 min, respectively. The second TID was found in northwest China, 1.5 h after the time of the blast, at  ∼  2500–3100 km from the blast site. This latter TID propagated southeastward with a velocity and period of 410 m s−1 and 23 min, respectively. Severe dissipation of the perturbation total electronic content (TEC amplitude was observed. Any TIDs propagating in a global range was not found after the meteorite blast. Features of TIDs were compared with those excited by early nuclear explosion tests. It is inferred from our analysis that the energy release of the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast may not be large enough to excite such ionospheric disturbances in a global range as some nuclear explosions did.

  3. Simultaneous observation of traveling ionospheric disturbances in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Valladares


    Full Text Available Measurements of total electron content (TEC using 263 GPS receivers located in the North and South America continents are presented to demonstrate the simultaneous existence of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID at high, mid, and low latitudes, and in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The TID observations pertain to the magnetically disturbed period of 29–30 October 2003 also known as the Halloween storm. The excellent quality of the TEC measurements makes it possible to calculate and remove the diurnal variability of TEC and then estimate the amplitude, wavelength, spectral characteristics of the perturbations, and the approximate velocity of the AGW. On 29 October 2003 between 17:00 and 19:00 UT, there existed a sequence of TEC perturbations (TECP, which were associated with the transit of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW propagating from both auroral regions toward the geographic equator. A marked difference was found between the northern and southern perturbations. In the Northern Hemisphere, the preferred horizontal wavelength varies between 1500 and 1800 km; the propagation velocity is near 700 m/s and the perturbation amplitude about 1 TEC unit (TECu. South of the geographic equator the wavelength of the TECP is as large as 2700 km, the velocity is about 550 m/s, and the TECP amplitude is 3 TECu. Concurrently with our observations, the Jicamarca digisonde observed virtual height traces that exhibited typical features that are associated with TIDs. Here, it is suggested that differences in the local conductivity between northern and southern auroral ovals create a different Joule heating energy term. The quality of these observations illustrates the merits of GPS receivers to probe the ionosphere and thermosphere.

  4. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) from various man-made sources using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) (United States)

    Helmboldt, J.; Park, J.; von Frese, R. R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.


    Traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) is generated by various sources and detectable by observing the spatial and temporal change of electron contents in the ionosphere. This study focused on detecting and analyzing TIDs generated by acoustic-gravity waves from man-made events including underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), mine collapses, mine blasts, and large chemical explosions (LCEs) using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In this study we selected different types of events for case study which covers two US and three North Korean UNEs, two large US mine collapses, three large US mine blasts, and a LCE in northern China and a second LCE at the Nevada Test Site. In most cases, we successfully detected the TIDs as array signatures from the multiple nearby GNSS stations. The array-based TID signatures from these studies were found to yield event-appropriate TID propagation speeds ranging from about a few hundred m/s to roughly a km/s. In addition, the event TID waveforms, and propagation angles and directions were established. The TID waveforms and the maximum angle between each event and the IPP of its TID with the longest travel distance from the source may help differentiate UNEs and LCEs, but the uneven distributions of the observing GNSS stations complicates these results. Thus, further analysis is required of the utility of the apertures of event signatures in the ionosphere for discriminating these events. In general, the results of this study show the potential utility of GNSS observations for detecting and mapping the ionospheric signatures of large-energy anthropological explosions and subsurface collapses.

  5. Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed During Sudden Stratospheric Warming, Equinox and Solstice Periods with Kharkiv and Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radars (United States)

    Goncharenko, L. P.; Panasenko, S.; Aksonova, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Domnin, I. F.


    Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) play a key role in the coupling of different ionospheric regions through momentum an energy transfer. They are thought to be mostly associated with atmospheric gravity waves and are known to strongly affect radio propagation conditions. The incoherent scatter (IS) method enables TIDs detection in such ionospheric parameters as electron density, ion and electron temperatures, and plasma velocity along radar beam, thus providing critical information needed to examine different hypothesis about association of TIDs with their sources. In 2016, several joint measuring campaigns were conducted using Kharkiv (49.6 N, 36.4 E) and Millstone Hill (42.6 N, 288.5 E) IS radars. These campaigns covered the periods of sudden stratospheric warnings (SSW) in February, vernal equinox and summer solstice. For consistency, the data acquired by radars were processed using the same data analysis methods. The results obtained show the TIDs to be detected throughout all observation intervals in February measurements. The differences found in the behavior of TIDs over Kharkiv and Millstone Hill sites may be partially explained by variations in stratospheric wind velocity vectors during SSW period. As for March equinox and June solstice, the prevailing TIDs are observed near solar terminators. Their periods vary mostly in the range of 40 - 80 minutes, relative amplitudes are about 0.05 - 0.3 of the background electron density, and the maximum values are observed at the heights of 200 - 250 km. Systematic long-term observations of wave processes in the ionosphere with multiple IS facilities can reveal interhemispheric variability in TID parameters, give better understanding the mechanisms of TID generation and propagation, and improve regional and global ionospheric models.

  6. Remote sensing of traveling ionospheric disturbances resulting from underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, C.


    Following an underground nuclear test, an acoustic pulse propagates upward through the atmosphere and sets the ionosphere in motion which, in turn, generates gravity waves. The usual ionospheric monitoring approach is to use a phase sounder to observe the acoustic pulse. However, there are other detection techniques that can be employed. These detection techniques include the use of a low-frequency filter so that only long period (approximately 10 minutes) gravity waves can be observed. Another detection technique is to correlate microbarographic measurements on the surface with HF sounder data from the ionosphere to measure Lamb waves. A third detection technique is to correlate seismometer measurements in the ground with their corresponding ionospheric perturbations. The theoretical and experimental aspects of these remote detection techniques are discussed here

  7. Seismo-Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Yenq Liu


    Full Text Available A network of 6 ground-based GPS receivers in East Asia was employed to study seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs triggered by an M 8.0 earthquake which occurred at Wenchuan on 12 May 2008. The network detected 5 STIDs on the south side of the epicenter area. A study on the distances of the detected STIDs to the epicenter versus their associated traveling times shows that the horizontal speed is about 600 m s-1. Applying the circle method, we find that the 5 circles intercept at a point right above the epicenter when the horizontal speed of 600 m s-1 is given. Global searches of the ray-tracing and the beam-forming techniques confirm that the STIDs are induced by vertical motions in the Earth¡¦s surface during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  8. Large-amplitude traveling ionospheric distrubance produced by the May 18, 1980, explosion of Mount St. Helens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.H.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Fougere, P.F.; Hendrickson, D.H.


    A remarkable long-lived, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID), excited by the May 18, 1980, explosion of Mount St. Helens, has been detected in total electron content monitor data. Oscillatory perturbations in the electron column density of the ionosphere with amplitudes about 10% of the nominal daytime content were detected at three stations whose ionospheric penetration points lie between 1610 and 1890 km from Mount St. Helens. Smaller perturbations were detected at five of six additional stations between 3760 and 4950 km away. The period of the TID increased linearly with great-circle distance from Mount St. Helens, ranging from roughly-equal37 min at the nearest station to roughly-equal116 min at the most distant one. The TID persisted for at least four cycles at the three close stations and three cycles at the more distant stations and was qualitatively similar to TID's produced by the low-altitude thermonuclear detonations of the 1960's. The disturbance front of this TID accelerated from an average velocity of roughly-equal350 m/s between Mt. St. Helens and the close stations to an average velocity of roughly-equal550 m/s to the more distant ones.A model based on the free wave response of an isothermal atmosphere to a point disturbance provides a good fit to the data at the three closest stations, but no such model can account for all of the data. Modeling of the long-distance behavior of the Mount St. Helens TID in terms of upper-atmosphere guided gravity waves is complicated by the requirement of exciting them by a ground-level explosion. There was no evidence for a strong supersonic shock wave in the ionosphere. As a result, the Mount St. Helens disturbance may prove to be a cleaner test of detailed theories of the point excitation and propagation of gravity waves in a realistic atmosphere than were TID's excited by thermonuclear weapons

  9. Ground-based measurements of ionospheric dynamics (United States)

    Kouba, Daniel; Chum, Jaroslav


    Different methods are used to research and monitor the ionospheric dynamics using ground measurements: Digisonde Drift Measurements (DDM) and Continuous Doppler Sounding (CDS). For the first time, we present comparison between both methods on specific examples. Both methods provide information about the vertical drift velocity component. The DDM provides more information about the drift velocity vector and detected reflection points. However, the method is limited by the relatively low time resolution. In contrast, the strength of CDS is its high time resolution. The discussed methods can be used for real-time monitoring of medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances. We conclude that it is advantageous to use both methods simultaneously if possible. The CDS is then applied for the disturbance detection and analysis, and the DDM is applied for the reflection height control.

  10. Ionospheric Caustics in Solar Radio Observations (United States)

    Koval, A.; Chen, Y.; Stanislavsky, A.


    The Earth ionosphere possesses by natural focusing and defocusing effects on radio waves due to presence of variable ionospheric irregularities which could act like convergent and divergent lenses on incident radiation. In particular, the focusing of emission from the Sun was firstly detected on the Nançay Decameter Array dynamic spectra in the 1980s. On time-frequency spectrograms the intensity variations form specific structures different from well-known solar radio bursts and clearly distinguishing on a background of solar radiation. Such structures have been identified as ionospheric caustics (ICs) and considered to be the result of radio waves refraction on medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Although nowadays the ICs are registered by different radio observatories due to augmentation of low-frequency radio telescopes, the most recent papers devoted to ICs in solar radio records date back to the 1980s. In this study, we revisit the ICs issue with some new results by conducting a statistical analysis of occurrence rate of ICs in solar dynamic spectra in meter-decameter wavelength range for long continuous period (15 years). The seasonal variations in ICs appearance have been found for the first time. Besides, we report the possible solar cycle dependence of ICs emergence. The radio waves propagation in the ionosphere comprising MSTIDs will be considered. The present research renews the subject of ICs in the low-frequency solar radio astronomy after about 35-year letup.

  11. A study of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and Atmospheric Gravity Waves using EISCAT Svalbard Radar IPY-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasov


    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs as observed by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR during the continuous IPY-run (March 2007–February 2008 with field-aligned measurements. We have developed a semi-automatic routine for searching and extracting Atmospheric Gravity Wave (AGW activity. The collected data shows that AGW-TID signatures are common in the high-latitude ionosphere especially in the field-aligned ion velocity data (244 cases of AGW-TID signatures in daily records, but they can be observed also in electron density (26 cases, electron temperature (12 cases and ion temperature (26 cases. During the IPY campaign (in solar minimum conditions AGW-TID events appear more frequently during summer months than during the winter months. It remains still as a topic for future studies whether the observed seasonal variation is natural or caused by seasonal variation in the performance of the observational method that we use (AGW-TID signature may be more pronounced in a dense ionosphere. In our AGW-TID dataset the distribution of the oscillation periods has two peaks, one around 0.5–0.7 h and the other around 1.1–1.3 h. The diurnal occurrence rate has a deep minimum in the region of magnetic midnight, which might be partly explained by irregular auroral activity obscuring the TID signatures from our detection routines. As both the period and horizontal phase speed estimates (as derived from the classical AGW dispersion relation show values typical both for large scale TIDs and mesoscale TIDs it is difficult to distinguish whether the generator for high-latitude AGW-TIDs resides typically in the troposphere or in the near-Earth space. The results of our statistical analysis give anyway some valuable reference information for the future efforts to learn more about the dominating TID source mechanisms in polar cap conditions, and to improve AGW simulations.

  12. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements (United States)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.


    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  13. On the dynamics of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Europe on 20 November 2003

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borries, C.; Jakowski, N.; Kauristie, K.; Amm, O.; Mielich, J.; Kouba, Daniel


    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2017), s. 1199-1211 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : heating * ionosphere * storm * TEC * TID Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016

  14. Common Observations for Near-Source Ground Motions and Seismo-Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances Following the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang


    Full Text Available The time history and spatial dependence of seismic-wave propagation on the ground surface and through the ionosphere following the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake were reconstructed from dense seismic networks and from Global Positioning System (GPS array observations, respectively. Using total electron content (TEC data recorded by a dense GPS receiver network, the near-source ionosphere perturbations induced by this giant earthquake were analyzed and high-resolution images of seismic-wave propagation in the ionosphere are presented. Similar spatial images of ground motions were reconstructed from observations by a dense seismic array. Observations of this event provide, for the first time, the opportunity to compare near-source ground motions with the near-field seismo-traveling ionosphere disturbance (STID excited by the ground motions. Based on the results, the nature of the source rupture and seismic-wave propagation are discussed. Both seismic and ionosphere observations indicate that seismic energy propagated radially outward initially from the hypocenter, but that the circular shape of the propagation front became gradually distorted as the source rupture became extended. Coherent wavefronts from the two analyses show contrasting patterns during the later stage of propagation, possibly due to different patterns of spatial variations in the physical properties of the solid earth and of the ionosphere.

  15. Isolated ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Afraimovich


    Full Text Available We investigate an unusual class of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances of the nonwave type, isolated ionospheric disturbances (IIDs that manifest themselves in total electron content (TEC variations in the form of single aperiodic negative TEC disturbances of a duration of about 10min (the total electron content spikes, TECS. The data were obtained using the technology of global detection of ionospheric disturbances using measurements of TEC variations from a global network of receivers of the GPS. For the first time, we present the TECS morphology for 170 days in 1998–2001. The total number of TEC series, with a duration of each series of about 2.3h (2h18m, exceeded 850000. It was found that TECS are observed in no more than 1–2% of the total number of TEC series mainly in the nighttime in the spring and autumn periods. The TECS amplitude exceeds the mean value of the "background" TEC variation amplitude by a factor of 5–10 as a minimum. TECS represent a local phenomenon with a typical radius of spatial correlation not larger than 500km. The IID-induced TEC variations are similar in their amplitude, form and duration to the TEC response to shock-acoustic waves (SAW generated during rocket launchings and earthquakes. However, the IID propagation velocity is less than the SAW velocity (800–1000m/s and are most likely to correspond to the velocity of background medium-scale acoustic-gravity waves, on the order of 100–200m/s. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, instruments and techniques - Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  16. Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed using GPS receivers over high-latitude and equatorial regions (United States)

    Idrus, Intan Izafina; Abdullah, Mardina; Hasbi, Alina Marie; Husin, Asnawi; Yatim, Baharuddin


    This paper presents the first results of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) observation during two moderate magnetic storm events on 28 May 2011 (SYM-H∼ -94 nT and Dst∼-80 nT) and 6 August 2011 (SYM-H∼-126 nT and Dst∼-113 nT) over the high-latitude region in Russia, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland and equatorial region in the Peninsular Malaysia using vertical total electron content (VTEC) from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations measurement. The propagation of the LSTID signatures in the GPS TEC measurements over Peninsular Malaysia was also investigated using VTEC map. The LSTIDs were found to propagate both equatorward and poleward directions during these two events. The results showed that the LSTIDs propagated faster at high-latitude region with an average phase velocity of 1074.91 m/s than Peninsular Malaysia with an average phase velocity of 604.84 m/s. The LSTIDs at the high-latitude region have average periods of 150 min whereas the ones observed over Peninsular Malaysia have average periods of 115 min. The occurrences of these LSTIDs were also found to be the subsequent effects of substorm activities in the auroral region. To our knowledge, this is the first result of observation of LSTIDs over Peninsular Malaysia during the 24th solar cycle.

  17. The measurement of the total electron content applied to the observation of medium scale gravity wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, L.; Bertin, F.; Testud, J.


    The interpretation of the measurements of the integrated electron content in terms of gravity wave requires (1) a gravity wave model at thermospheric altitudes; (2) a gravity wave-ionization interaction model in the F-region of the ionosphere; and (3) a computing program for the resulting perturbation on the integrated electron content between the satellite and the earth station used. The gravity wave model considered in this paper takes into account the dissipative effects (viscosity, thermal conduction) which become very importanr above 250 km altitude and the effect of the base wind which is capable of affecting deeply the propagation of the waves of medium scale. Starting with this model, the domains of frequencies and the wavelength of atmospheric waves which may exist in the upper atmosphere are considered. The interaction of such waves and the ionization is examined. The theoretical results give information particularly on the selectivity of the ionospheric response to the wave passage. The deduced selectivity of the models appears to be smaller than that given by other authors who used simplified gravity wave models. The method for computing the perturbation of the of the integrated electron content introduced by the wave passage is given for a geostationary satellite. Computational results are presented for application to the case of medium scale gravity waves. (author)

  18. The Quiet Rise of Medium-Scale Farms in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Anseeuw


    Full Text Available Medium-scale farms have become a major force in Malawi’s agricultural sector. Malawi’s most recent official agricultural survey indicates that these account for over a quarter of all land under cultivation in Malawi. This study explores the causes and multifaceted consequences of the rising importance of medium-scale farms in Malawi. We identify the characteristics and pathways of entry into farming based on surveys of 300 medium-scale farmers undertaken in 2014 in the districts of Mchinji, Kasungu and Lilongwe. The area of land acquired by medium-scale farmers in these three districts is found to have almost doubled between 2000 and 2015. Just over half of the medium-scale farmers represent cases of successful expansion out of small-scale farming status; the other significant proportion of medium-scale farmers are found to be urban-based professionals, entrepreneurs and/or civil servants who acquired land, some very recently, and started farming in mid-life. We also find that a significant portion of the land acquired by medium-scale farmers was utilized by others prior to acquisition, that most of the acquired land was under customary tenure, and that the current owners were often successful in transferring the ownership structure of the acquired land to a long-term leaseholding with a title deed. The study finds that, instead of just strong endogenous growth of small-scale famers as a route for the emergence of medium-scale farms, significant farm consolidation is occurring through land acquisitions, often by urban-based people. The effects of farmland acquisitions by domestic investors on the country’s primary development goals, such as food security, poverty reduction and employment, are not yet clear, though some trends appear to be emerging. We consider future research questions that may more fully shed light on the implications of policies that would continue to promote land acquisitions by medium-scale farms.

  19. Options for Sustaining Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    problems in Nigeria due to numerous domestic and global economic problems, and policy ... national income till today remains low (Osamwonyi, 2009). For ... managers. Nwakoby (1988) defines Small and Medium-Scale business as “any.

  20. Role of Cooperatives in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contributions of cooperatives to small and medium scale enterprises (SME) development, identified the challenges and to suggested ways of strengthening this role. The paper argued that SMEs are the key to Nigeria‟s prosperity, but that past efforts by the government to promote SMEs has not ...

  1. Learning in an estimated medium-scale DSGE model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey; Wouters, R.


    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 26-46 ISSN 0165-1889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP402/11/J018 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : constant-gain adaptive learning * medium-scale DSGE model * DSGE- VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.807, year: 2012

  2. The Role of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is aimed at finding out the extent to which small and medium scale enterprises, through their employment activities, helped to address poverty reduction. In trying to establish the thrust of the paper we used secondary data and the adoption of econometric model, specifically simple linear regression, to empirically explain ...

  3. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga


    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  4. C/NOFS Remote Sensing of Ionospheric Reflectance (United States)

    Burke, W. J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Martinis, C. R.; Gentile, L. C.


    Alfvn waves play critical roles in the electrodynamic coupling of plasmas at magnetically conjugate regions in near-Earth space. Associated electric (E*) and magnetic (dec B*) field perturbations sampled by sensors on satellites in low-Earth orbits are generally super positions of incident and reflected waves. However, lack of knowledge about ionospheric reflection coefficients (alpha) hinders understanding of generator outputs and load absorption of Alfvn wave energies. Here we demonstrate a new method for estimating using satellite measurements of ambient E* and dec B* then apply it to a case in which the Communication Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) satellite flew conjugate to the field of view of a 630.0 nm all-sky imager at El Leoncito, Argentina, while medium-scale traveling ionosphere disturbances were detected in its field of view. In regions of relatively large amplitudes of E* and B*,calculated values ranged between 0.67 and 0.88. This implies that due to impedance mismatches, the generator ionosphere puts out significantly more electromagnetic energy than the load can absorb. Our analysis also uncovered caveats concerning the methods range of applicability in regions of low E* and B*. The method can be validated in future satellite-based auroral studies where energetic particle precipitation fluxes can be used to make independent estimates of alpha.

  5. Travelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homes very soon becomes a misplaced sentiment. However well planned a journey may be and how- ever important and tiring the attendances at meet- ings are, at some stage of every day the traveller finds himself in an hotel room and loneliness starts closing in from all four walls. No matter how luxu- rious the hotel may ...

  6. Application of RCM to a medium scale industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.S.; Modak, J.P.


    The factors which are assuming considerable importance in cost effective decision making of operation of any industrial enterprise are in the order of significance liability, safety and environmental conditions. Hence, preventive maintenance (PM) optimisation is providing wide opportunities and challenges to everyone involved in all aspects of operation of industrial enterprise. Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) methodology offers the best available strategy for PM optimisation. It incorporates a new understanding of the ways in which equipment fails. In this paper, the concept of RCM has been applied to steel melting shop of a medium scale steel industry. By systematically applying the RCM methodology, failures, failure causes and effects on the system are analysed. To preserve the system function, PM categories are suggested for various failure modes in the components such as (1) time directed (2) condition directed (3) failure finding (4) run to failure. Features of predictive maintenance of a medium scale steel industry are deduced through this paper in a rather generalised form

  7. Features of HF Radio Wave Attenuation in the Midlatitude Ionosphere Near the Skip Zone Boundary (United States)

    Denisenko, P. F.; Skazik, A. I.


    We briefly describe the history of studying the decameter radio wave attenuation by different methods in the midlatitude ionosphere. A new method of estimating the attenuation of HF radio waves in the ionospheric F region near the skip zone boundary is presented. This method is based on an analysis of the time structure of the interference field generated by highly stable monochromatic X-mode radio waves at the observation point. The main parameter is the effective electron collision frequency νeff, which allows for all energy losses in the form of equivalent heat loss. The frequency νeff is estimated by matching the assumed (model) and the experimentally observed structures. Model calculations are performed using the geometrical-optics approximation. The spatial attenuation caused by the influence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances is taken into account. Spherical shape of the ionosphere and the Earth's magnetic field are roughly allowed for. The results of recording of the level of signals from the RWM (Moscow) station at a frequency of 9.996 MHz at point Rostov are used.

  8. Simultaneous ground-satellite observations of daytime traveling ionospheric disturbances over Japan using the GPS-TEC network and the CHAMP satellite (United States)

    Moral, A. C.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Liu, H.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.


    We report results of simultaneous ground-satellite measurements of daytime travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over Japan by using the GEONET GPS receiver network and the CHAMP satellite. For the two years of 2002 and 2008, we examined GPS measurements of TEC (Total Electron Content) and neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP satellite. Total of fifteen TID events with clear southward moving structures in the GPS-TEC measurements are found by simultaneous ground-satellite measurements. On 2002, simultaneous events are only observed in January (1 event) and February (4 events). On 2008, ten events are observed around winter months (January (3 events), February (5), March (1), and October (1)). Neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP show quasi-periodic fluctuations throughout the passages for all events. The CHAMP satellite crossed at least one clear TID phase front for all the events. We fitted a sinusoidal function to both ground and satellite data to obtain the frequencies and phase of the observed variations. We calculated the corresponding phase relationships between TEC variations and neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP to categorize the events. In the presentations we report correspondence of these TID structures seen in the simultaneous ground-satellite observations by GPS-TEC and CHAMP, and discuss their phase relationship to identify the source of the daytime TIDs and specify how much of the observed variations are showing clear frequencies/or not in the nature at middle latitudes.

  9. Ionosphere Waves Service - A demonstration (United States)

    Crespon, François


    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service was developed by ionosphere experts to answer several questions: How make the old ionosphere missions more valuable? How provide scientific community with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogues that characterize a huge number of Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Travelling Ionosphere Disturbances and Whistlers events. The Ionosphere Waves Service regroups databases of specific events extracted by experts from a ten of ionosphere missions which end users can access by applying specific searches and by using statistical analysis modules for their domain of interest. The scientific applications covered by the IWS are relative to earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations. In this presentation we propose to detail the service design, the hardware and software architecture, and the service functions. The service interface and capabilities will be the focus of a demonstration in order to help potential end-users for their first access to the Ionosphere Waves Service portal. This work is made with the support of FP7 grant # 263240.

  10. Study of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities and E- and F-region coupling based on rocket and radar observations from Japan (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.


    We have been studying ionspheric irregularities in mid-latitude region by using radars, sounding rockets, etc. The mid-latitude ionosphere was considered much stable than those in the equatorial or polar region in the past, but our studies for years have revealed that there are much active variabilities. We found variety of wave-like structures that are specific in the mid-latitudes. One of the phenomena is quasi-periodic echoes (QP echoes) first observed by the MU radar that reflects horizontal plasma-density structures associated to sporadic-E layers. Another phenomenon is medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) in the F-region. In the generation mechanism we think that Ionospheric E- and F-region coupling process is important. In this presentation, we will discuss nature of mid-latitude ionosphere based on our observations; the MU radar, sounding rocket campaigns of SEEK-1/2, and recent MSTID rocket experiment from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center in July 2013.

  11. An ionospheric index suitable for estimating the degree of ionospheric perturbations (United States)

    Wilken, Volker; Kriegel, Martin; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens


    Space weather can strongly affect trans-ionospheric radio signals depending on the used frequency. In order to assess the strength of a space weather event from its origin at the sun towards its impact on the ionosphere a number of physical quantities need to be derived from scientific measurements. These are for example the Wolf number sunspot index, the solar flux density F10.7, measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field, the proton density, the solar wind speed, the dynamical pressure, the geomagnetic indices Auroral Electrojet, Kp, Ap and Dst as well as the Total Electron Content (TEC), the Rate of TEC, the scintillation indices S4 and σ(ϕ) and the Along-Arc TEC Rate index index. All these quantities provide in combination with an additional classification an orientation in a physical complex environment. Hence, they are used for brief communication of a simplified but appropriate space situation awareness. However, space weather driven ionospheric phenomena can affect many customers in the communication and navigation domain, which are still served inadequately by the existing indices. We present a new robust index, that is able to properly characterize temporal and spatial ionospheric variations of small to medium scales. The proposed ionospheric disturbance index can overcome several drawbacks of other ionospheric measures and might be suitable as potential driver for an ionospheric space weather scale.

  12. The ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, C.


    This paper comprises four parts. The first one is dealing with the neutral atmosphere, its structure, its composition, its variations. The second one describes the ionospheric plasma, (the ionized part) and explains its formation. The influence of the geomagnetic field is discussed in the third chapter, the fourth one being concerned with the means of studying the ionosphere: ionograms obtained by ionosondes or incoherent scattering sounding or from satellite measurements [fr

  13. Complex network description of the ionosphere (United States)

    Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Li, Yihong; Niu, Chao; Yang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Daizhi


    Complex networks have emerged as an essential approach of geoscience to generate novel insights into the nature of geophysical systems. To investigate the dynamic processes in the ionosphere, a directed complex network is constructed, based on a probabilistic graph of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) from 2012. The results of the power-law hypothesis test show that both the out-degree and in-degree distribution of the ionospheric network are not scale-free. Thus, the distribution of the interactions in the ionosphere is homogenous. None of the geospatial positions play an eminently important role in the propagation of the dynamic ionospheric processes. The spatial analysis of the ionospheric network shows that the interconnections principally exist between adjacent geographical locations, indicating that the propagation of the dynamic processes primarily depends on the geospatial distance in the ionosphere. Moreover, the joint distribution of the edge distances with respect to longitude and latitude directions shows that the dynamic processes travel further along the longitude than along the latitude in the ionosphere. The analysis of small-world-ness indicates that the ionospheric network possesses the small-world property, which can make the ionosphere stable and efficient in the propagation of dynamic processes.

  14. Medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for secondary side of SG in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng


    The medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for removing corrosion product (Fe 3 O 4 ) in secondary side of SG in PWR has been completed. The test has been carried out in a medium scale test loop. The medium scale test evaluated the effect of the chemical cleaning technique (temperature, flow rate, cleaning time, cleaning process), the state of corrosion product deposition on magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) solubility and safety of materials of SG in cleaning process. The inhibitor component of chemical cleaning agent has been improved by electrochemical linear polarization method, the effect of inhibitor on corrosion resistance of materials have been examined in the medium scale test loop, the most components of chemical cleaning agent have been obtained, the EDTA is main component in cleaning agent. The electrochemical method for monitor corrosion of materials during cleaning process has been completed in the laboratory. The study of the medium scale test of chemical cleaning technique have had the optimum chemical cleaning technique for remove corrosion product in SG secondary side of PWR. (9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.)

  15. [Importance of occupational medicine problem on small and medium scale business enterprises]. (United States)

    Fasikov, R M; Stepanov, E G


    First stage of hygienic and psychosocial studies on evaluating the conditions, work specification and health state of small and medium scale business enterprise workers is finished. Findings are that psychosocial factors of work process are highly significant for those workers, and locomotor disorders (backaches) are leaders in morbidity structure among those workers.

  16. New Medium-Scale Laboratory Testing of Bucket Foundation Capacity in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl


    This article presents a new testing rig for axially loaded bucket foundations. The medium-scale physical model gives the ability to examine the influence of axial tensile, compressive as well as cyclic loading on bucket foundations subjected to various levels of overburden stress. The properties...

  17. ASCHFLOW - A dynamic landslide run-out model for medium scale hazard analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan Luna, B.; Blahůt, Jan; van Asch, T.W.J.; van Westen, C.J.; Kappes, M.


    Roč. 3, 12 December (2016), č. článku 29. E-ISSN 2197-8670 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : landslides * run-out models * medium scale hazard analysis * quantitative risk assessment Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. A review of ionospheric effects on Earth-space propagation (United States)

    Klobuchar, J. A.


    A short description is given of each ionospheric total electron content (TEC) effect upon radio waves, along with a representative value of the magnitude of each of these effects under normal ionospheric conditions. A discussion is given of the important characteristics of average ionospheric TEC behavior and the temporal and spatial variability of TEC. Radio waves undergo several effects when they pass through the Earth's ionosphere. One of the most important of these effects is a retardation, or group delay, on the modulation or information carried on the radio wave that is due to its encounter with the free, thermal electrons in the Earth's ionosphere. Other effects the ionosphere has on radio waves include: radio frequency (RF) carrier phase advance; Doppler shift of the RF carrier of the radio wave; Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized waves; angular refraction or bending of the radio wave path as it travels through the ionosphere; and amplitude and phase scintillations.

  19. Bayesian estimation for ionospheric calibration in radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tol, S.


    Radio astronomical observations at low frequencies (< 250 MHz), can be severely distorted by fluctuations in electron density in the ionosphere. The free electrons cause a phase change of electromagnetic waves traveling through the ionosphere. This effect increases for lower frequencies. For this

  20. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.


    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier

  1. Solar-Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka


    Abeywardana, Asela M.A.J.


    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel. Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. L...

  2. Thermospheric storms and related ionospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N.W.


    A comparative study of thermospheric storms for the equinox and winter conditions is presented based on the neutral composition measurements from the Aeros-A Nate (Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment) experiment. The main features of the two storms as inferred from the changes in N 2 , Ar, He, and O are described, and their implications to current theories of thermospheric storms are discussed. On the basis of the study of the F region critical frequency measured from a chain of ground-based ionospheric stations during the two storm periods, the general characteristics of the ionospheric storms and the traveling ionospheric disturbances are described. It is suggested that the positive and negative phases of ionospheric storms are the various manifestations of thermospheric storms

  3. Interactions between finite amplitude small and medium-scale waves in the MLT region. (United States)

    Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.


    Small-scale gravity waves can propagate high into the thermosphere and deposit significant momentum and energy into the background flow [e.g., Yamada et al., 2001, Fritts et al., 2014]. However, their propagation, dissipation, and spectral evolution can be significantly altered by other waves and dynamics and the nature of these complex interactions are not yet well understood. While many ray-tracing and time-dependent modeling studies have been performed to investigate interactions between waves of varying scales [e.g., Eckermann and Marks .1996, Sartelet. 2003, Liu et al. 2008, Vanderhoff et al., 2008, Senf and Achatz., 2011, Heale et al., 2015], the majority of these have considered waves of larger (tidal) scales, or have simplified one of the waves to be an imposed "background" and discount (or limit) the nonlinear feedback mechanisms between the two waves. In reality, both waves will influence each other, especially at finite amplitudes when nonlinear effects become important or dominant. We present a study of fully nonlinear interactions between small-scale 10s km, 10 min period) and medium-scale wave packets at finite amplitudes, which include feedback between the two waves and the ambient atmosphere. Time-dependence of the larger-scale wave has been identified as an important factor in reducing reflection [Heale et al., 2015] and critical level effects [Sartelet, 2003, Senf and Achatz, 2011], we choose medium-scale waves of different periods, and thus vertical scales, to investigate how this influences the propagation, filtering, and momentum and energy deposition of the small-scale waves, and in turn how these impacts affect the medium-scale waves. We also consider the observable features of these interactions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  4. Analysis of Medium-Scale Solar Thermal Systems and Their Potential in Lithuania


    Valančius, Rokas; Jurelionis, Andrius; Jonynas, Rolandas; Katinas, Vladislovas; Perednis, Eugenijus


    Medium-scale solar hot water systems with a total solar panel area varying from 60 to 166 m 2 have been installed in Lithuania since 2002. However, the performance of these systems varies depending on the type of energy users, equipment and design of the systems, as well as their maintenance. The aim of this paper was to analyse operational SHW systems from the perspective of energy production and economic benefit as well as to outline the differences of their actual performance compared to t...

  5. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.


    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  6. Analysis of Medium-Scale Solar Thermal Systems and Their Potential in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Valančius


    Full Text Available Medium-scale solar hot water systems with a total solar panel area varying from 60 to 166 m2 have been installed in Lithuania since 2002. However, the performance of these systems varies depending on the type of energy users, equipment and design of the systems, as well as their maintenance. The aim of this paper was to analyse operational SHW systems from the perspective of energy production and economic benefit as well as to outline the differences of their actual performance compared to the numerical simulation results. Three different medium-scale solar thermal systems in Lithuania were selected for the analysis varying in both equipment used (flat type solar collectors, evacuated tube collectors and type of energy user (swimming pool building, domestic hot water heating, district heating. The results of the analysis showed that in the analysed cases the gap between measured and modelled data of heat energy produced by SHW systems was approx. 11%. From the economical perspective, the system with flat type solar collectors used for domestic hot water production was proved to be most efficient. However, calculation of Internal Rate of Return showed that a grant of 35% is required for this project to be fully profitable.

  7. Ionospheric Digital Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric...

  8. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto


    clear variations for both global and European scales associated to the event, (6) global maps of inter-frequency phase rate variations as proxy phase scintillation index from 1Hz real-time IGS network (NRCan), (7) manually scaled ionospheric peak parameters from European ionosondes (FUC), (8) NOAA US-Total Electron Content Product (NOAA-USTEC) operational product, which shows the passage of the storm-enhanced density, (9) as well as other products -also from MONITOR ESA/ESTEC-funded project-, such as the Rate of TEC index (ROTI), Single Receiver Medium Scale TIDs index (SRMTID), GNSS Solar Flare Detector (GSFLAD), which is a EUV rate proxy, the Sunlit Ionosphere Sudden TEC Enhancement Detector (SISTED) and the Global Electron Content (GEC) generated from UQRG GIMs (UPC-IonSAT).

