GROWTH OF A LOCALIZED SEED MAGNETIC FIELD IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Jungyeon; Yoo, Hyunju
2012-01-01
Turbulence dynamo deals with the amplification of a seed magnetic field in a turbulent medium and has been studied mostly for uniform or spatially homogeneous seed magnetic fields. However, some astrophysical processes (e.g., jets from active galaxies, galactic winds, or ram-pressure stripping in galaxy clusters) can provide localized seed magnetic fields. In this paper, we numerically study amplification of localized seed magnetic fields in a turbulent medium. Throughout the paper, we assume that the driving scale of turbulence is comparable to the size of the system. Our findings are as follows. First, turbulence can amplify a localized seed magnetic field very efficiently. The growth rate of magnetic energy density is as high as that for a uniform seed magnetic field. This result implies that magnetic field ejected from an astrophysical object can be a viable source of a magnetic field in a cluster. Second, the localized seed magnetic field disperses and fills the whole system very fast. If turbulence in a system (e.g., a galaxy cluster or a filament) is driven at large scales, we expect that it takes a few large-eddy turnover times for the magnetic field to fill the whole system. Third, growth and turbulence diffusion of a localized seed magnetic field are also fast in high magnetic Prandtl number turbulence. Fourth, even in decaying turbulence, a localized seed magnetic field can ultimately fill the whole system. Although the dispersal rate of the magnetic field is not fast in purely decaying turbulence, it can be enhanced by an additional forcing.
The Origin of Compressible Magnetic Turbulence in the Very Local Interstellar Medium
Zank, G. P.; Du, S.; Hunana, P.
2017-12-01
Voyager 1 observed compressible magnetic turbulence in the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM). We show that inner heliosheath (IHS) fast- and slow-mode waves incident on the heliopause (HP) generate VLISM fast-mode waves only that propagate into the VLISM. We suggest that this is the origin of compressible turbulence in the VLISM. We show that fast- and slow-mode waves transmitted across a tangential discontinuity such as the HP, are strongly refracted on crossing the HP, and subsequently propagate at highly oblique angles to the VLISM magnetic field. Thus, fast-mode waves in the VLISM contribute primarily to the compressible and not the transverse components of the VLISM fluctuating magnetic field variance. If the fast- and slow-mode waves in the IHS exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power spectral density, as appears to be observed by Voyager 1, then the corresponding transmitted spectral density in the VLISM forms an amplified Kolmogorov power law with -5/3 index. Consequently, the HP "radiates" fast-mode fluctuations into the VLISM, and the heliosphere therefore mediates the character of turbulence in the VLISM. In particular, we predict the form of the VLISM magnetic turbulence power spectral density to be a superposition of the background pristine interstellar turbulence spectrum and the fast-mode spectrum generated by the interaction of fast- and slow-mode IHS waves with the HP, i.e., a power law with an enhanced feature or "bump" corresponding to the contribution by fast-mode turbulence radiated by the HP.
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Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Kowal, G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão, 1226, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nakwacki, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET (Argentina)
2014-02-01
The amplification of magnetic fields (MFs) in the intracluster medium (ICM) is attributed to turbulent dynamo (TD) action, which is generally derived in the collisional-MHD framework. However, this assumption is poorly justified a priori, since in the ICM the ion mean free path between collisions is of the order of the dynamical scales, thus requiring a collisionless MHD description. The present study uses an anisotropic plasma pressure that brings the plasma within a parametric space where collisionless instabilities take place. In this model, a relaxation term of the pressure anisotropy simulates the feedback of the mirror and firehose instabilities, in consistency with empirical studies. Our three-dimensional numerical simulations of forced transonic turbulence, aiming the modeling of the turbulent ICM, were performed for different initial values of the MF intensity and different relaxation rates of the pressure anisotropy. We found that in the high-β plasma regime corresponding to the ICM conditions, a fast anisotropy relaxation rate gives results that are similar to the collisional-MHD model, as far as the statistical properties of the turbulence are concerned. Also, the TD amplification of seed MFs was found to be similar to the collisional-MHD model. The simulations that do not employ the anisotropy relaxation deviate significantly from the collisional-MHD results and show more power at the small-scale fluctuations of both density and velocity as a result of the action of the instabilities. For these simulations, the large-scale fluctuations in the MF are mostly suppressed and the TD fails in amplifying seed MFs.
VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF A SUPERNOVA-DRIVEN TURBULENT, MAGNETIZED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, Alex S.; Matthew Haffner, L.; Ryan Joung, M.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Benjamin, Robert A.; Klingenberg, Christian; Waagan, Knut
2012-01-01
Stellar feedback drives the circulation of matter from the disk to the halo of galaxies. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a vertical column of the interstellar medium with initial conditions typical of the solar circle in which supernovae drive turbulence and determine the vertical stratification of the medium. The simulations were run using a stable, positivity-preserving scheme for ideal MHD implemented in the FLASH code. We find that the majority (≈90%) of the mass is contained in thermally stable temperature regimes of cold molecular and atomic gas at T 4.2 K, with strong peaks in probability distribution functions of temperature in both the cold and warm regimes. The 200-10 4.2 K gas fills 50%-60% of the volume near the plane, with hotter gas associated with supernova remnants (30%-40%) and cold clouds ( 5 K) gas accounts for most of the mass and volume, while hot gas dominates at |z| > 3 kpc. The magnetic field in our models has no significant impact on the scale heights of gas in each temperature regime; the magnetic tension force is approximately equal to and opposite the magnetic pressure, so the addition of the field does not significantly affect the vertical support of the gas. The addition of a magnetic field does reduce the fraction of gas in the cold ( 4 K) gas. However, our models lack rotational shear and thus have no large-scale dynamo, which reduces the role of the field in the models compared to reality. The supernovae drive oscillations in the vertical distribution of halo gas, with the period of the oscillations ranging from ≈30 Myr in the T 6 K gas, in line with predictions by Walters and Cox.
Bambic, Christopher J.; Morsony, Brian J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2018-04-01
We investigate the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in turbulent heating of galaxy clusters. Specifically, we analyze the production of turbulence by g-modes generated by the supersonic expansion and buoyant rise of AGN-driven bubbles. Previous work that neglects magnetic fields has shown that this process is inefficient, with less than 1% of the injected energy ending up in turbulence. This inefficiency primarily arises because the bubbles are shredded apart by hydrodynamic instabilities before they can excite sufficiently strong g-modes. Using a plane-parallel model of the intracluster medium (ICM) and 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we examine the role of a large-scale magnetic field that is able to drape around these rising bubbles, preserving them from hydrodynamic instabilities. We find that while magnetic draping appears better able to preserve AGN-driven bubbles, the driving of g-modes and the resulting production of turbulence is still inefficient. The magnetic tension force prevents g-modes from transitioning into the nonlinear regime, suppressing turbulence in our model ICM. Our work highlights the ways in which ideal MHD is an insufficient description for the cluster feedback process, and we discuss future work such as the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity as a means of simulating high β plasma kinetic effects. These results suggest the hypothesis that other mechanisms of heating the ICM plasma such as sound waves or cosmic rays may be responsible for the observed feedback in galaxy clusters.
Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies
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Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud
2002-01-28
The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperature is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.
Study of the magnetic turbulence in a corotating interaction region in the interplanetary medium
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J. F. Valdés-Galicia
Full Text Available We study the geometry of magnetic fluctuations in a CIR observed by Pioneer 10 at 5 AU between days 292 and 295 in 1973. We apply the methodology proposed by Bieber et al. to make a comparison of the relative importance of two geometric arrays of vector propagation of the magnetic field fluctuations: slab and two-dimensional (2D. We found that inside the studied CIR this model is not applicable due to the restrictions imposed on it. Our results are consistent with Alfvenic fluctuations propagating close to the radial direction, confirming Mavromichalaki et al.'s findings. A mixture of isotropic and magnetoacoustic waves in the region before the front shock would be consistent with our results, and a mixture of slab/2D and magnetoacoustic waves in a region after the reverse shock. We base the latter conclusions on the theoretical analysis made by Kunstmann. We discuss the reasons why the composite model can not be applied in the CIR studied although the fluctuations inside it are two dimensional.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (magnetic fields · Space plasma physics (turbulence; waves and instabilities
Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, S. A.; Smith, Charles W.
2018-03-01
Interplanetary turbulence shows a spectral magnetic helicity signature whose properties could depend on the nature and dissipation of proton-scale fluctuations. A database of Wind spacecraft intervals of turbulence and helicity signatures is evaluated. Spectra are computed by both the Blackman–Tukey method and the Morlet wavelet method. A global mean magnetic field is used in each case, and the wavelet spectrum is averaged over time to facilitate comparison with the Blackman–Tukey spectrum. The maximum magnitude of the signature normalized by the trace of the magnetic spectral power has a frequency that correlates well between the two methods. The sign of the signature is also the same with both approaches, but the magnitudes differ. Statistically, the mean magnitudes of each method do agree, and the difference of individual magnitudes is assigned to uncertainties within each method. The Morlet wavelet method obtains fewer noisy signatures with a tighter overall correlation between magnetic helicity and cross-helicity; however, no trend is confirmed between helicity and the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure. Subdivision of the analyzed intervals establishes that the helicity signature is persistent but variable. A portion of the variability comes from cross-helicity and possibly from the cascade rate. The observed magnetic helicity is compared to model and simulation results. Two-dimensional hybrid simulations yield results for the magnetic helicity magnitude that are larger than the mean values observed under similar conditions.