  9. Upper ionosphere and magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, J.R.


    After a presentation of the ionospheric physics and of the earth magnetosphere morphology, generation and dynamics, the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in quiet and perturbed conditions is discussed. Some summary information about other planetary magnetospheres, particularly Venus and Jupiter magnetospheres, are finally given. 41 refs, 24 figs

  10. A data acquisition controller for small to medium scale nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, C.


    A data aquisition controller and related software for small to medium scaled nuclear experiments are described. The unit is designed to be connected (via a standard terminal connection) as a peripheral to a host computer (in our case a VAX). It is based on a standard eurobus Z-80 microprocessor to which specially designed multichannel analyzer subsystems are added for data aquisition. The multichannel analyzer, which consists of single width eurocard, uses the controller memory, via direct memory access, for data storage. To this it is possible to add standard eurobus interfaces for digital and analog supervision and for control of the experimental parameters. The unit uses the host computer to interpret a host command file defining the experimental procedure. It will log in to the host when it needs assistance, but stay logged out during periods of inactivity. (orig.)

  11. In-medium scaling law and electron scattering from high-spin states in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A.M.


    The effects of the environment modifications in the structure of the low-lying high-spin states of 208 Pb are studied by analyzing how the in-medium scaling law works on the excitation energies, wave functions, and electron scattering form factors corresponding to these states. It is shown that the consideration of f π * in addition to the effective ρ-meson mass does not affect too much most of the states analyzed. However, some of them appear to be extremely sensitive to its inclusion in the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. As a result, a value of m ρ * /m ρ ∼f π * /f π ∼0.91 gives a good description of the (e,e') form factors of these particular states without any quenching factor. This value is in agreement with the one found for 48 Ca in a similar analysis performed in a previous work

  12. An automated medium scale prototype for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bernardi


    Full Text Available Olive oil production constitutes one of the most important agro-industrial business for Mediterranean countries, where 97% of the international production is focused. Such an activity, mainly carried out through three phase olive oil mill plants, generates huge amounts of solid and liquid by-products further than olive oil. Physico-chemical features of these by-products depend on various factors such as soil and climatic conditions, agricultural practices and processing. As currently carried out, the disposal of these by-products may lead to numerous problems taking into account management, economic and particularly environmental aspects. Indeed, olive mill wastewater is not easily biodegradable due to its high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, its high content in phenolic compounds, high ratio C/N and low pH, leading consequently to soil and water source pollution. Considering, the above-mentioned statements, olive mill waste disposal constitutes nowadays a challenge for oil industry stakeholders. It becomes necessary to look for alternative solutions in order to overcome environmental problems and ensure the sustainability of oil industry. Anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with other agro-industrial matrices could be one of these solutions; since it offers the possibility to produce green energy and break down toxicological compounds contained in these wastewater for a better disposal of the digested matrices as soil conditioner. In this contest, this note reports the functioning principle of an automated medium scale plant for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater. Keywords: Medium scale prototype, Olive mill wastewater (OMWW, Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD, Automatic process

  13. A Study on the Radio Propagation in the Korean Ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae


    Full Text Available The effects of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. If ionospheric conditions are suitable, the charged particles can remove energy from radio waves and thus attenuate the signal. Also, a radio wave traveling a path along which the electron density is not constant undergoes changes in direction, position and time of propagation. The present study is based on Korean ionospheric data obtained at the AnYong Radio Research Institute from Jan. 1985 through Oct. 1989. The data are used to simulate the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law. The effects of the model ionosphere on the radio wave propagation, such as the angle, position error, time delay, and the attenuation, are studies for the various cases of the wave frequency and the altitude.

  14. Coupling of ionosphere and troposphere during the occurrence of isolated tornadoes on November 20, 1973 (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Phan, T.; Smith, R. E.


    The paper examines the coupling between the ionosphere and the troposphere during time periods with isolated tornadoes on the stormy day of November 20, 1973. Observations are made with a high-frequency CW Doppler array system, in which radio receivers located at a central site monitored signals transmitted from three independent remote sites on three sets of frequencies (4.0125, 4.759, 5.734 MHz) and reflected off the ionosphere approximately halfway between the transmitter and receiver sites. It is shown that the sources of the gravity waves associated with tornadoes are always on the squall lines and near the tornado touchdown locations, and that analyses of ionospheric Doppler sounder observations of medium-scale gravity waves can contribute to the understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and the troposphere during periods of severe storm activity.

  15. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS – a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferencz Csaba


    Full Text Available In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service ( offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  16. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project (United States)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any


    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service ( offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  17. Insights into the nature of northwest-to-southeast aligned ionospheric wavefronts from contemporaneous Very Large Array and ionosonde observations (United States)

    Helmboldt, J. F.


    The results of contemporaneous summer nighttime observations of midlatitude medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) with the Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and nearby ionosondes in Texas and Colorado are presented. Using 132, 20-minute observations, several instances of MSTIDs were detected, all having wavefronts aligned northwest to southeast and mostly propagating toward the southwest, consistent with previous studies of MSTIDs. However, some were also found to move toward the northeast. It was found that both classes of MSTIDs were only found when sporadic-E (Es) layers of moderate peak density (1.5​ foEs​ foEs > ​3 MHz that was not present when 1.5​ foEs < ​3 MHz. No MSTIDs were observed either before midnight or when the F-region height was increasing at a relatively high rate, even when these Es layers were observed. Combining this result with AE indices which were relatively high at the time (an average of about 300 nT and maximum of nearly 700 nT), it is inferred that both the lack of MSTIDs and the increase in F-region height are due to substorm-induced electric fields. The northeastward-directed MSTIDs were strongest post-midnight during times when the F-region was observed to be collapsing relatively quickly. This implies that these two occurrences are related and likely both caused by rare shifts in F-region neutral wind direction from southwest to northwest.

  18. The Anatomy of Medium-Scale Farm Growth in Zambia: What Are the Implications for the Future of Smallholder Agriculture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sitko


    Full Text Available Lost in the debates about the appropriate scale of production to promote agricultural growth in Africa is the rapid expansion of medium-scale farmers. Using Zambia as a case study, this article explores the causes and consequences of this middle-tier transformation on the future of small-scale agriculture. Combining political economic analysis with household survey data, this article examines the relationships between the growth in medium-scale farmers and changing conditions of land access, inequality, and alienation for small-scale farmers. Growth of medium-scale farmers is associated with high land inequality and rapid land alienation in high potential agricultural areas. This growth is shown to be partially driven by wage earner investment in land acquisition and is leading to substantial under-utilization of agricultural land. These processes are both limiting agricultural growth potential and foreclosing future options for an inclusive agricultural development strategy.

  19. Ionospheric effects during severe space weather events seen in ionospheric service data products (United States)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Danielides, Michael; Mayer, Christoph; Borries, Claudia

    Space weather effects are closely related to complex perturbation processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere systems, initiated by enhanced solar energy input. To understand and model complex space weather processes, different views on the same subject are helpful. One of the ionosphere key parameters is the Total Electron Content (TEC) which provides a first or-der approximation of the ionospheric range error in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications. Additionally, horizontal gradients and time rate of change of TEC are important for estimating the perturbation degree of the ionosphere. TEC maps can effectively be gener-ated using ground based GNSS measurements from global receiver networks. Whereas ground based GNSS measurements provide good horizontal resolution, space based radio occultation measurements can complete the view by providing information on the vertical plasma density distribution. The combination of ground based TEC and vertical sounding measurements pro-vide essential information on the shape of the vertical electron density profile by computing the equivalent slab thickness at the ionosonde station site. Since radio beacon measurements at 150/400 MHz are well suited to trace the horizontal structure of Travelling Ionospheric Dis-turbances (TIDs), these data products essentially complete GNSS based TEC mapping results. Radio scintillation data products, characterising small scale irregularities in the ionosphere, are useful to estimate the continuity and availability of transionospheric radio signals. The different data products are addressed while discussing severe space weather events in the ionosphere e.g. events in October/November 2003. The complementary view of different near real time service data products is helpful to better understand the complex dynamics of ionospheric perturbation processes and to forecast the development of parameters customers are interested in.

  20. The Effect of Business Climate on Operations of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Oluremi Olubitan


    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of business climate on operations of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs in Nigeria. Specifically, the aims were to identify the various business climates affecting SMEs, examine how business climates affects sales turnover of SMEs, and evaluate the effect of business climate on Total Factor Productivity (TFP of SMEs in Nigeria. The research utilized secondary data collected from 2.783 registered businesses in all sectors. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. It reveals that majority of SMEs experience one constraints or another as a major obstacle which includes inadequate electricity supply (53,22% and access to finance (15,74%. Inferential statistics such as Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA indicated that labour (0,9943; P < 0,05 and infrastructure (0,7133; P < 0,05 are the only significant variables to sales turnover. Meanwhile,  the regression analysis shows that raw material, labor, infrastructure and fixed cost are the variables that have a strong predicted variance in TFP at P < 0,05 with p-value of 0,000. Water is also observed to be significant at P < 0,1 with p-value of 0,087.

  1. Highly Uniform Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors and Medium Scale Integrated Circuits. (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Panpan; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Qiu, Song; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao


    Top-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated in batch based on carbon nanotube (CNT) network thin films prepared from CNT solution and present high yield and highly uniform performance with small threshold voltage distribution with standard deviation of 34 mV. According to the property of FETs, various logical and arithmetical gates, shifters, and d-latch circuits were designed and demonstrated with rail-to-rail output. In particular, a 4-bit adder consisting of 140 p-type CNT FETs was demonstrated with higher packing density and lower supply voltage than other published integrated circuits based on CNT films, which indicates that CNT based integrated circuits can reach to medium scale. In addition, a 2-bit multiplier has been realized for the first time. Benefitted from the high uniformity and suitable threshold voltage of CNT FETs, all of the fabricated circuits based on CNT FETs can be driven by a single voltage as small as 2 V.

  2. A measurement of the medium-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation (United States)

    Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Inman, C. A.; Kowitt, M. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Silverberg, R. F.


    Observations from the first flight of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM) are analyzed to place limits on Gaussian fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This instrument chops a 30 min beam in a three-position pattern with a throw of +/- 40 min; the resulting data is analyzed in statistically independent single- and double-difference sets. We observe in four spectral channels at 5.6, 9.0, 16.5, and 22.5/cm, allowing the separation of interstellar dust emission from CMBR fluctuations. The dust component is correlated with the IRAS 100 micron map. The CMBR component has two regions where the signature of an unresolved source is seen. Rejecting these two source regions, we obtain a detection of fluctuations which match CMBR in our spectral bands of 0.6 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta (T)/T is less than 2.2 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) for total rms Gaussian fluctuations with correlation angle 0.5 deg, using the single-difference demodulation. Fore the double difference demodulation, the result is 1.1 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta(T)/T is less than 3.1 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) at a correlation angle of 0.3 deg.

  3. High latitude ionospheric structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Earth's ionosphere is an important element in solar-terrestrial energy transfer processes. As a major terrestrial sink for many solar and magnetospheric events, the ionosphere has characteristic features that are traced to such seemingly remote phenomena as solar flares, radiation belt wave-particle interactions and magnetospheric substorms. In considering the multiple of solar-terrestrial plasma interactions, it is important to recognize that the high-latitude ionosphere is not altogether a simple receptor of various energy deposition processes. The high-altitude ionosphere plays an active feedback role by controlling the conductivity at the base of far-reaching magnetic field lines and by providing a plasma source for the magnetosphere. Indeed, the role of the ionosphere during magnetospheric substorms is emerging as a topic for meaningful study in the overall picture of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling

  4. Ionospheric research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdu, M.A.


    Ionosphere investigations at INPE are mainly concerned with the problems of equatorial and tropical ionospheres and their electrodynamic coupling with the high latitude ionosphere. Present research objectives include investigations in the following specific areas: equatorial ionospheric plasma dynamics; plasma irregularity generation and morphology, and effects on space borne radar operations; ionospheric response to disturbance dynamo and magnetospheric electric fields; aeronomic effcts of charged particle precipitation in the magnetic anomaly, etc. These problems are being investigated using experimental datacollected from ionospheric diagnostic instruments being operated at different locations in Brazil. These instruments are: ionosondes, VHF electronic polarimeters, L-band scintillation receivers, airglow photometers, riometers and VLF receivers. A brief summary of the research activities and some recnet results will be presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Spectral classification of medium-scale high-latitude F region plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Sachs Freeman Associates, Bowie, MD)


    The high-latitude ionosphere represents a highly structured plasma. Rodriguez and Szuszczewicz (1984) reported a wide range of plasma density irregularities (150 km to 75 m) at high latitudes near 200 km. They have shown that the small-scale irregularities (7.5 km to 75 m) populated the dayside oval more often than the other phenomenological regions. It was suggested that in the lower F region the chemical recombination is fast enough to remove small-scale irregularities before convection can transport them large distances, leaving structured particle precipitation as the dominant source term for irregularities. The present paper provides the results of spectral analyses of pulsed plasma probe data collected in situ aboard the STP/S3-4 satellite during the period March-September 1978. A quantitative description of irregularity spectra in the high-latitude lower F region plasma density is given. 22 references


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priyanti


    Full Text Available An evaluation was conducted of the returns to fattening cattle of small- and medium-scaleenterprises in East Java. The objective was to analyze income over feed costs (IOFC based on locallyavailable feedstuffs to increase liveweight gain. The study was conducted during July-September 2010and January-March 2011, representing relative dry and wet season. The breeds were PO and Limousinand Simmental crossed with PO (LimPO and SimPO. Small-scale farmers owning 1-2 bulls andmedium-scale farmers fattening 10-20 bulls in one period. Fattening period was 58 and 46 days,respectively for dry and wet season. Monthly measurements included liveweight, feed intake, input andoutput prices. Mean values of growth rates and IOFC were compared using t-tests. The results indicatedthat, for small-scale operations, SimPO bulls gave a significantly higher return than either PO or LimPObulls. Likewise, LimPO gave a higher IOFC than SimPO in medium-scale operations. Small-scalefarmers achieved equal or higher IOFC for European-cross than medium-scale farmers in both seasons.This reflects that cash outlays for feed were about two-thirds that of medium-scale operations whiledaily growth rates were similar. Small-scale fattening operations using European-cross can befinancially competitive with medium-scale operations in both wet and dry seasons.

  7. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  8. Medium-scale carbon nanotube thin-film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates. (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Kim, Hoon-sik; Pimparkar, Ninad; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P; Wang, Congjun; Shim, Moonsub; Roy, Kaushik; Alam, Muhammad A; Rogers, John A


    The ability to form integrated circuits on flexible sheets of plastic enables attributes (for example conformal and flexible formats and lightweight and shock resistant construction) in electronic devices that are difficult or impossible to achieve with technologies that use semiconductor wafers or glass plates as substrates. Organic small-molecule and polymer-based materials represent the most widely explored types of semiconductors for such flexible circuitry. Although these materials and those that use films or nanostructures of inorganics have promise for certain applications, existing demonstrations of them in circuits on plastic indicate modest performance characteristics that might restrict the application possibilities. Here we report implementations of a comparatively high-performance carbon-based semiconductor consisting of sub-monolayer, random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield small- to medium-scale integrated digital circuits, composed of up to nearly 100 transistors on plastic substrates. Transistors in these integrated circuits have excellent properties: mobilities as high as 80 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold slopes as low as 140 m V dec(-1), operating voltages less than 5 V together with deterministic control over the threshold voltages, on/off ratios as high as 10(5), switching speeds in the kilohertz range even for coarse (approximately 100-microm) device geometries, and good mechanical flexibility-all with levels of uniformity and reproducibility that enable high-yield fabrication of integrated circuits. Theoretical calculations, in contexts ranging from heterogeneous percolative transport through the networks to compact models for the transistors to circuit level simulations, provide quantitative and predictive understanding of these systems. Taken together, these results suggest that sub-monolayer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive materials for flexible integrated circuits, with many potential areas of

  9. Debris flow hazard modelling on medium scale: Valtellina di Tirano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blahut


    Full Text Available Debris flow hazard modelling at medium (regional scale has been subject of various studies in recent years. In this study, hazard zonation was carried out, incorporating information about debris flow initiation probability (spatial and temporal, and the delimitation of the potential runout areas. Debris flow hazard zonation was carried out in the area of the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (Central Alps, Italy. The complexity of the phenomenon, the scale of the study, the variability of local conditioning factors, and the lacking data limited the use of process-based models for the runout zone delimitation. Firstly, a map of hazard initiation probabilities was prepared for the study area, based on the available susceptibility zoning information, and the analysis of two sets of aerial photographs for the temporal probability estimation. Afterwards, the hazard initiation map was used as one of the inputs for an empirical GIS-based model (Flow-R, developed at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland. An estimation of the debris flow magnitude was neglected as the main aim of the analysis was to prepare a debris flow hazard map at medium scale. A digital elevation model, with a 10 m resolution, was used together with landuse, geology and debris flow hazard initiation maps as inputs of the Flow-R model to restrict potential areas within each hazard initiation probability class to locations where debris flows are most likely to initiate. Afterwards, runout areas were calculated using multiple flow direction and energy based algorithms. Maximum probable runout zones were calibrated using documented past events and aerial photographs. Finally, two debris flow hazard maps were prepared. The first simply delimits five hazard zones, while the second incorporates the information about debris flow spreading direction probabilities, showing areas more likely to be affected by future debris flows. Limitations of the modelling arise

  10. Budget Uav Systems for the Prospection of - and Medium-Scale Archaeological Sites (United States)

    Ostrowski, W.; Hanus, K.


    One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer) grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make prospection highly


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ostrowski


    Full Text Available One of the popular uses of UAVs in photogrammetry is providing an archaeological documentation. A wide offer of low-cost (consumer grade UAVs, as well as the popularity of user-friendly photogrammetric software allowing obtaining satisfying results, contribute to facilitating the process of preparing documentation for small archaeological sites. However, using solutions of this kind is much more problematic for larger areas. The limited possibilities of autonomous flight makes it significantly harder to obtain data for areas too large to be covered during a single mission. Moreover, sometimes the platforms used are not equipped with telemetry systems, which makes navigating and guaranteeing a similar quality of data during separate flights difficult. The simplest solution is using a better UAV, however the cost of devices of such type often exceeds the financial capabilities of archaeological expeditions. The aim of this article is to present methodology allowing obtaining data for medium scale areas using only a basic UAV. The proposed methodology assumes using a simple multirotor, not equipped with any flight planning system or telemetry. Navigating of the platform is based solely on live-view images sent from the camera attached to the UAV. The presented survey was carried out using a simple GoPro camera which, from the perspective of photogrammetric use, was not the optimal configuration due to the fish eye geometry of the camera. Another limitation is the actual operational range of UAVs which in the case of cheaper systems, rarely exceeds 1 kilometre and is in fact often much smaller. Therefore the surveyed area must be divided into sub-blocks which correspond to the range of the drone. It is inconvenient since the blocks must overlap, so that they will later be merged during their processing. This increases the length of required flights as well as the computing power necessary to process a greater number of images. These issues make

  12. Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.


    ), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...

  13. Long-Term Observation of Small and Medium-Scale Gravity Waves over the Brazilian Equatorial Region (United States)

    Essien, Patrick; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Takahashi, Hisao; Campos, Jose Andre


    This paper reports the long term observations of small and medium-scale gravity waves over Brazilian equatorial region. Coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from OLAP at Sao Joao do Cariri (7.400S, 36.500W) to investigate the occurrences and properties and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky imager measurements were made from the site. for almost 11 consecutive years (September 2000 to November 2010). Most of the waves propagated were characterized as small-scale gravity. The characteristics of the two waves events agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. It was also observed that some of the medium-scale were capable of propagating into the lower thermosphere where they may have acted directly as seeds for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability development. The wave events were primarily generated by meteorological processes since there was no correlation between the evolution of the wave events and solar cycle F10.7.

  14. Economic Appraisal of Small and Medium Scale Poultry Egg Production in Ife and Ilesha Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari Ahmed Olugbenga


    Full Text Available The study appraised the economic performance of small and medium scale poultry egg production in Ife and Ilesha metropolis, Osun State Nigeria. A purposive sampling was used to select one hundred and twenty poultry egg farmers, cluster sampling was used to select areas where small and medium scale were concentrated in the study area then sixty (60 small scale and sixty (60 medium scale were randomly selected to form the population of the study. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were employed for budgetary analysis and economic performance. The ordinary least square was used to determine the significant variables influencing the gross margin of poultry egg farmers at different levels of scale of production. The study shows that the gross margin of small farms was ₦575.65 while the gross margin of medium farms was ₦43672.62. The total production cost of small and medium farms were ₦1480.25 and ₦29654.43 respectively. The results further reveal that costs of feed constituted the largest share of the total costs for the two categories of farm size. The amount spent on drug and feed were the only significant determining factors of revenue accruable to both categories of poultry egg farmers. Although, poultry egg production was profitable in the study area, the level of profit depended on the scale of operation.

  15. Subsurface structures and properties of a medium-scale peatland area by means of hydrogeophysical methods (United States)

    Altdorff, Daniel; van der Kruk, Jan; Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Huismann, Sander


    Intact peatlands are natural sinks of climate-relevant atmospheric CO2 and they are able to store high amounts of organic carbon (C). In addition, intact peatlands are increasingly important given positive effects on biodiversity, hydrological processes and corresponding management issues. Nevertheless, large parts of peatlands in populated areas were modified by human activity during the last centuries. In Germany, more than 90% of the peatlands are drained, mainly for agricultural use. Due to the recent recognition of the positive effects of intact peatlands, there are presently several initiatives for re-wetting parts of these peatlands. However, a restoration to nearly natural conditions needs an evaluation of the current situation as well as an assessment of the restoration potential. Therefore, soil properties like peat layer thickness, bulk density and moisture content need to be known. Non-invasive hydrogeophysical methods offer the possibility for a time and cost-effective characterization of peatlands. In this study, we investigated a medium-scale peatland area (approximately 35 ha) of the 3000 ha large 'Großes Moor' peatland. We present apparent conductivity (ECa) values obtained from Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) measurements representative for three investigation depths (approximately 0.25, 0.5, and 1m). We selected zones with dissimilar ECa to identify areas where strong changes in the subsoil properties with depth are expected (i.e. shallow peat soil on top of sand). Within these areas, additional measurements were made using Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) and soil sampling was performed. In total, six 30 m long GPR profiles and corresponding common midpoint (CMP) measurements were recorded. Additionally, 15 soil cores were taken down to a depth of 0.9 m in order to obtain peat thickness, water content, pore water EC, bulk density (BD), as well as C and N content. Each core was divided into several 5 to 20 cm thick layers to obtain information on

  16. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey


    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  17. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  18. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology (United States)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan


    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future

  19. Travel expenses


    Pištěková, Petra


    The thesis "Travel expenses" is dedicated to the travel expenses according to Czech legislation. The aim is to describe the travel reimbursement and to analyze the providing of compensation travel expenses on example of the elementary art school Zruč nad Sázavou. The purpose of this analysis is primarily to find an optimal solution to the problem of determining the place of regular workplace for the travel expenses. The theoretical part focuses on the identification and definition of all prin...

  20. The relationship between job satisfaction and general health in workers and workplace accidents in medium-scale industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan


    Full Text Available Background & objective: Job satisfaction and high levels of general health in workers can lead to their better performance, the reduction of workplace accidents and ultimately the improved productivity of the organization. The present study was therefore conducted to assess the relationship between these variables and the incidence of workplace accidents in medium-scale industries in 2014-15. Methods: : The entire population of workers in three medium-scale industries (n=163 entered the study. Data collection was conducted using Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire containing items on age, gender and the number of workplace accidents. The data obtained were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multiple-linear and the Poisson regression models. Results: The general health scores obtained by the participants ranged from 4 to 68 and had a mean and standard deviation of 25.87±13.085. The job satisfaction scores obtained ranged from 31 to 100 and had a mean and standard deviation of 63.45±11.462. The Poisson regression model showed that the level of education, age, physical symptoms and anxiety and insomnia had a significant relationship with the rate of accidents (P<0.05. The model also showed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and general health ( =-0.417 and P =0.001. Conclusion: The general health of the study participants can be said to be unacceptable and their job satisfaction to be medium. Devising plans for controlling and improving psychological and psycho-social factors such as job satisfaction is essential for workplace decision-makers, particularly in small and medium-scale industries. These plans can facilitate the achievement of higher health and safety levels in workers.

  1. Travel medicine (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian


    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  2. The structure of mid- and high-latitude ionosphere during September 1999 storm event obtained from GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shagimuratov

    Full Text Available TEC data, obtained from over 60 GPS stations, were used to study the ionospheric effects of the 12–16 September 1999 magnetic storm over Europe. The spatial and temporal changes of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps, which present 15 min averages of TEC. The data set consisting of GPS observations, collected by a dense network of European stations, with sampling rate of 30 s, enable the creation of TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. The storm included the positive as well as the negative phase. The positive phase took place during the first storm day of 12 September 1999. The short-lived daytime TEC enhancement was observed at all latitudes. The maximal enhancement reached a factor of 1.3–1.5. On the second and third days, the negative phase of the storm developed. The TEC decrease was registered regardless of time of the day. The TEC depression exceeded 70% relative to quiet days. On the following days (15 and 16 September, a significant daytime enhancement of TEC was observed once again. The complex occurrence of the ionospheric storm was probably related to the features of development of the magnetic storm. We found out that during the storm the large and medium-scale irregularities developed in the high-latitude ionosphere. The multi-stations technique, employed to create TEC maps, was particularly successful while studying the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. We found out that the essential changes of TEC during the storm, which were registered at the auroral and sub-auroral ionosphere, were connected with the effect of the trough and its dynamics, which depends on geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; auroral ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere

  3. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  4. H2POWER: Development of a methodology to calculate life cycle cost of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verduzco, Laura E.; Duffey, Michael R.; Deason, Jonathan P.


    At this time, hydrogen-based power plants and large hydrogen production facilities are capital intensive and unable to compete financially against hydrocarbon-based energy production facilities. An option to overcome this problem and foster the introduction of hydrogen technology is to introduce small and medium-scale applications such as residential and community hydrogen refueling units. Such units could potentially be used to generate both electricity and heat for the home, as well as hydrogen fuel for the automobile. Cost modeling for the integration of these three forms of energy presents several methodological challenges. This is particularly true since the technology is still in the development phase and both the financial and the environmental cost must be calculated using mainly secondary sources. In order to address these issues and aid in the design of small and medium-scale hydrogen systems, this study presents a computer model to calculate financial and environmental costs of this technology using different hydrogen pathways. The model can design and compare hydrogen refueling units against hydrocarbon-based technologies, including the 'gap' between financial and economic costs. Using the methodology, various penalties and incentives that can foster the introduction of hydrogen-based technologies can be added to the analysis to study their impact on financial cost

  5. Ionospheric topside sounding. (United States)

    Calvert, W


    Over the past few years, the satellite topside sounders have significantly contributed to the understanding of the upper ionosphere. A great quantity of radio echo data has been accumulated, from which the ionospheric electrondensity distribution can be determined. The topside measurements of electron density essentially agree with similar measurements from the ground, except for an occasional 10-percent discrepancy near the peak of the ionosphere. While horizontal non-uniformity is a likely cause, this discrepancy has not yet been adequately explained. The electron-density scale heights measured at a constant altitude indicate both a higher temperature and a heavier mean ion mass at high latitudes. At low latitudes the topside measurements have shown the detailed latitudinal structure of the equatorial anomaly, demonstrating control by the geomagnetic field. A variety of electron-density irregularities have been studied. Most are greatly elongated along the magnetic field, and produce echoes either by lateral scattering, if they are thin, or by longitudinal ducting, if they are thick. Some of the thick irregularities are continuous between the hemispheres and support conjugate echo propagation. The topside sounders have revealed the complex structure of the ionosphere near the auroral zone and at higher latitudes. At night an east-west trough of greatly reduced electron density occurs equatorward of the auroral zone. At the auroral zone itself the electron density is high and quite variable, both in space and time. The electron density at the polar cap within the auroral zone is often uniform and smooth. Ionospheric irregularities are common in the area of the trough and the auroral zone. Among other satellites, the topside sounders have been used in various plasma studies involving the excitation and propagation of waves. These studies suggest that the ionosphere is an appropriate region for future plasma physics investigations, especially with rocket and

  6. Mapping of the quasi-periodic oscillations at the flank magnetopause into the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Dougal


    Full Text Available We have estimated the ionospheric location, area, and travel time of quasi-periodic oscillations originating from the magnetospheric flanks. This was accomplished by utilizing global and local MHD models and Tsyganenko semi-empirical magnetic field model on multiple published and four new cases believed to be caused by the Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability. Finally, we used auroral, magnetometer, and radar instruments to observe the ionospheric signatures. The ionospheric magnetic latitude determined using global MHD and Tsyganenko models ranged from 58.3–80.2 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and −59.6 degrees to −83.4 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. The ionospheric magnetic local time ranged between 5.0–13.8 h in the Northern Hemisphere and 1.3–11.9 h in the Southern Hemisphere. Typical Alfvén wave travel time from spacecraft location to the closest ionosphere ranged between 0.6–3.6 min. The projected ionospheric size calculated at an altitude of 100 km ranged from 47–606 km, the same order of magnitude as previously determined ionospheric signature sizes. Stationary and traveling convection vortices were observed in SuperDARN radar data in both hemispheres. The vortices were between 1000–1800 km in size. Some events were located within the ionospheric footprint ranges. Pc5 magnetic oscillations were observed in SuperMAG magnetometer data in both hemispheres. The oscillations had periods between 4–10 min with amplitudes of 3–25 nT. They were located within the ionospheric footprint ranges. Some ground magnetometer data power spectral density peaked at frequencies within one tenth of a mHz of the peaks found in the corresponding Cluster data. These magnetometer observations were consistent with previously published results.

  7. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.


    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  8. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  9. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia


    Full Text Available To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth level towards maturity level. Meanwhile, competition in the food industry is in moderate level towards hypercompetition level. Tactics of accelerated product development often carried out is by simplifying the product development steps to eliminating the product development steps. The innovation type used is incremental innovation since it is fast and easy. Results of the research give information that intuition and capabilities are the main motivating factors for big-medium scaled food companies in Indonesia to accelerate product development.

  10. Analytical Investigation and Control System Set-up of Medium Scale PV Plants for Power Flow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Miceli


    Full Text Available In the field of photovoltaic (PV plants and energy conversion from renewable sources, a large part of the technical literature is more devoted to practical aspects (new solar cells, electrically driven PV panels, safety, reduction of parasitic currents, etc. than to theoretical investigations. Despite this tendency, this paper presents a mathematical analysis of a medium scale photovoltaic power generation system connected to the distribution network and of its control system. In such a system, the conversion stage is unique due to the absence of a boost chopper. The conducted analysis leads to the interesting conclusion that the inverter used in the plant presents two degrees of freedom, easy to exploit in a control system in which the inverter simultaneously realizes the interconnection to the grid and the MPPT control. The structure of the control system is then presented, discussed and validated by means of numerical simulations.

  11. DC Electric Field measurement in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere during MSTID by S-520-27 Sounding Rocket Experiments (United States)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.


    In the middle latitude ionospheric F region, mainly in summer, wave structures of electron density that have wave length of 100-200 km and period of one hour are observed. This phenomena is called Medium Scale Traveling Ionosphiric Disturbance; MSTID. MSTID has been observed by GPS receiving network, and its characteristic were studied. In the past, MSTID was thought to be generated by the Perkins instability, but its growth ratio was too small to be effective so far smaller than the real. Recently coupling process between ionospheric E and F regions are studied by using two radars and by computer simulations. Through these studies, we now have hypothesis that MSTID is generated by the combination of E-F region coupling and Perkins instability. The S-520-27 sounding rocket experiment on E-layer and F-layer was planned in order to verify this hypothesis. S-520-27 sounding rocket was launched at 23:57 JST on 20th July, 2013 from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center. S-520-27 sounding rocket reached 316km height. The S-520-27 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifier using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. As a results of measurements of DC electric fields by the EFD, the natural electric field was about +/-5mV/m, and varied the direction from southeast to east. Then the electric field was mapped to the horizontal plane at 280km height along the geomagnetic field line. In this presentation, we show the detail result of DC electric field measurement by S-520-27 sounding rocket and then we discuss about the correlation between the natural electric field and TEC variation by using the GPS-TEC.

  12. Ionospheric Bow Waves and Perturbations Induced by the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Philip J.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William; Vierinen, Juha


    During solar eclipses, the Moon's shadow causes a large reduction in atmospheric energy input, including not only the stratosphere but also the thermosphere and ionosphere. The eclipse shadow has a supersonic motion which is theoretically expected to generate atmospheric bow waves, similar to a fast-moving river boat, with waves starting in the lower atmosphere and propagating into the ionosphere. However, previous geographically limited observations have had difficulty detecting these weak waves within the natural background atmospheric variability, and the existence of eclipse-induced ionospheric waves and their evolution in a complex coupling system remain controversial. During the 21 August 2017 eclipse, high fidelity and wide coverage ionospheric observations provided for the first time an oversampled set of eclipse data, using a dense network of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at ˜2,000 sites in North America. We show the first unambiguous evidence of ionospheric bow waves as electron content disturbances over central/eastern United States, with ˜1 h duration, 300-400 km wavelength and 280 m/s phase speed emanating from and tailing the totality region. We also identify large ionospheric perturbations moving at the supersonic speed of the maximum solar obscuration which are too fast to be associated with known gravity wave or large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance processes. This study reveals complex interconnections between the Sun, Moon, and Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere and demonstrates persistent coupling processes between different components of the Earth's atmosphere, a topic of significant community interest.

  13. Analysis of ionospheric disturbances associated with powerful cyclones in East Asia and North America (United States)

    Li, Wang; Yue, Jianping; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhen; Guo, Jinyun; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Kefei


    East Asia and North America are the regions most heavily affected by powerful cyclones. In this paper we investigate the morphological characteristics of ionospheric disturbances induced by cyclones in different continents. The global ionosphere map supplied by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), International Reference Ionosphere Model (IRI) 2012, and Wallops Island ionosonde station data are used to analyse the ionospheric variations during powerful typhoons/hurricanes in East Asia and North America, respectively. After eliminating the ionospheric anomalies due to the solar-terrestrial environment, the total electron content (TEC) time series over the point with maximum wind speed is detected by the sliding interquartile range method. The results indicate that significant ionospheric disturbances are observed during powerful tropical cyclones in East Asia and North America, respectively, and that all the ionospheric anomalies are positive. In addition, the extent and magnitude of travelling ionospheric disturbances are associated with the category of tropical cyclone, and the extent of TEC anomalies in longitude is more pronounced than that in latitude. Furthermore, the maximum ionospheric anomaly does not coincide with the eye of the storm, but appears in the region adjacent to the centre. This implies that ionospheric disturbances at the edges of cyclones are larger than those in the eye of the winds. The phenomenon may be associated with the gravity waves which are generated by strong convective cells that occur in the spiral arms of tropical cyclones. This comprehensive analysis suggests that the presence of powerful typhoons/hurricanes may be a possible source mechanism for ionospheric anomalies.

  14. Ionospheric disturbance dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.; Richmond, A.D.


    A numerical simulation study of the thermospheric winds produced by auroral heating during magnetic storms, and of their global dynamo effects, establishes the main features of the ionospheric disturbanc dynamo. Driven by auroral heating, a Hadley cell is created with equatorward winds blowing above about 120 km at mid-latitudes. The transport of angular momentum by these winds produces a subrotation of the midlatitude thermosphere, or westward motion with respect to the earth. The westward winds in turn drive equatorward Pedersen currents which accumulate charge toward the equator, resulting in the generation of a poleward electric field, a westward E x B drift, and an eastward current. When realistic local time conductivity variations are simulated, the eastward mid-latitude current is found to close partly via lower latitudes, resulting in an 'anti-Sq' type of current vortex. Both electric field and current at low latitudes thus vary in opposition to their normal quiet-day behavior. This total pattern of distrubance winds, electric fields, and currents is superimposed upon the background quiet-day pattern. When the neutral winds are artificially confined on the nightside, the basic pattern of predominantly westward E x B plasma drifts still prevails on the nightside but no longer extends into the dayside. Considerable observational evidence exists, suggesting that the ionospheric disturbance dynamo has an appreciable influence on storm-time ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes

  15. Travel Overview (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search You are here Administration / Finance / Travel Travel The Department of Administration administers the

  16. Cubesat-Based Dtv Receiver Constellation for Ionospheric Tomography (United States)

    Bahcivan, H.; Leveque, K.; Doe, R. A.


    sort the frequencies and de-trend the phase variations due to spacecraft motion. For a single channel and a spacecraft-DTV transmitter path scan, TEC can be determined from the incremental phase variations for each channel. Determination of the absolute TEC requires knowledge of the absolute phase, i.e., including the number of 2π cycles. The absolute TEC can be determined in the case of multi-channel transmissions from a single tower (most towers house multiple television stations). A CubeSat constellation using DTV transmissions as signals of opportunity is a composite instrument for frontier ionospheric research. It is a novel application of CubeSats to understand the ionospheric response to solar, magnetospheric and upper atmospheric forcing. Combined tomographic measurements of ionospheric density can be used to study the global-scale ionospheric circulation and small-scale ionospheric structures that cause scintillation of trans-ionospheric signals. The data can support a wide range of studies, including Sub-auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS), low latitude plasma instabilities and the generation of equatorial spread F bubbles, and the role of atmospheric waves and layers and sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID).

  17. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ström


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25 and medium-scale (n = 27 pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. Methods Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Faecal samples were collected from three healthy sows at each farm, and Escherichia coli was cultured and analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Multilevel regression models were used to compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from small- and medium-scale farms. Results All farms included in the study administered antimicrobials to their sows. Small-scale farmers most commonly (64% decided themselves when to give antimicrobials and the majority (60% bought the medicines at the local store or pharmacy, whereas farmers on medium-scale farms always discussed antimicrobial treatment with a veterinarian. Medium-scale farms used a greater diversity of antimicrobials than small-scale farms and did also administer antimicrobials in feed to a higher extent. High levels of antimicrobial resistance to several critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (including ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and ampicillin were found in isolates from both small- and medium-scale farms. Resistance levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in isolates from medium-scale farms for several of the antimicrobials tested, as well as the level of multidrug-resistance (P = 0.026. Conclusion The routines regarding access and administration of antimicrobials differed between the small- and

  18. Travellers' diarrhoea. (United States)

    Ericsson, Charles D


    Risk of travellers' diarrhoea is about 7% in developed countries and 20-50% in the developing world. Options for prevention include education and chemoprophylaxis. Vaccination is a promising but incomplete option. Achieving behaviour modification of food and water choices among tourists is difficult. Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS)-containing compounds are about 62% effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics are about 84% effective in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. Routine prophylaxis of travellers' diarrhoea, especially with antibiotics, should be discouraged. Oral rehydration is generally important in the treatment of diarrhoea, but travellers' diarrhoea is only infrequently dehydrating in adults. The addition of oral rehydration solutions confers no additional benefit to loperamide in the treatment of travellers' diarrhoea in adults. Presently, the most active of the antibiotics routinely available for treatment are members of the fluoroquinolone group. Antibiotics that are not absorbed such as aztreonam and a rifampicin-like agent, rifaximin, are both effective. The latter might become a therapy of choice once it is routinely available, due to predictably less adverse reactions with a non-absorbed antibiotic. Preliminary results with azithromycin look very promising. Less severe disease can be treated with a variety of non-antibiotic agents (e.g. BSS-containing compounds, loperamide and a calmodulin inhibitor, zaldaride). The combination of an antibiotic and loperamide is superior to treatment with either agent alone in a several studies and is arguably the treatment of choice for distressing travellers' diarrhoea.

  19. Atmosphere-ionosphere coupling from convectively generated gravity waves (United States)

    Azeem, Irfan; Barlage, Michael


    Ionospheric variability impacts operational performances of a variety of technological systems, such as HF communication, Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and radar surveillance. The ionosphere is not only perturbed by geomagnetic inputs but is also influenced by atmospheric tides and other wave disturbances propagating from the troposphere to high altitudes. Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) excited by meteorological sources are one of the largest sources of mesoscale variability in the ionosphere. In this paper, Total Electron Content (TEC) data from networks of GPS receivers in the United States are analyzed to investigate AGWs in the ionosphere generated by convective thunderstorms. Two case studies of convectively generated gravity waves are presented. On April 4, 2014 two distinct large convective systems in Texas and Arkansas generated two sets of concentric AGWs that were observed in the ionosphere as Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The period of the observed TIDs was 20.8 min, the horizontal wavelength was 182.4 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 146.4 m/s. The second case study shows TIDs generated from an extended squall line on December 23, 2015 stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes in North America. Unlike the concentric wave features seen in the first case study, the extended squall line generated TIDs, which exhibited almost plane-parallel phase fronts. The TID period was 20.1 min, its horizontal wavelength was 209.6 km, and the horizontal phase speed was 180.1 m/s. The AGWs generated by both of these meteorological events have large vertical wavelength (>100 km), which are larger than the F2 layer thickness, thus allowing them to be discernible in the TEC dataset.

  20. Substorm topology in the ionosphere and magnetosphere during a flux rope event in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm


    Full Text Available On 13 August 2002, at ~23:00 UT, about 10 min after a substorm intensification, Cluster observes a flux rope in the central magnetotail, followed by a localised fast flow event about oneminute later. Associated with the flux rope event, a traveling compression region (TCR is seen by those Cluster spacecraft which reside in the lobe. In the conjugate ionospheric region in Northern Scandinavia, the MIRACLE network observes the ionospheric equivalent currents, and the electron densities and electric fields are measured by the EISCAT radar along a meridional scanning profile. Further, the auroral evolution is observed with the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC on the IMAGE satellite. We compare in detail the substorm evolution as observed in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere, and examine whether topological correspondences to the flux rope event exist in the ionospheric signatures. The large-scale mapping of both the location and the direction of the flux rope to the ionosphere shows an excellent correspondence to a lens-shaped region of an auroral emission minimum. This region is bracketed by an auroral region equatorward of it which was preexisting to the substorm intensification, and a substorm-related auroral region poleward of it. It is characterised by reduced ionospheric conductances with respect to its environment, and downward field-aligned current (FAC observed both in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. As determined from the ionospheric data, this downward FAC area is moving eastward with a speed of ~2 km s-1, in good agreement with the mapped plasma bulk velocity measured at the Cluster satellite closest to that area. Further southwestward to this leading downward FAC area, a trailing upward FAC area is observed that moves eastward with the same speed. The direction of the ionospheric electric field permits a current closure between these two FAC areas through the ionosphere. We speculate that these FAC areas may correspond to

  1. An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya : case reoprt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Wabacha


    Full Text Available This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 oC, prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20 000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease.

  2. High-Performance Complementary Transistors and Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits Based on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films. (United States)

    Yang, Yingjun; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao


    Solution-derived carbon nanotube (CNT) network films with high semiconducting purity are suitable materials for the wafer-scale fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) and integrated circuits (ICs). However, it is challenging to realize high-performance complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FETs with high yield and stability on such CNT network films, and this difficulty hinders the development of CNT-film-based ICs. In this work, we developed a doping-free process for the fabrication of CMOS FETs based on solution-processed CNT network films, in which the polarity of the FETs was controlled using Sc or Pd as the source/drain contacts to selectively inject carriers into the channels. The fabricated top-gated CMOS FETs showed high symmetry between the characteristics of n- and p-type devices and exhibited high-performance uniformity and excellent scalability down to a gate length of 1 μm. Many common types of CMOS ICs, including typical logic gates, sequential circuits, and arithmetic units, were constructed based on CNT films, and the fabricated ICs exhibited rail-to-rail outputs because of the high noise margin of CMOS circuits. In particular, 4-bit full adders consisting of 132 CMOS FETs were realized with 100% yield, thereby demonstrating that this CMOS technology shows the potential to advance the development of medium-scale CNT-network-film-based ICs.

  3. [Optimization of ultrasonic extraction process for Xiaoqinglong granules by Box-Behnken in condition of medium scale]. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Kuan; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Fen; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei


    This paper is to investigate the optimization conditions of ultrasonic technique for extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules in medium scale. First of all, single factor experiment was used to determine the overall impact tendency and range of each factor; secondly, Box-Behnken method was used for optimization and detecting the content of paeoniflorin, ephedrine hydrochloride, glycyrrhizic acid of the liquid medicine. Their respective extraction rate was calculated and the comprehensive evaluation was carried out. The results were used as the evaluation basis for the efficacy of Xiaoqinglong granules ultrasonic extraction. The test results showed that the optimum extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules by ultrasonic extraction was under the following conditions: ultrasonic power 600 W, liquid-solid ratio 10∶1, extraction for 31 min. Under this condition, the predicted value of extraction rate for Xiaoqinglong granules was 85.90%, and the test value was 85.87%. The mathematical model(P<0.01) established in this paper was significant, and can be used for the analysis and prediction of the ultrasonic extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic processes in modified ionospheric plasma (United States)

    Kochetov, A.; Terina, G.

    Presented work is a contribution to the experimental and theoretical study of nonlinear effects arising on ionospheric plasma under the action of powerful radio emission (G.I. Terina, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 1995, v.57, p.273; A.V. Kochetov et. al., Advances in Space Research, 2002, in press). The experimental results were obtained by the method of sounding of artificially disturbed ionosphere by short radio pulses. The amplitude and phase characteristics of scattered signal as of "caviton" type (CS) (analogy of narrow-band component of stimulation electromagnetic emission (SEE)) as the main signal (MS) of probing transmitter are considered. The theoretical model is based on numerical solution of driven nonlinear Shrödinger equation (NSE) in inhomogeneous plasma. The simulation allows us to study a self-consistent spatial-temporal dynamics of field and plasma. The observed evolution of phase characteristics of MS and CS qualitatively correspond to the results of numerical simulation and demonstrate the penetration processes of powerful electromagnetic wave in supercritical (in linear approach) plasma regions. The modeling results explain also the periodic generation of CS, the travel CS maximum down to density gradient, the aftereffect of CS. The obtained results show the excitation of strong turbulence and allow us to interpret CS, NC and so far inexplicable phenomena as "spikes" too. The work was supported in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants Nos. 99-02-16642, 99-02- 16399).

  5. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.


    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  6. Travelers' Diarrhea (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... alcohol-based hand sanitizer. In general, it’s a good idea to keep your hands away from your ...

  7. Travelers' Health (United States)

    ... 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel Health Infrastructure Breakdown in Venezuela May 15, 2018 More Alert Level 2, Practice ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  8. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe


    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  9. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations (United States)

    Kurien, Sam


    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  10. NAP: The Network Analysis Profiler, a web tool for easier topological analysis and comparison of medium-scale biological networks. (United States)

    Theodosiou, Theodosios; Efstathiou, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bagos, Pantelis G; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A


    Nowadays, due to the technological advances of high-throughput techniques, Systems Biology has seen a tremendous growth of data generation. With network analysis, looking at biological systems at a higher level in order to better understand a system, its topology and the relationships between its components is of a great importance. Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature co-occurrences, are few of the examples captured in biological network representations where nodes represent certain bioentities and edges represent the connections between them. Today, many tools for network visualization and analysis are available. Nevertheless, most of them are standalone applications that often (i) burden users with computing and calculation time depending on the network's size and (ii) focus on handling, editing and exploring a network interactively. While such functionality is of great importance, limited efforts have been made towards the comparison of the topological analysis of multiple networks. Network Analysis Provider (NAP) is a comprehensive web tool to automate network profiling and intra/inter-network topology comparison. It is designed to bridge the gap between network analysis, statistics, graph theory and partially visualization in a user-friendly way. It is freely available and aims to become a very appealing tool for the broader community. It hosts a great plethora of topological analysis methods such as node and edge rankings. Few of its powerful characteristics are: its ability to enable easy profile comparisons across multiple networks, find their intersection and provide users with simplified, high quality plots of any of the offered topological characteristics against any other within the same network. It is written in R and Shiny, it is based on the igraph library and it is able to handle medium-scale weighted/unweighted, directed/undirected and bipartite graphs. NAP is available at .

  11. Travelers' Health: Rubella (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  12. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila


    European ionosondes. Also we studied the prominent phenomena (e.g. TIDs- Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances), and plasma irregularities (e.g. spread-F) of the ionosphere in the function of geomagnetic activity. As we compared the occurrences of TIDs and spread-F phenomena on the quiet days with their occurrences on moderate and strong stormy days, we can see significant correlation between the magnitude of the Ae-index and the daily number of the occurrence of TIDs, but at the same time there is no definite connection between the daily number of the occurrence of spread-F phenomenas and the intensity of geomagnetic activity.

  13. Travelers' diarrhea. (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, E


    On the average, one-fourth of North Americans visiting developing countries experience a self-limited diarrheal illness that interferes with holiday or business activities. Recent work suggests that these episodes are caused by a small inoculum of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which are common in the country visited and rare in the country of origin. Neither antimicrobial treatment nor anti-diarrheal agents have proven benefit once the illness has begun. Despite its frequent use, iodochlorhydroxyquin has not been shown in double blind studies to be effective as a preventive agent, and may be dangerous. The status of furazolidone for prevention of tourist diarrhea is questionable. Both neomycin sulfate and phythalylsulfathiazole have demonstrated efficacy as chemoprophylactics in Mexico. However, their use should be restricted to limited types of travel and travelers. General admonitions concerning avoidance of certain ingestibles are recommended; despite questionable value in preventing travelers' diarrhea such precautions may prevent more serious gastrointestinal illness.

  14. Human travel and traveling bedbugs. (United States)

    Delaunay, Pascal


    A dramatic increase of reported bedbug (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) infestations has been observed worldwide over the past decade. Bedbug infestations have also been detected across a wide range of travel accommodations, regardless of their comfort and hygiene levels. Travelers are increasingly exposed to the risks of bedbug bites, infestation of personal belongings, and subsequent contamination of newly visited accommodations and their homes. We searched Medline publications via the PubMed database. National bedbug recommendations, textbooks, newspapers, and Centers for Disease Control websites were also searched manually. To detect infested sites, avoid or limit bedbug bites, and reduce the risk of contaminating one's belongings and home, bedbug biology and ecology must be understood. A detailed search of their most classic hiding niches is a key to finding adult bedbugs, nymphs, eggs, and feces or traces of blood from crushed bedbugs. Locally, bedbugs move by active displacement to feed (bite) during the night. Bed, mattress, sofa, and/or curtains are the most frequently infested places. If you find bedbugs, change your room or, even better, the hotel. Otherwise, travelers should follow recommendations for avoiding bedbugs and their bites during the night and apply certain simple rules to avoid infesting other sites or their home. Travelers exposed to bedbugs can minimize the risks of bites and infestation of their belongings, and must also do their civic duty to avoid contributing to the subsequent contamination of other hotels and, finally, home. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  15. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.


    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  16. Pilot ionosonde network for identification of traveling ionospheric disturbances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reinisch, B.; Galkin, I.; Belehaki, A.; Paznukhov, V.; Huang, X.; Altadill, D.; Burešová, Dalia; Mielich, J.; Verhulst, T.; Stankov, S.; Blanch, E.; Kouba, Daniel; Hamel, R.; Kozlov, A.; Tsagouri, I.; Mouzakis, A.; Messerotti, M.; Parkinson, M.; Ishii, M.


    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2018), s. 365-378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440 EU Projects: European Commission 776011 - TechTIDE Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences

  17. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamic Coupling (United States)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Chmyrev, V. M.

    Numerous phenomena that occur in the mesosphere, ionosphere, and the magnetosphere of the Earth are caused by the sources located in the lower atmosphere and on the ground. We describe the effects produced by lightning activity and by ground-based transmitters operated in high frequency (HF) and very low frequency (VLF) ranges. Among these phenomena are the ionosphere heating and the formation of plasma density inhomogeneities, the excitation of gamma ray bursts and atmospheric emissions in different spectral bands, the generation of ULF/ELF/VLF electromagnetic waves and plasma turbulence in the ionosphere, the stimulation of radiation belt electron precipitations and the acceleration of ions in the upper ionosphere. The most interesting results of experimental and theoretical studies of these phenomena are discussed below. The ionosphere is subject to the action of the conductive electric current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit. We present a physical model of DC electric field and current formation in this circuit. The key element of this model is an external current, which is formed with the occurrence of convective upward transport of charged aerosols and their gravitational sedimentation in the atmosphere. An increase in the level of atmospheric radioactivity results in the appearance of additional ionization and change of electrical conductivity. Variation of conductivity and external current in the lower atmosphere leads to perturbation of the electric current flowing in the global atmosphere-ionosphere circuit and to the associated DC electric field perturbation both on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere. Description of these processes and some results of the electric field and current calculations are presented below. The seismic-induced electric field perturbations produce noticeable effects in the ionosphere by generating the electromagnetic field and plasma disturbances. We describe the generation mechanisms of such experimentally

  18. Martian Ionospheric Observation and Modeling (United States)

    González-Galindo, Francisco


    The Martian ionosphere is a plasma embedded within the neutral upper atmosphere of the planet. Its main source is the ionization of the CO2-dominated Martian mesosphere and thermosphere by the energetic EUV solar radiation. The ionosphere of Mars is subject to an important variability induced by changes in its forcing mechanisms (e.g., the UV solar flux) and by variations in the neutral atmosphere (e.g., the presence of global dust storms, atmospheric waves and tides, changes in atmospheric composition, etc.). Its vertical structure is dominated by a maximum in the electron concentration placed at about 120–140 km of altitude, coincident with the peak of the ionization rate. Below, a secondary peak produced by solar X-rays and photoelectron-impact ionization is observed. A sporadic third layer, possibly of meteoric origin, has been also detected below. The most abundant ion in the Martian ionosphere is O2+, although O+ can become more abundant in the upper ionospheric layers. While below about 180–200 km the Martian ionosphere is dominated by photochemical processes, above those altitudes the dynamics of the plasma become more important. The ionosphere is also an important source of escaping particles via processes such as dissociative recombination of ions or ion pickup. So, characterization of the ionosphere provides or can provide information about such disparate systems and processes as the solar radiation getting to the planet, the neutral atmosphere, the meteoric influx, the atmospheric escape to space, or the interaction of the planet with the solar wind. It is thus not surprising that the interest about this region dates from the beginning of the space era. From the first measurements provided by the Mariner 4 mission in the 1960s to the contemporaneous observations, still ongoing, by the Mars Express and MAVEN orbiters, our current knowledge of this atmospheric region is the consequence of the accumulation of more than 50 years of discontinuous

  19. Parallel Density-Based Clustering for Discovery of Ionospheric Phenomena (United States)

    Pankratius, V.; Gowanlock, M.; Blair, D. M.


    Ionospheric total electron content maps derived from global networks of dual-frequency GPS receivers can reveal a plethora of ionospheric features in real-time and are key to space weather studies and natural hazard monitoring. However, growing data volumes from expanding sensor networks are making manual exploratory studies challenging. As the community is heading towards Big Data ionospheric science, automation and Computer-Aided Discovery become indispensable tools for scientists. One problem of machine learning methods is that they require domain-specific adaptations in order to be effective and useful for scientists. Addressing this problem, our Computer-Aided Discovery approach allows scientists to express various physical models as well as perturbation ranges for parameters. The search space is explored through an automated system and parallel processing of batched workloads, which finds corresponding matches and similarities in empirical data. We discuss density-based clustering as a particular method we employ in this process. Specifically, we adapt Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN). This algorithm groups geospatial data points based on density. Clusters of points can be of arbitrary shape, and the number of clusters is not predetermined by the algorithm; only two input parameters need to be specified: (1) a distance threshold, (2) a minimum number of points within that threshold. We discuss an implementation of DBSCAN for batched workloads that is amenable to parallelization on manycore architectures such as Intel's Xeon Phi accelerator with 60+ general-purpose cores. This manycore parallelization can cluster large volumes of ionospheric total electronic content data quickly. Potential applications for cluster detection include the visualization, tracing, and examination of traveling ionospheric disturbances or other propagating phenomena. Acknowledgments. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 (PI V. Pankratius).

  20. The worldwide ionospheric data base (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter


    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  1. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilitza, D.


    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory

  2. Sustaining “Lilliputs” in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Prospects for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Enterprises in the Developing World


    Maria Divina Gracia Z. Roldan


    Micro, small, and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) comprise bulk of business entities in the developing world. Their contribution is seen in terms of employment generation and capital formation. Seen as the engine of growth in present knowledge-based economies, MSMEs play a crucial role in the economic sustainability of Asian developing countries. This paper discusses the role of MSMEs in Asia, with the Philippines as a case in point. It examines issues and challenges these enterprises face, ...

  3. The Rayleigh curve as a model for effort distribution over the life of medium scale software systems. M.S. Thesis - Maryland Univ. (United States)

    Picasso, G. O.; Basili, V. R.


    It is noted that previous investigations into the applicability of Rayleigh curve model to medium scale software development efforts have met with mixed results. The results of these investigations are confirmed by analyses of runs and smoothing. The reasons for the models' failure are found in the subcycle effort data. There are four contributing factors: uniqueness of the environment studied, the influence of holidays, varying management techniques and differences in the data studied.

  4. Approximate solutions and error bounds for the wave equation in a stratified ionosphere with turning points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalesso, G.F.; Jacobson, A.R.


    A solution to the problem of a plane electromagnetic wave traveling parallel to a constant magnetic field in a horizontally stratified ionosphere was developed assuming that the permittivity of the medium can be represented as the sum of an unperturbed component and a perturbed component. The method is successfully applied to the case of a linearly varying permittivity of a lossless ionosphere with a superimposed Gaussian perturbing term. The feasibility of applying the method in the presence of an odd number of turning points is discussed. 13 refs

  5. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus


    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  6. IAR signatures in the ionosphere: Modeling and observations at the Chibis-M microsatellite (United States)

    Pilipenko, V.; Dudkin, D.; Fedorov, E.; Korepanov, V.; Klimov, S.


    A peculiar feature of geomagnetic variations at middle/low latitudes in the ULF band, just below the fundamental tone of the Schumann resonance, is the occurrence of a multi-band spectral resonant structure, observed by high-sensitivity induction magnetometers during nighttime. The occurrence of such spectral structure was commonly attributed to the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) in the upper ionosphere. Rather surprisingly, while ground observations of the IAR are ubiquitous, there are practically no reports on the IAR signatures from space missions. According to the new paradigm, the multi-band spectral structure excited by a lightning discharge is in fact produced by a regular sequence of an original pulse from a stroke and echo-pulses reflected from the IAR upper boundary. Upon the interaction of initial lightning-generated pulse with the anisotropic lower ionosphere, it partially penetrates into the ionosphere, travels up the ionosphere as an Alfvén pulse, and reflects back from the upper IAR boundary. The superposition of the initial pulse and echo-pulses produces spectra with multiple spectral peaks. Our modeling of Alfvénic pulse propagation in a system with the altitude profile of Alfven velocity modeling the realistic ionosphere has shown that IAR spectral signatures are to be evident only on the ground and above the IAR. Inside the IAR, the superposition of upward and downward propagating pulses produces a more complicated spectral pattern and the IAR spectral signatures deteriorate. We have used electric field data from the low-orbit Chibis-M microsatellite to search for IAR signatures in the ionosphere. We found evidence that the multi-band structure revealed by spectral analysis in the frequency range of interest is indeed the result of a sequence of lightning-produced pulses. According to the proposed conception it seems possible to comprehend why the IAR signatures are less evident in the ionosphere than on the ground.

  7. Generation of real-time global ionospheric map based on the global GNSS stations with only a sparse distribution (United States)

    Li, Zishen; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Min; Zhou, Kai; Yuan, Yunbin; Yuan, Hong


    The Earth's ionosphere is part of the atmosphere stretching from an altitude of about 50 km to more than 1000 km. When the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal emitted from a satellite travels through the ionosphere before reaches a receiver on or near the Earth surface, the GNSS signal is significantly delayed by the ionosphere and this delay bas been considered as one of the major errors in the GNSS measurement. The real-time global ionospheric map calculated from the real-time data obtained by global stations is an essential method for mitigating the ionospheric delay for real-time positioning. The generation of an accurate global ionospheric map generally depends on the global stations with dense distribution; however, the number of global stations that can produce the real-time data is very limited at present, which results that the generation of global ionospheric map with a high accuracy is very different when only using the current stations with real-time data. In view of this, a new approach is proposed for calculating the real-time global ionospheric map only based on the current stations with real-time data. This new approach is developed on the basis of the post-processing and the one-day predicted global ionospheric map from our research group. The performance of the proposed approach is tested by the current global stations with the real-time data and the test results are also compared with the IGS-released final global ionospheric map products.

  8. Metrology and ionospheric observation standards (United States)

    Panshin, Evgeniy; Minligareev, Vladimir; Pronin, Anton

    Accuracy and ionospheric observation validity are urgent trends nowadays. WMO, URSI and national metrological and standardisation services bring forward requirements and descriptions of the ionospheric observation means. Researches in the sphere of metrological and standardisation observation moved to the next level in the Russian Federation. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics (IAG) is in charge of ionospheric observation in the Russian Federation and the National Technical Committee, TC-101 , which was set up on the base of IAG- of the standardisation in the sphere. TC-101 can be the platform for initiation of the core international committee in the network of ISO The new type of the ionosounde “Parus-A” is engineered, which is up to the national requirements. “Parus-A” calibration and test were conducted by National metrological Institute (NMI) -D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), signed CIMP MRA in 1991. VNIIM is a basic NMI in the sphere of Space weather (including ionospheric observations), the founder of which was celebrated chemist and metrologist Dmitriy I. Mendeleyev. Tests and calibration were carried out for the 1st time throughout 50-year-history of ionosonde exploitation in Russia. The following metrological characteristics were tested: -measurement range of radiofrequency time delay 0.5-10 ms; -time measurement inaccuracy of radio- frequency pulse ±12mcs; -frequency range of radio impulse 1-20 MHz ; -measurement inaccuracy of radio impulse carrier frequency± 5KHz. For example, the sound impulse simulator that was built-in in the ionosounde was used for measurement range of radiofrequency time delay testing. The number of standards on different levels is developed. - “Ionospheric observation guidance”; - “The Earth ionosphere. Terms and definitions”.

  9. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.


    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  10. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models. (United States)

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  11. Characteristics of electron-ion whistlers and their application to ionospheric probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.N.; Tiwari, S.; Tolpadi, S.K.


    In this communication the effect of ion temperature on the propagation of electron-ion whistlers in the ionosphere is investigated. A general expression including the effect of ion temperature is derived for the group travel time for the electron-ion whistler as it travels from the base of the ionosphere to the satellite. A study of the dependence of the group travel time for the proton whislters. Further, from the expression for the group travel time including the effect of the ion temperature in conjunction with the generalized dispersion relation a relation for the cyclotron damping rate (both temporal and spatial) has been obtained. A detailed study if the cyclotron damping rate with travel time and ion temperature leads to the conclusion that the observed amplitude cutoff characteristics for the proton whistler can be explained on the basis of the mechanism of cyclotron damping. It is also shown that the knowledge of the group travel time of an electron-ion whistler can be used to estimate the ion temperature at the satellite

  12. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses


    Nakata, Akinori


    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18?79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire eva...

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Ionospheric Irregularities (United States)


    numerical simulations of ionospheric plasma density structures associated with nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in...model was developed to resolve the transport pat- terns of plasma density coupled with neutral atmospheric dynamics. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in...trapping electromagnetic (EM) waves in parabolic cavities, which are created by the refractive index gradients along the propagation paths. Keywords

  14. Interplanetary phenomenon, geomagnetic and ionospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the D(foF2) plots appear to show that the storm event is characterized by (i) the occurrence of positive ionospheric storm at the high latitudes and mid latitude stations of Khabarovsk, Yamagawa and Okinawa stations before the beginning of the storm event (ii) Presence of strong negative phase at Manila, ...

  15. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C.C.; Knudsen, Per


    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) lambda of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP....... The IEFM-based ionospheric delay estimates are validated by combining an absolute positioning mode with several ionospheric delay correction models or algorithms, using GPS data at an international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service (IGS) station (WTZR). Our results indicate that the IEFM...

  16. Direct EUV/X-Ray Modulation of the Ionosphere During the August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (United States)

    Mrak, Sebastijan; Semeter, Joshua; Drob, Douglas; Huba, J. D.


    The great American total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 offered a fortuitous opportunity to study the response of the atmosphere and ionosphere using a myriad of ground instruments. We have used the network of U.S. Global Positioning System receivers to examine perturbations in maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Coherent large-scale variations in TEC have been interpreted by others as gravity wave-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances. However, the solar disk had two active regions at that time, one near the center of the disk and one at the edge, which resulted in an irregular illumination pattern in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/X-ray bands. Using detailed EUV occultation maps calculated from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, we show excellent agreement between TEC perturbations and computed gradients in EUV illumination. The results strongly suggest that prominent large-scale TEC disturbances were consequences of direct EUV modulation, rather than gravity wave-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances.

  17. Ionosphere dynamics over the Southern Hemisphere during the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm using multi-instrument measurement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw


    Full Text Available The effects of the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm on the Southern Hemisphere ionosphere have been studied using ground-based and satellite measurements. The prime goal of this comprehensive study is to track the ionospheric response from high-to-low latitude to obtain a clear understanding of storm-time ionospheric change. The study uses a combination of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC obtained from GPS signal group delay and phase advance measurements, ionosonde data, and data from satellite in-situ measurements, such as the Defense Metrological Satellite Program (DMSP, TOPographic EXplorer (TOPEX, and solar wind data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE. A chain of Global Positioning System (GPS stations near the 150° E meridian has been used to give comprehensive latitude coverage extending from the cusp to the equatorial region. A tomographic inversion algorithm has been applied to the GPS TEC measurements to obtain maps of the latitudinal structure of the ionospheric during this severe magnetic storm period, enabling both the spatial and temporal response of the ionosphere to be studied. Analysis of data from several of the instruments indicates that a strong density enhancement occurred at mid-latitudes at 11:00 UT on 31 March 2001 and was followed by equatorward propagating large-scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs. The tomographic reconstruction revealed important features in ionospheric structure, such as quasi-wave formations extending finger-like to higher altitudes. The most pronounced ionospheric effects of the storm occurred at high- and mid-latitudes, where strong positive disturbances occurred during the storm main phase, followed by a long lasting negative storm effect during the recovery phase. Relatively minor storm effects occurred in the equatorial region.

  18. The ionospheric signature of transient dayside reconnection and the associated pulsed convection return flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Three SuperDARN coherent HF radars are employed to investigate the excitation of convection in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere in response to transient reconnection occurring in the cusp region. This study demonstrates the existence of transient antisunward-propagating backscatter features at the expected location of the ionospheric footprint of the cusp region, which have a repetition rate near 10 min. These are interpreted as the ionospheric signature of flux transfer events. Moreover, transient sunward-propagating regions of backscatter are observed in the convection return flow regions of both the pre- and post-noon sectors. These patches are observed to propagate towards the noon sector from at least as far around the auroral zone as 07 MLT in the pre-noon sector and 17 MLT in the post-noon sector, travelling with a velocity of approximately 1.5 to 2 km s-1. These return flow patches have a repetition rate similar to that of the transient features observed at local noon. While providing supporting evidence for the impulsive nature of convection flow, the observation of sunward-propagating features in the return flow region is not consistent with current conceptual models of the excitation of convection.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  19. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.


    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  20. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection (United States)

    ... Last-Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ... for purposes of medical treatment (see Chapter 2, Medical Tourism ), the blood and blood products used in the ...

  1. Ionospheric Anomalies of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake with Multiple Observations during Magnetic Storm Phase (United States)

    Liu, Yang


    days. Associated with geomagnetic storm at similar time, radio occultation data provided by COSMIC were deeply investigated within the whole month. It's quite different that the storm or earthquake didn't trigger scintillation burst. This is probably due to the storm occurrence local time was in noon sector, which has little impact on ionospheric irregularities increase, but help to enhance the effect of westward electricity, which on the other hand diminishes scintillation bubbles (Li et al 2008). A small geomagnetic disturbance was also found almost a week prior to the earthquake, the relationship of this event to the major earthquake is worth further discussion. Similar analysis of GNSS TECs have been done, the results indicated that it can be also referred as precursor to the major earthquake. Li G, Ning B, Zhao B, et al. Effects of geomagnetic storm on GPS ionospheric scintillations at Sanya[J]. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2008, 70(7):1034-1045. Liu J Y, Chen Y I, Chuo Y J, et al. A statistical investigation of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomaly[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 2006, 111(A5). Liu J Y, Sun Y Y. Seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances of ionograms observed during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake[J]. Earth, Planets and Space, 2011, 63(7):897-902. Zhao B, Wang M, Yu T, et al. Is an unusual large enhancement of ionospheric electron density linked with the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake?[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 2008, 113(A11):A11304. Pulinets S A. Seismic activity as a source of the ionospheric variability [J]. Advances in Space Research, 1998, 22(6):903-906.

  2. International travel and vaccinations.


    Rizvon, M K; Qazi, S; Ward, L A


    With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available...

  3. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling (United States)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo


    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  4. Characterising the Ionosphere (La caracterisation de l’ionosphere) (United States)


    2003; Valdivia , 2003; Tong et al ., 2004). Tidal motions and planetary waves in the thermosphere have significant influence on ionospheric...such as storms, earthquakes and volcanic explosions may produce F2-layer signatures (Rishbeth, 2006 ). Kazimirovsky et al . (2003) have reviewed such...possible effects. Pulinets et al . ( 2006 ) have published a case study of anomalous variations of the total electron content (TEC) registered over the

  5. Lagopedo: two F-region ionospheric depletion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Sutherland, C.D.; Zinn, J.


    A significant depletion of ionospheric plasma was produced by a chemical release experiment in the F-layer ionosphere over Hawaii. The results of measurements of the hole produced in the ionospheric plasma are reported

  6. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley


    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  7. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  8. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh


    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  9. Ionospheric behaviour during storm recovery phase (United States)

    Buresova, D.; Lastovicka, J.; Boska, J.; Sindelarova, T.; Chum, J.


    Intensive ionospheric research, numerous multi-instrumental observations and large-scale numerical simulations of ionospheric F region response to magnetic storm-induced disturbances during the last several decades were primarily focused on the storm main phase, in most cases covering only a few hours of the recovery phase following after storm culmination. Ionospheric behaviour during entire recovery phase still belongs to not sufficiently explored and hardly predictable features. In general, the recovery phase is characterized by an abatement of perturbations and a gradual return to the "ground state" of ionosphere. However, observations of stormy ionosphere show significant departures from the climatology also within this phase. This paper deals with the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the ionospheric behaviour during the entire recovery phase of strong-to-severe magnetic storms at middle latitudes for nowadays and future modelling and forecasting purposes.

  10. Inverse problem of radiofrequency sounding of ionosphere (United States)

    Velichko, E. N.; Yu. Grishentsev, A.; Korobeynikov, A. G.