Limits on the ions temperature anisotropy in turbulent intracluster medium
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Santos-Lima, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Yan, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Gouveia Dal Pino, E.M. de [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Lazarian, A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
2016-05-15
Turbulence in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxies (ICM) is able to generate strong thermal velocity anisotropies in the ions (with respect to the local magnetic field direction), if the magnetic moment of the particles is conserved in the absence of Coulomb collisions. In this scenario, the anisotropic pressure magnetohydrodynamic (AMHD) turbulence shows a very different statistical behaviour from the standard MHD one and is unable to amplify seed magnetic fields, in disagreement with previous cosmological MHD simulations which are successful to explain the observed magnetic fields in the ICM. On the other hand, temperature anisotropies can also drive plasma instabilities which can relax the anisotropy. This work aims to compare the relaxation rate with the growth rate of the anisotropies driven by the turbulence. We employ quasilinear theory to estimate the ions scattering rate due to the parallel firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities, for a set of plasma parameters resulting from AMHD simulations of the turbulent ICM. We show that the ICM turbulence can sustain only anisotropy levels very close to the instabilities thresholds. We argue that the AMHD model which bounds the anisotropies at the marginal stability levels can describe the Alfvenic turbulence cascade in the ICM.
Filamentary fragmentation in a turbulent medium
Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hubber, D. A.
2017-06-01
We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations investigating the evolution and fragmentation of filaments that are accreting from a turbulent medium. We show that the presence of turbulence and the resulting inhomogeneities in the accretion flow play a significant role in the fragmentation process. Filaments that experience a weakly turbulent accretion flow fragment in a two-tier hierarchical fashion, similar to the fragmentation pattern seen in the Orion Integral Shaped Filament. Increasing the energy in the turbulent velocity field results in more sub-structure within the filaments, and one sees a shift from gravity-dominated fragmentation to turbulence-dominated fragmentation. The sub-structure formed in the filaments is elongated and roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the filament, similar to the fibres seen in observations of Taurus, and suggests that the fray and fragment scenario is a possible mechanism for the production of fibres. We show that the formation of these fibre-like structures is linked to the vorticity of the velocity field inside the filament and the filament's accretion from an inhomogeneous medium. Moreover, we find that accretion is able to drive and sustain roughly sonic levels of turbulence inside the filaments, but is not able to prevent radial collapse once the filaments become supercritical. However, the supercritical filaments that contain fibre-like structures do not collapse radially, suggesting that fibrous filaments may not necessarily become radially unstable once they reach the critical line-density.
Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas
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S. Galtier
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.
Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas
Horton, Wendell
2012-01-01
This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.
Magnetic turbulence and anomalous transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.
1990-01-01
The self consistency conditions for magnetic turbulence are reviewed. The main features of magnetic topology involving stochastic flux lines are summarized. Two driving sources are considered: thermal effects which require large scale residual islands and electron diamagnetism which involves fluctuation scales smaller than the ion Larmor radius and a β p threshold of order one. Stability criteria and transport coefficients are given
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
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R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Compression of turbulent magnetized gas in giant molecular clouds
Birnboim, Yuval; Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark
2018-01-01
Interstellar gas clouds are often both highly magnetized and supersonically turbulent, with velocity dispersions set by a competition between driving and dissipation. This balance has been studied extensively in the context of gases with constant mean density. However, many astrophysical systems are contracting under the influence of external pressure or gravity, and the balance between driving and dissipation in a contracting, magnetized medium has yet to be studied. In this paper, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of compression in a turbulent, magnetized medium that resembles the physical conditions inside molecular clouds. We find that in some circumstances the combination of compression and magnetic fields leads to a rate of turbulent dissipation far less than that observed in non-magnetized gas, or in non-compressing magnetized gas. As a result, a compressing, magnetized gas reaches an equilibrium velocity dispersion much greater than would be expected for either the hydrodynamic or the non-compressing case. We use the simulation results to construct an analytic model that gives an effective equation of state for a coarse-grained parcel of the gas, in the form of an ideal equation of state with a polytropic index that depends on the dissipation and energy transfer rates between the magnetic and turbulent components. We argue that the reduced dissipation rate and larger equilibrium velocity dispersion has important implications for the driving and maintenance of turbulence in molecular clouds and for the rates of chemical and radiative processes that are sensitive to shocks and dissipation.
Long-term Evolution of Decaying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Multiphase Interstellar Medium
Kim, Chang-Goo; Basu, Shantanu
2013-12-01
Supersonic turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to decay rapidly within a flow crossing time irrespective of the degree of magnetization. However, this general consensus of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence relies on local isothermal simulations, which are unable to take into account the roles of the global structures of magnetic fields and the ISM. Utilizing three-dimensional MHD simulations including interstellar cooling and heating, we investigate decaying MHD turbulence within cold neutral medium sheets embedded in a warm neutral medium. The early evolution of turbulent kinetic energy is consistent with previous results for decaying compressible MHD turbulence characterized by rapid energy decay with a power-law form of Evpropt -1 and by a short decay time compared with the flow crossing time. If initial magnetic fields are strong and perpendicular to the sheet, however, long-term evolution of the kinetic energy shows that a significant amount of turbulent energy (~0.2E 0) still remains even after 10 flow crossing times for models with periodic boundary conditions. The decay rate is also greatly reduced as the field strength increases for such initial and boundary conditions, but not if the boundary conditions are those for a completely isolated sheet. We analyze velocity power spectra of the remaining turbulence to show that in-plane, incompressible motions parallel to the sheet dominate at later times.
Transport of Charged Particles in Turbulent Magnetic Fields
Parashar, T.; Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Blasi, P.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.; Chuychai, P.; Dmitruk, P.; Wan, M.; Chhiber, R.
2017-12-01
Magnetic fields permeate the Universe. They are found in planets, stars, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium. The magnetic field found in these astrophysical systems are usually chaotic, disordered, and turbulent. The investigation of the transport of cosmic rays in magnetic turbulence is a subject of considerable interest. One of the important aspects of cosmic ray transport is to understand their diffusive behavior and to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the presence of these turbulent fields. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here, we will particularly focus on calculating diffusion coefficients of charged particles and magnetic field lines in a fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic field with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. For charged particles in isotropic turbulence we identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of the Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of the turbulence. Different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical ideas are tested against results of detailed numerical experiments using Monte-Carlo simulations of particle propagation in stochastic magnetic fields. We also discuss two different methods of generating random magnetic field to study charged particle propagation using numerical simulation. One method is the usual way of generating random fields with a specified power law in wavenumber space, using Gaussian random variables. Turbulence, however, is non-Gaussian, with variability that comes in bursts called intermittency. We therefore devise a way to generate synthetic intermittent fields which have many properties of realistic turbulence. Possible applications of such synthetically generated intermittent fields are
Phenomenology of non-Alfvenic turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium
Matthaeus, W. H.; Zank, G. P.
1995-01-01
Transport and decay of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a weakly inhomogeneous uniformly expanding medium involves a fairly complex formalism, even for the case where no spectral information is required. Here we argue that the phenomenology for decay simplifies greatly if: (1) the cross helicity (Alfvenicity) is small, (2) the dynamical influence of the large scale magnetic field is negligible either because of spectral anisotropy or because the expansion speed is much greater than the corresponding Alfven speed, and (3) the ratio of kinetic energy to magnetic energy for the fluctuations is either unity or some other constant. These conditions are acceptable as an approximation to solar wind turbulence in the outer heliosphere. In these circumstances a reasonable MHD energy-containing phenomenology is essentially that of locally homogeneous Kolmogoroff turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium. Analytical solutions for this model are presented for both undriven and driven cases.
The Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Insights and Questions from Numerical Models
Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; de Avillez, Miguel A.; Korpi, Maarit J.
2003-01-01
"The purpose of numerical models is not numbers but insight." (Hamming) In the spirit of this adage, and of Don Cox's approach to scientific speaking, we discuss the questions that the latest generation of numerical models of the interstellar medium raise, at least for us. The energy source for the interstellar turbulence is still under discussion. We review the argument for supernovae dominating in star forming regions. Magnetorotational instability has been suggested as a way of coupling di...
Turbulent interstellar medium and pressure-bounded molecular clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maloney, P.
1988-01-01
The existence of turbulence throughout the interstellar medium suggests that an appropriate value for the average pressure may be P/K larger than about 10,000. Negative-index polytropic models of interstellar clouds in equilibrium with an external medium at these pressures are predicted to have sizes, line widths, masses, and size-line width and size-density relations in good agreement with those observed and inferred for dark clouds. Thus these observed features of interstellar clouds do not require that they be completely self-gravitating or 'virialized' in the commonly used sense. 41 references
Observational tests of the properties of turbulence in the Very Local Interstellar Medium
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S. R. Spangler
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM contains clouds which consist of partially-ionized plasma. These clouds can be effectively diagnosed via high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the absorption lines they form in the spectra of nearby stars. Information provided by these spectroscopic measurements includes values for ξ, the root-mean-square velocity fluctuation due to turbulence in these clouds, and T, the ion temperature, which may be partially determined by dissipation of turbulence. We consider whether this turbulence resembles the extensively studied and well-diagnosed turbulence in the solar wind and solar corona. Published observations are used to determine if the velocity fluctuations are primarily transverse to a large-scale magnetic field, whether the temperature perpendicular to the large scale field is larger than that parallel to the field, and whether ions with larger Larmor radii have higher temperatures than smaller gyroradius ions. We ask if the spectroscopically-deduced parameters such as ξ and T depend on the direction on the sky. We also consider the degree to which a single temperature T and turbulence parameter ξ account for the spectral line widths of ions with a wide range of masses. A preliminary examination of the published data shows no evidence for anisotropy of the velocity fluctuations or temperature, nor Larmor radius-dependent heating. These results indicate differences between solar wind and Local Cloud turbulence. Possible physical reasons for these differences are discussed.
Object detection from images obtained through underwater turbulence medium
Furhad, Md. Hasan; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew
2017-09-01
Imaging through underwater experiences severe distortions due to random fluctuations of temperature and salinity in water, which produces underwater turbulence through diffraction limited blur. Lights reflecting from objects perturb and attenuate contrast, making the recognition of objects of interest difficult. Thus, the information available for detecting underwater objects of interest becomes a challenging task as they have inherent confusion among the background, foreground and other image properties. In this paper, a saliency-based approach is proposed to detect the objects acquired through an underwater turbulent medium. This approach has drawn attention among a wide range of computer vision applications, such as image retrieval, artificial intelligence, neuro-imaging and object detection. The image is first processed through a deblurring filter. Next, a saliency technique is used on the image for object detection. In this step, a saliency map that highlights the target regions is generated and then a graph-based model is proposed to extract these target regions for object detection.
Electrostatic turbulence in strongly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, A.H.
1993-01-01
Turbulence in plasmas has been investigated experimentally and numerically. On the experimental side the turbulent nature of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been studied in a single-ended Q-machine. The development of coherent structures in the background of the turbulent flow has been demonstrated and the capability of structures of transporting plasma across the magnetic field-lines is explained in detail. The numerical investigations are divided into two parts: Numerical simulations of the dynamics from the Q-machine experiments using spectral methods to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical geometry. A numerical study of the Eulerian-Lagrangian transformation in a two-dimensional flow. Here the flow is made up by a large number of structures, where each individual structure is convected by the superposed flow field of all the others. (au) (33 ills., 67 refs.)
Dynamo saturation in direct simulations of the multi-phase turbulent interstellar medium
Bendre, A.; Gressel, O.; Elstner, D.
2015-12-01
The ordered magnetic field observed via polarised synchrotron emission in nearby disc galaxies can be explained by a mean-field dynamo operating in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Additionally, vertical-flux initial conditions are potentially able to influence this dynamo via the occurrence of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). We aim to study the influence of various initial field configurations on the saturated state of the mean-field dynamo. This is motivated by the observation that different saturation behaviour was previously obtained for different supernova rates. We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of three-dimensional local boxes of the vertically stratified, turbulent interstellar medium, employing shearing-periodic boundary conditions horizontally. Unlike in our previous work, we also impose a vertical seed magnetic field. We run the simulations until the growth of the magnetic energy becomes negligible. We furthermore perform simulations of equivalent 1D dynamo models, with an algebraic quenching mechanism for the dynamo coefficients. We compare the saturation of the magnetic field in the DNS with the algebraic quenching of a mean-field dynamo. The final magnetic field strength found in the direct simulation is in excellent agreement with a quenched αΩ dynamo. For supernova rates representative of the Milky Way, field losses via a Galactic wind are likely responsible for saturation. We conclude that the relative strength of the turbulent and regular magnetic fields in spiral galaxies may depend on the galaxy's star formation rate. We propose that a mean field approach with algebraic quenching may serve as a simple sub-grid scale model for galaxy evolution simulations including a prescribed feedback from magnetic fields.
Three-dimensional simulations of turbulent spectra in the local interstellar medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Shaikh
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional time dependent numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic fluids describing super-Alfvénic, supersonic and strongly magnetized space and laboratory plasmas show a nonlinear relaxation towards a state of near incompressibility. The latter is characterized essentially by a subsonic turbulent Mach number. This transition is mediated dynamically by disparate spectral energy dissipation rates in compressible magnetosonic and shear Alfvénic modes. Nonlinear cascades lead to super-Alfvénic turbulent motions decaying to a sub-Alfvénic regime that couples weakly with (magnetoacoustic cascades. Consequently, the supersonic plasma motion is transformed into highly subsonic motion and density fluctuations experience a passive convection. This model provides a self-consistent explaination of the ubiquitous nature of incompressible magnetoplasma fluctuations in the solar wind and the interstellar medium.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Pataraya
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Non-linear α-ω; dynamo waves existing in an incompressible medium with the turbulence dissipative coefficients depending on temperature are studied in this paper. We investigate of α-ω solar non-linear dynamo waves when only the first harmonics of magnetic induction components are included. If we ignore the second harmonics in the non-linear equation, the turbulent magnetic diffusion coefficient increases together with the temperature, the coefficient of turbulent viscosity decreases, and for an interval of time the value of dynamo number is greater than 1. In these conditions a stationary solution of the non-linear equation for the dynamo wave's amplitude exists; meaning that the magnetic field is sufficiently excited. The amplitude of the dynamo waves oscillates and becomes stationary. Using these results we can explain the existence of Maunder's minimum.
Resolved magnetic dynamo action in the simulated intracluster medium
Vazza, F.; Brunetti, G.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.
2018-02-01
Faraday rotation and synchrotron emission from extragalactic radio sources give evidence for the presence of magnetic fields extending over ˜ Mpc scales. However, the origin of these fields remains elusive. With new high-resolution grid simulations, we studied the growth of magnetic fields in a massive galaxy cluster that in several aspects is similar to the Coma cluster. We investigated models in which magnetic fields originate from primordial seed fields with comoving strengths of 0.1 nG at redshift z = 30. The simulations show evidence of significant magnetic field amplification. At the best spatial resolution (3.95 kpc), we are able to resolve the scale where magnetic tension balances the bending of magnetic lines by turbulence. This allows us to observe the final growth stage of the small-scale dynamo. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this is seen in cosmological simulations of the intracluster medium. Our mock observations of Faraday rotation provide a good match to observations of the Coma cluster. However, the distribution of magnetic fields shows strong departures from a simple Maxwellian distribution, suggesting that the three-dimensional structure of magnetic fields in real clusters may be significantly different than what is usually assumed when inferring magnetic field values from rotation measure observations.
Beyond the current noise limit in imaging through turbulent medium.
Popowicz, Adam; Kurek, Aleksander; Pollo, Agnieszka; Smolka, Bogdan
2015-05-15
Shift-and-add is an approach employed to mitigate the phenomenon of resolution degradation in images acquired through a turbulent medium. Using this technique, a large number of consecutive short exposures is registered below the coherence time of the atmosphere or other blurring medium. The acquired images are shifted to the position of the brightest speckle and stacked together to obtain high resolution and high signal-to-noise frame. In this Letter, we present a highly efficient method for determination of frame shifts, even if in a single frame the object cannot be distinguished from the background noise. The technique utilizes our custom genetic algorithm, which iteratively evolves a set of image shifts. We used the maximal energy of stacked images as an objective function for shifts estimation and validate the efficiency of the method on simulated and real images of simple and complex sources. Obtained results confirmed that our proposed method allows for the recovery of spatial distribution of objects even only 2% brighter than their background. The presented approach extends significantly current limits of image reconstruction with the use of shift-and-add method. The applications of our algorithm include both the optical and the infrared imaging. Our method may be also employed as a digital image stabilizer in extremely low light level conditions in professional and consumer applications.
Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae
Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan
2017-09-01
We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.
Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boldyrev, Stanislav
2013-01-01
The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a 'condensate', that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small kllel)). A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model
The density variance-Mach number relation in supersonic turbulence - I. Isothermal, magnetized gas
Molina, F. Z.; Glover, S. C. O.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2012-07-01
It is widely accepted that supersonic, magnetized turbulence plays a fundamental role for star formation in molecular clouds. It produces the initial dense gas seeds out of which new stars can form. However, the exact relation between gas compression, turbulent Mach number and magnetic field strength is still poorly understood. Here, we introduce and test an analytical prediction for the relation between the density variance and the rms Mach number ? in supersonic, isothermal, magnetized turbulent flows. We approximate the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium as a superposition of shock waves. We obtain the density contrast considering the momentum equation for a single magnetized shock and extrapolate this result to the entire cloud. Depending on the field geometry, we then make three different assumptions based on observational and theoretical constraints: B independent of ρ, B∝ρ1/2 and B∝ρ. We test the analytically derived density variance-Mach number relation with numerical simulations, and find that for B∝ρ1/2, the variance in the logarithmic density contrast, ?, fits very well to simulated data with turbulent forcing parameter b= 0.4, when the gas is super-Alfvénic. However, this result breaks down when the turbulence becomes trans-Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic, because in this regime the turbulence becomes highly anisotropic. Our density variance-Mach number relations simplify to the purely hydrodynamic relation as the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β0→∞.
Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2 we discuss the basics of neutrino–photon effective action and the fermion propagators in a magnetized medium. Section 3 contains the details of the calculation of the one-loop diagram and in §4 we consider the weak-field limit. Finally, we conclude with a discussion.
Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra
2010-01-01
We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t d and pair annihilation t a , finding t a d . We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing
Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium
Clark, Susan
2017-01-01
The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).
POLARIMETRIC STUDIES OF MAGNETIC TURBULENCE WITH AN INTERFEROMETER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)
2016-11-01
We study statistical properties of synchrotron polarization emitted from media with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We use both synthetic and MHD turbulence simulation data for our studies. We obtain the spatial spectrum and its derivative with respect to the wavelength of synchrotron polarization arising from both synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation fluctuations. In particular, we investigate how the spectrum changes with frequency. We find that our simulations agree with the theoretical predication in Lazarian and Pogosyan. We conclude that the spectrum of synchrotron polarization and its derivative can be very informative tools to obtain detailed information about the statistical properties of MHD turbulence from radio observations of diffuse synchrotron polarization. They are especially useful for recovering the statistics of a turbulent magnetic field as well as the turbulent density of electrons. We also simulate interferometric observations that incorporate the effects of noise and finite telescope beam size, and demonstrate how we recover statistics of underlying MHD turbulence.
Turbulent amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory laser-produced shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meinecke, J.; Doyle, H.W.; Bell, A.R.; Schekochihin, A.A.; Miniati, F.; Bingham, R.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.