    An algorithm for the solution of the inverse problem of vertical ionosphere sounding and a mathematical model of noise filtering are presented. An automated system for processing and analysis of spectrograms of vertical ionosphere sounding based on our algorithm is described. It is shown that the algorithm we suggest has a rather high efficiency. This is supported by the data obtained at the ionospheric stations of the so-called “AIS-M” type.

  11. Ionospheric Change and Solar EUV Irradiance (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Jensen, J. B.; Schunk, R. W.


    The ionosphere has been quantitatively monitored for the past six solar cycles. The past few years of observations are showing trends that differ from the prior cycles! Our good statistical relationships between the solar radio flux index at 10.7 cm, the solar EUV Irradiance, and the ionospheric F-layer peak density are showing indications of divergence! Present day discussion of the Sun-Earth entering a Dalton Minimum would suggest change is occurring in the Sun, as the driver, followed by the Earth, as the receptor. The dayside ionosphere is driven by the solar EUV Irradiance. But different components of this spectrum affect the ionospheric layers differently. For a first time the continuous high cadence EUV spectra from the SDO EVE instrument enable ionospheric scientists the opportunity to evaluate solar EUV variability as a driver of ionospheric variability. A definitive understanding of which spectral components are responsible for the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere will enable assessments of how over 50 years of ionospheric observations, the solar EUV Irradiance has changed. If indeed the evidence suggesting the Sun-Earth system is entering a Dalton Minimum periods is correct, then the comprehensive EVE solar EUV Irradiance data base combined with the ongoing ionospheric data bases will provide a most fortuitous fiduciary reference baseline for Sun-Earth dependencies. Using the EVE EUV Irradiances, a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and 50 plus years of ionospheric observation from Wallops Island (Virginia) the above Sun-Earth ionospheric relationship will be reported on.

  12. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram


    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Those observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.

  13. Ionospheric research for space weather service support (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata


    Knowledge of the behavior of the ionosphere is very important for space weather services. A wide variety of ground based and satellite existing and future systems (communications, radar, surveillance, intelligence gathering, satellite operation, etc) is affected by the ionosphere. There are the needs for reliable and efficient support for such systems against natural hazard and minimalization of the risk failure. The joint research Project on the 'Ionospheric Weather' of IZMIRAN and SRC PAS is aimed to provide on-line the ionospheric parameters characterizing the space weather in the ionosphere. It is devoted to science, techniques and to more application oriented areas of ionospheric investigation in order to support space weather services. The studies based on data mining philosophy increasing the knowledge of ionospheric physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in ionospheric monitoring and forecasting were concerned. In the framework of the joint Project the novel techniques for data analysis, the original system of the ionospheric disturbance indices and their implementation for the ionosphere and the ionospheric radio wave propagation are developed since 1997. Data of ionosonde measurements and results of their forecasting for the ionospheric observatories network, the regional maps and global ionospheric maps of total electron content from the navigational satellite system (GNSS) observations, the global maps of the F2 layer peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) and W-index of the ionospheric variability are provided at the web pages of SRC PAS and IZMIRAN. The data processing systems include analysis and forecast of geomagnetic indices ap and kp and new eta index applied for the ionosphere forecasting. For the first time in the world the new products of the W-index maps analysis are provided in Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms and their association with the global geomagnetic Dst storms is


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae


    Full Text Available The ionosphere in accordance with solar activity can affect the transmission of radio waves. The effect of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. The present study is based on the Korean ionospheirc data obtained at the AnYang Radio Research Laboratory from January 1985 through October 1989. The data are analyzed to show the daily and the annual variations of the ionosphere. The data are also used to simulate the density distribution of the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law.

  15. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina


    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  16. Triton's Ionosphere: Chemistry and Composition (United States)

    Delitsky, Mona


    The ionosphere of Triton was observed by the Voyager spacecraft in 1989 to have a remarkably high electron density of 40,000/cc at its peak altitude. Delitsky et al. (1990) modeled this ionosphere using only N2 and CH4, the constituents of the atmosphere known at that time, and found that, at the extremely cold temperatures in the Triton atmosphere, cluster ions would form. These clusters are created when N+ or N2+ resulting from photolysis or radiolysis accrete neutral N2 molecules and form ions such as (N2+(N2)n). In these clusters, n can be very high, around 50-100, depending on temperature. Cluster ions easily sweep up electrons at the low altitudes where they form (keeping the e- content low) which leads to dissociative recombination. This neutralizes the cluster ions and releases the N2 molecules back into the atmosphere. In 1991, CO and CO2 were observed on Triton (Cruikshank et al. 1991). At Tritonian temperatures, CO will have a very high vapor pressure and could constitute up to 6% of the Triton atmosphere. Any N+ or N2+ will charge exchange with CO (and NO from chemistry) to yield CO+, NO+ and C+. These then become the core ions to the clusters (CO+(N2)n), (NO+(N2)n), or (C+(N2)n). (Delitsky et al. 1992, Delitsky, 1995). Clusters cannot form at higher altitudes and lower pressures and so at the peak altitude, the ionosphere is comprised almost totally of C+ ions. From modeling, CO + hv -> C+ (+ O) does not appear to be an important source of the C+ . Rather, the charge exchange reaction, CO+ + C -> C+ + CO produces the C+ which charge balances the electrons in the ionosphere. Ref: Cruikshank et al., BAAS, 23,1208 (1991);.. Delitsky et al. GRL, 17, 1725 (1990); ..Delitsky et al. Neptune conf, 1992; ..Delitsky, BAAS, 27, 1100 (1995)

  17. Soliton collapse during ionospheric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheerin, J.P.; Nicholson, D.R.; Payne, G.L.; Duncan, L.M.


    We present analytical and numerical work which indicates that during ionospheric heating with high-powered hf radio waves, the oscillating two-stream instability may dominate the parametric decay instability. The oscillating two-stream instability saturates nonlinearly through the formation of solitons which undergo a collisionally damped collapse. Using the heater and radar facilities at Arecibo Observatory, we have investigated this phenomenon experimentally. Recent results from our theoretical and experimental investigations are presented

  18. The Effect of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) on Ionosphere and Thermosphere during 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm: Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) Simulations (United States)

    Guo, J.; Deng, Y.; Zhang, D.; Lu, Y.; Sheng, C.


    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) are incorporated into the non-hydrostatic Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM), revealing the complex effects on neutral dynamics and ion-neutral coupling processes. The intense westward ion stream could enhance the neutral zonal wind within the SAPS channel. Through neutral dynamics the neutrals then divide into two streams, one turns poleward and the other turns equatorward, forming a two-cell pattern in the SAPS-changed wind. The significant Joule heating induced by SAPS also leads to traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD) accompanied by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID), increasing the total electron content (TEC) by 2-8 TECu in the mid-latitude ionosphere. We investigate the potential causes of the reported poleward wind surge during the St. Patrick's Day storm in 2015. It is confirmed that Coriolis force on the westward zonal wind can contribute the poleward wind during post-SAPS interval. In addition, the simulations imply that the sudden decrease of heating rate within auroral oval could result in a TAD propagating equatorward, which could also be responsible for the sudden poleward wind surge. This study highlights the complicated effects of SAPS on ion-neutral coupling and neutral dynamics.

  19. Electrodynamics of the Martian Ionosphere (United States)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.


    The presence of the Martian crustal magnetic fields makes a significant modification to the interaction between the solar wind/IMF and the ionosphere of the planet. This paper presents the results of 3-D hybrid simulations of Martian solar wind interaction containing the Martian crustal fields., self-consistent ionospheric chemistry and planetary rotation. It has already been reported that the addition of the crustal fields and planetary rotation makes a significant modification of the ionospheric loss from Mars, Brecht et al., 2016. This paper focuses on two other aspects of the interaction, the electric fields and the current systems created by the solar wind interaction. The results of several simulations will be analyzed and compared. The electric fields around Mars due to its interaction with the solar wind will be examined. Special attention will be paid to the electric field constituents (∇ X B, ∇Pe, ηJ). Regions where the electric field is parallel to the magnetic field will be found and the implications of these regions will be discussed. Current systems for each ion species will be shown. Finally the effects on the electric fields and the current systems due to the rotation of Mars will be examined.

  20. TRIO (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory) Mission (United States)

    Lee, D.; Seon, J.; Jin, H.; Kim, K.; Lee, J.; Jang, M.; Pak, S.; Kim, K.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Larson, D. E.; Eastwood, J. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Horbury, T. S.


    Triplets of identical cubesats will be built to carry out the following scientific objectives: i) multi-observations of ionospheric ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) imaging, ii) ionospheric signature of suprathermal electrons and ions associated with auroral acceleration as well as electron microbursts, and iii) complementary measurements of magnetic fields for particle data. Each satellite, a cubesat for ion, neutral, electron, and magnetic fields (CINEMA), is equipped with a suprathermal electron, ion, neutral (STEIN) instrument and a 3-axis magnetometer of magnetoresistive sensors. TRIO is developed by three institutes: i) two CINEMA by Kyung Hee University (KHU) under the WCU program, ii) one CINEMA by UC Berkeley under the NSF support, and iii) three magnetometers by Imperial College, respectively. Multi-spacecraft observations in the STEIN instruments will provide i) stereo ENA imaging with a wide angle in local times, which are sensitive to the evolution of ring current phase space distributions, ii) suprathermal electron measurements with narrow spacings, which reveal the differential signature of accelerated electrons driven by Alfven waves and/or double layer formation in the ionosphere between the acceleration region and the aurora, and iii) suprathermal ion precipitation when the storm-time ring current appears. In addition, multi-spacecraft magnetic field measurements in low earth orbits will allow the tracking of the phase fronts of ULF waves, FTEs, and quasi-periodic reconnection events between ground-based magnetometer data and upstream satellite data.

  1. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing. (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail


    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  2. Preliminary Observations of Ionospheric Response to an Auroral Driver from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) Sounding Rocket Campaign (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Hysell, D. L.; Powell, S.; Miceli, R.; Hampton, D. L.; Ahrns, J.; Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Moen, J. I.; Bekkeng, T.


    The nightside sounding rocket MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) launched from Poker Flat, AK, on February 19, 2012, and reached an apogee of 325km. MICA was launched into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. The MICA instrumentation included both in situ and ground based instruments, and was designed to measure the response of the ionosphere to an auroral driver. More specifically, the science goal was to measure response of the ionosphere to a feedback instability in the ionospheric Alfvén resonator. The MICA payload included in situ particle, electric and magnetic field, and GPS instruments. The ground-based array consisted of a multitude of imagers, coherent and incoherent scatter radars, and a Fabry-Perot interferometer. We present observational characteristics of the response of the ionospheric plasma to the auroral drivers inferred from inverting camera data. We compare the measured precipitating electron population to inversions of camera images, which use a transport model to infer a 2D map of the precipitation. Comparisons show that as the payload passes through what appears to be an Alfvénic auroral arc, the in situ electron instrument shows dispersions indicative of Alfvénic activity. We then introduce measurements of the thermal ion distribution, to examine how the auroral arcs drive a response in the ionosphere. The thermal ion data show that the payload potential strengthens as the payload passes through the arc. When including electron density, temperature, and electric field data, we observe times in which the ionospheric environment changes as the precipitation changes, and times during which there is no measured response by the ionosphere. Future work will compare how the ion bulk flow as measured by the thermal ion instrument compares to the ExB drift as measured by the electric field instrument and to the neutral wind measurements from the Fabry-Perot interferometer

  3. Mapping travelling convection vortex events with respect to energetic particle boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Yahnin, A.


    Thirteen events of high-latitude ionospheric travelling convection vortices during very quiet conditions were identified in the Greenland magnetometer data during 1990 and 1991. The latitudes of the vortex centres for these events are compared to the energetic electron trapping boundaries...

  4. CARINA Satellite Mission to Investigate the Upper Atmosphere below the F-Layer Ionosphere (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Huba, J.; Montgomery, J. A., Jr.


    sea surface to measure the wave height spectrum over large areas. CARINA will provide an enhanced understanding of HF system limiting phenomena such as travelling ionospheric disturbances, field aligned irregularities, sporadic-E and bottomside ionosphere structures.This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  5. Magnetotail processes and their ionospheric signatures (United States)

    Ferdousi, B.; Raeder, J.; Zesta, E.; Murphy, K. R.; Cramer, W. D.


    In-situ observations in the magnetotail are sparse and limited to single point measurements. In the ionosphere, on the other hand, there is a broad range of observations, including magnetometers, auroral imagers, and various radars. Since the ionosphere is to some extent a mirror of plasmasheet processes it can be used as a monitor of magnetotail dynamics. Thus, it is of great importance to understand the coupling between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in order to properly interpret the ionosphere and ground observations in terms of magnetotail dynamics. For this purpose, the global magnetohydrodynamic model OpenGGCM is used to investigate magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. One of the key processes in magnetotail dynamics are bursty bulk flows (BBFs) which are the major means by which momentum and energy get transferred through the magnetotail and down to the ionosphere. BBFs often manifested in the ionosphere as auroral streamers. This study focuses on mapping such flow bursts from the magnetotail to the ionosphere along the magnetic field lines for three states of the magnetotail: pre-substorm onset through substorm expansion and during steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) following the substorm. We find that the orientation of streamers in the ionosphere differes for different local times, and that, for both tail and ionospheric signatures, activity increases during the SCM configutation compared to the pre-onset and quiet times. We also find that the background convection in the tail impacts the direction and deflection of the BBFs and the subsequent orientation of the auroral streamers in the ionosphere.

  6. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memarzadeh, Y.


    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer

  7. Formation of dipole vortex in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Yu, M.Y.


    It is shown that isolated dipole vortices can exist in the F-region of the ionosphere. These are associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor and E x B 0 gradient drift instabilities. The vortices may be responsible for the rapid structuring of barium clouds as well as other phenomena observed in the upper ionosphere

  8. Artificial neural network applications in ionospheric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cander


    Full Text Available The ionosphere of Earth exhibits considerable spatial changes and has large temporal variability of various timescales related to the mechanisms of creation, decay and transport of space ionospheric plasma. Many techniques for modelling electron density profiles through entire ionosphere have been developed in order to solve the "age-old problem" of ionospheric physics which has not yet been fully solved. A new way to address this problem is by applying artificial intelligence methodologies to current large amounts of solar-terrestrial and ionospheric data. It is the aim of this paper to show by the most recent examples that modern development of numerical models for ionospheric monthly median long-term prediction and daily hourly short-term forecasting may proceed successfully applying the artificial neural networks. The performance of these techniques is illustrated with different artificial neural networks developed to model and predict the temporal and spatial variations of ionospheric critical frequency, f0F2 and Total Electron Content (TEC. Comparisons between results obtained by the proposed approaches and measured f0F2 and TEC data provide prospects for future applications of the artificial neural networks in ionospheric studies.

  9. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley


    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  10. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley


    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  11. Ionospheric Anomaly before Kyushu|Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Li


    Full Text Available GIM data released by IGS is used in the article and a new method of combining the Sliding Time Window Method and the Ionospheric TEC correlation analysis method of adjacent grid points is proposed to study the relationship between pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies and earthquake. By analyzing the abnormal change of TEC in the 5 grid points around the seismic region, the abnormal change of ionospheric TEC is found before the earthquake and the correlation between the TEC sequences of lattice points is significantly affected by earthquake. Based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of TEC anomaly, anomalies of 6 h, 12 h and 6 h were found near the epicenter three days before the earthquake. Finally, ionospheric tomographic technology is used to do tomographic inversion on electron density. And the distribution of the electron density in the ionospheric anomaly is further analyzed.

  12. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter


    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  13. Multi-instrument observations of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 and its effects on the ionosphere over Belgium and Europe (United States)

    Stankov, Stanimir M.; Bergeot, Nicolas; Berghmans, David; Bolsée, David; Bruyninx, Carine; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Clette, Frédéric; De Backer, Hugo; De Keyser, Johan; D'Huys, Elke; Dominique, Marie; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Marqué, Christophe; Pereira, Nuno; Pierrard, Viviane; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Seaton, Daniel B.; Stegen, Koen; Van der Linden, Ronald; Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; West, Matthew J.


    A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March 2015, with a totality path passing mostly above the North Atlantic Ocean, which resulted in a partial solar eclipse over Belgium and large parts of Europe. In anticipation of this event, a dedicated observational campaign was set up at the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The objective was to perform high-quality observations of the eclipse and the associated effects on the geospace environment by utilising the advanced space- and ground-based instrumentation available to the STCE in order to further our understanding of these effects, particularly on the ionosphere. The study highlights the crucial importance of taking into account the eclipse geometry when analysing the ionospheric behaviour during eclipses and interpreting the eclipse effects. A detailed review of the eclipse geometry proves that considering the actual obscuration level and solar zenith angle at ionospheric heights is much more important for the analysis than at the commonly referenced Earth's surface or at the plasmaspheric heights. The eclipse occurred during the recovery phase of a strong geomagnetic storm which certainly had an impact on (some of) the ionospheric characteristics and perhaps caused the omission of some "low-profile" effects. However, the analysis of the ionosonde measurements, carried out at unprecedented high rates during the eclipse, suggests the occurrence of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Also, the high temporal and spatial resolution measurements proved very important in revealing and estimating some finer details of the delay in the ionospheric reaction and the ionospheric disturbances.

  14. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A


    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  15. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C. C.; Knudsen, P.; Xu, G.; Ou, J.


    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) λ of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) and the IEF’s influence factor (IFF) bar{λ}. The IEF can be used to make a relatively precise distinction between ionospheric daytime and nighttime, whereas the IFF is advantageous for describing the IEF’s variations with day, month, season and year, associated with seasonal variations of total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. By combining λ and bar{λ} with the local time t of IPP, the IEFM has the ability to precisely distinguish between ionospheric daytime and nighttime, as well as efficiently combine them during different seasons or months over a year at the IPP. The IEFM-based ionospheric delay estimates are validated by combining an absolute positioning mode with several ionospheric delay correction models or algorithms, using GPS data at an international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service (IGS) station (WTZR). Our results indicate that the IEFM may further improve ionospheric delay modeling using GPS data.

  16. Faraday Rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Signals as a Method of Ionospheric Characterization (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noël, J.-M.


    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices that are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low Earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this manuscript we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick ionospheric model.

  17. Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the Mw7.6 Earthquake off the Coast of El Salvador on 13 January 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kuo Jung


    Full Text Available A network of five ground-based receivers of the global positioning sys- tem (GPS was use to detect seismo-ionospheric disturbances in the total elec- tron content (TEC triggered by the 13 January 2001 El Salvador Mw 7.6 earthquake. We apply least square fitted analysis as well as beam forming and ray tracing methods to analyze the GPS TECs. Results show that the average speeds of the seismo-ionospheric disturbances traveling in the up- per atmosphere and ionosphere lie between 360 and 570 m s−1 , and the disturbance origins on the ground derived by the two methods are near the epicenter reported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS.

  18. Ionospheric disturbances induced by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012 (United States)

    Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Chen, Chia-Hung; Watanabe, Shigeto; Lin, Charles; Liu, Jenn-Yanq; Habu, Hiroto


    disturbances caused by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012 were investigated by using the GPS total electron content (TEC). The spatial characteristic of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances produced by missiles and rockets was first determined. Considering the launch direction and the height of estimated ionospheric points at which GPS radio signal pierces the ionosphere, the missile passed through the ionosphere at heights of 391, 425, and 435 km at 0056:30, 0057:00, and 0057:30 UT, respectively. The observed velocities of the missile were 2.8 and 3.2 km/s at that time, which was estimated from the traveling speed of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances. Westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances propagated at 1.8-2.6 km/s. The phase velocities of the westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances were much faster than the speed of acoustic waves reported in previous studies, suggesting that sources other than acoustic waves may have played an important role. Furthermore, the plasma density depletion that is often observed following missile and rocket launches was not found. This suggests that the depletion resulting from the missile's exhaust was not strong enough to be observed in the TEC distribution in the topside ionosphere.

  19. Magnetosphere and ionosphere response to a positive-negative pulse pair of solar wind dynamic pressure (United States)

    Tian, A.; Degeling, A. W.


    Simulations and observations had shown that single positive/negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse would excite geomagnetic impulsive events along with ionosphere and/or magnetosphere vortices which are connected by field aligned currents(FACs). In this work, a large scale ( 9min) magnetic hole event in solar wind provided us with the opportunity to study the effects of positive-negative pulse pair (△p/p 1) on the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the magnetic hole event, two traveling convection vortices (TCVs, anti-sunward) first in anticlockwise then in clockwise rotation were detected by geomagnetic stations located along the 10:30MLT meridian. At the same time, another pair of ionospheric vortices azimuthally seen up to 3 MLT first in clockwise then in counter-clockwise rotation were also appeared in the afternoon sector( 14MLT) and centered at 75 MLAT without obvious tailward propagation feature. The duskside vortices were also confirmed in SuperDARN radar data. We simulated the process of magnetosphere struck by a positive-negative pulse pair and it shows that a pair of reversed flow vortices in the magnetosphere equatorial plane appeared which may provide FACs for the vortices observed in ionosphere. Dawn dusk asymmetry of the vortices as well as the global geomagnetism perturbation characteristics were also discussed.

  20. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems. (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen


    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  1. Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, J.A.


    Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level

  2. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze


    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  3. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  4. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte


    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  5. End to End Travel (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  6. Traveling with Food Allergies (United States)

    ... on traveling and dining out at restaurants with food allergies. Travel Tips for the U.S. and Other Countries Get information about medications and food labeling practices in select countries. Spam Control Text: ...

  7. HIV and travel. (United States)

    Schuhwerk, M A; Richens, J; Zuckerman, Jane N


    There is a high demand for travel among HIV-positive individual. This demand arises partly from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy as well as those with disease progression. The key to a successful and uneventful holiday lies in careful pre-trip planning, yet many patients fail to obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized. In addition to advice on common travel-related infectious diseases, HIV-positive travellers are strongly advised to carry information with them and they need specific advice regarding country entry restrictions, HIV inclusive travel insurance, safety of travel vaccinations and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A wide range of relevant issues for the HIV-positive traveller are discussed in this review and useful websites can be found at the end.

  8. Traveling Safely with Medicines (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Visceral (United States)

    ... such as the United States reflects travel and immigration patterns. VL is uncommon in US travelers and ... . Chapter 3 - Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous Chapter 3 - Leptospirosis File ...

  10. Traveling and Asthma (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / Traveling and Asthma Print en ... pack it, too. How Can I Avoid My Asthma Triggers? Staying at a hotel Ask for a ...

  11. [Current status of occupational health activities and the way that occupational health services should be offered to small- and medium-scale enterprises]. (United States)

    Kayashima, Kotaro


    Activating occupational safety and health activities among Small- and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs) is a major issue because more than 80% of Japanese workers belong to these enterprises, in which the number of workers are less than 300 people. However, as the size of the enterprise decreases, the occurrence of problems of safety and health management systems and safety and health activities increases. Reasons for this include both the limitations of investments shortages of human resources. Occupational health services in SMEs has been provided by the cooperation of the following institutions: public associations (such as Regional Occupational Health Centers, Occupational Health Promotion Centers, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association (JISHA)), occupational health agencies which provide checkup services, health insurance associations, and regional medical services. In contrast to the low coverage of occupational health services among SMEs in Japan, there are some countries in Europe in which this coverage is almost 100%. This is because of the development of occupational health services outside the company. To show the benefits of the safety and health activities to managers of SMEs, and to motivate them to take advantage of the services, it is important to consider measurements. Also, establishing systems that provide those services, improving the quality of specialists such as occupational physicians, and educating human resources, are all necessary.

  12. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.


    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  13. Travel, infection and immunity


    Soonawala, Darius


    Preface: The content of this thesis is based on research that was conducted at the travel and vaccination clinic at Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC). This clinic provides pre-travel care to the general population, and to special groups of travellers, such as patients who use immunosuppressants or who have chronic diseases. The clinic is closely connected to the department of Infectious Diseases at LUMC. The setting of a travel clinic within an academic medical hospital, provides unique...

  14. Travel, infection and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soonawala, Darius


    Preface: The content of this thesis is based on research that was conducted at the travel and vaccination clinic at Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC). This clinic provides pre-travel care to the general population, and to special groups of travellers, such as patients who use

  15. Travel Agent Course Outline. (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  16. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.


    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  17. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration (United States)

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.


    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves.

  18. Travel personae of American pleasure travelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, S.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Mazanec, J.A.


    Travel style has been shown to be a useful concept for understanding travelers. In this study it is argued that the portfolio of trips (specifically, the portfolio of various trip styles) one takes can be used to describe his/her overall travel persona. Network analysis was used to examine...... personae which, in turn, are related to their choices of places visited and their response to advertising materials. It was concluded that the framework provided by these findings along with new tools on the Internet offer the potential to develop highly personalized communications with existing...

  19. Longitudinal effects of ionospheric responses to substorms at middle and lower latitudes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pi


    Full Text Available An ionospheric model is used to simulate total electron content (TEC disturbance events observed at middle and lower latitude sites near 75°W and 7°E longitudes. Within this longitudinal range, daytime TEC disturbances show patterns that are correlated with substrom activity seen in both auroral electrojet and ring current behavior. In modeling studies of the observed ionospheric effects, both electric field and neutral wind perturbations are examined as possible mechanisms. The morphological features of the required electric field perturbations near drawn and dusk are compared with those at other times to examine the local time characteristics of magnetospheric influence. Large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs, an alternative candidate for the disturbance source, are also characterized and compared with known thermospheric behavior.

  20. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.


    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  1. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... compressed carbon, or large-pore hollow-fiber filter elements are sufficient to remove bacteria and protozoan cysts ...

  2. The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael C


    Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.

  3. Associating an ionospheric parameter with major earthquake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ionospheric disturbance (SID) and 'td' is the dura- tion of the ... dayside of the earth, ionizing atmospheric parti- ... the increased emanation of excited radon molecules from the ground ..... tration following strong earthquake; Int. J. Remote Sens.

  4. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  5. Solar Eclipse-Induced Changes in the Ionosphere over the Continental US (United States)

    Erickson, P. J.; Zhang, S.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Coster, A. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Sulzer, M. P.; Vierinen, J.


    For the first time in 26 years, a total solar eclipse occurred over the continental United States on 21 August 2017, between 16:00-20:00 UT. We report on American solar eclipse observations of the upper atmosphere, conducted by a team led by MIT Haystack Observatory. Efforts measured ionospheric and thermospheric eclipse perturbations. Although eclipse effects have been studied for more than 50 years, recent major sensitivity and resolution advances using radio-based techniques are providing new information on the eclipse ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) system response. Our study was focused on quantifying eclipse effects on (1) traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs); (2) spatial ionospheric variations associated with the eclipse; and (3) altitudinal and temporal ionospheric profile variations. We present selected early findings on ITM eclipse response including a dense global network of 6000 GNSS total electron content (TEC) receivers (100 million measurements per day; 1x1 degree spatial grid) and the Millstone Hill and Arecibo incoherent scatter radars. TEC depletions of up to 60% in magnitude were associated with the eclipse umbra and penumbra and consistently trailed the eclipse totality center. TEC enhancements associated with prominent orographic features were observed in the western US due to complex interactions as the lower atmosphere cooled in response to decreasing EUV energy inputs. Strong TIDs in the form of bow waves, stern waves, and a stern wake were observed in TEC data. Altitude-resolved plasma parameter profiles from Millstone Hill saw a nearly 50% decrease in F region electron density in vertical profiles, accompanied by a corresponding 200-250 K decrease in electron temperature. Wide field Millstone Hill radar scans showed similar decreases in electron density to the southwest, maximizing along the line of closest approach to totality. Data is available to the research community through the MIT

  6. Digital processing of ionospheric electron content data (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.


    Ionospheric electron content data contain periodicities that are produced by a diversity of sources including hydromagnetic waves, gravity waves, and lunar tides. Often these periodicities are masked by the strong daily variation in the data. Digital filtering can be used to isolate the weaker components. The filtered data can then be further processed to provide estimates of the source properties. In addition, homomorphic filtering may be used to identify nonlinear interactions in the ionosphere.

  7. Ionospheric disturbances under low solar activity conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Laštovička, Jan; Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef


    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2014), s. 185-196 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1908 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : ionosphere * solar minimum * magnetic storm s * ionospheric variability Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  8. Topic Map for Authentic Travel


    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi


    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  9. Medium scale fire tests of propane tanks to study the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and transient two-phase jet release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhifei


    A series of medium scale fire tests were conducted to study boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVE) and transient jet releases resulting from thermally induced propane tank ruptures. The tests were conducted using commercial propane contained in automotive propane tanks with a capacity of ca 400 liters. The tanks were brought to failure using a combination of torch and pool fire impingement. Instrumentation was included to measure internal pressure, liquid, vapour and wall temperature distribution, tank and lading mass, external blast overpressure, and fireball thermal radiation. Video and still cameras were used to record the fireball and jet fire shapes and dimensions. Two different kinds of BLEVE failure were observed. For very weak tanks the BLEVE was a single step process where the rupture propagated rapidly along the length of the tank. The duration of these events was measured in milliseconds and it is suggested that the process is driven by the vapour space energy. The other type of BLEVE was a two step process where a crack would start in a weakened area, arrest in a stronger part of the tank, and then start again to end in catastrophic failure. Initial failure and jet type release results in violent boiling and pressure recovery in the tank, leading to restart of the crack and catastrophic failure. Time duration is measured in seconds, and is driven by energy stored in the liquid. A computer model was developed to simulate the transient jet release resulting from finite tank failures, and can predict transient mass flow, tank pressure decay, visible flame length and jet fire thermal radiation. 253 refs., 132 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses. (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori


    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating working hours, job satisfaction, DS and covariates. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess DS. Risk of DS (CES-D ≥ 16) by working hours, job satisfaction, and both combined was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Compared to participants working 6-8 hrs/day, those working 12+ hrs/day had significantly higher odds of DS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.49), while participants with low satisfaction, as opposed to high satisfaction, had increased odds of DS (aOR 1.81). Furthermore, compared to those working 6-8 hrs/day with high satisfaction (reference group), participants working 6-8 hrs/day, > 8 to 10 hrs/day, and > 10 hrs/day combined with low satisfaction had dose-response increase of DS (aOR 1.48, 2.21 and 2.31, respectively, p working > 8 to 10 hrs/day and > 10 hrs/day combined with high satisfaction had not (aOR 0.93 and 1.39, respectively, p > 0.10). The results suggest that long working hours are associated with increased risk of DS only under reduced job satisfaction condition, which highlights the importance of improving job satisfaction, particularly among those working excessive hours.

  11. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses. (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Long working hours, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms: a community-based cross-sectional study among Japanese employees in small- and medium-scale businesses (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori


    Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18–79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating working hours, job satisfaction, DS and covariates. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess DS. Risk of DS (CES-D ≥ 16) by working hours, job satisfaction, and both combined was estimated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Compared to participants working 6–8 hrs/day, those working 12+ hrs/day had significantly higher odds of DS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.49), while participants with low satisfaction, as opposed to high satisfaction, had increased odds of DS (aOR 1.81). Furthermore, compared to those working 6–8 hrs/day with high satisfaction (reference group), participants working 6-8 hrs/day, > 8 to 10 hrs/day, and > 10 hrs/day combined with low satisfaction had dose-response increase of DS (aOR 1.48, 2.21 and 2.31, respectively, p working > 8 to 10 hrs/day and > 10 hrs/day combined with high satisfaction had not (aOR 0.93 and 1.39, respectively, p > 0.10). The results suggest that long working hours are associated with increased risk of DS only under reduced job satisfaction condition, which highlights the importance of improving job satisfaction, particularly among those working excessive hours. PMID:28881792

  13. Travel characteristics and health practices among travellers at the travellers' health and vaccination clinic in Singapore. (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies


    Singapore has a fast-growing travel industry, but few studies have been done on travel characteristics and travel health practices. This study describes the profile and healthseeking behaviour of travellers attending a travel health clinic in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on travellers attending the Traveller's Health and Vaccination Centre (THVC) between September and November 2002 using a standardised questionnaire. Information obtained included individual demographic and medical information, travel patterns, vaccination status and travel health practices. Four hundred and ninetyfive (74%) eligible travellers seen at THVC responded to the questionnaire. Their mean age was 36 years; 77% were professionals, managers, executives, and businessmen, students, and white collar workers. Asia was the main travel destination, and most travelled for leisure and resided in hotels or hostels. The median duration of travel was 16 days. Although >90% had previously travelled overseas, only 20% had previously sought pre-travel advice. Malays were significantly underrepresented (P travel advice compared with Chinese, Indians and Malays. Factors associated with seeking pre-travel advice included travel outside of Asia, especially Africa and South America. Singaporean travellers travel more often to cities rather than rural areas, compared with non-Asian travellers. Asia is the preferred destination, and travel outside of Asia is perceived as more risky and is associated with seeking pre-travel advice and vaccinations. Travel patterns and behaviours need to be taken into account when developing evidence-based travel medicine in Asia.

  14. LIFDAR: A Diagnostic Tool for the Ionosphere (United States)

    Kia, O. E.; Rodgers, C. T.; Batholomew, J. L.


    ITT Corporation proposes a novel system to measure and monitor the ion species within the Earth's ionosphere called Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection and Ranging (LIFDAR). Unlike current ionosphere measurements that detect electrons and magnetic field, LIFDAR remotely measures the major contributing ion species to the electron plasma. The LIFDAR dataset has the added capability to demonstrate stratification and classification of the layers of the ionosphere to ultimately give a true tomographic view. We propose a proof of concept study using existing atmospheric LIDAR sensors combined with a mountaintop observatory for a single ion species that is prevalent in all layers of the atmosphere. We envision the LIFDAR concept will enable verification, validation, and exploration of the physics of the magneto-hydrodynamic models used in ionosphere forecasting community. The LIFDAR dataset will provide the necessary ion and electron density data for the system wide data gap. To begin a proof of concept, we present the science justification of the LIFDAR system based on the model photon budget. This analysis is based on the fluorescence of ionized oxygen within the ionosphere versus altitude. We use existing model abundance data of the ionosphere during normal and perturbed states. We propagate the photon uncertainties from the laser source through the atmosphere to the plasma and back to the collecting optics and detector. We calculate the expected photon budget to determine signal to noise estimates based on the targeted altitude and detection efficiency. Finally, we use these results to derive a LIFDAR observation strategy compatible with operational parameters.

  15. Measurements of ionospheric TEC in the direction of GPS satellites and comparison with three ionospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti


    Full Text Available The IEN Galileo Ferraris uses GPS for time and frequency synchronization. To obtain high performance it is important to reduce the error due to the ionospheric time-delay in GPS measurements. Evaluations of TEC in the direction of GPS satellites, obtained from three different ionospheric models, have been compared with corresponding measurements by GPS signal.