2014-01-01
X-ray and radio observations of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A reveal the presence of magnetic fields about 100 times stronger than those in the surrounding interstellar medium. Field coincident with the outer shock probably arises through a nonlinear feedback process involving cosmic rays. The origin of the large magnetic field in the interior of the remnant is less clear but it is presumably stretched and amplified by turbulent motions. Turbulence may be generated by hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity between the supernova ejecta and the circumstellar gas. However, optical observations of Cassiopeia A indicate that the ejecta are interacting with a highly inhomogeneous, dense circumstellar cloud bank formed before the supernova explosion. Here we investigate the possibility that turbulent amplification is induced when the outer shock overtakes dense clumps in the ambient medium. We report laboratory experiments that indicate the magnetic field is amplified when the shock interacts with a plastic grid. We show that our experimental results can explain the observed synchrotron emission in the interior of the remnant. The experiment also provides a laboratory example of magnetic field amplification by turbulence in plasmas, a physical process thought to occur in many astrophysical phenomena. (authors)
COSMIC-RAY SMALL-SCALE ANISOTROPIES AND LOCAL TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López-Barquero, V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Farber, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766 (United States); Xu, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Desiati, P. [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2016-10-10
Cosmic-ray anisotropy has been observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments over the past decade. However, no comprehensive or satisfactory explanation has been put forth to date. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays at Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium- and small-scale angular structure could be an effect of nondiffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation for the observed small-scale anisotropy observed at the TeV energy scale may be the effect of particle propagation in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low- β compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence to study how the cosmic rays’ arrival direction distribution is perturbed when they stream along the local turbulent magnetic field. We utilize Liouville’s theorem for obtaining the anisotropy at Earth and provide the theoretical framework for the application of the theorem in the specific case of cosmic-ray arrival distribution. In this work, we discuss the effects on the anisotropy arising from propagation in this inhomogeneous and turbulent interstellar magnetic field.
Collisions between grains in a turbulent gas. [in interstellar medium
Voelk, H. J.; Morfill, G. E.; Roeser, S.; Jones, F. C.
1980-01-01
Turbulent gas motions will induce random velocities of small dust grains that are imbedded in the gas. Within large eddies the friction forces from the gas lead to strongly correlated velocities for neighboring grains, whereas small eddies cause uncorrelated grain motions. The nonlinear response of a grain to eddy motion is calculated. This leads to a turbulent pressure within the dust component as well as to collisions between pairs of grains. The results are evaluated numerically for a Kolmogoroff spectrum and turbulent collision rates are calculated for molecular clouds and protostellar environments. Whereas grain-grain collisions should not modify the initial size distribution in molecular clouds to a significant extent, they will lead to an entirely different grain population in protostars.
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)
2015-07-20
In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.
Cosmic-Ray Propagation in Turbulent Spiral Magnetic Fields Associated with Young Stellar Objects
Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.
2018-04-01
External cosmic rays impinging upon circumstellar disks associated with young stellar objects provide an important source of ionization, and, as such, play an important role in disk evolution and planet formation. However, these incoming cosmic rays are affected by a variety of physical processes internal to stellar/disk systems, including modulation by turbulent magnetic fields. Globally, these fields naturally provide both a funneling effect, where cosmic rays from larger volumes are focused into the disk region, and a magnetic mirroring effect, where cosmic rays are repelled due to the increasing field strength. This paper considers cosmic-ray propagation in the presence of a turbulent spiral magnetic field, analogous to that produced by the solar wind. The interaction of this wind with the interstellar medium defines a transition radius, analogous to the heliopause, which provides the outer boundary to this problem. We construct a new coordinate system where one coordinate follows the spiral magnetic field lines and consider magnetic perturbations to the field in the perpendicular directions. The presence of magnetic turbulence replaces the mirroring points with a distribution of values and moves the mean location outward. Our results thus help quantify the degree to which cosmic-ray fluxes are reduced in circumstellar disks by the presence of magnetic field structures that are shaped by stellar winds. The new coordinate system constructed herein should also be useful in other astronomical applications.
On Runaway Transport under Magnetic Turbulence in Tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castejon, F.; Equilior, S.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)
2001-07-01
The influence of magnetic turbulence on runaway transport has been studied. The evolution of runaway distribution function has been calculated using Electra a 2D code in momentum space and 1D in radius coordinate. The code considers the effect of averaging the turbulence by runaway orbits. Then Hard X-Ray emission spectrum is estimated and compared with experimental results of TJ-1 tokamak, obtaining a remarkable agreement. (Author) 15 refs.
The Development of Drift Wave Turbulence in Magnetic Reconnection
McMurtrie, L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M. M.
2013-12-01
An important feature in collisionless magnetic reconnection is the development of sharp discontinuities along the separatrices bounding the Alfvenic outflow. The typical scale length of these features is ρs (the Larmor radius based on the sound speed) for guide field reconnection. Temperature gradients in the inflowing plasma (as might be found in the magnetopause) can lead to instabilities at these separatrices, specifically drift wave turbulence. We present standalone 2D and 3D PIC simulations of drift wave turbulence to investigate scaling properties and growth rates. Further investigations of the relative importance of drift wave turbulence in the development of reconnection will also be considered.
Absorption of Electro-magnetic Waves in a Magnetized Medium
Ganguly, Avijit K.; Konar, Sushan
2000-01-01
In continuation to our earlier work, in which the structure of the vacuum polarisation tensor in a medium was analysed in presence of a background electro-magnetic field, we discuss the absorptive part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Using the real time formalism of finite temperature field theory we calculate the absorptive part of 1-loop vacuum polarisation tensor in the weak field limit ($eB < m^2$). Estimates of the absorption probability are also made for different physical conditions...
Local time dependence of turbulent magnetic fields in Saturn's magnetodisc
Kaminker, V.; Delamere, P. A.; Ng, C. S.; Dennis, T.; Otto, A.; Ma, X.
2017-04-01
Net plasma transport in magnetodiscs around giant planets is outward. Observations of plasma temperature have shown that the expanding plasma is heating nonadiabatically during this process. Turbulence has been suggested as a source of heating. However, the mechanism and distribution of magnetic fluctuations in giant magnetospheres are poorly understood. In this study we attempt to quantify the radial and local time dependence of fluctuating magnetic field signatures that are suggestive of turbulence, quantifying the fluctuations in terms of a plasma heating rate density. In addition, the inferred heating rate density is correlated with magnetic field configurations that include azimuthal bend forward/back and magnitude of the equatorial normal component of magnetic field relative to the dipole. We find a significant local time dependence in magnetic fluctuations that is consistent with flux transport triggered in the subsolar and dusk sectors due to magnetodisc reconnection.
Turbulent contributions to Ohm's law in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas
Chavdarovski, I.; Gatto, R.
2017-07-01
The effect of magnetic turbulence in shaping the current density in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is analyzed using a turbulent extension of Ohm's law derived from the self-consistent action-angle transport theory. Besides the well-known hyper-resistive (helicity-conserving) contribution, the generalized Ohm's law contains an anomalous resistivity term and a turbulent bootstrap-like term proportional to the current density derivative. The numerical solution of the equation for equilibrium and turbulence profiles characteristic of conventional and advanced scenarios shows that, through the "turbulent bootstrap" effect and anomalous resistivity, power and parallel current can be generated which are a sizable portion (about 20%-25%) of the corresponding effects associated with the neoclassical bootstrap effect. The degree of alignment of the turbulence peak and the pressure gradient plays an important role in defining the steady-state regime. In a fully bootstrapped tokamak, the hyper-resistivity is essential in overcoming the intrinsic limitation of the hollow current profile.
Suprathermal ion transport in turbulent magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bovet, A. D.
2015-01-01
Suprathermal ions, which have an energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, are present in many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In fusion devices, they are generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating. Controlling their transport is essential for the success of future fusion devices that could provide a clean, safe and abundant source of electric power to our society. In space, suprathermal ions include energetic solar particles and cosmic rays. The understanding of the acceleration and transport mechanisms of these particles is still incomplete. Basic plasma devices allow detailed measurements that are not accessible in astrophysical and fusion plasmas, due to the difficulty to access the former and the high temperatures of the latter. The basic toroidal device TORPEX offers an easy access for diagnostics, well characterized plasma scenarios and validated numerical simulations of its turbulence dynamics, making it the ideal platform for the investigation of suprathermal ion transport. This Thesis presents three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam injected in turbulent TORPEX plasmas. The combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first principle numerical simulations reveals the general non-diffusive nature of the suprathermal ion transport. A precise characterization of their transport regime shows that, depending on their energies, suprathermal ions can experience either a super diffusive transport or a subdiffusive transport in the same background turbulence. The transport character is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma structures, which in turn depends on the ratio between the ion energy and the background plasma temperature. Time-resolved measurements reveal a clear difference in the intermittency of suprathermal ions time-traces depending on the transport regime they experience. Conditionally averaged measurements uncover the influence of
Magnetic turbulence in a table-top laser-plasma relevant to astrophysical scenarios
Chatterjee, Gourab; Schoeffler, Kevin M.; Kumar Singh, Prashant; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Silva, Luis O.; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra
2017-06-01
Turbulent magnetic fields abound in nature, pervading astrophysical, solar, terrestrial and laboratory plasmas. Understanding the ubiquity of magnetic turbulence and its role in the universe is an outstanding scientific challenge. Here, we report on the transition of magnetic turbulence from an initially electron-driven regime to one dominated by ion-magnetization in a laboratory plasma produced by an intense, table-top laser. Our observations at the magnetized ion scale of the saturated turbulent spectrum bear a striking resemblance with spacecraft measurements of the solar wind magnetic-field spectrum, including the emergence of a spectral kink. Despite originating from diverse energy injection sources (namely, electrons in the laboratory experiment and ion free-energy sources in the solar wind), the turbulent spectra exhibit remarkable parallels. This demonstrates the independence of turbulent spectral properties from the driving source of the turbulence and highlights the potential of small-scale, table-top laboratory experiments for investigating turbulence in astrophysical environments.
Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2005-01-01
fluctuation wave forms and transport statistics are also in a good agreement with those derived from the experiments. Associated with the turbulence bursts are relaxation oscillations in the particle and heat confinements as well as in the kinetic energy of the sheared poloidal flows. The formation of blob...... a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region...
JOINT INVERSE CASCADE OF MAGNETIC ENERGY AND MAGNETIC HELICITY IN MHD TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stepanov, R.; Frick, P.; Mizeva, I.
2015-01-01
We show that oppositely directed fluxes of energy and magnetic helicity coexist in the inertial range in fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with small-scale sources of magnetic helicity. Using a helical shell model of MHD turbulence, we study the high Reynolds number MHD turbulence for helicity injection at a scale that is much smaller than the scale of energy injection. In a short range of scales larger than the forcing scale of magnetic helicity, a bottleneck-like effect appears, which results in a local reduction of the spectral slope. The slope changes in a domain with a high level of relative magnetic helicity, which determines that part of the magnetic energy is related to the helical modes at a given scale. If the relative helicity approaches unity, the spectral slope tends to –3/2. We show that this energy pileup is caused by an inverse cascade of magnetic energy associated with the magnetic helicity. This negative energy flux is the contribution of the pure magnetic-to-magnetic energy transfer, which vanishes in the non-helical limit. In the context of astrophysical dynamos, our results indicate that a large-scale dynamo can be affected by the magnetic helicity generated at small scales. The kinetic helicity, in particular, is not involved in the process at all. An interesting finding is that an inverse cascade of magnetic energy can be provided by a small-scale source of magnetic helicity fluctuations without a mean injection of magnetic helicity
Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2011-08-15
We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.
Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: robert.c.tautz@gmail.com [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: dresing@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
2016-01-15
The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.
Effective Medium Theory for Drag Reducing Micro-patterned Surfaces in Turbulent Flows
Battiato, I.
2013-12-01
Inspired by the lotus effect, many studies in the last decade have focused on micro- and nano-patterned surfaces. They revealed that patterns at the micro-scale combined with high contact angles can significantly reduce skin drag. However, the mechanisms and parameters that control drag reduction, e.g. Reynolds number and pattern geometry, are still unclear. We propose an effective medium representation of the micro-features, that treats the latter as a porous medium, and provides a framework to model flow over patterned surfaces in both Cassie and Wenzel states. Our key result is a closed-form expression for the skin friction coefficient in terms of frictional Reynolds (or Karman) number in turbulent regime, the viscosity ratio between the fluid in and above the features, and their geometrical properties. We apply the proposed model to turbulent flows over superhydrophobic ridged surfaces. The model predictions agree with laboratory experiments for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3000 to 10000.
Turbulence, transport and confinement: from tokamaks to star magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strugarek, Antoine
2012-01-01
This thesis is part of the general study of self-organization in hot and magnetized plasmas. We focus our work on two specific objects: stars and tokamaks. We use first principle numerical simulations to study turbulence, transport and confinement in these plasmas. The first part of this thesis introduces the main characteristics of stellar and tokamak plasmas. The reasons for studying them together are properly detailed. The second part is focused on stellar aspects. We study the interactions between the 3D turbulent motions in the solar convection zone with an internal magnetic field in the tachocline (the transition region between the instable and stable zones in the Sun). The tachocline is a very thin layer (less than five percent of the solar radius) that acts as a transport barrier of angular momentum. We show that such an internal magnetic field is not likely to explain the observed thickness of the tachocline and we give some insights on how to find alternative mechanisms to constrain it. We also explore the effect of the environment of star on its structure. We develop a methodology to study the influence of stellar wind and of the magnetic coupling of a star with its orbiting planets. We use the same methodology to analyse the magnetic interaction between a stellar wind and a planetary magnetosphere that acts as a transport barrier of matter. Then, the third part is dedicated to fusion oriented research. We present a numerical investigation on the experimental mechanisms that lead to the development of transport barriers in the plasma. These barriers are particularly important for the design of high performance fusion devices. The creation of transport barriers is obtained in turbulent first principle simulations for the very first time. The collaboration between the two scientific teams lead to the results presented in the fourth part of this thesis. An original spectral method is developed to analyse the saturation of stellar convective dynamos and of
ON ELECTROSTATIC ANALOGY OF MAGNETOSTATIC FIELD IN INHOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIZED MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Mikhailov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The application in electrostatic analogy of magnetostatics for inhomogeneous magnetized media of two known magnetization models. Methodology. A comparison of basic equations and formulas of electrostatic and magnetostatic field in immoveable isotropic inhomogeneous polarized medium for dipole model and the magnetization model by molecular currents is made. The value-analogues for dipole model of magnetization are established. Results. We have shown that the using of dipole model of magnetization is correct. There is not even formal analogy with electrostatic field in the case of using the magnetization model by molecular currents. The relation between the magnetizations for various models is obtained. It allows us to justify the using magnetization by molecular currents in electrostatic analogy. Originality. The magnetization for dipole model is introduced and the possibility of using magnetization by molecular currents in the formulas for calculating potential magnetostatic field in magnetized medium is substantiated. Practical value. The results allow to obtain correct formulation and solution of the problem of magnetostatic field calculation in inhomogeneous magnetized medium.
Solitons in a Dielectric Medium under an External Magnetic Field
Isamu, NAKATA; Hiroaki, ONO; Mitito, YOSIDA; College of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Osaka Prefecture; Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Setunan University; Nippondenso Co., Ltd.
1993-01-01
Solitons in a dielectric medium propagating along an external magnetic field is investigated. By means of a nonlinear perturbation method, the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived and the possibility of propagation of the spiky and algebraic solitons is shown.
STAR FORMATION LAWS AND THRESHOLDS FROM INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM STRUCTURE AND TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renaud, Florent; Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frédéric
2012-01-01
We present an analytical model of the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in galaxies and clouds, as a function of the presence of supersonic turbulence and the associated structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). The model predicts a power-law relation of index 3/2, flattened under the effects of stellar feedback at high densities or in very turbulent media, and a break at low surface densities when ISM turbulence becomes too weak to induce strong compression. This model explains the diversity of star formation laws and thresholds observed in nearby spirals and their resolved regions, the Small Magellanic Cloud, high-redshift disks and starbursting mergers, as well as Galactic molecular clouds. While other models have proposed interstellar dust content and molecule formation to be key ingredients to the observed variations of the star formation efficiency, we demonstrate instead that these variations can be explained by ISM turbulence and structure in various types of galaxies.
Size scaling of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Z.; Ethier, S.; Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
2002-01-01
Transport scaling with respect to device size in magnetically confined plasmas is critically examined for electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient turbulence using global gyrokinetic particle simulations. It is found, by varying device size normalized by ion gyroradius while keeping other dimensionless plasma parameters fixed, that fluctuation scale length is microscopic in the presence of zonal flows. The local transport coefficient exhibits a gradual transition from a Bohm-like scaling for device sizes corresponding to present-day experiments to a gyro-Bohm scaling for future larger devices
Size Scaling of Turbulent Transport in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Z. Lin; S. Ethier; T.S. Hahm; W.M. Tang
2002-04-01
Transport scaling with respect to device size in magnetically confined plasmas is critically examined for electrostatic ion temperature gradient turbulence using global gyrokinetic particle simulations. It is found, by varying device size normalized by ion gyroradius while keeping other dimensionless plasma parameters fixed, that fluctuation scale length is microscopic in the presence of zonal flows. The local transport coefficient exhibits a gradual transition from a Bohm-like scaling for device sizes corresponding to present-day experiments to a gyro-Bohm scaling for future larger devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.
Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.
2017-12-01
Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular
Instabilities, turbulence and transport in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian
2017-11-01
In order to understand the origin of observed molecular cloud (MC) properties, it is critical to understand how clouds interact with their environments during their formation, growth, and collapse. It has been suggested that accretion-driven turbulence can maintain clouds in a highly turbulent state, preventing runaway collapse and explaining the observed non-thermal velocity dispersions. We present 3D, adaptive-mesh-refinement, magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a kiloparsec-scale, stratified, supernova-driven, self-gravitating, interstellar medium (ISM), including diffuse heating and radiative cooling. These simulations model the formation and evolution of a MC population in the turbulent ISM. We use zoom-in techniques to focus on the dynamics of the mass accretion and its history for individual MCs. We find that mass accretion onto MCs proceeds as a combination of turbulent flow and near free-fall accretion of a gravitationally bound envelope. Nearby supernova explosions have a dual role, compressing the envelope and increasing mass accretion rates, but also disrupting parts of the envelope and eroding mass from the cloud’s surface. It appears that the inflow rate of kinetic energy onto clouds from supernova explosions is insufficient to explain the net rate of change of the cloud kinetic energy. In the absence of self-consistent star formation, the conversion of gravitational potential into kinetic energy during contraction seems to be the main driver of non-thermal motions within clouds. We conclude that although clouds interact strongly with their environments, bound clouds are always in a state of gravitational contraction, close to runaway, and their properties are a natural result of this collapse.
Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John A. Krommes
2001-02-16
A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations
Banda-Barragán, W. E.; Federrath, C.; Crocker, R. M.; Bicknell, G. V.