  16. Southern European ionospheric TEC maps based on Kriging technique to monitor ionosphere behavior (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bouza, Marta; Paparini, Claudia; Otero, Xurxo; Herraiz, Miguel; Radicella, Sandro M.; Abe, Oladipo E.; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia


    Global or regional Maps of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) are an efficient tool to monitor the delay introduced by the ionosphere in the satellite signals. Ionospheric disturbance periods are of particular interest because these conditions can strongly affect satellite navigation range measurements. This work presents post-processing regional vertical TEC maps over Southern Europe ([35°N-50°N] latitude) obtained by applying Kriging interpolation to GPS derived TEC over more than 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. These maps are used to study the behavior of the ionosphere during space weather events and their effects. To validate these maps, hereafter called Southern European Ionospheric Maps (SEIMs), their TEC values have been compared with those obtained from EGNOS Message Server (EMS) and with direct experimental TEC data from GNSS stations. Ionospheric space weather events related to geomagnetic storms of March 17th, 2013, February 19th, 2014 and March 17th, 2015 have been selected. To test the methodology, one period of quiet days has been also analyzed. TEC values obtained by SEIMs in the Ionospheric Grid Points (IGPs) defined by EGNOS are very close to those given by EMS and in the period of major geomagnetic storms the difference does not exceed 6 TEC units. These results confirm the good performance of the technique used for obtaining the SEIMs that can be a useful tool to study the ionosphere behavior during geomagnetic storms and their effects in the region of interest.


    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division


    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...



    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia


    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  19. Travelling or not?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus; Lai, Signe Sophus


    -12) travelling to multiple countries on several continents. The article shows that there are systematic differences in terms of formal characteristics, themes, and characters’ communicative style between the series that travel and the series that do not. Especially, the analysis finds that the presence of strong...... female lead characters is systematically linked to the positive travel patterns of the series, and that this cuts across different genres of series. The analysis also finds that series, which have explicitly low production values and simple narrative structure, systematically travels poorer....

  20. Comparative ionospheres: Terrestrial and giant planets (United States)

    Mendillo, Michael; Trovato, Jeffrey; Moore, Luke; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo


    The study of planetary ionospheres within our solar system offers a variety of settings to probe mechanisms of photo-ionization, chemical loss, and plasma transport. Ionospheres are a minor component of upper atmospheres, and thus their mix of ions observed depends on the neutral gas composition of their parent atmospheres. The same solar irradiance (x-rays and extreme-ultra-violet vs. wavelength) impinges upon each of these atmospheres, with solar flux magnitudes changed only by the inverse square of distance from the Sun. If all planets had the same neutral atmosphere-with ionospheres governed by photochemical equilibrium (production = loss)-their peak electron densities would decrease as the inverse of distance from the Sun, and any changes in solar output would exhibit coherent effects throughout the solar system. Here we examine the outer planet with the most observations of its ionosphere (Saturn) and compare its patterns of electron density with those at Earth under the same-day solar conditions. We show that, while the average magnitudes of the major layers of molecular ions at Earth and Saturn are approximately in accord with distance effects, only minor correlations exist between solar effects and day-to-day electron densities. This is in marked contrast to the strong correlations found between the ionospheres of Earth and Mars. Moreover, the variability observed for Saturn's ionosphere (maximum electron density and total electron content) is much larger than found at Earth and Mars. With solar irradiance changes far too small to cause such effects, we use model results to explore the roles of other agents. We find that water sources from Enceladus at low latitudes, and 'ring rain' at middle latitudes, contribute substantially to variability via water ion chemistry. Thermospheric winds and electrodynamics generated at auroral latitudes are suggested causes of high latitude ionospheric variability, but remain inconclusive due to the lack of relevant

  1. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers (United States)

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.


    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  2. Usage of medium-scale space images and GIS in analyzing the agriculture production limiting factors at the Northwestern coast, Egypt (United States)

    Gad, A.


    The northwestern coast of Egypt is characterized by an international interest due to its history and magnificent environment. The area was known as being the bread basket during the Greek and Roman periods. Recently, drastic changes in land use resulting in destructing many of water harvesting tools, thus diminution of the agriculture importance. Restoration of the area and planning self sufficient communities needs to develop a sustainable land resources database for these regions. The medium scale space data provide a spatial resolution of 30 meters, in addition to multi-temporal imaging. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) permits to store, merge, and manipulate the huge amounts of thematic maps and attribute data. A number of 7 Landsat ETM scenes covering the whole northwestern coast of Egypt were acquired and merged. ERDAS-IMAGINE software was used for image processing and analyzing. A number of 53 topographic maps at scale 1:50000 were used to input GIS thematic layers relevant to land resources, using Arc_GIS 9.2 system. Field investigation was carried out to represent different soil units and collect ground control points. Chemical and physical soil properties were determined, upon which soil classification was based. MicroLEIS system was employed to define soil restrictive elements for the local common agricultural practices. (i.e. cultivation of olives, peach, wheat, beans, and sunflower crops). The results showed that the presence of Calcic, Petrogypsic and Salic horizons are responsible for the problems of water logging, hard workability and secondary salinization. The identified great groups include Torripsamments, Torriorthents, Haplosalids, Petrogypsids and Haplocalcids. Soils of the alluvial fans and watershed basins are deep to moderately deep with a texture ranging between fine sand to clay loam. The salinity is relatively low (EC is +/- 2 dS/m) whereas the CaCO3 content is mostly over 8 %. The limiting factors found in the piedmont and

  3. Emergence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in medium-scale swine farms in southeastern Cambodia. (United States)

    Tornimbene, B; Frossard, J-P; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Guitian, J; Drew, T W


    Since 2006, reports from China and Viet Nam have alerted of an emergent highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in that region. The frequent occurrence of outbreaks in these countries puts Cambodian pig farms at high risk of infection, but no study had been conducted to investigate the presence of HP-PRRS in Cambodian farms. We investigated the presence of HP-PRRS in medium-scale (semi-commercial) swine farms in the Cambodian southeastern region. Specifically, one province bordering Viet Nam (Takeo) was selected due to the concentration of most semi-commercial farms in that province. A cross-sectional study was carried out, between July and September 2010 to assess whether the prevalence of infection in these farms was indicative of recent spread of PPRSV and to identify risk factors for infection. The number of farms to be sampled was established using methods for Lot Quality Assurance Surveys (LQAS), in order to achieve a pre-established ability to discriminate between two different prevalence settings. The target population comprised all semi-commercial farms in Takeo province from which a random sample of 35 farms was selected. Selected farms were visited and questionnaires administered to gather information on farm characteristics and husbandry practices. Blood samples from individual pigs were collected in each of the study farms and tested for PRRSV, along with a number of other swine respiratory pathogens in order to investigate potential interactions. Our results showed that the virus was already present in Takeo semi-commercial pig population (LQAS herd prevalence ≥85%) at the time of sampling. The presence of sows in the farm and farm density were significantly associated (P<0.05) with the introduction and the presence of PRRS - but this was an unadjusted association as small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Spatiotemporal description of the supposed pattern of infection revealed that the

  4. Electric fields in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.


    F-region drift velocities, measured by incoherent-scatter radar, were analyzed in terms of diurnal, seasonal, magnetic-activity, and solar-cycle effects. A comprehensive electric field model was developed that includes the effects of the E and F-region dynamos, magnetospheric sources, and ionospheric conductivities, for both the local and conjugate regions. The E-region dynamo dominates during the day, but at night the F-region and convection are more important. This model provides much better agreement with observations of the F-region drifts than previous models. Results indicate that larger magnitudes occur at night, and that daily variation is dominated by the diurnal mode. Seasonal variations in conductivities and thermospheric winds indicate a reversal in direction in the early morning during winter from south to northward. On magnetic perturbed days the drifts deviate rather strongly from the quiet days average, especially around 13 L.T. for the northward and 18 L.T. for the westward component

  5. Theory of ionospheric heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragin, B.L.


    A brief description of the F region ionospheric heating experiments is given including some historical notes and a brief summary of the observations. A theory for the phenomenon of ''artificial spread F'' is presented. The explanation is in terms of scattering by approximately field-aligned, large scale ionization density irregularities, which are produced by a thermal version of the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability in which the heating wave decays into another electromagnetic wave and an electrostatic wave of very low frequency. This thermal instability differs from conventional stimulated Brillouin scattering in that the low frequency wave is driven by differential heating in the interference pattern of the two electromagnetic waves, rather than by the usual ponderomotive force. Some aspects of the theory of the phenomenon of ''wide-band attenuation'' or ''anomalous absorption'' of a probing electromagnetic wave. Some general results from the theory of wave propagation in a random medium are used to derive equations describing the absorption of a probing electromagnetic wave due to scattering (by large scale irregularities) into new electromagnetic waves or (by small scale irregularities) into electron plasma oscillations

  6. Ionospheric Scintillation Effects on GPS (United States)

    Steenburgh, R. A.; Smithtro, C.; Groves, K.


    . Ionospheric scintillation of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals threatens navigation and military operations by degrading performance or making GPS unavailable. Scintillation is particularly active, although not limited to, a belt encircling the earth within 20 degrees of the geomagnetic equator. As GPS applications and users increases, so does the potential for detrimental impacts from scintillation. We examined amplitude scintillation data spanning seven years from Ascension Island, U.K.; Ancon, Peru; and Antofagasta, Chile in the Atlantic/Americas longitudinal sector at as well as data from Parepare, Indonesia; Marak Parak, Malaysia; Pontianak, Indonesia; Guam; and Diego Garcia, U.K.; in the Pacific longitudinal sector. From these data, we calculate percent probability of occurrence of scintillation at various intensities described by the S4 index. Additionally, we determine Dilution of Precision at one minute resolution. We examine diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics and make spatial comparisons. In general, activity was greatest during the equinoxes and solar maximum, although scintillation at Antofagasta, Chile was higher during 1998 rather than at solar maximum.

  7. Ionospheric scintillation monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Pozoga


    Full Text Available

    This paper presents a review of the ionospheric scintillation monitoring and modelling by the European groups

    involved in COST 296. Several of these groups have organized scintillation measurement campaigns at low and

    high latitudes. Some characteristic results obtained from the measured data are presented. The paper also addresses the modeling activities: four models, based on phase screen techniques, with different options and application domains are detailed. Finally some new trends for research topics are given. This includes the wavelet analysis, the high latitudes analysis, the construction of scintillation maps and the mitigation techniques.


    CERN Multimedia


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  10. Value of travel time. (United States)


    Knowingly or not, people generally place economic value on their time. Wage workers are paid a rate per hour, and service providers may charge per hour of their time. In the transportation realm, travelers place a value on their travel time and have ...

  11. Travel health prevention. (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  12. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else


    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  13. Electromagnetic fields of ionospheric point dipoles in the earthionosphere waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybachek, S.T.


    This paper addresses the problem of excitation of the spherical earth-anisotropic ionosphere waveguide by ionospheric dipole sources. The solution obtained is based on a generalized reciprocity theorem which provides a relationship to the problem of finding electromagnetic fields in the ionosphere created by sources located in the waveguide. Some results of the calculations are presented

  14. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric ...

  15. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... of the world and specific country. Many infectious diseases transmitted in food and water can also be acquired directly through the fecal-oral route. Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* From Contaminated Food and Water More ... filariasis African sleeping sickness Onchoceriasis *This list ...

  16. Multi-Instrument Investigation of Ionospheric Flow Channels and Their Impact on the Ionosphere and Thermosphere during Geomagnetic Storms (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0009 Multi-instrument investigation of ionospheric flow channels and their impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere during...SUBTITLE Multi-instrument investigation of ionospheric flow channels and their impact on the ionosphere and thermosphere during geomagnetic storms 5a...Experiment) and GOCE (Gravity field and steady- state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite data. We also created a series of computer algorithms to

  17. Alfven waves in the auroral ionosphere: A numerical model compared with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, D.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Vickrey, J.F.


    The authors solve a linear numerical model of Alfven waves reflecting from the high-latitude ionosphere, both to better understanding the role of the ionosphere in the magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling process and to compare model results with in situ measurements. They use the model to compute the frequency-dependent amplitude and phase relations between the meridional electric and the zonal magnetic fields due to Alfven waves. These relations are compared with measurements taken by an auroral sounding rocket flow in the morningside oval and by the HILAT satellite traversing the oval at local noon. The sounding rocket's trajectory was mostly parallel to the auroral oval, and is measured enhanced fluctuating field energy in regions of electron precipitation. The rocket-measured phase data are in excellent agreement with the Alfven wave model, and the relation between the modeled and the measured by HILAT are related by the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity Σ p , indicating that the measured field fluctuations were due mainly to structured field-aligned current systems. A reason for the relative lack of Alfven wave energy in the HILAT measurements could be the fact that the satellite traveled mostly perpendicular to the oval and therefore quickly traversed narrow regions of electron precipitation and associated wave activity

  18. Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Energy Interplay in the Regions of Diffuse Aurora (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tripathi, A. K.; Detweiler, L.G.; Avanov, L. A.; Singhal, R. P.


    Both electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and whistler mode chorus waves resonate with electrons of the Earths plasma sheet in the energy range from tens of eV to several keV and produce the electron diffuse aurora at ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of these superthermal electrons with the neutral atmosphere leads to the production of secondary electrons (E500600 eV) and, as a result, leads to the activation of lower energy superthermal electron spectra that can escape back to the magnetosphere and contribute to the thermal electron energy deposition processes in the magnetospheric plasma. The ECH and whistler mode chorus waves, however, can also interact with the secondary electrons that are coming from both of the magnetically conjugated ionospheres after they have been produced by initially precipitated high-energy electrons that came from the plasma sheet. After their degradation and subsequent reflection in magnetically conjugate atmospheric regions, both the secondary electrons and the precipitating electrons with high (E600 eV) initial energies will travel back through the loss cone, become trapped in the magnetosphere, and redistribute the energy content of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, scattering of the secondary electrons by ECH and whistler mode chorus waves leads to an increase of the fraction of superthermal electron energy deposited into the core magnetospheric plasma.

  19. NADIM-Travel: A Multiagent Platform for Travel Services Aggregation


    Ben Ameur, Houssein; Bédard, François; Vaucher, Stéphane; Kropf, Peter; Chaib-draaa, Brahim; Gérin-Lajoie, Robert


    With the Internet as a growing channel for travel services distribution, sophisticated travel services aggregators are increasingly in demand. A travel services aggregation platform should be able to manage the heterogeneous characteristics of the many existing travel services. It should also be as scalable, robust, and flexible as possible. Using multiagent technology, we designed and implemented a multiagent platform for travel services aggregation called NADIM-Travel. In this platform, a p...

  20. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.


    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  1. Ionospheric Impacts on UHF Space Surveillance (United States)

    Jones, J. C.


    Earth's atmosphere contains regions of ionized plasma caused by the interaction of highly energetic solar radiation. This region of ionization is called the ionosphere and varies significantly with altitude, latitude, local solar time, season, and solar cycle. Significant ionization begins at about 100 km (E layer) with a peak in the ionization at about 300 km (F2 layer). Above the F2 layer, the atmosphere is mostly ionized but the ion and electron densities are low due to the unavailability of neutral molecules for ionization so the density decreases exponentially with height to well over 1000 km. The gradients of these variations in the ionosphere play a significant role in radio wave propagation. These gradients induce variations in the index of refraction and cause some radio waves to refract. The amount of refraction depends on the magnitude and direction of the electron density gradient and the frequency of the radio wave. The refraction is significant at HF frequencies (3-30 MHz) with decreasing effects toward the UHF (300-3000 MHz) range. UHF is commonly used for tracking of space objects in low Earth orbit (LEO). While ionospheric refraction is small for UHF frequencies, it can cause errors in range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle estimation by ground-based radars tracking space objects. These errors can cause significant errors in precise orbit determinations. For radio waves transiting the ionosphere, it is important to understand and account for these effects. Using a sophisticated radio wave propagation tool suite and an empirical ionospheric model, we calculate the errors induced by the ionosphere in a simulation of a notional space surveillance radar tracking objects in LEO. These errors are analyzed to determine daily, monthly, annual, and solar cycle trends. Corrections to surveillance radar measurements can be adapted from our simulation capability.

  2. VHF Scintillation in an Artificially Heated Ionosphere (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Layne, J.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.; Rivera, L.


    As part of an ongoing project to characterize very-high-frequency (VHF) radio wave propagation through structured ionospheres, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been conducting a set of experiments to measure the scintillation effects of VHF transmissions under a variety of ionospheric conditions. Previous work (see 2015 Fall AGU poster by D. Suszcynsky et al.) measured the S4 index and ionospheric coherence bandwidth in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range under naturally scintillated conditions in the equatorial region at Kwajalein Atoll during three separate campaigns centered on the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. In this paper, we will present preliminary results from the February and September, 2017 High Altitude Auroral Research Project (HAARP) Experimental Campaigns where we are attempting to make these measurements under more controlled conditions using the HAARP ionospheric heater in a twisted-beam mode. Two types of measurements are made by transmitting VHF signals through the heated ionospheric volume to the Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) satellite experiment. The S4 scintillation index is determined by measuring the power fluctuations of a 135-MHz continuous wave signal and the ionospheric coherence bandwidth is simultaneously determined by measuring the delay spread of a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) signal in the 130 - 140 MHz frequency range. Additionally, a spatial Fourier transform of the CW time series is used to calculate the irregularity spectral density function. Finally, the temporal evolution of the time series is used to characterize spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities. All results are compared to theory and scaled for comparison to the 32 - 44 MHz Kwajalein measurements.

  3. Simulation and Observation of Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere (United States)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav; Andreeva, Elena; Krysanov, Boris; Nesterov, Ivan

    Atmospheric and ionospheric perturbations associated with the acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) with typical frequencies of a few hertz -millihertz are considered. These events may be caused by the influence from space and atmosphere as well as by oscillations of the Earth surface and other near-surface phenomena. The surface sources include long-period oscillations of the Earth's surface, earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches and tsunami waves. The wavelike phenomena manifest themself as travelling disturbances of air (in the atmosphere) and of electron density (in the ionosphere). Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are well detected by radio physical methods. AGW generation by near-surface sources is modeled by the numerical solution of the equation of geophysical fluid dynamics for different sources in two-dimensional non-linear dissipative compressible atmosphere. The numerical calculations are based on the FCT (Flux Corrected Transport) technique of the second order accuracy in time and space. Different scenarios of AGW generation are analyzed. The AGW caused by the surface sources within a few hertz-millihertz frequency band appear at the altitudes of middle atmosphere and ionosphere as the disturbances with typical scales from a few kilometers to several hundreds kilometers. Such structures can be successfully monitored by the methods of satellite radio tomography (RT). For the purposes of RT diagnostics of such disturbances, low-orbiting navigational satellites like Transit and Tsikada and high-orbiting navigation systems GPS/GLONASS are used. The results of numerical modeling of AGW generation by the surface sources are compared with the data of RT sounding. Also, generation of AGW by volumetric sources such as particle precipitation, rocket launching, heating by high-frequency radiation and other are considered. The obtained results proved the capability of RT methods of detecting and distinguishing between TIDs caused by AGW generated by

  4. Travel time data collection handbook (United States)


    This Travel Time Data Collection Handbook provides guidance to transportation : professionals and practitioners for the collection, reduction, and presentation : of travel time data. The handbook should be a useful reference for designing : travel ti...

  5. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.


    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  6. Theory of imperfect magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.R.; Lee, L.C.


    Atheory of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the presence of field-aligned potential drops is formulated within the framework of magnetohydrodynamic equations. Our formulation allows the magnetosphere as well as the ionosphere to respond self-consistently to the parallel potential drop along auroral field lines. Equipotential contours are distorted into a V-shaped structure near the convection reversal boundary and S-shaped on the equatorward side, each gives rise to an inverted V precipitation band. The loading effect of the imperfect coupling results in a valley in the electric field profile which occurs equatorward of the convection reversal boundary

  7. Time properties of ionospheric wave disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliev, M.Z.; Krasnikov, I.M.; Litvinov, Yu.G.; Chakenov, B.D.; Yakovets, A.F.


    Records of Doppler frequency shifts of an ionospheric signal, taken in separate observation posts in the vicinity of Alma-Ata in 1986-1987, are analyzed. It is shown that the coherent parts of Doppler shift oscillations are wave disturbance trains in the ionospheric F region. The relation between the train duration and its central frequency is established. With the frequency decrease the mean train length increases, while the maximum train length, determined in the experiment, is about 6h. The probabilities of train detection in the low and high-frequency ranges are nearly the same, and moreover, they are equal in day time and at night

  8. Using DORIS measurements for ionosphere modeling (United States)

    Dettmering, Denise; Schmidt, Michael; Limberger, Marco


    Nowadays, most of the ionosphere models used in geodesy are based on terrestrial GNSS measurements and describe the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) depending on longitude, latitude, and time. Since modeling the height distribution of the electrons is difficult due to the measurement geometry, the VTEC maps are based on the the assumption of a single-layer ionosphere. Moreover, the accuracy of the VTEC maps is different for different regions of the Earth, because the GNSS stations are unevenly distributed over the globe and some regions (especially the ocean areas) are not very well covered by observations. To overcome the unsatisfying measurement geometry of the terrestrial GNSS measurements and to take advantage of the different sensitivities of other space-geodetic observation techniques, we work on the development of multi-dimensional models of the ionosphere from the combination of modern space-geodetic satellite techniques. Our approach consists of a given background model and an unknown correction part expanded in terms of B-spline functions. Different space-geodetic measurements are used to estimate the unknown model coefficients. In order to take into account the different accuracy levels of the observations, a Variance Component Estimation (VCE) is applied. We already have proven the usefulness of radio occultation data from space-borne GPS receivers and of two-frequency altimetry data. Currently, we test the capability of DORIS observations to derive ionospheric parameters such as VTEC. Although DORIS was primarily designed for precise orbit computation of satellites, it can be used as a tool to study the Earth's ionosphere. The DORIS ground beacons are almost globally distributed and the system is on board of various Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) with different orbit heights, such as Jason-2, Cryosat-2, and HY-2. The last generation of DORIS receivers directly provides phase measurements on two frequencies. In this contribution, we test the DORIS

  9. The remote atmospheric and ionospheric detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.P.; Wolfram, K.D.; Meier, R.R.


    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment, to fly on a TIROS spacecraft in the late 1980's, consists of a comprehensive set of one limb imaging and seven limb scanning optical sensors. These eight instruments span the spectral range from the extreme ultraviolet to the near infrared, allowing simultaneous observations of the neutral and ion composition on the day and night side as well as in the auroral region. The primary objective of RAIDS is to demonstrate a system for remote sensing of the ionosphere to produce global maps of the electron density, peak altitude and critical frequency

  10. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model


    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei


    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  11. Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) for the investigation of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Qiao, Lei; Gong, Wanlin


    An upgrade of Wuhan Ionospheric Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) was developed in 2015. Based on the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a high performance FPGA, the newly designed WIOBSS has a completely digital structure, which makes it portable and flexible. Two identical WIOBSSs, which were situated at Mile (24.31°N, 103.39°E) and Puer (22.74°N, 101.05°E) respectively, were used to investigate the ionospheric irregularities. The comparisons of group distance, Doppler shift and width between Mile-Puer and Puer-Mile VHF ionospheric propagation paths indicate that the reciprocity of the irregularities is satisfied at midlatitude region. The WIOBSS is robust in the detection of ionospheric irregularities.

  12. Using GPS TEC measurements to probe ionospheric spatial spectra at mid-latitudes (United States)

    Lay, E. H.; Parker, P. A.; Light, M. E.; Carrano, C. S.; Debchoudhury, S.; Haaser, R. A.


    The physics of how random ionospheric structure causes signal degradation is well understood as weak forward scattering through an effective diffraction grating created by plasma irregularities in the ionosphere. However, the spatial scale spectrum of those irregularities required for input into scintillation models and models of traveling ionospheric disturbances is poorly characterized, particularly at the kilometer to tens of kilometer scale lengths important for very-high-frequency (VHF) scintillation prediction. Furthermore, the majority of characterization studies have been performed in low-latitude or high-latitude regions where geomagnetic activity dominates the physical processes. At mid-latitudes, tropospheric and geomagnetic phenomena compete in disturbing the ionosphere, and it is not well understood how these multiple sources affect the drivers that influence the spatial spectrum. In this study, we are interested in mid-latitude electron density irregularities on the order of 10s of kilometers that would affect VHF signals. Data from the GPS networks Japan GEONET and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, UNAVCO) in the western United States were analyzed for this study. Japan GEONET is a dense network of GPS receivers (station spacing of tens of km), with fairly evenly spaced positions over all of Japan. The PBO, on the other hand, has several pockets of extremely dense coverage (station spacing within a few km), but is less dense on average. We analyze a day with a large solar storm (2015/03/17, St. Patrick's Day Storm) to allow high scintillation potential at mid-latitudes, a day with low geomagnetic activity and low thunderstorm activity (2016/01/31), and a day with low geomagnetic activity and high thunderstorm activity (2015/08/02). We then perform two-dimensional spatial analyses on the TEC data from these two networks on scale lengths of 20 to 200 km to infer the spatial scale spectra.

  13. Coupled storm-time magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere simulations including microscopic ionospheric turbulence (United States)

    Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Liu, J.; Wang, W.; Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.; Lyon, J.


    During geomagnetic storms the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system becomes activated in ways that are unique to disturbed conditions. This leads to emergence of physical feedback loops that provide tighter coupling between the system elements, often operating across disparate spatial and temporal scales. One such process that has recently received renewed interest is the generation of microscopic ionospheric turbulence in the electrojet regions (electrojet turbulence, ET) that results from strong convective electric fields imposed by the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. ET leads to anomalous electron heating and generation of non-linear Pedersen current - both of which result in significant increases in effective ionospheric conductances. This, in turn, provides strong non-linear feedback on the magnetosphere. Recently, our group has published two studies aiming at a comprehensive analysis of the global effects of this microscopic process on the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In one study, ET physics was incorporated in the TIEGCM model of the ionosphere-thermosphere. In the other study, ad hoc corrections to the ionospheric conductances based on ET theory were incorporated in the conductance module of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetosphere model. In this presentation, we make the final step toward the full coupling of the microscopic ET physics within our global coupled model including LFM, the Rice Convection Model (RCM) and TIEGCM. To this end, ET effects are incorporated in the TIEGCM model and propagate throughout the system via thus modified TIEGCM conductances. The March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm is used as a testbed for these fully coupled simulations, and the results of the model are compared with various ionospheric and magnetospheric observatories, including DMSP, AMPERE, and Van Allen Probes. Via these comparisons, we investigate, in particular, the ET effects on the global magnetosphere indicators such as the

  14. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease (United States)

    ... Zika Travel Information World Map of Zika Country Classification Technical Guidance Risk of Zika Virus at Your ... Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by sudden onset of headache, fever, and stiffness of the neck, sometimes accompanied ...

  15. Travel during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  16. Tips for Travel (United States)

    Avoid bringing bed bugs home by taking precautions when traveling such as inspecting bedding and luggage racks in hotel rooms, and upon returning home unpacking directly into a washing machine and dry at high temperatures.

  17. Pregnancy and travel (United States)

    When traveling by land: You should be on the road no more than 5 to 6 hours a day. Always wear your seatbelt. ... of fluids. Women with health problems may need extra oxygen when flying. Talk to your provider before ...

  18. Caregiving and travel patterns. (United States)


    This study explored the impact of caregiving for older adults on mobility and travel : patterns. Specifically, the focus was on how caregivers managed trips on behalf of : another who receives care. Caregiving is becoming increasingly common as the :...

  19. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  20. Traveling-wave photodetector (United States)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.


    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  1. Malaria and Travelers (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria and Travelers for U.S. Residents Recommend on Facebook ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Scabies (United States)

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (83) Scabies more ... have crusted scabies. Contact with items such as clothing and bed linens that have been used by ...

  3. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel


    Dear customers, On 3 January we informed you that the airlines had decided to cease paying commission to travel agencies in Switzerland. This measure has since been progressively introduced, with rare exceptions. Consequently, in agreement with CERN, we are obliged to apply new transaction fees for private travel, with immediate effect. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) offers: A personalized, professional and competent consultancy service To seek the most economical and best solution adapted to your needs Neutrality in comparing prices and benefits Additional information concerning e.g. visa regulations, insurance, vaccinations, etc. Support in the event of problems We draw your attention to the fact that, in spite of the increase, these prices remain very competitive on today's market. Thank you for your trust and understanding. Yours truly, Carlson Wagonlit Travel CERN agency

  4. Illinois travel statistics, 2008 (United States)


    The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  5. Illinois travel statistics, 2009 (United States)


    The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  6. Illinois travel statistics, 2010 (United States)


    The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  7. Travelling with football teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.

  8. Travelers' Health: Cryptosporidiosis (United States)

    ... associated diarrhea; cryptosporidiosis was associated with travel to Asia, particularly India, and Latin America. Another study found ... immunochromatographic cartridge assays, and microscopy with modified acid-fast staining. ... and water precautions (see Chapter 2, Food & Water ...

  9. Business travel and sustainability


    AGUILERA, Anne


    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  10. Travel Market Switzerland 2007


    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas


    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  11. Advice to Travelers (United States)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth


    Travelers, particularly those whose tastes or occupations lead to deviation from the usual tourist routes, are at a small but significant risk of acquiring certain diseases they would be unlikely to encounter had they remained in the continental United States. Many of these infections can be rendered unlikely even for the most adventuresome traveler through the appropriate use of immunization and chemoprophylaxis. Other infections are currently unpreventable and the physician's responsibility lies in their premorbid detection. PMID:1154779

  12. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  13. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.


    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  14. Ionospheric error analysis in gps measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pugliano


    Full Text Available The results of an experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the ionosphere on GPS positioning applications are presented in this paper. Specifically, the study, based upon a differential approach, was conducted utilizing GPS measurements acquired by various receivers located at increasing inter-distances. The experimental research was developed upon the basis of two groups of baselines: the first group is comprised of "short" baselines (less than 10 km; the second group is characterized by greater distances (up to 90 km. The obtained results were compared either upon the basis of the geometric characteristics, for six different baseline lengths, using 24 hours of data, or upon temporal variations, by examining two periods of varying intensity in ionospheric activity respectively coinciding with the maximum of the 23 solar cycle and in conditions of low ionospheric activity. The analysis revealed variations in terms of inter-distance as well as different performances primarily owing to temporal modifications in the state of the ionosphere.

  15. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi


    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  16. Data ingestion and assimilation in ionospheric models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Nava, B.; Galkin, I.; Angling, M.; Stankov, S. M.; Coisson, P.


    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 235-253 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * models * data assimilation * data ingestion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  17. Broadband Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements from Space (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.


    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 825 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present an overview of the RFProp on-orbit research and analysis effort with particular focus on an equatorial scintillation experiment called ESCINT. The 3-year ESCINT project is designed to characterize equatorial ionospheric scintillation in the upper HF and lower VHF portions of the radio spectrum (20 - 150 MHz). Both a 40 MHz continuous wave (CW) signal and 30 - 42 MHz swept frequency signal are transmitted to the satellite receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in four separate campaigns centered on the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results from the first campaign conducted from April 22 - May 15, 2014 will be presented including (a) coherence bandwidth measurements over a full range of transmission frequencies and scintillation activity levels, (b) spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities, and (c) supporting ray-trace simulations. The broadband nature of the measurements is found to offer unique insight into both the structure of ionospheric irregularities and their impact on HF/VHF trans-ionospheric radio wave propagation.

  18. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  19. ionFR: Ionospheric Faraday rotation [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomayor-Beltran, C.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Markoff, S.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    IonFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be

  20. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick


    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  1. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu


    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  2. The response of the day side magnetosphere--ionosphere system to time-varying field line reconnection at the magnetopause. II. Erosion event of March 27, 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, G.C.; Holzer, T.E.


    The circuit analogy for the response of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system to changes in day side field line reconnection rate is applied to real conditions and is used to calculate the expected variation in magnetopause position during the erosion event described by Aubry et al. (1970). Generally good agreement between observation and theory is found. The role of the dawn-dusk electric field responsible for magnetospheric convection is examined in some detail and is treated in the circuit analogy as the field due to an external generator connected across the circuit. It is found that the erosion process requires two distinct time constants for a proper description: (1) the time needed for magnetosheath plamsa to travel down the freshly reconnected field lines to the ionosphere and (2) roughly, the time required for the foot of a reconnected field line to travel one quarter of the total noon-midnight dimension of the polar cap. The second time constant is the dominant one and is not related to the ionospheric conductivity, as has been suggested previously. Examination of high-latitude magnetograms obtained during the erosion event discussed shows that the electric field oscillations predicted by the theory and observed by the spacecraft in terms of oscillations in the magnetopause position are also reflected in osci []lations in ionospheric current flow

  3. Ionospheric response to particle precipitation within aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlund, J.E.


    The aurora is just the visible signature of a large number of processes occurring in a planetary ionosphere as a response to energetic charged particles falling in from the near-empty space far above the planetary atmosphere. This thesis, based on measurements using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar system in northern Scandinavia, discusses ionospheric response processes and especially a mechanism leading to atmospheric gas escape from a planet. One of the most spectacular events in the high latitude atmosphere on earth are the 'auroral arcs' - dynamic rayed sheets of light. An investigation of the conditions of the ionosphere surrounding auroral arcs shows that strong field-aligned bulk ion outflows appear in the topside ionosphere which account for a large fraction of the escape of atmospheric oxygen from earth. Four different additional ionospheric responses are closely related to this ion outflow; 1. enhanced electron temperatures of several thousand Kelvin above an altitude of about 250 km, 2. enhanced ionization around an altitude of 200 km corresponding to electron precipitation with energies of a few hundred eV, 3. the occurrence of naturally enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations seen in the radar spectrum, most likely produced by an ion-ion two-stream instability, and 4. upward directed field-aligned currents partly carried by the outflowing ions. From these observations, it is suggested that the energy dissipation into the background plasma through Joule heating, the production of a few hundred eV energetic run-away electrons, and strong ion outflows are partly produced by the simultaneous presence of ion acoustic turbulence and field-aligned currents above auroral arcs. (20 refs.) (au)

  4. Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems


    Anckar, Bill


    Anckar, B. (1999), ?Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems?. IAMSR Research Report 5/99. Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research, ?bo Akademi University. As electronic commerce enables the tourist service providers to sell their products directly to the consumer, travel agencies are faced with the imminent threat of being by-passed in the travel industry chain in the information age. This paper suggests that virtual travel agencies can compete su...

  5. Faraday rotation of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) signals as a method of ionospheric characterization (United States)

    Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noel, J. M. A.


    Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices which are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this work we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick model.

  6. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.


    of the IMAGE magnetometer array. Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar data showed a west-to-east (antisunward) propagating vortical ionospheric flow in a region of high spectral width ~ 1–2° north of Svalbard, confirming that this magnetic impulse was the signature of a traveling convection vortex. Ground...

  7. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.


    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  8. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries. (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia. (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie


    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease) (United States)

    ... Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Evite ... Minute Travel Long-Term Travel Mass Gatherings Medical Tourism Mental Health Motion Sickness Natural Disasters Pregnant Travelers ...

  11. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana


    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder


    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  12. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers. (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro


    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  13. Schistosomiasis and international travel. (United States)

    Corachan, Manuel


    Infection with Schistosoma species is acquired by exposure to fresh water that harbors cercariae released by infected snails. Although the route of infection is clear, clinical presentation of the established infection in the nonimmune tourist typically differs from that in the local population of areas of endemicity. For the health care practitioner, the traveler's syndrome presents distinctive management problems: water-transmitted bacterial and viral infections may coexist, and identification of the stage of disease at presentation, along with identification of the causative species, will maximize treatment options. Travel medicine clinics serve as epidemiological antennae, helping to identify the dynamics of species transmission in geographically distinct areas. Education of persons traveling to areas of endemicity and the development of mechanical protection against exposure are needed.

  14. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.