2018-01-01
We present a set of numerical experiments designed to systematically investigate how turbulence and magnetic fields influence the morphology, energetics, and dynamics of filaments produced in wind-cloud interactions. We cover 3D, magnetohydrodynamic systems of supersonic winds impacting clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields. We find that lognormal density distributions aid shock propagation through clouds, increasing their velocity dispersion and producing filaments with expanded cross-sections and highly magnetized knots and subfilaments. In self-consistently turbulent scenarios, the ratio of filament to initial cloud magnetic energy densities is ∼1. The effect of Gaussian velocity fields is bound to the turbulence Mach number: Supersonic velocities trigger a rapid cloud expansion; subsonic velocities only have a minor impact. The role of turbulent magnetic fields depends on their tension and is similar to the effect of radiative losses: the stronger the magnetic field or the softer the gas equation of state, the greater the magnetic shielding at wind-filament interfaces and the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Overall, we show that including turbulence and magnetic fields is crucial to understanding cold gas entrainment in multiphase winds. While cloud porosity and supersonic turbulence enhance the acceleration of clouds, magnetic shielding protects them from ablation and causes Rayleigh-Taylor-driven subfilamentation. Wind-swept clouds in turbulent models reach distances ∼15-20 times their core radius and acquire bulk speeds ∼0.3-0.4 of the wind speed in one cloud-crushing time, which are three times larger than in non-turbulent models. In all simulations, the ratio of turbulent magnetic to kinetic energy densities asymptotes at ∼0.1-0.4, and convergence of all relevant dynamical properties requires at least 64 cells per cloud radius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, A.A.; Cowley, S.C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.; Howes, G.G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Medium Resolution Parameterisation of Turbulent Heat Fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau
Faivre, R.; Colin, J.; Ghafarian, H.; Menenti, M.
2013-01-01
The estimation of turbulent fluxes is of primary interest for hydrological and climatological studies. Also the use of optical remote sensing data in the VNIR and TIR domain already proved to allow for the parameterization of surface energy balance, leading to many algorithms. Their use over arid high elevation areas require detailed characterisation of key surface physical properties and atmospheric statement at a reference level. Satellite products aquired over the Tibetan Plateau provide incentives for a regular analysis at medium scale. This work aims at improving the use of spaceborne optical remote sensing such as ENVISAT/AATSR or Feng-Yun 2C (VNIR and TIR) for land surface evaporation mapping over the whole Tibetan Plateau, based on SEBI algorithm. An evaluation is leaded over some reference sites set-up through the Tibetan Plateau.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
MMS Observations of Ion-Scale Magnetic Island in the Magnetosheath Turbulent Plasma
Huang, S. Y.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Contel, O. Le; Yuan, Z. G.; Chasapis, A.; Aunai, N.; Breuillard, H.; Deng, X. H.; Zhou, M.;
2016-01-01
In this letter, first observations of ion-scale magnetic island from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma are presented. The magnetic island is characterized by bipolar variation of magnetic fields with magnetic field compression, strong core field, density depletion, and strong currents dominated by the parallel component to the local magnetic field. The estimated size of magnetic island is about 8 di, where di is the ion inertial length. Distinct particle behaviors and wave activities inside and at the edges of the magnetic island are observed: parallel electron beam accompanied with electrostatic solitary waves and strong electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves inside the magnetic island and bidirectional electron beams, whistler waves, weak electromagnetic lower hybrid drift waves, and strong broadband electrostatic noise at the edges of the magnetic island. Our observations demonstrate that highly dynamical, strong wave activities and electron-scale physics occur within ion-scale magnetic islands in the magnetosheath turbulent plasma..
Confinement and Isotropization of Galactic Cosmic Rays by Molecular-Cloud Magnetic Mirrors When Turbulent Scattering Is Weak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandran, Benjamin D. G.
2000-01-01
Theoretical studies of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and observations of solar wind fluctuations suggest that MHD turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic at small scales, with smooth variations along the background magnetic field and sharp variations perpendicular to the background field. Turbulence with this anisotropy is inefficient at scattering cosmic rays, and thus the scattering rate ν may be smaller than has been traditionally assumed in diffusion models of Galactic cosmic-ray propagation, at least for cosmic-ray energies E above 1011-1012 eV at which self-confinement is not possible. In this paper, it is shown that Galactic cosmic rays can be effectively confined through magnetic reflection by molecular clouds, even when turbulent scattering is weak. Elmegreen's quasi-fractal model of molecular-cloud structure is used to argue that a typical magnetic field line passes through a molecular cloud complex once every ∼300 pc. Once inside the complex, the field line will in most cases be focused into one or more dense clumps in which the magnetic field can be much stronger than the average field in the intercloud medium (ICM). Cosmic rays following field lines into cloud complexes are most often magnetically reflected back into the ICM, since strong-field regions act as magnetic mirrors. For a broad range of cosmic-ray energies, a cosmic ray initially following some particular field line separates from that field line sufficiently slowly that the cosmic ray can be trapped between neighboring cloud complexes for long periods of time. The suppression of cosmic-ray diffusion due to magnetic trapping is calculated in this paper with the use of phenomenological arguments, asymptotic analysis, and Monte Carlo particle simulations. Formulas for the coefficient of diffusion perpendicular to the Galactic disk are derived for several different parameter regimes within the E-ν plane. In one of these parameter regimes in which scattering is weak, it
Convection Enhances Magnetic Turbulence in AM CVn Accretion Disks
Coleman, Matthew S. B.; Blaes, Omer; Hirose, Shigenobu; Hauschildt, Peter H.
2018-04-01
We present the results of local, vertically stratified, radiation magnetohydrodynamic shearing-box simulations of magnetorotational instability (MRI) turbulence for a (hydrogen poor) composition applicable to accretion disks in AM CVn type systems. Many of these accreting white dwarf systems are helium analogs of dwarf novae (DNe). We utilize frequency-integrated opacity and equation-of-state tables appropriate for this regime to accurately portray the relevant thermodynamics. We find bistability of thermal equilibria in the effective-temperature, surface-mass-density plane typically associated with disk instabilities. Along this equilibrium curve (i.e., the S-curve), we find that the stress to thermal pressure ratio α varied with peak values of ∼0.15 near the tip of the upper branch. Similar to DNe, we found enhancement of α near the tip of the upper branch caused by convection; this increase in α occurred despite our choice of zero net vertical magnetic flux. Two notable differences we find between DN and AM CVn accretion disk simulations are that AM CVn disks are capable of exhibiting persistent convection in outburst, and ideal MHD is valid throughout quiescence for AM CVns. In contrast, DNe simulations only show intermittent convection, and nonideal MHD effects are likely important in quiescence. By combining our previous work with these new results, we also find that convective enhancement of the MRI is anticorrelated with mean molecular weight.
Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.
2007-01-01
For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers
First measurement of the magnetic turbulence induced Reynolds stress in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Guosheng; Wan Baonian; Song Mei
2003-01-01
Reynolds stress component due to magnetic turbulence was first measured in the plasma edge region of the HT-7 superconducting tokamak using an insertable magnetic probe. A radial gradient of magnetic Reynolds stress was observed to be close to the velocity shear layer location; however, in this experiment its contribution to driving the poloidal flows is small compared to the electrostatic component. The electron heat transport driven by magnetic turbulence is quite small and cannot account for the total energy transport at the plasma edge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dastgeer
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.
The Uncertainty of Local Background Magnetic Field Orientation in Anisotropic Plasma Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerick, F.; Saur, J.; Papen, M. von, E-mail: felix.gerick@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)
2017-07-01
In order to resolve and characterize anisotropy in turbulent plasma flows, a proper estimation of the background magnetic field is crucially important. Various approaches to calculating the background magnetic field, ranging from local to globally averaged fields, are commonly used in the analysis of turbulent data. We investigate how the uncertainty in the orientation of a scale-dependent background magnetic field influences the ability to resolve anisotropy. Therefore, we introduce a quantitative measure, the angle uncertainty, that characterizes the uncertainty of the orientation of the background magnetic field that turbulent structures are exposed to. The angle uncertainty can be used as a condition to estimate the ability to resolve anisotropy with certain accuracy. We apply our description to resolve the spectral anisotropy in fast solar wind data. We show that, if the angle uncertainty grows too large, the power of the turbulent fluctuations is attributed to false local magnetic field angles, which may lead to an incorrect estimation of the spectral indices. In our results, an apparent robustness of the spectral anisotropy to false local magnetic field angles is observed, which can be explained by a stronger increase of power for lower frequencies when the scale of the local magnetic field is increased. The frequency-dependent angle uncertainty is a measure that can be applied to any turbulent system.
Sub-grid-scale description of turbulent magnetic reconnection in magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Widmer, F., E-mail: widmer@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Büchner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Yokoi, N. [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)
2016-04-15
Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could transport energy from large to small scales where binary particle collisions are rare. We have investigated the influence of small scale magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a compressible MHD approach including sub-grid-scale (SGS) turbulence. For this sake, we considered Harris-type and force-free current sheets with finite guide magnetic fields directed out of the reconnection plane. The goal is to find out whether unresolved by conventional simulations MHD turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high-Reynolds-number astrophysical plasmas. Together with the MHD equations, we solve evolution equations for the SGS energy and cross-helicity due to turbulence according to a Reynolds-averaged turbulence model. The SGS turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. By this way, the feedback of the unresolved turbulence into the MHD reconnection process is taken into account. It is shown that the turbulence controls the regimes of reconnection by its characteristic timescale τ{sub t}. The dependence on resistivity was investigated for large-Reynolds-number plasmas for Harris-type as well as force-free current sheets with guide field. We found that magnetic reconnection depends on the relation between the molecular and apparent effective turbulent resistivity. We found that the turbulence timescale τ{sub t} decides whether fast reconnection takes place or whether the stored energy is just diffused away to small scale turbulence. If the amount of energy transferred from large to small scales is enhanced, fast reconnection can take place. Energy spectra allowed us to characterize the different regimes of reconnection. It was found that reconnection is even faster for larger Reynolds numbers controlled by the molecular
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubuit, N
2006-10-15
This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2016-12-01
Recent observations of the neutral Galactic interstellar medium showed that filamentary structures of H I clouds are aligned with the interstellar magnetic field. Many interesting applications are proposed based on the alignment, such as measurement of magnetic field strength through the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method and removal of foreground dust emissions for the detection of inflationary polarized emission in the cosmic microwave background radiation. However, the physical origin of the alignment remains to be explained. To understand the mechanism, we examine the formation of H I clouds triggered by shock compression of the diffuse warm neutral medium using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that the shock-compressed medium of density n˜ 1 cm-3 evolves into H I clouds with n˜ 50 cm-3 via thermal instability consistent with previous studies. We apply a machine vision transformation developed by Clark et al. to the simulated column density structures to measure angle correlation between filamentary structures of H I clouds and magnetic field. We find that the orientation of H I filaments depends on the environmental turbulent velocity field, particularly on the strength of shear strain in the direction of the magnetic field, which is controlled by the angle between the shock propagation direction and upstream magnetic field. When the strain along the magnetic field is weak, filamentary components of H I clouds lie perpendicular to the magnetic field. However, the filaments have come to align with the magnetic field, if we enhance the turbulent strain along the magnetic field or if we set turbulence in the preshock medium.
Numerical design of a magnetized turbulence experiment at the National Ignition Facility
Feister, Scott; Tzeferacos, Petros; Meinecke, Jena; Bott, Archie; Caprioli, Damiano; Laune, Jt; Bell, Tony; Casner, Alexis; Koenig, Michel; Li, Chikang; Miniati, Francesco; Petrasso, Richard; Remington, Bruce; Reville, Brian; Ross, J. Steven; Ryu, Dongsu; Ryutov, Dmitri; Sio, Hong; Turnbull, David; Zylstra, Alex; Schekochihin, Alexander; Froula, Dustin; Park, Hye-Sook; Lamb, Don; Gregori, Gianluca
2017-10-01
The origin and amplification of magnetic fields remains an active astrophysical research topic. We discuss design (using three-dimensional FLASH simulations) of a magnetized turbulence experiment at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF lasers drive together two counter-propagating plasma flows to form a hot, turbulent plasma at the center. In the simulations, plasma temperatures are high enough to reach super-critical values of magnetic Reynolds number (Rm). Biermann battery seed magnetic fields (generated during laser-target interaction) are advected into the turbulent region and amplified by fluctuation dynamo in the above-unity Prandtl number regime. Plasma diagnostics are modeled with FLASH for planning and direct comparison with NIF experimental data. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA, the DOE Office of Science, and the NSF. The numerical simulations were conducted at ALCF's Mira under the auspices of the DOE Office of Science ALCC program.
Three-dimensional density and compressible magnetic structure in solar wind turbulence
Roberts, Owen W.; Narita, Yasuhito; Escoubet, C.-Philippe
2018-03-01
The three-dimensional structure of both compressible and incompressible components of turbulence is investigated at proton characteristic scales in the solar wind. Measurements of the three-dimensional structure are typically difficult, since the majority of measurements are performed by a single spacecraft. However, the Cluster mission consisting of four spacecraft in a tetrahedral formation allows for a fully three-dimensional investigation of turbulence. Incompressible turbulence is investigated by using the three vector components of the magnetic field. Meanwhile compressible turbulence is investigated by considering the magnitude of the magnetic field as a proxy for the compressible fluctuations and electron density data deduced from spacecraft potential. Application of the multi-point signal resonator technique to intervals of fast and slow wind shows that both compressible and incompressible turbulence are anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field direction P⟂ ≫ P∥ and are sensitive to the value of the plasma beta (β; ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) and the wind type. Moreover, the incompressible fluctuations of the fast and slow solar wind are revealed to be different with enhancements along the background magnetic field direction present in the fast wind intervals. The differences in the fast and slow wind and the implications for the presence of different wave modes in the plasma are discussed.
GENESIS OF INTERPLANETARY INTERMITTENT TURBULENCE: A CASE STUDY OF ROPE–ROPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Loew, Murray H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feng, Heng Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [UnB-Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Muñoz, Pablo R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of La Serena, Av. Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Sibeck, David G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wu, De J., E-mail: abraham.chian@gmail.com [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2016-12-01
In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad–Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope–rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.
Recent Progress on the magnetic turbulence experiment at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory
Schaffner, D. A.; Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.; Fiedler-Kawaguchi, C.; Douglas-Mann, E.
2017-10-01
Recent progress is reported on the construction, implementation and testing of the magnetic turbulence experiment at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). The experiment at the BMPL consists of an ( 300 μs) long coaxial plasma gun discharge that injects magnetic helicity into a flux-conserving chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. A 24cm by 2m cylindrical chamber has been constructed with a high density axial port array to enable detailed simultaneous spatial measurements of magnetic and plasma fluctuations. Careful positioning of the magnetic structure produced by the three separately pulsed coils (one internal, two external) are preformed to optimize for continuous injection of turbulent magnetized plasma. High frequency calibration of magnetic probes is also underway using a power amplifier.
The Efficiency of Magnetic Field Amplification at Shocks by Turbulence
Ji, Suoqing; Oh, S. Peng; Ruszkowsi, M.; Markevitch, M.
2016-01-01
Turbulent dynamo field amplification has often been invoked to explain the strong field strengths in thin rims in supernova shocks (approx.100 micrograms) and in radio relics in galaxy clusters (approx. micrograms). We present high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between pre-shock turbulence, clumping and shocks, to quantify the conditions under which turbulent dynamo amplification can be significant. We demonstrate numerically converged field amplification which scales with Alfven Mach number, B/B0 varies as MA, up to MA approx.150.This implies that the post-shock field strength is relatively independent of the seed field. Amplification is dominated by compression at low MA, and stretching (turbulent amplification) at high MA. For high MA, the B-field grows exponentially and saturates at equipartition with turbulence, while the vorticity jumps sharply at the shock and subsequently decays; the resulting field is orientated predominately along the shock normal (an effect only apparent in 3D and not 2D). This agrees with the radial field bias seen in supernova remnants. By contrast, for low MA, field amplification is mostly compressional, relatively modest, and results in a predominantly perpendicular field. The latter is consistent with the polarization seen in radio relics. Our results are relatively robust to the assumed level of gas clumping. Our results imply that the turbulent dynamo may be important for supernovae, but is only consistent with the field strength, and not geometry, for cluster radio relics. For the latter, this implies strong pre-existing B-fields in the ambient cluster outskirts.
Intermittency of magnetic field turbulence: Astrophysical applications of in-situ observations
Zelenyi, Lev M.; Bykov, Andrei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Artemyev, Anton V.
2015-08-01
We briefly review some aspects of magnetic turbulence intermittency observed in space plasmas. Deviation of statistical characteristics of a system (e.g. its high statistical momenta) from the Gaussian can manifest itself as domination of rare large intensity peaks often associated with the intermittency in the system's dynamics. Thirty years ago, Zeldovich stressed the importance of the non-Gaussian appearance of the sharp values of vector and scalar physical parameters in random media as a factor of magnetic field amplification in cosmic structures. Magnetic turbulence is governing the behavior of collisionless plasmas in space and especially the physics of shocks and magnetic reconnections. Clear evidence of intermittent magnetic turbulence was found in recent in-situ spacecraft measurements of magnetic fields in the near-Earth and interplanetary plasma environments. We discuss the potentially promising approaches of incorporating the knowledge gained from spacecraft in-situ measurements into modern models describing plasma dynamics and radiation in various astrophysical systems. As an example, we discuss supernova remnants (SNRs) which are known to be the sources of energy, momentum, chemical elements, and high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in galaxies. Supernova shocks accelerate charged particles to very high energies and may strongly amplify turbulent magnetic fields via instabilities driven by CRs. Relativistic electrons accelerated in SNRs radiate polarized synchrotron emission in a broad range of frequencies spanning from the radio to gamma-rays. We discuss the effects of intermittency of magnetic turbulence on the images of polarized synchrotron X-ray emission of young SNRs and emission spectra of pulsar wind nebula.
Eppelbaum, Lev
2013-04-01
Magnetic survey is one of most applied geophysical method for searching and localization of any objects with contrast magnetic properties (for instance, in Israel detailed magneric survey has been succesfully applied at more than 60 archaeological sites (Eppelbaum, 2010, 2011; Eppelbaum et al., 2011, 2010)). However, land magnetic survey at comparatively large archaeological sites (with observation grids 0.5 x 0.5 or 1 x 1 m) may occupy 5-10 days. At the same time the new Remote Operation Vehicle (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles - can fly at levels of few (and even one) meters over the earth's surface (flowing the relief forms or straight). Such ROV with precise magnetic field measurements (with a frequency of 20-25 observations per second) may be performed during 10-30 minutes, moreover at different levels over the earth's surface. Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost. Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide new unique geophysical-archaeological information (Eppelbaum, 2005; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). The developed interpretation methodology for magnetic anomalies advanced analysis (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2001; Eppelbaum et al., 2011) may be successfully applied for ROV magnetic survey for delineation of archaeological objects and estimation averaged magnetization of geological medium. This methodology includes: (1) non-conventional procedure for elimination of secondary effect of magnetic temporary variations, (2) calculation of rugged relief influence by the use of a correlation method, (3) estimation of medium magnetization, (4) application of various informational and wavelet algorithms for revealing low anomalous effects against the strong noise background, (5) advanced procedures for magnetic anomalies quantitative analysis (they are applicable in conditions of rugged relief, inclined magnetization, and an unknown level of the total
The H i-to-H{sub 2} Transition in a Turbulent Medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bialy, Shmuel; Sternberg, Amiel [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Burkhart, Blakesley, E-mail: shmuelbi@mail.tau.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA (United States)
2017-07-10
We study the effect of density fluctuations induced by turbulence on the H i/H{sub 2} structure in photodissociation regions (PDRs) both analytically and numerically. We perform magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations for both subsonic and supersonic turbulent gas and chemical H i/H{sub 2} balance calculations. We derive atomic-to-molecular density profiles and the H i column density probability density function (PDF) assuming chemical equilibrium. We find that, while the H i/H{sub 2} density profiles are strongly perturbed in turbulent gas, the mean H i column density is well approximated by the uniform-density analytic formula of Sternberg et al. The PDF width depends on (a) the radiation intensity–to–mean density ratio, (b) the sonic Mach number, and (c) the turbulence decorrelation scale, or driving scale. We derive an analytic model for the H i PDF and demonstrate how our model, combined with 21 cm observations, can be used to constrain the Mach number and driving scale of turbulent gas. As an example, we apply our model to observations of H i in the Perseus molecular cloud. We show that a narrow observed H i PDF may imply small-scale decorrelation, pointing to the potential importance of subcloud-scale turbulence driving.