    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  15. A clear link connecting the troposphere and ionosphere: ionospheric reponses to the 2015 Typhoon Dujuan (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Yao, Yibin; Xu, Yahui; Kuo, Chungyen; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Lei; Zhai, Changzhi


    The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) total electron content (TEC) sequences were used to capture the arrival time and location of the ionosphere disturbances in response to the 2015 Typhoon Dujuan. After removing the de-trended TEC variation, the clear ionosphere disturbances on the typhoon landing day could be distinguished, and these disturbances disappeared from the TEC sequences before and after the typhoon landing day. The foF2 data observed by Xiamen ionosonde station also show ionosphere disturbances. Based on the advantages of GNSS multi-point observations, the disturbances horizontal velocity in the ionosphere were estimated according to the linear theory for a dispersion relation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in an isothermal atmosphere. The average horizontal velocity (˜ 240 m/s) and the radial velocity (˜ 287 m/s) were used in the two-dimensional grid search for the origin point on the Earth's surface. The origin area was determined to be on the eastern side of Taiwan. Lastly, a possible physical mechanism is discussed in this study. When typhoons land on Taiwan, the severe convective storms and the drag effect from the Central Mountains create an ideal location for development of AGWs. Topographic conditions, like the high lapse rate, contribute to the formation of AGWs, which then propagates into the ionosphere altitude.

  16. Severe ionosphere disturbances caused by the sudden response of evening subequatorial ionospheres to geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.


    By monitoring C band beacon signals from geostationary satellites in Japan, we have observed anomalously strong ionospheric scintillations several times during three years from 1978 to 1980. These severe scinitillations occur associated with geomagnetic storms and accompany sudden and intense ionospheric perturbations in the low-latiude region. Through the analysis of these phenomena we have identified a new type of ionospheric disturbances characterized by intensifications of equatorial anomalies and successive severe ionospheric scintillations that extend to the C band range. The events occur only during a limited local time interval after the sunset, when storm time decreases of midlatitude geomagnetic fields in the same meridan take place during the same time interval. From the viewpoint of ionospheric storms, these disturbances precede the occurrence of midlatitude negative phases and storm time depressions of equatorial anomalies to indicate that the cause of the events is different from distrubed thermospheric circulations. The timing and magnitude of substorms at high-latitudes not always correlate with the events. We have concluded that the phenomena are closely related with penetrations toward low-latitudes of electric fields owing to the partial closure of asymmetrical ring currents

  17. [Viral hepatitis in travellers]. (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida


    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  18. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Document Server


    We would like to inform you that our agency will be closed from 21st December 2008 at 16:30 until 5th January 2009 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL at Rue du Nant in Geneva (Team 3), phone: 058 322 26 20. The agency will be open on 22nd, 23rd, 29th and 30th December. We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL CERN Agency

  19. Intergalactic Travel Bureau (United States)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team


    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  20. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte


    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  1. Solar cycle variations in the ionosphere of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cano, B.; Lester, M.; Witasse, Ol; Blelly, P.L.; Cartacci, M.; Radicella, S.M.; Herraiz, M.


    Solar cycle variations in solar radiation create notable changes in the Martian ionosphere, which have been analysed with Mars Express plasma datasets in this paper. In general, lower densities and temperatures of the ionosphere are found during the low solar activity phase, while higher densities and temperatures are found during the high solar activity phase. In this paper, we assess the degree of influence of the long term solar flux variations in the ionosphere of Mars. (Author)

  2. 4 GHz ionospheric scintillations observed at Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.N.; Jeng, B.S.


    In a study of ionospheric scintillations 3950 MHz beacon signals from geostationary communication satellites Intelsat-IV-F8 and Intelsat-IV-F1 were recorded on a strip chart and magnetic tape at the Taipei Earth Station. While the strip charts were used to monitor the occurrence of the scintillation, the magnetic tape output was digitized and processed by a computerized system to yield a detailed analysis of scintillation events. It was found that diurnal variations were similar to the diurnal patterns of sporadic E at greater than 5 MHz and VHF band ionospheric scintillations during daytime as reported by Huang (1978). Eight typical scintillation events were selected for the calculation of the scintillation index, S4, and other parameters. The mean S4 index for the 8 events was found to be 0.15. Numerical and graphic results are presented for the cumulative amplitude distributions, message reliability, autocorrelation functions and power spectra

  3. Radio techniques for probing the terrestrial ionosphere. (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    The subject of the book is a description of the basic principles of operation, plus the capabilities and limitations of all generic radio techniques employed to investigate the terrestrial ionosphere. The purpose of this book is to present to the reader a balanced treatment of each technique so they can understand how to interpret ionospheric data and decide which techniques are most effective for studying specific phenomena. The first two chapters outline the basic theory underlying the techniques, and each following chapter discusses a separate technique. This monograph is entirely devoted to techniques in aeronomy and space physics. The approach is unique in its presentation of the principles, capabilities and limitations of the most important presently used radio techniques. Typical examples of data are shown for the various techniques, and a brief historical account of the technique development is presented. An extended annotated bibliography of the salient papers in the field is included.

  4. ULF Generation by Modulated Ionospheric Heating (United States)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.; Papadopoulos, K.


    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments designed to generate ULF waves using the HAARP heater have been conducted since 2007. Artificial ULF waves in the Pc1 frequency range were observed from space and by ground induction magnetometers located in the vicinity of the heater as well as at long distances. Two distinct generation mechanisms of artificial ULF waves were identified. The first was electroject modulation under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The second was pressure modulation in the E and F regions of the ionosphere under quiet conditions. Ground detections of ULF waves near the heater included both Shear Alfven waves and Magnetosonic waves generated by electrojet and/or pressure modulations. Distant ULF detections involved Magnetosonic wave propagation in the Alfvenic duct with pressure modulation as the most likely source. Summary of our observations and theoretical interpretations will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the staff at the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  5. Electric and electrothermal conductivity of planetary ionospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.V.


    In the first, second and third approximations of expansion of the Chapman-Enskog method in Sonin polynomials, an explicit form is found of coefficients of electrical and electrothermal electron condituctjvity in a magnetic field in a multicomponent ionosphere with allowance for the electron temperature difference from the heavy component temperature. The generic expressions for the electron transport coefficients are reduced to the form suitable for practical applications. In the first approximation of expansion in Sonin polynomials, the equations are derived for determining the ion diffusion velocities in a magnetic field in a multicomponent gas mixtures. +he approximating expressions for frequencies of electron collisions with main neutral components of planet upper atmospheres are refined. In the first, second and third approximations the equations are derived for determining velocities of ambipolar ion diffusion in a multicomponent ionosphere without a magnetic field (or parallel to it). The explicit form of the electron thermodiffusion factor, being a part of these equations, has been found

  6. Mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamics of omega bands determined from ground-based electromagnetic and satellite optical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm


    Full Text Available We present ground-based electromagnetic data from the MIRACLE and BEAR networks and satellite optical observations from the UVI and PIXIE instruments on the Polar satellite of an omega band event over Northern Scandinavia on 26 June 1998, which occured close to the morning side edge of a substorm auroral bulge. Our analysis of the data concentrates on one omega band period from 03:18-03:27 UT, for which we use the method of characteristics combined with an analysis of the UVI and PIXIE data to derive a time series of instantaneous, solely data-based distributions of the mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamic parameters with a 1-min time resolution. In addition, the AMIE method is used to derive global Hall conductance patterns. Our results show that zonally alternating regions of enhanced ionospheric conductances ("tongues" up to ~60S and low conductance regions are associated with the omega bands. The tongues have a poleward extension of ~400km from their base and a zonal extension of ~380km. While they are moving coherently eastward with a velocity of ~770ms-1, the structures are not strictly stationary. The current system of the omega band can be described as a superposition of two parts: one consists of anticlockwise rotating Hall currents around the tongues, along with Pedersen currents, with a negative divergence in their centers. The sign of this system is reversing in the low conductance areas. It causes the characteristic ground magnetic signature. The second part consists of zonally aligned current wedges of westward flowing Hall currents and is mostly magnetically invisible below the ionosphere. This system dominates the field-aligned current (FAC pattern and causes alternating upward and downward FAC at the flanks of the tongues with maximum upward FAC of ~25µA m-2. The total FAC of ~2MA are comparable to the ones diverted inside a westward traveling surge. Throughout the event, the overwhelming part of the FAC are associated with

  7. Mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamics of omega bands determined from ground-based electromagnetic and satellite optical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Amm


    Full Text Available We present ground-based electromagnetic data from the MIRACLE and BEAR networks and satellite optical observations from the UVI and PIXIE instruments on the Polar satellite of an omega band event over Northern Scandinavia on 26 June 1998, which occured close to the morning side edge of a substorm auroral bulge. Our analysis of the data concentrates on one omega band period from 03:18-03:27 UT, for which we use the method of characteristics combined with an analysis of the UVI and PIXIE data to derive a time series of instantaneous, solely data-based distributions of the mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamic parameters with a 1-min time resolution. In addition, the AMIE method is used to derive global Hall conductance patterns. Our results show that zonally alternating regions of enhanced ionospheric conductances ("tongues" up to ~60S and low conductance regions are associated with the omega bands. The tongues have a poleward extension of ~400km from their base and a zonal extension of ~380km. While they are moving coherently eastward with a velocity of ~770ms-1, the structures are not strictly stationary. The current system of the omega band can be described as a superposition of two parts: one consists of anticlockwise rotating Hall currents around the tongues, along with Pedersen currents, with a negative divergence in their centers. The sign of this system is reversing in the low conductance areas. It causes the characteristic ground magnetic signature. The second part consists of zonally aligned current wedges of westward flowing Hall currents and is mostly magnetically invisible below the ionosphere. This system dominates the field-aligned current (FAC pattern and causes alternating upward and downward FAC at the flanks of the tongues with maximum upward FAC of ~25µA m-2. The total FAC of ~2MA are comparable to the ones diverted inside a westward traveling surge. Throughout the event, the overwhelming part of the FAC

  8. Variations of the electron concentration in the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasovitin, Yu.K.; Shushkova, V.B.


    The possibility of constructing an empirical model of electron concentration in the polar ionosphere is considered. The results of rocket measurements carried out at Fort Churchill and on the Hays island at 70-210 km heights are used to analyse the distribution of electron concentration in the non-illuminated sector of the auroral oval, in the subauroral ionosphere and in the polar cap. Taking account of magnetospheric-ionospheric relationships and the geomagnetic environment, certain regularities in the distribution of electron concentration in the polar field, which may serve as a basis for constructing an empirical model of the polar ionosphere have been identified

  9. Numerical Simulation of Ionospheric Electron Concentration Depletion by Rocket Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Jiaming; Yuan Zhongcai


    In terms of the diffusive process of the gases injected from rocket exhaust into the ionosphere and the relevant chemical reactions between the gases and the composition of ionosphere, the modifications in ionosphere caused by the injected hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas from the rocket exhaust are investigated. The results show that the diffusive process of the injected gases at the ionospheric height is very fast, and the injected gases can lead to a local depletion of electron concentration in the F-region. Furthermore, the plasma 'hole' caused by carbon dioxide is larger, deeper and more durable than that by the hydrogen. (astrophysics and space plasma)

  10. Impulsive Alfven coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.V.; Watanabe, K.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, T.H.


    Basic properties of the impulsive Alfven interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere have been studied by means of a three-dimensional self-consistent simulation of the coupled magnetosphere and ionosphere system. It is found that the duration time of an impulsive perturbation at the magnetospheric equator, the latitudinal distribution of the Alfven propagation time along the field lines, and the ratio between the magnetospheric impedance and the ionospheric resistance is the main key factors that determine the propagation dynamics and the ionospheric responses for an impulsive MHD perturbation in the magnetosphere. (author)

  11. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.


    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  12. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.


    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  13. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.


    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS


    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  15. Ionosphere monitoring and forecast activities within the IAG working group "Ionosphere Prediction" (United States)

    Hoque, Mainul; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Erdogan, Eren; Cueto Santamaría, Marta; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Schmidt, Michael; Wilken, Volker


    Ionospheric disturbances can affect technologies in space and on Earth disrupting satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems. As the world becomes ever more dependent on these technologies, ionospheric disturbances as part of space weather pose an increasing risk to the economic vitality and national security. Therefore, having the knowledge of ionospheric state in advance during space weather events is becoming more and more important. To promote scientific cooperation we recently formed a Working Group (WG) called "Ionosphere Predictions" within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) under Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing" of the Commission 4 "Positioning and Applications". The general objective of the WG is to promote the development of ionosphere prediction algorithm/models based on the dependence of ionospheric characteristics on solar and magnetic conditions combining data from different sensors to improve the spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity taking advantage of different sounding geometries and latency. Our presented work enables the possibility to compare total electron content (TEC) prediction approaches/results from different centers contributing to this WG such as German Aerospace Center (DLR), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Technische Universität München (TUM) and GMV. DLR developed a model-assisted TEC forecast algorithm taking benefit from actual trends of the TEC behavior at each grid point. Since during perturbations, characterized by large TEC fluctuations or ionization fronts, this approach may fail, the trend information is merged with the current background model which provides a stable climatological TEC behavior. The presented solution is a first step to regularly provide forecasted TEC services via SWACI/IMPC by DLR. UPC forecast model is based on applying linear regression to a temporal window of TEC maps in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain

  16. Dual-frequency radio soundings of planetary ionospheres avoid misinterpretations of ionospheric features (United States)

    Paetzold, M.; Andert, T.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tellmann, S.


    Planetary ionospheres are usually sounded at single frequency, e.g. S-band or X-band, or at dual-frequencies, e.g. simultaneous S-band and X-band frequencies. The differential Doppler is computed from the received dual-frequency sounding and it has the advantage that any residual motion by the spaceraft body is compensated. The electron density profile is derived from the propagation of the two radio signals through the ionospheric plasma. Vibrational motion of small amplitude by the spacecraft body may still be contained in the single frequency residuals and may be translated into electron densities. Examples from Mars Express and Venus Express shall be presented. Cases from other missions shall be presented where wave-like structures in the upper ionosphere may be a misinterpretation.

  17. Space weather: Modeling and forecasting ionospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzadilla Mendez, A.


    Full text: Space weather is the set of phenomena and interactions that take place in the interplanetary medium. It is regulated primarily by the activity originating in the Sun and affects both the artificial satellites that are outside of the protective cover of the Earth's atmosphere as the rest of the planets in the solar system. Among the phenomena that are of great relevance and impact on Earth are the auroras and geomagnetic storms , these are a direct result of irregularities in the flow of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field . Given the high complexity of the physical phenomena involved (magnetic reconnection , particle inlet and ionizing radiation to the atmosphere) one of the great scientific challenges today is to forecast the state of plasmatic means either the interplanetary medium , the magnetosphere and ionosphere , for their importance to the development of various human activities such as radio , global positioning , navigation, etc. . It briefly address some of the international ionospheric modeling methods and contributions and participation that currently has the space group of the Institute of Geophysics Geophysics and Astronomy (IGA) in these activities of modeling and forecasting ionospheric. (author)

  18. A snapshot of the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitteker, J.H.


    This paper presents a picture of the north polar F layer and topside ionosphere obtained primarily from three satellites (Alouette 2, ISIS 1, ISIS 2), that passed over the region within a time interval of ca. 50 min on 25 April 1971, a magnetically quiet day. The horizontal distribution of electron densities at the peak of the F layer is found to be similar to synoptic results from the IGY. Energetic particle and ionospheric plasma data are also presented, and the F layer data are discussed in terms of these measurements, and also in terms of electric field and neutral N 2 density measurements made by other satellites on other occasions. The major features observed are as follows: A tongue of F region ionization extends from the dayside across the polar cap, which is accounted for by antisunward drift due to magnetospheric convection. In the F layer and topside ionosphere, the main effect of auroral precipitation appears to be heating and expansion of the topside. A region of low F layer density appears on the morning side of the polar cap, which may be due to convection and possibly also to enhanced N 2 densities. (author)

  19. Equinoctial transitions in the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available Equinoctial summer/winter transitions in the parameters of the F2-region are analyzed using ground-based ionosonde and incoherent scatter observations. Average transition from one type of diurnal NmF2 variation to another takes 20–25 days, but cases of very fast (6–10 days transitions are observed as well. Strong day-time NmF2 deviations of both signs from the monthly median, not related to geomagnetic activity, are revealed for the transition periods. Both longitudinal and latitudinal variations take place for the amplitude of such quiet time NmF2 deviations. The summer-type diurnal NmF2 variation during the transition period is characterized by decreased atomic oxygen concentration [O] and a small equatorward thermospheric wind compared to winter-type days with strong poleward wind and increased [O]. Molecular N2 and O2 concentrations remain practically unchanged in such day-to-day transitions. The main cause of the F2-layer variations during the transition periods is the change of atomic oxygen abundance in the thermosphere related to changes of global thermospheric circulation. A possible relationship with an equinoctial transition of atomic oxygen at the E-region heights is discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry – Ionosphere (ionosphere- atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  20. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  1. Travel time reliability modeling. (United States)


    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  2. [Pre-travel advice and patient education of Hungarian travellers]. (United States)

    Lengyel, Ingrid; Felkai, Péter


    According to international surveys, over half of the travellers face some kind of health issue when travelling. The overwhelming majority of travel-related illnesses can be prevented with pre-travel medical consultations, but the syllabus and content of the consultation have to match the travel habits and culture of the given society. This publication explores the specificities and travel habits of Hungarian travellers. One hundred participants of a travel exhibition completed a survey about their international travel. As the survey was not representative, the data could only be processed through simple statistical methods. However, since the exhibition was presumably attended by those wishing to travel, the conclusions drawn from the results are worth publishing, since no similar survey in Hungary has been published before. Based on the suitable classification of age groups in travel medicine, 11% of the participants were adolescents / young adults (aged 15-24), 81% adults (25-59) and 8% elderly (60-74). Twenty-eight percent of the participants travel multiple times a year, 40% yearly and 32% of them less frequently; 16% of the adults, 8% of the adolescents and 4% of the elderly age group travel multiple times a year. The travel destinations of Hungarian travellers have remained practically unchanged since a study was conducted 13 years ago: the vast majority (95%) travelled within Europe, 2% to the United States, and 11% of them elsewhere. Since Hungarians do not travel to endemic areas, only 5% consulted their general practitioners (GPs) prior to travelling, and 29% did when they had to be vaccinated. Forty-two percent of those wishing to travel never consult their GPs, even though 29% of them are aware of some chronic illness. Instead, 51% gather their health information from the internet and only 6% from their doctors. By the contradiction between the poor health status of the majority of Hungarian travellers and the negligence of seeking pre-travel advice

  3. Midlatitude ionospheric changes to four great geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 23 in Southern and Northern Hemispheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matamba, T. M.; Habarulema, J. B.; Burešová, Dalia


    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2016), s. 1155-1171 ISSN 1542-7390 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : total electron-content * traveling atmospheric disturbances * November 2004 superstorms * magnetic storm s * interplanetary origins * equatorial ionosphere * neutral composition * physical-mechanism * middle latitudes * content response Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  4. Do British travel agents provide adequate health advice for travellers? (United States)

    Lawlor, D A; Burke, J; Bouskill, E; Conn, G; Edwards, P; Gillespie, D


    Travel-related illness is a burden for primary care, with more than two million travellers consulting a general practitioner each year. The annual cost of travel-related illness in the United Kingdom is 11 million Pounds. Travel agents are in a unique position to influence this burden as the most common and most serious problems are preventable with simple advice and/or immunisation. This study, using covert researchers, suggests this potential is not being fully utilised. PMID:10954940

  5. The Tourist Itinerary Travel Loop: historical and contemporary travel characteristics


    Lundgren, Jan O.


    In today’s tourist travel, the travel loop represents a very popular itinerary design, although the circumstances under which it is applied, as well as its geographic scale, often differ from the grandiose loop designs of centuries past. During the past couple of decades, a popular kind of new travel has emerged, the cruise-ship travel phenomenon, which often is arranged as quite an extensive itinerary loop. . However, the cruises can also be transoceanic, even global, with the tourist flying...

  6. Solar eclipses at high latitudes: ionospheric effects in the lower ionosphere (United States)

    Cherniakov, S.


    The partial reflection facility of the Polar Geophysical Institute (the Tumanny observatory, 69.0N, 35.7E) has observed behavior of the high-latitude lower ionosphere during the 20 March 2015 total solar eclipse. There were several effects during the eclipse. At the heights of 60-80 km the ionosphere has shown the effect of a "short night", but at the higher altitudes local enhanced electron concentration had a wave-like form. Data received by the riometer of the Tumanny observatory have also shown wave-like behavior. The behavior can be explained by influence of acoustic-gravity waves which originated after cooling of the atmosphere during the lunar shadow supersonic movement, and transport processes during the eclipse. During the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse there was a substorm at the high latitudes. But after the end of the substorm in the region of the Tumanny observatory the observed amplitudes of the reflected waves had wave effects which could be connected with the coming waves from the region of the eclipse. The wave features were also shown in the behavior of the total electron content (TEC) of the lower ionosphere. During several solar eclipses it was implemented observations of lower ionosphere behavior by the partial reflection facility of the Tumanny observatory. The consideration of the lower ionosphere TEC had revealed common features in the TEC behavior during the eclipses. The photochemical theory of processes in the lower ionosphere is very complicated and up to now it is not completely developed. Therefore introduction of the effective coefficients determining the total speed of several important reactions has been widely adopted when modeling the D-region of the ionosphere. However, experimental opportunities for obtaining effective recombination coefficients are rather limited. One of the methods to estimate effective recombination coefficients uses the phenomenon of a solar eclipse. During solar eclipses at the partial reflection facility of

  7. Malaria: prevention in travellers. (United States)

    Croft, Ashley M


    Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.

  8. Validation of a multimodal travel simulator with travel information provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, T.A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Wee, van G.P.


    This paper presents a computer based travel simulator for collecting data concerning the use of next-generation ATIS and their effects on traveler decision making in a multimodal travel environment. The tool distinguishes itself by presenting a completely abstract multimodal transport network, where

  9. Valuation of Travel Time and TravelIer Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet


    The value of travel time plays an important role in cost benefit analysis of infrastructureprojects. However, the issue of uncertainty on travel times and the implications this has forestimations of travel time values has received much less attention in the literature. In thispaper we compare

  10. Writing Travel in the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graulund, Rune


    the Anthropocene - which is to say an age in which nowhere, not the furthest reachest of the stratosphere nor the lowest point in the marine abyss, are untouched by the activities and detritus of humankind. The essay will give a short overview of the manner in which the notion of 'travel' has been contested......Travel writing critics have proclaimed the end of travel since at least the beginning of the 20th Century. Yet the global age of the 21st century presents us with a range a problems that challenge the notion of travel in manners that neither travellers, travel writers, nor travel writing critics...... could have imagined just a century ago. Globalisation and increased mobility, whether it is that of the privileged few who can travel on holiday on jet airplanes, or that of the immigrant labourer seeking employment by crossing borders on foot, have meant millions (if not indeed billions) are constantly...

  11. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta


    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  12. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian


    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  13. International business travel: impact on families and travellers. (United States)

    Espino, C M; Sundstrom, S M; Frick, H L; Jacobs, M; Peters, M


    Spouses and staff of the World Bank Group (WBG) were questioned about the impact of international business travel on families and travellers. Dependent variables were self reported stress, concern about the health of the traveller, and negative impact on the family. We hypothesised that several travel factors (independent variables) would be associated with these impacts. These travel factors had to do with the frequency, duration, and predictability of travel and its interference with family activities. Survey forms were developed and distributed to all spouses of travelling staff as well as a small sample of operational staff. Kendall's tau b correlation coefficients of response frequencies were computed with the data from scaled items. Written responses to open ended questions were categorised. Response rates for spouses and staff were 24% and 36%, respectively. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Self reported spouse stress was associated with six out of eight travel factors. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. Self reported staff stress was significantly associated with four out of nine travel factors. Further insight into how business travel affects families and staff (including children's behavioural changes) and how families cope was gained through responses to written questions. The findings support the notion that lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates which affect family plans, all characteristic of WBG missions, negatively affects many spouses and children (particularly young children) and that the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress.

  14. Feasibility study of short-term earthquake prediction using ionospheric anomalies immediately before large earthquakes (United States)

    Heki, K.; He, L.


    We showed that positive and negative electron density anomalies emerge above the fault immediately before they rupture, 40/20/10 minutes before Mw9/8/7 earthquakes (Heki, 2011 GRL; Heki and Enomoto, 2013 JGR; He and Heki 2017 JGR). These signals are stronger for earthquake with larger Mw and under higher background vertical TEC (total electron conetent) (Heki and Enomoto, 2015 JGR). The epicenter, the positive and the negative anomalies align along the local geomagnetic field (He and Heki, 2016 GRL), suggesting electric fields within ionosphere are responsible for making the anomalies (Kuo et al., 2014 JGR; Kelley et al., 2017 JGR). Here we suppose the next Nankai Trough earthquake that may occur within a few tens of years in Southwest Japan, and will discuss if we can recognize its preseismic signatures in TEC by real-time observations with GNSS.During high geomagnetic activities, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID) often propagate from auroral ovals toward mid-latitude regions, and leave similar signatures to preseismic anomalies. This is a main obstacle to use preseismic TEC changes for practical short-term earthquake prediction. In this presentation, we show that the same anomalies appeared 40 minutes before the mainshock above northern Australia, the geomagnetically conjugate point of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake epicenter. This not only demonstrates that electric fields play a role in making the preseismic TEC anomalies, but also offers a possibility to discriminate preseismic anomalies from those caused by LSTID. By monitoring TEC in the conjugate areas in the two hemisphere, we can recognize anomalies with simultaneous onset as those caused by within-ionosphere electric fields (e.g. preseismic anomalies, night-time MSTID) and anomalies without simultaneous onset as gravity-wave origin disturbances (e.g. LSTID, daytime MSTID).

  15. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1 ... landing of typhoon Matsa, with TEC increasing from its monthly median over the typhoon area by. Keywords. Principal Component Analysis; total electron content; global ionospheric map; .... dent on temperature and wind structure in the atmosphere. Coupling between typhoon processes and the ionosphere has ...

  16. Monitoring the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an IRI model assisted GPS-based Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) technique is developed to inverse the ionospheric ... are usually installed along a fixed longitude chain. Kunitsyn et al (1997) first confirmed the .... The IED value at the center of each pixel is gen- erated from the IRI2001 model and ...

  17. Impact of Galileo on Global Ionosphere Map Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.


    The upcoming GNSS Galileo, with its new satellite geometry and frequency plan, will not only bring many benefits for navigation and positioning but also help to improve ionosphere delay estimation. This paper investigates ionosphere estimation with Galileo and compares it with the results from

  18. Probing ionospheric structures using the LOFAR radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; van der Tol, S.; Pandey, V.N.; Vedantham, H. K.; Brentjens, M. A.; Bruyn, A. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K. M. B.; Bregman, J. D.; Brouw, W. N.; Bus, S.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Jelic, Vibor; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Noordam, J. E.; Offringa, A. R.; Patil, A. H.; Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.


    LOFAR is the LOw-Frequency Radio interferometer ARray located at midlatitude (52°53'N). Here we present results on ionospheric structures derived from 29 LOFAR nighttime observations during the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. We show that LOFAR is able to determine differential ionospheric total

  19. The F-Region Equatorial Ionospheric Electrodynamics Drifts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ionospheric plasma drift is one of the most essential parameters for understanding the dynamics of ionospheric F-region. F-region electromagnetic drifts are calculated for three seasonal conditions from ionosonde observations acquired during quiet period of a typical year of high and low solar activity at Ibadan (7.4oN, ...


    CERN Multimedia



    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  1. Travelers In The Night (United States)

    Grauer, Albert D.


    Travelers In The Night is an engaging and informative series of two minute radio programs about asteroids, comets, spacecraft, and other objects in space. The pieces are evergreen in that they are current but not dated. They are published on the Public Radio Exchange and carried by a number of radio stations. For teachers, students, and kids of all ages, the script for each piece and the start of a path for further inquiry can be found on the website . The Travelers InThe Night Pieces are written and produced by an observing member of the Catalina Sky Survey Team at the University of Arizona. DPS members are encouraged to submit program ideas which can be developed to feature their research efforts.

  2. Ionospheric Electron Densities at Mars: Comparison of Mars Express Ionospheric Sounding and MAVEN Local Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Morgan, D. D.; Fowler, C.M.; Kopf, A.J.; Andersson, L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Andrews, D.J.; Truhlík, Vladimír


    Roč. 122, č. 12 (2017), s. 12393-12405 E-ISSN 2169-9402 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Mars * ionosphere * MARSIS * Mars Express * MAVEN * radar sounding Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science)

  3. A study of the ionospheric signature of ion supply from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranc, M.A.P.


    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma; in particular, the observations of upwelling ions (UWI) by the DE-1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer have illustrated the significance of low-energy ion supply to the magnetosphere. The composition of the UWI implies an ionospheric source, and the Dynamics Explorer dual satellite mission provides an opportunity to search for the ionospheric signature of UWI. Magnetometer data from both satellites are used to determine magnetic conjunctions of the satellites; these conjunctions are searched for correlated observations of UWI and upward flowing thermal ion (UFI) events. Four cases of correlated observations are presented as proof of that the UFI are indeed the ionospheric signature of UWI; it is found from these examples that the event are associated with intense field-aligned currents at both satellites and with anti-sunward convection, enhanced fluxes of low-energy precipitating electrons from the boundary plasma sheet, and upward thermal ion fluxes in excess of 10 9 cm -2 s -1 at DE-2. While USI are primarily a dayside phenomena, UFI are found in all local time sectors sampled by DE-2

  4. Leisure and Travel Choice


    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez


    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  5. Choice, changeover, and travel


    Baum, William M.


    Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as “patches,” can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment, pigeons were exposed to laboratory choice situations, concurrent variable-interval schedules, that were standard except for the introduction...

  6. Diversity does not travel!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Meriläinen, Susan; Tienari, Janne


    In this chapter we offer insights into the social construction of diversity in Finnish organizations and society. In Finnish organizations, gender is highlighted while other markers of diversity are blotted out. 'Non-Finns' become subject to cultural assimilation. The US-based concept of Diversit...... Management becomes adopted and adapted in particular ways. Standardized concepts of diversity and its management do not travel, rather they become translated locally. In organizational practice, globalization is slow and laborious....

  7. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  8. Common origin of positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and the geomagnetic activity effect at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, G.W.


    The author looks for a correlation between two different atmospheric effects. They are a positive atmospheric storm (an anomalous increase in the F2 region ionization density), observed at middle latitudes, and the geomagnetic activity effect (the anomalous changes of temperature and gas density seen in the thermosphere), observed at low latitudes. A temporal correlation is sought to test the argument that both of these effects are the result of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TAD). A TAD is a pulselike atmospheric wave thought to be generated by substorm activity, and to propagate with high velocity (600 m/s) from polar latitudes toward equatorial latitudes. The author looks at data from five separate events correlating magnetic, ionospheric, and neutral atmospheric measurements. The conclusion is that there is a positive correlation between magnetic substorm activity at high latitudes, and positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and geomagnetic activity at low latitudes. The time correlations are consistent with high propagation speeds between these events. The author also presents arguments which indicate that the middle latitude positive ionospheric storms are not the result of electric field effects

  9. Time - A Traveler's Guide (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.


    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  10. When CERN travels abroad

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    For the first time the new CERN travelling exhibition has gone abroad. The venue is Torino, in Italy, where it is being shown at the Museum of Natural Science in the framework of the activities of the EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF 2010). Soon after the event, the exhibition will fly to Copenhagen. The CERN traveling exhibition was inaugurated in 2009. The new ‘Accelerating Science’ exhibition was inaugurated in 2009 as part of the celebrations to mark the 450th anniversary of the University of Geneva. “CERN’s travelling exhibition is an important tool for outreach in our Member states as it carries the main messages that constitute the backbone of the Laboratory’s education and communication policy”, explains Rolf Landua, head of the Education Group, which manages the exhibition. “The 2010 European Science Open Forum in Torino will gather a lot of experts and visitors from the general public who will be able to experience in an ...

  11. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Document Server


    Carlson Wagonlit Travel wishes to remind you of the following conditions concerning travel to the USA. Passport conditions Since 26 October 2004, nationals of the countries covered by the US Visa Waiver Programme have been required to present a valid machine-readable passport when entering the United States. Failing this, they require a valid US non-immigrant visa in addition to their passport. Passports issued after 25 October 2005 must also bear a digital photograph. Passports issued after 25 October 2006 must contain biometric data to allow visa-free entry to the US. Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS) form Since 4 October 2005, all non-US citizens travelling to the USA have been required to complete the APIS form before departure and present it when they check in. This new procedure will certainly increase the time it takes to check in. We therefore advise passengers to present themselves at the respective check-in desk in good time. The APIS form can be downloaded from our homepage: w...

  12. [Travelers, mad, wandering]. (United States)

    Vaschetto, Emilio


    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  13. Update on traveler's diarrhea. (United States)

    Strum, W B


    Traveler's diarrhea affects a substantial number of travelers to high-risk areas of the world. The key to controlling this troublesome disease is prevention. The most important preventive measures depend on educating patients to consume only safe foods and pure water. Physicians cannot overemphasize the importance of avoiding high-risk foods and of boiling water if a safe water supply is not available. Prophylactic medications are a secondary consideration and should be prescribed with discretion. In most cases, diarrhea is mild and self-limited, requiring only fluid and electrolyte replacement and perhaps an antidiarrheal agent. In moderate to severe cases, the addition of an antimicrobial agent may be of benefit. Until an efficacious polyvalent vaccine is developed, caution and common sense, together with discretionary dietary and hygienic practices, are the best defenses against traveler's diarrhea. The ultimate solution is greatly improved sanitation and personal hygiene, especially in high-risk countries. However, only dreamers will consider waiting for this transformation to occur.

  14. Updated climatological model predictions of ionospheric and HF propagation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.H.; Rhoads, F.J.; Goodman, J.M.; Singh, M.


    The prediction performances of several climatological models, including the ionospheric conductivity and electron density model, RADAR C, and Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Predictions Program, are evaluated for different regions and sunspot number inputs. Particular attention is given to the near-real-time (NRT) predictions associated with single-station updates. It is shown that a dramatic improvement can be obtained by using single-station ionospheric data to update the driving parameters for an ionospheric model for NRT predictions of f(0)F2 and other ionospheric and HF circuit parameters. For middle latitudes, the improvement extends out thousands of kilometers from the update point to points of comparable corrected geomagnetic latitude. 10 refs

  15. Evaluation of Inversion Methods Applied to Ionospheric ro Observations (United States)

    Rios Caceres, Arq. Estela Alejandra; Rios, Victor Hugo; Guyot, Elia

    The new technique of radio-occultation can be used to study the Earth's ionosphere. The retrieval processes of ionospheric profiling from radio occultation observations usually assume spherical symmetry of electron density distribution at the locality of occultation and use the Abel integral transform to invert the measured total electron content (TEC) values. This pa-per presents a set of ionospheric profiles obtained from SAC-C satellite with the Abel inversion technique. The effects of the ionosphere on the GPS signal during occultation, such as bending and scintillation, are examined. Electron density profiles are obtained using the Abel inversion technique. Ionospheric radio occultations are validated using vertical profiles of electron con-centration from inverted ionograms , obtained from ionosonde sounding in the vicinity of the occultation. Results indicate that the Abel transform works well in the mid-latitudes during the daytime, but is less accurate during the night-time.

  16. Electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Hayakawa, Hajime; Tsuruda, Koichiro


    The first successful electric field measurement in the ionosphere using the time-of-flight technique with a lithium ion beam was carried out on a S-520 sounding rocket launched from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan on January 15, 1987. The purpose of this experiment was to prove the validity of the time-of-flight technique when it is applied to the measurement of the dc electric field in the ionosphere. A time-coded ion beam was ejected from the rocket in the direction perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field. The beam returned to the rocket twice per rocket spin when the initial beam direction was nearly perpendicular to the electric field. The electric field and the magnetic field were derived from the travel time of these return lithium ions. The accuracy of the electric field determination was ± 0.3 mV/m. The direction of the electric field was obtained from the direction of the returning ion beam after about one ion gyration. The main constituent of the measured electric field was a V x B field due to the rocket motion across the geomagnetic field. The ambient field was less than 1 mV/m. The magnetic field was measured with an accuracy of ± 2.7 nT in this experiment

  17. The atmosphere and ionosphere of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, M.B.; Yung, Y.L.


    A variety of models for Io's atmosphere, ionosphere, surface, and environment are developed and discussed in the context of recent observational data. The sodium emission detected by Brown appears to require a collisional excitation process in Io's atmosphere, and the extended sodium emission measured by Trafton et al. may require scattering of the planetary radiation by an extended sodium cloud. The sodium is presumably present initially in bound form on Io's surface and may be released by the sputtering mechanism suggested by Matson et al. The ionosphere detected by the radio occultation experiment on Pioneer 10 could be attributed to photoionization of atmospheric sodium if Io's atmosphere could sustain significant vertical motions, of order 1 s/sup -1/ directed up during the day, down at night. Vertical motions of this magnitude could be driven by condensation of atmospheric NH 3 . The total density of gas at Io's surface appears to lie in the range 10 10 -10 12 molecules cm/sup -3/. Corpuscular ionization could play an additional role for the ionosphere. In this case the sateSe should exhibit an exceedingly bright, approx.10 kR, airglow at Lα. The incomplete hydrogen torus observed by Judge and Carlson in the vicinity of Io requires a large supply of hydrogen from the satellite's atmosphere. The escape flux should be of order 10 11 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ and could be maintained by photolysis of atmospheric NH 3 . The observed geometry of the hydrogen torus appears to require a surprisingly short lifetime, approx.10 5 s, for neutral hydrogen near Io's orbit, and may indicate the presence of a large flux, approx.10 9 cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/, of low-energy protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Implications of the hydrogen torus for the energy and mass balance of Jupiter's magnetosphere are discussed briefly, and observational programs are identified which might illuminate present uncertainties in our understanding of Io

  18. Home range and travels (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.


    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  19. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Study from ROCSAT Data (United States)


    UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ionospheric irregularity/scintillation occurrences can be caused by external driving ...Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan e-mail: phone :886-3-4227151x34757 CoPI: Shin-Yi Su Institution: National Central...University, Chung-Li, Taiwan e-mail: phone :886-3-4227151x57643 CoPI: Lung-Chi Tsai Institution: National Central University, Chung-Li

  20. Troposphere - ionosphere interaction during tropospheric MCC events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, J.R.; Zossi Artigas, M.M. de; Filippi Manzano, A.N. de; Cosio Ragone, A.H. de


    The present paper describes the investigation of possible effects of the type of large meteorological events known as Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC) on the F-region of the ionosphere over Argentina. These warm-season weather systems of huge size are present in the United States (Maddox, 1980) and in South Americal (Velasco and Fritsch, 1987). Their extension can be as large as 1,300,000 Km 2 and they tend to move in different directions over the earth surface. It is expected that these meteorological events should leave its signature in the upper region of the atmosphere. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  1. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016 (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir


    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  2. Preliminary Results on TID (Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances) over Ebro from TEC Data. (United States)


    auroral zone during magnetio substOrms (Chimonas and Etnes,1970, Testud , 1970, Titheridge,1971) while several causes have been poin-ted out for the...88 62 Testud , J.. 1970 Jro.At.Terr.,A202,32087 Mutnri, .. 1971 Jus.GoPhys.esL1,6915 TOkuao,I., .Om andLle195JAmerPhs,715 0. tsui .ad .g 19J73

  3. Application of the nudged elastic band method to the point-to-point radio wave ray tracing in IRI modeled ionosphere (United States)

    Nosikov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Zhbankov, G. A.


    Point-to-point ray tracing is an important problem in many fields of science. While direct variational methods where some trajectory is transformed to an optimal one are routinely used in calculations of pathways of seismic waves, chemical reactions, diffusion processes, etc., this approach is not widely known in ionospheric point-to-point ray tracing. We apply the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method to a radio wave propagation problem. In the NEB method, a chain of points which gives a discrete representation of the radio wave ray is adjusted iteratively to an optimal configuration satisfying the Fermat's principle, while the endpoints of the trajectory are kept fixed according to the boundary conditions. Transverse displacements define the radio ray trajectory, while springs between the points control their distribution along the ray. The method is applied to a study of point-to-point ionospheric ray tracing, where the propagation medium is obtained with the International Reference Ionosphere model taking into account traveling ionospheric disturbances. A 2-dimensional representation of the optical path functional is developed and used to gain insight into the fundamental difference between high and low rays. We conclude that high and low rays are minima and saddle points of the optical path functional, respectively.

  4. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents. (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin


    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Health hazards of international travel. (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D


    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  6. Nighttime ionospheric D region: Equatorial and nonequatorial (United States)

    Thomson, Neil R.; McRae, Wayne M.


    Nighttime ionospheric D region parameters are found to be generally well modeled by the traditional H‧ and β as used by Wait and by the U.S. Navy in their Earth-ionosphere VLF radio waveguide programs. New comparisons with nonequatorial, mainly all-sea VLF path observations reported over several decades are shown to be consistent with the previously determined height H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and sharpness β ˜ 0.63 km-1. These paths include NPM (Hawaii) to Washington, D. C., Omega Hawaii and NLK (Seattle) to Japan, NWC (N.W. Australia) to Madagascar, and NBA (Panama) to Colorado. In marked contrast, transequatorial path observations (even when nearly all-sea) are found to be often not well modeled: for example, for Omega Japan and JJI (Japan) to Dunedin, New Zealand, the observed amplitudes are markedly lower than those which would be expected from H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and β ˜ 0.63 km-1, or any other realistic values of H‧ and β. Other transequatorial observations compared with modeling include NWC to Japan, Omega Hawaii to Dunedin, and NPM (Hawaii) to Dunedin. It is suggested that the effects of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet may extend down into the nighttime D region and so account for the observed equatorial VLF perturbations through scattering or mode conversion.

  7. Ionization balance in Titan's nightside ionosphere (United States)

    Vigren, E.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Snowden, D.; Cui, J.; Lavvas, P.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vuitton, V.; Mandt, K.


    Based on a multi-instrumental Cassini dataset we make model versus observation comparisons of plasma number densities, nP = (nenI)1/2 (ne and nI being the electron number density and total positive ion number density, respectively) and short-lived ion number densities (N+, CH2+, CH3+, CH4+) in the southern hemisphere of Titan's nightside ionosphere over altitudes ranging from 1100 and 1200 km and from 1100 to 1350 km, respectively. The nP model assumes photochemical equilibrium, ion-electron pair production driven by magnetospheric electron precipitation and dissociative recombination as the principal plasma neutralization process. The model to derive short-lived-ion number densities assumes photochemical equilibrium for the short-lived ions, primary ion production by electron-impact ionization of N2 and CH4 and removal of the short-lived ions through reactions with CH4. It is shown that the models reasonably reproduce the observations, both with regards to nP and the number densities of the short-lived ions. This is contrasted by the difficulties in accurately reproducing ion and electron number densities in Titan's sunlit ionosphere.

  8. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.


    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  9. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Buzulukova, N. Y.; Chen, S.-H.; Glocer, A.; Nagai, T.; Valek, P.; Perez, J. D.


    Simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts and ring current are very useful in understanding the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic particles. Recently, the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model were merged to form a Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model. CIMI solves for many essential quantities in the inner magnetosphere, including ion and electron distributions in the ring current and radiation belts, plasmaspheric density, Region 2 currents, convection potential, and precipitation in the ionosphere. It incorporates whistler mode chorus and hiss wave diffusion of energetic electrons in energy, pitch angle, and cross terms. CIMI thus represents a comprehensive model that considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts. We have performed a CIMI simulation for the storm on 5-9 April 2010 and then compared our results with data from the Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers and Akebono satellites. We identify the dominant energization and loss processes for the ring current and radiation belts. We find that the interactions with the whistler mode chorus waves are the main cause of the flux increase of MeV electrons during the recovery phase of this particular storm. When a self-consistent electric field from the CRCM is used, the enhancement of MeV electrons is higher than when an empirical convection model is applied. We also demonstrate how CIMI can be a powerful tool for analyzing and interpreting data from the new Van Allen Probes mission.

  10. The Effect of Ionospheric Variability on the Accuracy of High Frequency Position Location (United States)


    these problems are not the major ones in radio source location 1H. Rishbeth and 0. K. Garriot, 1969, Introduction to Ionospheric Physics, Academic Press ...ionospheric distur- banca ; and (4) employ an integrated network of ionosondes. The firt option recognizes the basic constraints of the available ionospheric...Rishbeth, H., and 0. K. Garriot, 1969, Introduction to Ionospheric Physics, Academic Press , NY. 2. Georges, T. M., 1967, Ionospheric Effects of

  11. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin


    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  12. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo


    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  13. GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services (United States)

    Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.


    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space

  14. A modern trans-ionospheric propagation sensing system (United States)

    Bishop, G. J.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Ronn, A. E.; Bedard, M. G.


    One of the most important potential problems with modern military systems which utilize spacecraft is the effect of the ionosphere on the radio signals which pass to and from the spacecraft. Such systems include active communications and navigation satellites as well as both ground-based and potential space-based ranging systems. The major effects the ionosphere can have on such systems are the additional time delay the electrons in the earth's ionosphere add to the free space path delay, the short term rate of change of this additional delay, amplitude scintillation or fading effects the signal encounters due to irregularities in the ionosphere, and Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio waves transmitted through the ionosphere. While some of these effects were studied adequate models of these effects on military systems still do not exist. A modern trans-ionospheric sensing system, called TISS, is being procured which will consist of a number of stations located throughout the world, making real time measurements of the time delay of the ionosphere, and its rate of change, as well as amplitude scintillation, along several different viewing directions from each station. These trans-ionospheric measurements will be used to allow models, which currently provide only monthly propagation parameters. The real-time specifications of these parameters can then be used as decision aids in both the tactical and the strategic military environments. The TISS will include first order artificial intelligence design to aid in gathering the most appropriate sets of available real-time trans-ionospheric propagation data, and will communicate these data sets to the Air Weather Service Forecasting Center where they will be tailored to specific military customers.

  15. Predicting ionospheric scintillation: Recent advancements and future challenges (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Currie, J. L.; Terkildsen, M.; Bouya, Z.; Parkinson, M. L.


    Society greatly benefits from space-based infrastructure and technology. For example, signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used across a wide range of industrial sectors; including aviation, mining, agriculture and finance. Current trends indicate that the use of these space-based technologies is likely to increase over the coming decades as the global economy becomes more technology-dependent. Space weather represents a key vulnerability to space-based technology, both in terms of the space environment effects on satellite infrastructure and the influence of the ionosphere on the radio signals used for satellite communications. In recent decades, the impact of the ionosphere on GNSS signals has re-ignited research interest into the equatorial ionosphere, particularly towards understanding Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). EPBs are a dominant source of nighttime plasma irregularities in the low-latitude ionosphere, which can cause severe scintillation on GNSS signals and subsequent degradation on GNSS product quality. Currently, ionospheric scintillation event forecasts are not being routinely released by any space weather prediction agency around the world, but this is likely to change in the near future. In this contribution, an overview of recent efforts to develop a global ionospheric scintillation prediction capability within Australia will be given. The challenges in understanding user requirements for ionospheric scintillation predictions will be discussed. Next, the use of ground- and space-based datasets for the purpose of near-real time ionospheric scintillation monitoring will be explored. Finally, some modeling that has shown significant promise in transitioning towards an operational ionospheric scintillation forecasting system will be discussed.

  16. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.


    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 CFR 60.113 (a). The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time

  17. Approaches to groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.; Klavetter, E.; Peters, R.


    One of the objectives of performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project is to estimate the groundwater travel time at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether the site complies with the criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations. The numerical standard for performance in these criteria is based on the groundwater travel time along the fastest path of likely radionuclide transport from the disturbed zone to the accessible environment. The concept of groundwater travel time, as proposed in the regulations, does not have a unique mathematical statement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss (1) the ambiguities associated with the regulatory specification of groundwater travel time, (2) two different interpretations of groundwater travel time, and (3) the effect of the two interpretations on estimates of the groundwater travel time. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Time travel a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gleick, James


    From the acclaimed author of The Information and Chaos, here is a mind-bending exploration of time travel: its subversive origins, its evolution in literature and science, and its influence on our understanding of time itself. The story begins at the turn of the previous century, with the young H. G. Wells writing and rewriting the fantastic tale that became his first book and an international sensation: The Time Machine. It was an era when a host of forces was converging to transmute the human understanding of time, some philosophical and some technological: the electric telegraph, the steam railroad, the discovery of buried civilizations, and the perfection of clocks. James Gleick tracks the evolution of time travel as an idea that becomes part of contemporary culture—from Marcel Proust to Doctor Who, from Jorge Luis Borges to Woody Allen. He investigates the inevitable looping paradoxes and examines the porous boundary between pulp fiction and modern physics. Finally, he delves into a temporal shift that...

  19. Considering the potential of IAR emissions for ionospheric sounding (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Polyushkina, T. N.; Tsegmed, B.; Oinats, A. V.; Pashinin, A. Yu.; Edemskiy, I. K.; Mylnikova, A. A.; Ratovsky, K. G.


    Knowledge of the ionospheric state allows us to adjust the forecasts of radio wave propagation, specify the environment models, and follow the changes of space weather. At present, probing of the ionosphere is produced by radio sounding with ground ionosondes, as well as by raying signals from satellites. We want to draw attention to the possibility of the diagnosis of the ionospheric parameters by detecting ultra-low frequency (ULF) electromagnetic emission generated in the so-called ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR). To do this, we present observations of the IAR emission made simultaneously for the first time at three stations using identical induction magnetometers. The stations are within one-hour difference of local time, two of them are mid-latitudinal; the third one is situated in the auroral zone. We compare frequency and frequency difference between adjacent harmonics of the observed multi-band emission with ionospheric parameters measured at the stations using ionosondes and GPS-observations. Diurnal variations of the ionospheric and ULF emission characteristics are also compared. The results show that there is quite a stable correlation between the resonant frequencies of the resonator bands and the critical frequency of the F2 layer of the ionosphere, namely, the frequency of the IAR emission varies inversely as the critical frequency of the ionosphere. This is due to the fact that the frequency of oscillation captured in the resonator is primarily determined by the Alfvén velocity (which depends on the plasma density) in the ionospheric F2 layer. The correlation is high; it varies at different stations, but is observed distinctly along the whole meridian. However, coefficients of a regression equation that connects the ionosphere critical frequency with DSB frequency vary significantly from day to day at all stations. The reason for such a big spread of the regression parameters is not clear and needs further investigation before we are able to

  20. Anthropological Invariants in Travel Behavior


    Marchetti, C.


    Personal travel appears to be much more under the control of basic instinct than of economic drive. This may be the reason for the systematic mismatch between the results of cost benefit analysis and the actual behavior of travelers. In this paper a list of the basic instincts that drive and contain travelers' behavior has been put together, showing how they mesh with technological progress and economic constraints.

  1. Artificial periodic irregularities in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Rietveld


    Full Text Available Artificial periodic irregularities (API are produced in the ionospheric plasma by a powerful standing electromagnetic wave reflected off the F region. The resulting electron-density irregularities can scatter other high-frequency waves if the Bragg scattering condition is met. Such measurements have been performed at mid-latitudes for two decades and have been developed into a useful ionospheric diagnostic technique. We report here the first measurements from a high-latitude station, using the EISCAT heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. Both F-region and lower-altitude ionospheric echoes have been obtained, but the bulk of the data has been in the E and D regions with echoes extending down to 52-km altitude. Examples of API are shown, mainly from the D region, together with simultaneous VHF incoherent-scatter-radar (ISR data. Vertical velocities derived from the rate of phase change during the irregularity decay are shown and compared with velocities derived from the ISR. Some of the API-derived velocities in the 75–115-km height range appear consistent with vertical neutral winds as shown by their magnitudes and by evidence of gravity waves, while other data in the 50–70-km range show an unrealistically large bias. For a comparison with ISR data it has proved difficult to get good quality data sets overlapping in height and time. The initial comparisons show some agreement, but discrepancies of several metres per second do not yet allow us to conclude that the two techniques are measuring the same quantity. The irregularity decay time-constants between about 53 and 70 km are compared with the results of an advanced ion-chemistry model, and height profiles of recorded signal power are compared with model estimates in the same altitude range. The calculated amplitude shows good agreement with the data in that the maximum occurs at about the same height as that of the measured amplitude. The calculated time-constant agrees very well with the

  2. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.


    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  3. The MITRA as a solar and ionospheric instrument (United States)

    Beeharry, G. K.


    The MITRA is an international/pan-African radioastronomy project which aims to do extremely wide field imaging with heterogeneous non coplanar arrays. It can be used for solar and ionospheric studies.

  4. CAT scanning of the ionosphere: Pros and cons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excellent Spatial coverage. Excellent Spatial coverage. Snapshots of the large scale features (km-scale) of the ionosphere. bottomside and topside. Information on remote and inaccessible regions. Inexpensive.

  5. Magnetic and solar effects on ionospheric absorption at high latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella


    Full Text Available Some periods of intense solar events and of strong magnetic storms have been selected and their effects on the ionospheric D region have been investigated on the basis of ionospheric absorption data derived from riometer measurements made at the Italian Antarctic Base of Terra Nova Bay (geographic coordinates: 74.69 S, 164.12 E; geomagnetic coordinates: 77.34 S, 279.41 E. It was found that sharp increases in ionospheric absorption are mainly due to solar protons emission with an energy greater than 10 MeV. Moreover, the day to night ratios of the ionospheric absorption are greater than 2 in the case of strong events of energetic protons emitted by the Sun, while during magnetic storms, these ratios range between 1 and 2.

  6. Global GPS Ionospheric Modelling Using Spherical Harmonic Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi


    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a global ionosphere model based on measurements from a worldwide network of global positioning system (GPS. The total number of the international GPS reference stations for development of ionospheric model is about 100 and the spherical harmonic expansion approach as a mathematical method was used. In order to produce the ionospheric total electron content (TEC based on grid form, we defined spatial resolution of 2.0 degree and 5.0 degree in latitude and longitude, respectively. Two-dimensional TEC maps were constructed within the interval of one hour, and have a high temporal resolution compared to global ionosphere maps which are produced by several analysis centers. As a result, we could detect the sudden increase of TEC by processing GPS observables on 29 October, 2003 when the massive solar flare took place.

  7. Ionospheric/protonospheric electron content studies using ATS-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajeb-Hosseinieh, H.; Kersley, L.; Edwards, K.J.


    Measurements of ionospheric and protonospheric contents obtained at Aberystwyth from observations of the ATS-6 satellite radio beacon are reported. The monthly median diurnal behavior shows protonospheric contributions of approximately 15 to 20% to the total content along the ray path by day, rising to a predawn maximum of 35% in summer and more than 40% in winter. The protonospheric results are shown to be typical of those expected from other European stations and differences from earlier American measurements are explained in terms of ionospheric interactions in the conjugate hemisphere. The temporal gradients of protonospheric content provide information on the net integrated ionospheric/protonospheric plasma fluxes and the results obtained indicate the importance of plasma exchange with both local and conjugate ionospheres

  8. Low ionospheric reactions on tropical depressions prior hurricanes (United States)

    Nina, Aleksandra; Radovanović, Milan; Milovanović, Boško; Kovačević, Andjelka; Bajčetić, Jovan; Popović, Luka Č.


    We study the reactions of the low ionosphere during tropical depressions (TDs) which have been detected before the hurricane appearances in the Atlantic Ocean. We explore 41 TD events using very low frequency (VLF) radio signals emitted by NAA transmitter located in the USA and recorded by VLF receiver located in Belgrade (Serbia). We found VLF signal deviations (caused ionospheric turbulence) in the case of 36 out of 41 TD events (88%). Additionally, we explore 27 TDs which have not been developed in hurricanes and found similar low ionospheric reactions. However, in the sample of 41 TDs which are followed by hurricanes the typical low ionosphere perturbations seem to be more frequent than other TDs.

  9. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulinets, Sergey A.; Depuev, Victor H.


    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  10. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.


    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  11. The Shock Wave in the ionosphere during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir


    Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud.

  12. Measurements of the Absorptive Properties of the Ionosphere (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Absorption of radio waves occurs when electrons responding to the wave fields collide with and transfer energy to the neutral particles. A study of ionospheric...

  13. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn


    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  14. The Multifractal Structure of Small-Scale Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vybornov F. I.


    Full Text Available We present the results of investigation of a multifractal structure of the artificial ionospheric turbulence when the midlatitude ionosphere is affected by high-power radio waves. The experimental studies were performed on the basis of the SURA heating facility with the help of radio sounding of the disturbed region of ionospheric plasma by signals from the Earth’s orbital satellities. In the case of vertical radio sounding of the disturbed ionosphere region, the measured multipower and generalized multifractal spectra of turbulence coincide well with similar multifractal characteristics of the ionosperic turbulence under the natural conditions. In the case of oblique sounding of the disturbance region at small angles between the line of sight to the satellite and the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field, a nonuniform structure of the small-scale turbulence with a relatively narrow multipower spectrum and small variations in the generalized multifractal spectrum of the electron density was detected.

  15. Modeling the Electrodynamics of the Low-Latitude Ionosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wohlwend, Christian S


    .... This two-part study focused on the gravity wave seeding mechanism of equatorial plasma depletions in the ionosphere and the associated-equatorial spread F, as well as the differences between a two...

  16. Dust Acoustic Mode Manifestations in Earth's Dusty Ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, S.I.; Popel, S.I.


    Dust acoustic mode manifestations in the dusty ionosphere are studied. The reason for an appearance of the low-frequency radio noises associated with such meteor fluxes as Perseids, Orionids, Leonids, and Gemenids is determined

  17. Signatures of mesospheric particles in ionospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Friedrich


    Full Text Available The state of the ionosphere during the 2007 ECOMA/MASS campaign is described by in-situ observations by three sounding rockets launched from the Andøya Rocket Range and by ground based observations. The ground based measurements included the incoherent scatter radar EISCAT near Tromsø (both on UHF and VHF, as well as an MF radar, a meteor radar and an imaging riometer all located in the close vicinity of the rocket range. The pronounced electron density bite-outs seen by two of the rockets could not be detected from the ground, but the associated PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes provide indirect evidence of pronounced perturbations of mesospheric electron densities.

  18. Magnetosphere - Ionosphere - Thermosphere (MIT) Coupling at Jupiter (United States)

    Yates, J. N.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N.


    Jupiter's upper atmospheric temperature is considerably higher than that predicted by Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) heating alone. Simulations incorporating magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects into general circulation models have, to date, struggled to reproduce the observed atmospheric temperatures under simplifying assumptions such as azimuthal symmetry and a spin-aligned dipole magnetic field. Here we present the development of a full three-dimensional thermosphere model coupled in both hemispheres to an axisymmetric magnetosphere model. This new coupled model is based on the two-dimensional MIT model presented in Yates et al., 2014. This coupled model is a critical step towards to the development of a fully coupled 3D MIT model. We discuss and compare the resulting thermospheric flows, energy balance and MI coupling currents to those presented in previous 2D MIT models.

  19. The D-region of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.P.


    The D-region of the ionosphere, traditionally defined as the region of ionization below 100 km, is a link between the non-ionized stratosphere below and the dense plasma above. In it, minor neutral constituents play a dominant role and chemical reactions, both neutral and ionic, are dominant. It plays a very important role in the propagation of radiowaves at all frequencies below 30 MHz, and is particularly important in effecting communication over areas of the earth, such as polar regions, that are inaccessible to synchronous satellite links. Work which has been carried out on the neutral environment, D-region ionization, positive and negative ions found in the D-region, disturbances in the D-region (of solar origin and due to local dynamics or thermal changes), and the chemistry of the region, is considered. Possible future D-region studies are outlined. (UK)

  20. Does Io's ionosphere influence Jupiter's radio bursts. (United States)

    Webster, D. L.; Alksne, A. Y.; Whitten, R. C.


    Goldreich and Lynden-Bell's theory of Jupiter's Io-correlated decametric radiation sets a lower limit to Io's conductivity, high enough to carry the current associated with the radiated power. Dermott's analysis of conductivities of rocks and ice shows no such conductivity at Io's temperature. However, we show that if Io has even a small atmosphere, say of methane as suggested by Binder and Cruikshank, or of argon or nitrogen, it will have an ionosphere with adequate conductivity to meet the above criterion. A requirement for higher conductivity was found by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell on the basis of motion of magnetic lines past Io. This requirement appears to us unnecessary in view of experiments which prove that motion of the lines is not the source of the electromotance.

  1. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events (United States)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.


    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  2. Ionospheric drift measurements: Skymap points selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Daniel; Boška, Josef; Galkin, I. A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Šauli, Petra


    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), RS1S90/1-RS1S90/11 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA ČR GA205/06/1267; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 296; MIERS(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : digisonde drift measurement * plasma drift * radio sounding * ionosphere * Doppler shift * skymap processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2008

  3. Ionogram inversion for a tilted ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.W.


    Digital ionosondes such as the Dynasonde disclose that the ionosphere is seldom horizontal even when it is plane stratified to a good approximation. The local magnetic dip does not then determine correctly the radiowave propagation angle for inversion of the ionogram to a plasma density profile. The measured echo direction of arrival can be used together with the known dip for an improved propagation angle. The effects are small for simple one-parameter laminae but become important when differential (ordinary, extraordinary) retardations are used to aid correction for valley and starting ambiguities. The resulting profile describes the plasma distribution along the direction of observation, rather than the vertical; it thus conveys information about horizontal gradients. Observations suggest that advantages in inversion methods may be practicable for application to modern ionosonde recordings, by which local lateral structure can be described in greater detail. 20 refs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Lavi N


    Full Text Available The sun exposure brings negative effects on the skin such like early aging, spots and skin cancer as the most terrible effect. To reduce the adverse effects of the sun, it is not enough just to behavioral therapy, but also had no protection from the outside. Especially for travellers that exposed by the sun excessively. There is sunscreen, product specially formulated to absorb or deflect ultraviolet rays. A sunscreen preparation contains chemical compounds that can absorb, scatter or reflect sunlight on the skin. This writing contains about effect of ultraviolet, skin protection from ultraviolet from behavioral aspect, variaty and contents of sunscreen and sunscreen application for travellers. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study. (United States)

    Troiano, Gianmarco; Mercone, Astrid; Bagnoli, Alessandra; Nante, Nicola

    Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. The data were organized in a database and processed by software Stata®. We collected 419 questionnaires. Patients chose 71 countries for their travels; the favorite destinations were: India (6.31%), Thailand (6.31%), and Brazil (5.10%). The mean length of stay was 36.17 days. Italians, students, and freelancers tended to stay abroad for a longer time (mean: 36.4 days, 59.87 days and 64.16 days respectively). 33.17% of our sample used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis: 71.9% of them used Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone®), 26.6% used Mefloquine (Lariam®), 1.5% other drugs. The vaccinations that travelers mostly got in our study were to prevent hepatitis A (n = 264), the typhoid fever (n = 187), the Tetanus + Diphtheria + Pertussis (n = 165), the Yellow fever (n = 118) and the cholera (n = 78). Twenty-eight (6.68%) refused some recommended vaccinations. The vaccines mostly refused were for Typhoid fever (n = 20), hepatitis a (n = 9), and cholera (n = 9). Our results demonstrated that Italian international travelers are at-risk because of their poor vaccinations adherence. This implies that pre-travel counseling is fundamental to increase the knowledge of the risks and the compliance of future travelers. Copyright © 2016 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang


    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  7. High Resolution Reconstruction of the Ionosphere for SAR Applications (United States)

    Minkwitz, David; Gerzen, Tatjana; Hoque, Mainul


    Caused by ionosphere's strong impact on radio signal propagation, high resolution and highly accurate reconstructions of the ionosphere's electron density distribution are demanded for a large number of applications, e.g. to contribute to the mitigation of ionospheric effects on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements. As a new generation of remote sensing satellites the TanDEM-L radar mission is planned to improve the understanding and modelling ability of global environmental processes and ecosystem change. TanDEM-L will operate in L-band with a wavelength of approximately 24 cm enabling a stronger penetration capability compared to X-band (3 cm) or C-band (5 cm). But accompanied by the lower frequency of the TanDEM-L signals the influence of the ionosphere will increase. In particular small scale irregularities of the ionosphere might lead to electron density variations within the synthetic aperture length of the TanDEM-L satellite and in turn might result into blurring and azimuth pixel shifts. Hence the quality of the radar image worsens if the ionospheric effects are not mitigated. The Helmholtz Alliance project "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" (EDA) aims in the preparation of the HGF centres and the science community for the utilisation and integration of the TanDEM-L products into the study of the Earth's system. One significant point thereby is to cope with the mentioned ionospheric effects. Therefore different strategies towards achieving this objective are pursued: the mitigation of the ionospheric effects based on the radar data itself, the mitigation based on external information like global Total Electron Content (TEC) maps or reconstructions of the ionosphere and the combination of external information and radar data. In this presentation we describe the geostatistical approach chosen to analyse the behaviour of the ionosphere and to provide a high resolution 3D electron density reconstruction. As first step the horizontal structure of

  8. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka


    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 ( The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  9. Electon density profiles of the topside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bilitza


    Full Text Available The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from h m F 2 to ~ 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms but most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350 000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at html. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2 down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The TOPside Ionogram Scaler with True height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling ~ 70% of the ionograms. An «editing process» is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle.

  10. Ionospheric data available on CD-ROM and on NDADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilitza, D.


    Information is provided on two CD-ROMs (for PCs) with ionospheric data: the ionosonde CD issued by NGDC/WDC-A-STP/NOAA/Boulder and the Atmosphere Explorer CD produced by NSSDC/WDC-A-R and S/NASA/Greenbelt. We also briefly describe the ionospheric/thermospheric data available through NSSDC's automated mail retrieval system (NDADS) and explain the procedure for obtaining NDADS data. (author). 3 figs

  11. Reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density by geostatistical inversion (United States)

    Minkwitz, David; van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald; Hoque, Mainul; Gerzen, Tatjana


    The ionosphere is the upper part of the atmosphere where sufficient free electrons exist to affect the propagation of radio waves. Typically, the ionosphere extends from about 50 - 1000 km and its morphology is mainly driven by solar radiation, particle precipitation and charge exchange. Due to the strong ionospheric impact on many applications dealing with trans-ionospheric signals such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning, navigation and remote sensing, the demand for a highly accurate reconstruction of the electron density is ever increasing. Within the Helmholtz Alliance project "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" (EDA) the utilization of the upcoming radar mission TanDEM-L and its related products are prepared. The TanDEM-L mission will operate in L-band with a wavelength of approximately 24 cm and aims at an improved understanding of environmental processes and ecosystem change, e.g. earthquakes, volcanos, glaciers, soil moisture and carbon cycle. Since its lower frequency compared to the X-band (3 cm) and C-band (5 cm) radar missions, the influence of the ionosphere will increase and might lead to a significant degradation of the radar image quality if no correction is applied. Consequently, our interest is the reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density in order to mitigate the ionospheric delay. Following the ionosphere's behaviour we establish a non-stationary and anisotropic spatial covariance model of the electron density separated into a vertical and horizontal component. In order to estimate the model's parameters we chose a maximum likelihood approach. This approach incorporates GNSS total electron content measurements, representing integral measurements of the electron density between satellite to receiver ray paths, and the NeQuick model as a non-stationary trend. Based on a multivariate normal distribution the spatial covariance model parameters are optimized and afterwards the 3D electron density can be

  12. Ionospheric threats to the integrity of airborne GPS users (United States)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has both revolutionized and entwined the worlds of aviation and atmospheric science. As the largest and most unpredictable source of GPS positioning error, the ionospheric layer of the atmosphere, if left unchecked, can endanger the safety, or "integrity," of the single frequency airborne user. An augmentation system is a differential-GPS-based navigation system that provides integrity through independent ionospheric monitoring by reference stations. However, the monitor stations are not in general colocated with the user's GPS receiver. The augmentation system must protect users from possible ionosphere density variations occurring between its measurements and the user's. This study analyzes observations from ionospherically active periods to identify what types of ionospheric disturbances may cause threats to user safety if left unmitigated. This work identifies when such disturbances may occur using a geomagnetic measure of activity and then considers two disturbances as case studies. The first case study indicates the need for a non-trivial threat model for the Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) that was not known prior to the work. The second case study uses ground- and space-based data to model an ionospheric disturbance of interest to the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This work is a step in the justification for, and possible future refinement of, one of the WAAS integrity algorithms. For both WAAS and LAAS, integrity threats are basically caused by events that may be occurring but are unobservable. Prior to the data available in this solar cycle, events of such magnitude were not known to be possible. This work serves as evidence that the ionospheric threat models developed for WARS and LAAS are warranted and that they are sufficiently conservative to maintain user integrity even under extreme ionospheric behavior.

  13. SAR Imaging through the Earth’s Ionosphere (United States)


    Xiaoqing Pi, Anthony Freeman, Bruce Chapman, Paul Rosen, and Zhenhong Li . Imaging ionospheric inhomogeneities using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar. J...resolution SAR phase correction. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., 30(3):827–835, 1994. [30] Lianlin Li and Fang Li . Ionosphere tomography based on...Manduchi and G. A. Mian . Accuracy analysis for correlation-based image registartion algorithms. In Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE International

  14. Far-field coseismic ionospheric disturbances of Tohoku earthquake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnov, V. M.; Drobzheva, Ya. V.; Chum, Jaroslav


    Roč. 135, December (2015), s. 12-21 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : earthquake * infrasonic waves * ionospheric disturbances * infrasound triggered by the earthquake * co-seismic ionospheric perturbations * modeling * remote sensing Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2015

  15. Pre-travel advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. (United States)

    Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Andrillat, Carole; Fouilloux, Pascale; Daoud, Fatiha; Defontaine, Christiane; Charles, Rodolphe; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth


    Travellers are ageing and frequently report chronic illness. Pre-travel health advice is crucial, particularly in this subgroup, and general practitioners (GPs) are first in line for treatment adjustment before departure. Our aim is to evaluate pre-travel health advice seeking from GPs by travellers with chronic illness seen at a travel clinic. A cross-sectional observational survey using a questionnaire was conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in travellers attending the travel medicine clinic of a tertiary university hospital in France. During the study, 2019 travellers were included. Mean age was 39.4 years (±18.8). Three hundred and ninety-one (19.4%) travellers reported a history of a chronic illness. Arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported illnesses, affecting, respectively, 168 (8.3%) travellers and 102 (5.1%). Hajj pilgrims were more likely to report a history of chronic illness than other travellers. Only 810 (40.1%) travellers sought pre-travel advice from their GP. Six hundred and fifty-two (40.1%) healthy travellers and 158 (40.5%) travellers reporting chronic illness sought pre-travel advice from their GP (P = 0.96). Travellers with a history of chronic illness do not seek pre-travel health advice from their GP more frequently than healthy travellers. Travel health specialists are generally not the best practitioners to manage the care of underlying medical conditions presenting risks during travel. However, GPs offer continuity and disease management expertise to improve the specificity of pre-travel planning. Thus, ongoing collaboration between the traveller, GP and travel health specialist is likely to yield the best outcomes. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia


    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail:

  17. U.S. holiday travel (United States)


    The Thanksgiving and Christmas/New Years holiday periods are among the busiest long-distance travel periods of the year. During the 6-day Thanksgiving travel period, the number of long-distance trips (to and from a destination 50 miles or more awa...

  18. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.

  19. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning (United States)

    Lindstrom, Steven K.


    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  20. U.S. business travel (United States)


    Americans make more than 405 million long-distance business trips per year, : accounting for 16% of all long-distance travel, according to a : preliminary analysis of the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). : Conducted from 2001 to 2002, the NHT...

  1. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 229.55 Section 229.55... Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance when... piston travel may not exceed 11/2 inches less than the total possible piston travel. The total possible...

  2. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege


    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  3. Monitoring Travel Time Reliability on Freeways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Huizhao


    Travel time and travel time reliability are important attributes of a trip. The current measures of reliability have in common that in general they all relate to the variability of travel times. However, travel time reliability does not only rely on variability but also on the stability of travel

  4. Ionospheric scintillation observations over Kenyan region - Preliminary results (United States)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Xiao, Yu; Ming, Ou


    Ionospheric scintillation refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a satellite signal as it passes through small-scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere. By analyzing ionospheric scintillation observation datasets from satellite signals such as GPS signals we can study the morphology of ionospheric bubbles. At low latitudes, the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large-scale equatorial density depletions which form one to two hours after sunset via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism near the magnetic equator. In this work we present ionospheric scintillation activity over Kenya using data derived from a newly installed scintillation monitor developed by CRIRP at Pwani University (39.78°E, 3.24°S) during the period August to December, 2014. The results reveal the scintillation activity mainly occurs from post-sunset to post-midnight hours, and ceases around 04:00 LT. We also found that the ionospheric scintillation tends to appear at the southwest and northwest of the station. These locations coincide with the southern part of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest over Kenya region. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  5. Evaluation of the performance of DIAS ionospheric forecasting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna


    Full Text Available Nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric products and services for the European region are regularly provided since August 2006 through the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS, Currently, DIAS ionospheric forecasts are based on the online implementation of two models: (i the solar wind driven autoregression model for ionospheric short-term forecast (SWIF, which combines historical and real-time ionospheric observations with solar-wind parameters obtained in real time at the L1 point from NASA ACE spacecraft, and (ii the geomagnetically correlated autoregression model (GCAM, which is a time series forecasting method driven by a synthetic geomagnetic index. In this paper we investigate the operational ability and the accuracy of both DIAS models carrying out a metrics-based evaluation of their performance under all possible conditions. The analysis was established on the systematic comparison between models’ predictions with actual observations obtained over almost one solar cycle (1998–2007 at four European ionospheric locations (Athens, Chilton, Juliusruh and Rome and on the comparison of the models’ performance against two simple prediction strategies, the median- and the persistence-based predictions during storm conditions. The results verify operational validity for both models and quantify their prediction accuracy under all possible conditions in support of operational applications but also of comparative studies in assessing or expanding the current ionospheric forecasting capabilities.

  6. Modeling the Ionosphere with GPS and Rotation Measure Observations (United States)

    Malins, J. B.; Taylor, G. B.; White, S. M.; Dowell, J.


    Advances in digital processing have created new tools for looking at and examining the ionosphere. We have combined data from dual frequency GPSs, digital ionosondes and observations from The Long Wavelength Array (LWA), a 256 dipole low frequency radio telescope situated in central New Mexico in order to examine ionospheric profiles. By studying polarized pulsars, the LWA is able to very accurately determine the Faraday rotation caused by the ionosphere. By combining this data with the international geomagnetic reference field, the LWA can evaluate ionospheric profiles and how well they predict the actual Faraday rotation. Dual frequency GPS measurements of total electron content, as well as measurements from digisonde data were used to model the ionosphere, and to predict the Faraday rotation to with in 0.1 rad/m2. Additionally, it was discovered that the predicted topside profile of the digisonde data did not accurate predict faraday rotation measurements, suggesting a need to reexamine the methods for creating the topside predicted profile. I will discuss the methods used to measure rotation measure and ionosphere profiles as well as discuss possible corrections to the topside model.

  7. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.


    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  8. Uplift of Ionospheric Oxygen Ions During Extreme Magnetic Storms (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Huba, Joseph; Lakhina, Gurbax S.


    Research reported earlier in literature was conducted relating to estimation of the ionospheric electrical field, which may have occurred during the September 1859 Carrington geomagnetic storm event, with regard to modern-day consequences. In this research, the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code has been modified and applied the estimated electric field to the dayside ionosphere. The modeling was done at 15-minute time increments to track the general ionospheric changes. Although it has been known that magnetospheric electric fields get down into the ionosphere, it has been only in the last ten years that scientists have discovered that intense magnetic storm electric fields do also. On the dayside, these dawn-to-dusk directed electric fields lift the plasma (electrons and ions) up to higher altitudes and latitudes. As plasma is removed from lower altitudes, solar UV creates new plasma, so the total plasma in the ionosphere is increased several-fold. Thus, this complex process creates super-dense plasmas at high altitudes (from 700 to 1,000 km and higher).

  9. Mapping travelling convection vortex events with respect to energetic particle boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto


    Full Text Available Thirteen events of high-latitude ionospheric travelling convection vortices during very quiet conditions were identified in the Greenland magnetometer data during 1990 and 1991. The latitudes of the vortex centres for these events are compared to the energetic electron trapping boundaries as identified by the particle measurements of the NOAA 10 satellite. In addition, for all events at least one close DMSP overpass was available. All but one of the 13 cases agree to an exceptional degree that: the TCV centres are located within the region of trapped, high energy electrons close to the trapping boundary for the population of electrons with energy greater than >100 keV. Correspondingly, from the DMSP data they are located within the region of plasmasheet-type precipitation close to the CPS/BPS precipitation boundary. That is, the TCV centres map to deep inside the magnetosphere and not to the magnetopause.Key Words. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents; Particle precipitation · Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction

  10. Superposed epoch analysis applied to large-amplitude travelling convection vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr


    Full Text Available For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for large-amplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs. The restriction to large amplitudes (>100 nT was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients 'geoeffective', which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period.Key words. Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric Physics (current system

  11. International Development Research Centre Governor Travel Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    business. Governors are required to travel to conduct IDRC business, attend ... of Governors, liaise with Centre management, and perform specific representational functions on ..... Travel between Points of Origin and Destination - Air Travel.

  12. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos


    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  13. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel


    Chères clientes, chers clients, Le 3 janvier dernier, nous vous avons informé de la décision des compagnies aériennes de supprimer les commissions versées aux agences de voyages suisses. Cette mesure a été introduite progressivement pour être appliquées maintenant par toutes les compagnies, à quelques rares exceptions près. En conséquence, en accord avec le CERN, nous serons dans l'obligation d'appliquer une nouvelle liste de prix de nos transactions pour les voyages privés. Elle sera applicable dès le lundi 25 juillet 2005. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) vous propose : Son service de conseil personnalisé, professionnel et compétent Sa recherche de la solution la plus économique et la mieux adaptée à vos besoins Sa neutralité dans les comparaisons de prix et prestations Des informations com...

  14. Calculation of groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R.G.


    Pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time is one indicator of the isolation capability of the geologic system surrounding a repository. Two distinct modeling approaches exist for prediction of groundwater flow paths and travel times from the repository location to the designated accessible environment boundary. These two approaches are: (1) the deterministic approach which calculates a single value prediction of groundwater travel time based on average values for input parameters and (2) the stochastic approach which yields a distribution of possible groundwater travel times as a function of the nature and magnitude of uncertainties in the model inputs. The purposes of this report are to (1) document the theoretical (i.e., mathematical) basis used to calculate groundwater pathlines and travel times in a basalt system, (2) outline limitations and ranges of applicability of the deterministic modeling approach, and (3) explain the motivation for the use of the stochastic modeling approach currently being used to predict groundwater pathlines and travel times for the Hanford Site. Example calculations of groundwater travel times are presented to highlight and compare the differences between the deterministic and stochastic modeling approaches. 28 refs

  15. Experienced travel time prediction for congested freeways


    Yildirimoglu, Mehmet; Geroliminis, Nikolaos


    Travel time is an important performance measure for transportation systems, and dissemination of travel time information can help travelers make reliable travel decisions such as route choice or departure time. Since the traffic data collected in real time reflects the past or current conditions on the roadway, a predictive travel time methodology should be used to obtain the information to be disseminated. However, an important part of the literature either uses instantaneous travel time ass...

  16. Effect of Ionosphere on Geostationary Communication Satellite Signals (United States)

    Erdem, Esra; Arikan, Feza; Gulgonul, Senol


    Geostationary orbit (GEO) communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. They are extremely important in daily life and also for military applications. Since, satellite communication is an expensive technology addressing crowd of people, it is critical to improve the performance of this technology. GEO satellites are at 35,786 kilometres from Earth's surface situated directly over the equator. A satellite in a geostationary orbit (GEO) appears to stand still in the sky, in a fixed position with respect to an observer on the earth, because the satellite's orbital period is the same as the rotation rate of the Earth. The advantage of this orbit is that ground antennas can be fixed to point towards to satellite without their having to track the satellite's motion. Radio frequency ranges used in satellite communications are C, X, Ku, Ka and even EHG and V-band. Satellite signals are disturbed by atmospheric effects on the path between the satellite and the receiver antenna. These effects are mostly rain, cloud and gaseous attenuation. It is expected that ionosphere has a minor effect on the satellite signals when the ionosphere is quiet. But there are anomalies and perturbations on the structure of ionosphere with respect to geomagnetic field and solar activity and these conditions may cause further affects on the satellite signals. In this study IONOLAB-RAY algorithm is adopted to examine the effect of ionosphere on satellite signals. IONOLAB-RAY is developed to calculate propagation path and characteristics of high frequency signals. The algorithm does not have any frequency limitation and models the plasmasphere up to 20,200 km altitude, so that propagation between a GEO satellite and antenna on Earth can be simulated. The algorithm models inhomogeneous, anisotropic and time dependent structure of the ionosphere with a 3-D spherical grid geometry and calculates physical parameters of the

  17. The Role of Ionospheric Outflow Preconditioning in Determining Storm Geoeffectiveness (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Ridley, A. J.


    It is now well accepted that ionospheric outflow plays an important role in the development of the plasma sheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, even during quiet times, ionospheric plasma populates the magnetospheric lobes, producing a reservoir of hydrogen and oxygen ions. When the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns southward, this reservoir is connected to the plasma sheet and ring current through magnetospheric convection. Hence, the conditions of the ionosphere and magnetospheric lobes leading up to magnetospheric storm onset have important implications for storm development. Despite this, there has been little research on this preconditioning; most global simulations begin just before storm onset, neglecting preconditioning altogether. This work explores the role of preconditioning in determining the geoeffectiveness of storms using a coupled global model system. A model of ionospheric outflow (the Polar Wind Outflow Model, PWOM) is two-way coupled to a global magnetohydrodynamic model (the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), which in turn drives a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model, RAM). This unique setup is used to simulate an idealized storm. The model is started at many different times, from 1 hour before storm onset to 12 hours before. The effects of storm preconditioning are examined by investigating the total ionospheric plasma content in the lobes just before onset, the total ionospheric contribution in the ring current just after onset, and the effects on Dst, magnetic elevation angle at geosynchronous, and total ring current energy density. This experiment is repeated for different solar activity levels as set by F10.7 flux. Finally, a synthetic double-dip storm is constructed to see how two closely spaced storms affect each other by changing the preconditioning environment. It is found that preconditioning of the magnetospheric lobes via ionospheric

  18. An alternative ionospheric correction model for global navigation satellite systems (United States)

    Hoque, M. M.; Jakowski, N.


    The ionosphere is recognized as a major error source for single-frequency operations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). To enhance single-frequency operations the global positioning system (GPS) uses an ionospheric correction algorithm (ICA) driven by 8 coefficients broadcasted in the navigation message every 24 h. Similarly, the global navigation satellite system Galileo uses the electron density NeQuick model for ionospheric correction. The Galileo satellite vehicles (SVs) transmit 3 ionospheric correction coefficients as driver parameters of the NeQuick model. In the present work, we propose an alternative ionospheric correction algorithm called Neustrelitz TEC broadcast model NTCM-BC that is also applicable for global satellite navigation systems. Like the GPS ICA or Galileo NeQuick, the NTCM-BC can be optimized on a daily basis by utilizing GNSS data obtained at the previous day at monitor stations. To drive the NTCM-BC, 9 ionospheric correction coefficients need to be uploaded to the SVs for broadcasting in the navigation message. Our investigation using GPS data of about 200 worldwide ground stations shows that the 24-h-ahead prediction performance of the NTCM-BC is better than the GPS ICA and comparable to the Galileo NeQuick model. We have found that the 95 percentiles of the prediction error are about 16.1, 16.1 and 13.4 TECU for the GPS ICA, Galileo NeQuick and NTCM-BC, respectively, during a selected quiet ionospheric period, whereas the corresponding numbers are found about 40.5, 28.2 and 26.5 TECU during a selected geomagnetic perturbed period. However, in terms of complexity the NTCM-BC is easier to handle than the Galileo NeQuick and in this respect comparable to the GPS ICA.

  19. Optical observations of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling: Inter-hemispheric electron reflections within pulsating aurora (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Grubbs, G. A., II


    Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling is exhibited in reflected primary and secondary electrons which constitute the second step in the formation of the total precipitating electron distribution. While they have largely been missing from the current theoretical studies of particle precipitation, ground based observations point to the existence of a reflected electron population. We present evidence that pulsating aurora is caused by electrons bouncing back and forth between the two hemispheres. This means that these electrons are responsible for some of the total light in the aurora, a possibility that has largely been ignored in theoretical models. Pulsating auroral events imaged optically at high time resolution present direct observational evidence in agreement with the inter-hemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the SuperThermal Electron Trans-port (STET) model. Immediately following each of the `pulsation-on' times are equally spaced, and subsequently fainter pulsations, which can be explained by the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upwards from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere, and reflecting upwards again. The high time-resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the `pulsation-on' time ( 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations ( 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere. These results are significant and have broad implications because they highlight that the formation of the auroral electron distributions within regions of diffuse and pulsating aurora contain contributions from reflected primary and secondary electrons. These processes can ultimately lead to larger fluxes than expected when considering only the primary injection of magnetospheric electrons.

  20. On the effect of ionospheric delay on geodetic relative GPS positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Kleusberg, A.


    Uncorrected ionospheric delay is one of the factors limiting the accuracy in geodetic relative positioning with single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase observations. Dual frequency measurements can be combined to eliminate the ionospheric delay in the observations. A

  1. Assessment of the Impact of Various Ionospheric Models on High-Frequency Signal Raytracing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werner, Joshua T


    .... Ionospheric refraction can strongly affect the propagation of HF signals. Consequently, Department of Defense missions such as over-the-horizon RADAR, HF communications, and geo-location all depend on an accurate specification of the ionosphere...

  2. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  3. GH Travel & Mission Support System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HTRAMS is a travel data collection system for GH that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  4. PPL Travel & Mission Support System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PTRAMS is a travel data collection system for PPL that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  5. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... other accommodations that are air conditioned or have good window and door screens so bugs can’t ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Injuries and Safety (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... possible, fly on larger planes (>30 seats), in good weather, during the daylight hours, and with experienced ...

  7. DCHA Travel & Mission Support System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DTRAMS is a travel data collection system for DCHA that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  8. Transmedia storytelling on travel stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Baltar Moreno


    Full Text Available Travel stories form part of a great tradition inside Western Culture which has served historically to describe, to understand and to imagine other cul - tures and communities, far or near, being constituted into a real narra - tive genre. This type of story has been and is a reflection of the perception of the world based on the imaginary worlds created by the travelling narrators. How do modern authors of travel stories take advantage of the opportunities offered by transmedia storytelling? The present article explores the potential of these types of stories as a privileged object of study for transmedia storytelling studies, from the analysis of a sample of 80 narrative productions based on experiences of travel and presented in diverse editions of the Festival Le Grand Bivouac (France. It also shows the existence of a new contemporary trend inside this narrative form that transcends its literary nature.

  9. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  10. Travel time estimation using Bluetooth. (United States)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a Bluetooth Probe Detection System (BPDS) to : estimate travel time in an urban area. Specifically, the study investigated the possibility of measuring overall congestion, the : ...

  11. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago. (United States)


    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  12. Radiation hazard when we travel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar


    It is apparent that we are all exposed to natural radiation while travelling from one place to another. Air and sea travelers receive the highest and the lowest radiation dose respectively. The doses received by on-land travelers are generally low although some places near the mineral and slag heaps show high radiation levels. With proper management and enforcement, the contribution from these heaps on the roadsides can be easily removed. The other important radiation source is the tunnels built through granite rocks. However, this is more concern to the construction workers rather than to travelers. Thus, the authors are of the opinion that it is worth to look into the radiation exposures to the tunnel construction workers

  13. Long distance travel ‘today’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda


    This paper presents an overview of the Dane’s long distance travel. It is a part of the Drivers and Limits project about long distance travel. Long distance travel is in the project defined as infrequent travel with overnight stay. Danes 15-85 years-old travel in average 5.5 long distance travel...... per year og which a third is for international destinations, a third is for domestic second homes and a third are other domestic trips. However, 87% of the kilometres are for international destinations and only 4% are for domestic second homes. Travel activity is very uneven distributed with only half...... of the population having had a journey during the last three month. At the other hand 60% have travelled internationally during the last year and only 2% have never travelled abroad. The paper presents among other things how the travel activity is distributed on travel purpose and mode and how the mode choice...

  14. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.


    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  15. Time travel in Goedel's space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfarr, J.


    An analysis is presented of the motion of test particles in Goedel's universe. Both geodesical and nongeodesical motions are considered; the accelerations for nongeodesical motions are given. Examples for closed timelike world lines are shown and the dynamical conditions for time travel in Goedel's space-time are discussed. It is shown that these conditions alone do not suffice to exclude time travel in Goedel's space-time. (author)

  16. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA


    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Grishentsev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the network stations structure for ionosphere vertical sounding. Design features and creation principle of the program complexes for automated processing, analysis and storage of ionosphere sounding are considered. Conceptual model of complex database control system is created. The results of work are used in research practice of leading national organizations to study the ionosphere. Obtained application results of suggested algorithms and programs for automated processing and analysis of ionosphere vertical sounding are shown.

  18. AATR an ionospheric activity indicator specifically based on GNSS measurements (United States)

    Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; Rovira-Garcia, Adrià; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibáñez, D.; Perez, R. Orus


    This work reviews an ionospheric activity indicator useful for identifying disturbed periods affecting the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). This index is based in the Along Arc TEC Rate (AATR) and can be easily computed from dual-frequency GNSS measurements. The AATR indicator has been assessed over more than one Solar Cycle (2002-2017) involving about 140 receivers distributed world-wide. Results show that it is well correlated with the ionospheric activity and, unlike other global indicators linked to the geomagnetic activity (i.e. DST or Ap), it is sensitive to the regional behaviour of the ionosphere and identifies specific effects on GNSS users. Moreover, from a devoted analysis of different Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) performances in different ionospheric conditions, it follows that the AATR indicator is a very suitable mean to reveal whether SBAS service availability anomalies are linked to the ionosphere. On this account, the AATR indicator has been selected as the metric to characterise the ionosphere operational conditions in the frame of the European Space Agency activities on the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS). The AATR index has been adopted as a standard tool by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for joint ionospheric studies in SBAS. In this work we explain how the AATR is computed, paying special attention to the cycle-slip detection, which is one of the key issues in the AATR computation, not fully addressed in other indicators such as the Rate Of change of the TEC Index (ROTI). After this explanation we present some of the main conclusions about the ionospheric activity that can extracted from the AATR values during the above mentioned long-term study. These conclusions are: (a) the different spatial correlation related with the MOdified DIP (MODIP) which allows to clearly separate high, mid and low latitude regions, (b) the large spatial correlation in mid

  19. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, M.P.


    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced. These appear to be sufficient to heat the electrons which reduces the conductivity and produces further increases in parallel electric fields and temperatures. Calculations indicate that high enough temperatures for optical emission can be produced in less than 0.3 s. Some properties of auroras that might be produced by dynamo winds are examined; one property is a time delay in brightening at higher and lower altitudes

  20. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  1. Characteristics and pre-travel preparation of travelers at a Canadian pediatric tertiary care travel clinic: A retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao Wei; Pell, Lisa G; Akseer, Nadia; Khan, Sarah; Lam, Ray E; Louch, Debra; Science, Michelle; Morris, Shaun K


    International travelers are susceptible to a wide spectrum of travel related morbidities. Despite rising number of international travelers in Canada, the demographics, risk profiles, and preventative strategies of high-risk traveler groups, including pediatric travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) are not well described. A descriptive analysis was conducted on pre-travel consultations completed between January 2013 and August 2014 at a large pediatric tertiary care center in Toronto, Canada. Data on demographics, travel characteristics, and pre-travel interventions were extracted from 370 pre-travel consultations. Results were compared between all VFR and non-VFR travelers, as well as between children traveling to visit friends and relatives, for vacation, and for education and/or volunteer purposes. Forty-eight percent of consultations were for children travel to visit friends and/or relatives than for other purposes (29% vs 9%, p travel for >28 days than children traveling for vacation (43% vs 1%, p traveling for education/volunteer purposes (43% vs 21%, p = 0.03). Around half of cVFRs traveled to destinations in Asia (51%). The majority stayed with locals, friends and/or relatives (85%), and nearly all traveled to urban destinations (98%). The most prescribed interventions for children were azithromycin (84%), Dukoral (66%), and the hepatitis A vaccine (60%). Atovaquone/proguanil was the most commonly prescribed antimalarial for children. Children that travel to visit friends and relatives represent a unique travel group and may require specific considerations during pre-travel preparations. Our findings can help develop targeted pre-travel strategies for children VFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.


    Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD

  3. Influence of Ionospheric Weather on GNSS Radio Occultation Signals (United States)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Kuo, Y. H.


    Transient loss of lock (LOL) is one of the key space weather effects on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) observations during 2007-2011, we have analyzed the signal cycle slip (CS) occurrence comprehensively and its correlation to the ionospheric weather phenomena such as sporadic E (Es), equatorial F region irregularity (EFI), and the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The high vertical resolution of RO observations enables us to distinguish the CS resulting from different ionospheric layers clearly on a global scale. In the E layer, the CS is dominated by the Es occurrence, while in the F layer, the CS is mainly related to the EIA and EFI at low and equatorial latitudes. In the polar region, the CS is primarily related to polar cap electron density gradients. The overall average CS (> 6 cycles) occurrence is 23% per occultation, with the E (50-150 km) and F (150-600 km) layers contributing 8.3% and 14.7%, respectively. Awareness of the effect of the ionospheric weather on the CS of the low-Earth-orbit (LEO)-based GNSS signal could be beneficial to a variety of applications, including the LEO-based GNSS data processing and the corresponding hardware/firmware design.

  4. Irregular ionization and scintillation of the ionosphere in equator region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinno, Kenji


    The latest studies on the scintillation in satellite communication and its related irregularities of ionosphere are reviewed. They were made clear by means of spread-F, the direct measurement with scientific satellites, VHF radar observation, and radio wave propagation in equator region. The fundamental occurrence mechanism may be instability of plasma caused by the interaction of movement of neutral atmosphere and magnetic field. Comparison of the main characteristics of scintillation, namely the dependence on region, solar activity, season, local time, geomagnetic activity, movement in ionosphere, scattering source, frequency and transmission mode, was made and the correlation among spread-F, TEP and scintillation was summarized. The latest principal studies were the observations made by Intelsat and by ATS. Scintillation of Syncom-3 and Intelsat-II-F2 and spread-F by ionosphere observation were compared by Huang. It is reasonable to consider that the occurrence of scintillation is caused by the irregularities in ionosphere which are particular in equator region, because of the similar characteristics of spread-F and VHF propagation in the equator region. These three phenomena may occur in relation to the irregularities of ionosphere. Interpretation of spread-F and the abnormal propagation wave across the equator are given. The study using VHF radar and the movement of irregular ionization by the direct observation with artificial satellites are reviewd. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. A method to identify aperiodic disturbances in the ionosphere (United States)

    Wang, J.-S.; Chen, Z.; Huang, C.-M.


    In this paper, variations in the ionospheric F2 layer's critical frequency are decomposed into their periodic and aperiodic components. The latter include disturbances caused both by geophysical impacts on the ionosphere and random noise. The spectral whitening method (SWM), a signal-processing technique used in statistical estimation and/or detection, was used to identify aperiodic components in the ionosphere. The whitening algorithm adopted herein is used to divide the Fourier transform of the observed data series by a real envelope function. As a result, periodic components are suppressed and aperiodic components emerge as the dominant contributors. Application to a synthetic data set based on significant simulated periodic features of ionospheric observations containing artificial (and, hence, controllable) disturbances was used to validate the SWM for identification of aperiodic components. Although the random noise was somewhat enhanced by post-processing, the artificial disturbances could still be clearly identified. The SWM was then applied to real ionospheric observations. It was found to be more sensitive than the often-used monthly median method to identify geomagnetic effects. In addition, disturbances detected by the SWM were characterized by a Gaussian-type probability density function over all timescales, which further simplifies statistical analysis and suggests that the disturbances thus identified can be compared regardless of timescale.

  6. Longitudinal Ionospheric Variability Observed by LITES on the ISS (United States)

    Stephan, A. W.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Geddes, G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Budzien, S. A.


    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) is an imaging spectrograph designed to measure altitude profiles (150-350 km) of extreme- and far-ultraviolet airglow emissions that originate from photochemical processes in the ionosphere and thermosphere. During the daytime, LITES observes the bright O+ 83.4 nm emission from which the ionospheric profile can be inferred. At night, recombination emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm provide a direct measure of the electron content along the line of sight. LITES was launched and installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in late February 2017 where it has been operating along with the highly complementary GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment. We will present some of the first observations from LITES in April 2017 that show longitudinal patterns in ionospheric density and the daily variability in those patterns. LITES vertical imaging from a vantage point near 410 km enables a particularly unique perspective on the altitude of the ionospheric peak density at night that can complement and inform other ground- and space-based measurements, and track the longitude-altitude variability that is reflective of changes in equatorial electrodynamics.

  7. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu


    Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.

  8. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad. (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M


    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  9. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) for ionospheric application - history and contemporary state-of-art (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.; Jacobi, Ch.; Nikutowski, B.; Erhardt, Ch.


    After a historical survey of space related EUV measurements in Germany and the role of Karl Rawer in pursuing this work, we describe present developments in EUV spectroscopy and provide a brief outlook on future activities. The group of Karl Rawer has performed the first scientific space project in Western Europe on 19th October 1954. Then it was decided to include the field of solar EUV spectroscopy in ionospheric investigations. Starting in 1957 an intensified development of instrumentation was going on to explore solar EUV radiation, atmospheric airglow and auroral emissions until the institute had to stop space activities in the early nineteen-eighties. EUV spectroscopy was continued outside of the institute during eight years. This area of work was supported again by the institute developing the Auto-Calibrating Spectrometers (SolACES) for a mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After more than six years in space the instrument is still in operation. Meanwhile the work on the primary task also to validate EUV data available from other space missions has made good progress. The first results of validating those data and combine them into one set of EUV solar spectral irradiance are very promising. It will be recommended for using it by the science and application community. Moreover, a new low-cost type of an EUV spectrometer is presented for monitoring the solar EUV radiation. It shall be further developed for providing EUV-TEC data to be applied in ionospheric models replacing the Covington index F10.7. Applying these data for example in the GNSS signal evaluation a more accurate determination of GNSS receiver positions is expected for correcting the propagation delays of navigation signals traveling through the ionosphere from space to earth. - Latest results in the field of solar EUV spectroscopy are discussed, too.

  10. Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models


    Börjesson, Maria


    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time...

  11. Electron collision frequency variations and electric fields in the lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokov, A.M.; Martynenko, S.I.


    Distribution of relative variations of the electron effective collision frequency at the ionosphere lower boundary is determined on the basis of analysis of radio-signals partially reflected from the lower ionosphere. Technique to evaluate the strength of electrical fields at the ionosphere lower boundary using experimentally measured variations of the effective frequency of electron collisions is elaborated. 12 refs., 2 figs

  12. Propagation and reflection of chirped pulses in the nonuniform ionospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, S.M.


    By passing of a chirped pulse in a inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma this pulses due to the dispersion futures of the plasma becomes deformed and can be strongly compressed. The chirped pulse can be compressed also being reflected by the ionosphere. This can give some advantage using such pulses in the experiments of ionospheric zoning.

  13. Could ionospheric variations be precursors of a seismic event? A short discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouris, S.S. [Thessaloniki Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Spalla, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy); Zolesi, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)


    A short review of published papers on the perturbations in the ionosphere due to seismogenic effects is reported. The method to correlate different classes of phenomena as ionospheric variations and subsequent seismic events is discussed. Even if the theoretical attempts to understand or to explain the electromagnetic phenomena in the ionosphere, as precursors of earthquakes are not satisfactory, the reported results encourage further investigations.

  14. Structure of the polar ionosphere and convection of magnetospheric plasma outside the plazmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, A.M.; Osipov, N.K.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma, Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln)


    The effect of large-scale magnetospheric convection on the space structure of high-latitude ionosphere was investigated. Simple analytical models were used. The continuity equation for the electron concentration at a given rate of transfer is solved. It has been found that the formation of the principal structural forms in the ionosphere is associated with the horizontal convective transfer of ionospheric plasma

  15. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edemskiy, I.; Laštovička, Jan; Burešová, Dalia; Habarulema, J. B.; Nepomnyashchikh, I.


    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2018), s. 71-79 ISSN 0992-7689 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * ionospheric disturbances * midlatitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2016

  16. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard


    , this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been on domestic daily travel activities, but globalisation has, together with changes in price structures......), the TU overnight survey, and the Danish Tourism Statistics from the Business and Holiday Survey (HBS). This has enabled focus on infrequent travel activities segmented relative to travel purpose, distance threshold, or travelling with overnight stays. At an overall level the thesis has three main.......g. socio-economic variables. The analysis of Danish travel activities described in the three different travel surveys has outlined detailed information on Danish travel behaviour at an aggregated level during the past two decades. It has above all revealed the significant role of leisure travel. Private...

  17. Morbidity among Israeli paediatric travellers. (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Shira; Schwartz, Eli


    International travel, particularly to developing countries, is becoming increasingly common among the Israeli population, including an increase in the number of travelling children. Since children are a distinct travellers' population, data about their post-travel morbidity are needed. A retrospective study which examined all children (0-19 years old) who presented to our centre after international travel from 1999 to 2015. About 314 children were seen. The mean age was 10 years (SD ± 5.8). Most of the patients (80.6%) were tourists, and the rest were expatriates. The main destinations visited were South-Asia (46.5%), Sub-Saharan Africa (33.4%), Latin-America (7%) and Europe (6.4%). Overall, the most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal (GI) (mainly chronic) disorders (30.6%), followed by febrile diseases (26.4%), among which 18.1% of patients were diagnosed with dengue fever and 12% with malaria. Dermatologic conditions accounted for 25.2%. Additional diagnoses were schistosomiasis (6.4%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (2.2%). A substantial part, 10.8%, had eosinophilia, either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Travellers to Asia, compared to travellers to Africa, presented more commonly with GI illness (OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.61), and dermatologic conditions (OR 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.61). Morbidity was associated with a variety of transmission modes, such as food-borne illnesses (30.9%), bite and sting wounds (10.2%), mosquito-borne infections (8%), freshwater contact (6.7%) and tick-borne infections (2.2%). The main conditions seen in paediatric returning travellers were GI, febrile and dermatologic illnesses, some may be rare in their country of origin. Targeting care for the suspected pathogens based on updated knowledge of epidemiology and thorough travel history is essential. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Analysis of ionospheric structure influences on residual ionospheric errors in GNSS radio occultation bending angles based on ray tracing simulations (United States)

    Liu, Congliang; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Sun, Yueqiang; Zhang, Kefei; Norman, Robert; Schwaerz, Marc; Bai, Weihua; Du, Qifei; Li, Ying


    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) technique is widely used to observe the atmosphere for applications such as numerical weather prediction and global climate monitoring. The ionosphere is a major error source to RO at upper stratospheric altitudes, and a linear dual-frequency bending angle correction is commonly used to remove the first-order ionospheric effect. However, the higher-order residual ionospheric error (RIE) can still be significant, so it needs to be further mitigated for high-accuracy applications, especially from 35 km altitude upward, where the RIE is most relevant compared to the decreasing magnitude of the atmospheric bending angle. In a previous study we quantified RIEs using an ensemble of about 700 quasi-realistic end-to-end simulated RO events, finding typical RIEs at the 0.1 to 0.5 µrad noise level, but were left with 26 exceptional events with anomalous RIEs at the 1 to 10 µrad level that remained unexplained. In this study, we focused on investigating the causes of the high RIE of these exceptional events, employing detailed along-ray-path analyses of atmospheric and ionospheric refractivities, impact parameter changes, and bending angles and RIEs under asymmetric and symmetric ionospheric structures. We found that the main causes of the high RIEs are a combination of physics-based effects - where asymmetric ionospheric conditions play the primary role, more than the ionization level driven by solar activity - and technical ray tracer effects due to occasions of imperfect smoothness in ionospheric refractivity model derivatives. We also found that along-ray impact parameter variations of more than 10 to 20 m are possible due to ionospheric asymmetries and, depending on prevailing horizontal refractivity gradients, are positive or negative relative to the initial impact parameter at the GNSS transmitter. Furthermore, mesospheric RIEs are found generally higher than upper-stratospheric ones, likely due to

  19. Application of TaiWan Ionosphere Model to Single-Frequency Ionospheric Delay Correction for GPS Static Position Positioning (United States)

    Macalalad, E. P.; Tsai, L.; Wu, J.


    Ionospheric delay is one of the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges can vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. This effect can be practically removed using dual-frequency receivers. However, these types of receivers are very expensive and thus, impractical for most users. Therefore, for single-frequency receivers, ionosphere is usually modeled to attempt to remove this effect analytically. Numerous ionosphere models have been introduced in the past. Some of which are the Klobuchar (or broadcast) model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, another model, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model (TWIM) was used to correct this effect. TWIM is a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, was used to calculate ionospheric delay for GPS single-frequency positioning. The ne profiles were used to calculate the slant TEC (STEC) between a receiver and each GPS satellite and correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to calculate the position of the receiver. Observations were made in a low-latitude location near one of the peaks of the equatorial anomaly. It was shown that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models. That is, on the average, the horizontal accuracy, represented by the circular error probable (CEP), distance RMS (DRMS) and twice the DRMS (2DRMS), were better by 15-18% as compared with the CEP, DRMS and 2DRMS of uncorrected, Klobuchar and GIM. Moreover

  20. Danish long distance travel A study of Danish travel behaviour and the role of infrequent travel activities


    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard; Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    Historically there has been a lack of knowledge with respect to long distance travel. Due to the considerable contribution of long distance travel to total travelled kilometres and the related energy consumption from the transport sector and derived impacts on greenhouse emissions, this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been...