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due......Two- dimensional numerical fluid turbulence simulations demonstrating the formation and radial propagation of blob structures in toroidally magnetized plasmas are presented and analysed in detail. A salient feature of the model is a linearly unstable edge plasma region with localized sources...
Bruno, Roberto
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...
The role of magnetic turbulence in astrophysical jet launching and cosmic ray transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casse, Fabien
2001-01-01
The first part of my thesis shows how Keplerian discs can launch MHD jets, under some conditions. The key points of this first part are the adding of viscosity inside the disc and a relevant energy equation, In particular, I have shown both analytically and numerically that the angular momentum transport is constrained by the MHD turbulence properties. I have also shown that one must take into account a relevant energy equation in order to have a more realistic description of jets observed in the Universe. Moreover, some energy turbulent transport mechanisms cannot be described in a simple MHD approach. In order to better understand the interaction between a turbulent magnetic field and charged particles, I have undertaken a study dealing with spatial and angular diffusion of hadrons with a chaotic magnetic field generated by a magnetic turbulence. In this study, it clearly appears that the spatial diffusion coefficient along the mean magnetic field extrapolate the results of quasi-linear theory for weak turbulence. At the opposite, in the inertial range, the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field is inconsistent with such a theory. Indeed the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field has a behaviour that can be interpreted as a chaotic diffusion regime as the one predicted by Rechester and Rosenbluth. Moreover, outside this range, the behaviours of all spatial diffusion coefficients are different of those expected in the framework of quasi-linear theory. At last, it has been found that a Bohm diffusion regime never occurs whatever the magnetic chaos. (author) [fr
Density effects on tokamak edge turbulence and transport with magnetic X-points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Umansky, M.V.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Bulmer, R.H.; Russell, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Greenwald, M.; Snyder, P.B.; Mahdavi, M.A.
2005-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT, the 2D transport code UEDGE, and theoretical analysis of boundary turbulence and transport in a real divertor-plasma geometry and its relationship to the density limit. Key results include: (1) a transition of the boundary turbulence from resistive X-point to resistive-ballooning as a critical plasma density is exceeded; (2) formation of an X-point MARFE in 2D UEDGE transport simulations for increasing outboard radial transport as found by BOUT for increasing density; (3) identification of convective transport by localized plasma 'blobs' in the SOL at high density during neutral fueling, and decorrelation of turbulence between the midplane and the divertor leg due to strong X-point magnetic shear; (4) a new divertor-leg instability driven at high plasma beta by a radial tilt of the divertor plate. (author)
Exploring the magnetic, turbulent Milky Way through radio waves
Iacobelli, Marco
2014-01-01
Cosmic magnetism is a phenomenon observed across a huge range of spatial scales. Magnetic fields exists on planets, stars and nebulae up to galaxies and clusters of galaxies. As a rule of thumb, the larger the typical size of the object, the lower the magnitude of its magnetic field. Regardless
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2012-03-01
The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star
Optimization of magnetic amplification by flow constraints in turbulent liquid sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nornberg, M. D.; Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.; Rahbarnia, K.; Kaplan, E.
2014-01-01
Direct measurements of the vector turbulent emf in a driven two-vortex flow of liquid sodium were performed in the Madison Dynamo Experiment [K. Rahbarnia et al., Astrophys. J. 759, 80 (2012)]. The measured turbulent emf is anti-parallel with the mean current and is almost entirely described by an enhanced resistivity, which increases the threshold for a kinematic dynamo. We have demonstrated that this enhanced resistivity can be mitigated by eliminating the largest-scale eddies through the introduction of baffles. By tailoring the flow to reduce large-scale components and control the helical pitch, we have reduced the power required to drive the impellers, doubled the magnetic flux generated by differential rotation, and increased the decay time of externally applied magnetic fields. Despite these improvements, the flows remain sub-critical to the dynamo instability due to the reemergence of turbulent fluctuations at high flow speeds
Characterization of local turbulence in magnetic confinement devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajkovic, Milan; Skoric, Milos; Solna, Knut; Antar, Ghassan
2007-07-01
A multifractal analysis based on evaluation and interpretation of Large Deviation spectra is applied to plasma edge turbulence data from different devices (MAST and Tore Supra). It is demonstrated that in spite of some universal features there are unique characteristics for each device as well as for different confinement regimes. In the second part of the exposition the issue of estimating the variable power law behavior of spectral densities is addressed. The analysis of this issue is performed using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as the underlying stochastic model whose parameters are estimated locally in time by wavelet scale spectra. In such a manner information about the inertial range as well as variability of the fBm parameters is obtained giving more information important for understanding edge turbulence and intermittency. (author)
Magnetic suppression of turbulence and the star formation activity of molecular clouds
Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Körtgen, Bastian; Banerjee, Robi; Hartmann, Lee
2018-03-01
We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations aimed at studying the effect of the magnetic suppression of turbulence (generated through various instabilities during the formation of molecular clouds by converging) on the subsequent star formation (SF) activity. We study four magnetically supercritical models with magnetic field strengths B = 0, 1, 2, and 3 μG (corresponding to mass-to-flux ratios of ∞, 4.76, 2.38, and 1.59 times the critical value), with the magnetic field, initially being aligned with the flows. We find that, for increasing magnetic field strength, the clouds formed tend to be more massive, denser, less turbulent, and with higher SF activity. This causes the onset of SF activity in the non-magnetic or more weakly magnetized cases to be delayed by a few Myr in comparison to the more strongly magnetized cases. We attribute this behaviour to the suppression of the non-linear thin shell instability (NTSI) by the magnetic field, previously found by Heitsch and coworkers. This result is contrary to the standard notion that the magnetic field provides support to the clouds, thus reducing their star formation rate. However, our result is a completely non-linear one, and could not be foreseen from simple linear considerations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ďuran, Ivan; Stöckel, Jan; Mank, G.; Finken, K. H.; Fuchs, G.; Van Oost, G.
2002-01-01
Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 38-44 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Hall detectors, magnetic turbulence, TEXTOR tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002
Magnetic Reconnection as a Driver for a Sub-ion-scale Cascade in Plasma Turbulence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Franci, L.; Cerri, S.S.; Califano, F.; Landi, S.; Papini, E.; Verdini, A.; Matteini, L.; Jenko, F.; Hellinger, Petr
2017-01-01
Roč. 850, č. 1 (2017), L16/1-L16/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic reconnection * solar wind * turbulence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016
Transport of magnetic fields into the circumgalactic medium
Lilly, Simon
2017-08-01
Supernova-driven winds are known to play a major role in galaxy evolution, and to drive metal-enriched material far out into the circum-galactic medium. We have demonstrated that magnetic fields in these winds are detectably modifying the polarization properties of background radio quasars with intervening MgII 2799 absorption in their spectra, through Faraday Rotation. We have obtained estimates of the disordered fields within these Faraday screens and wish to map how these vary around galaxies, e.g. whether they are maximal above the poles of the galaxies as we would expect for biconical outflows. We also want to compare our estimates quantitatively with magnetohydrodynamical models that we have been developing. For both investigations, we need to know where the lines of sight pass, relative to the galaxies. For this we need HST resolution images of the host galaxies to establish the orientation and inclination of the disks, and the general morphologies of the galaxies. We have in hand images for 17/30 quasars, and request here images for the remaining 13 sources.
Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among micro-turbulence, magnetic islands, and zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Ramos, J.J.
2006-10-01
We investigate multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among micro-instabilities, macro-scale tearing instabilities and zonal flows, by solving reduced two-fluid equations numerically. We find that the nonlinear interactions of these instabilities trigger macro-scale MHD activity after an equilibrium is formed by a balance between the micro-turbulence and zonal flow. This MHD activity breaks magnetic surfaces then this breaking spreads the micro-turbulence over the plasma. These multi-scale-nonlinear interactions can explain the evolution of fluctuation observed in torus plasma experiments because micro-turbulence and MHD instabilities usually appear in the plasma at the same time, in spite of the fact that effects of micro-turbulence and MHD instabilities on plasma confinement have been investigated separately. For instance, MHD activities are observed in reversed shear tokamak plasmas with a transport barrier related to zonal flows and micro-turbulence, and micro-turbulence is observed in Large Helical Device plasmas that usually exhibit MHD activities. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorina, D
1998-01-29
Some systems for the control and the surveillance of fast reactors are based on the characteristics of the ultrasonic wave propagation. We present here the results of a numerical and experimental study of ultrasonic propagation in a thermal turbulent medium. A numerical model, based on the technique of superposition of discrete Fourier modes for representing isotropic and homogeneous turbulence and on the Gaussian beam summation method for calculating the acoustic field, has been implemented in order to study the propagation of a point source wave in a bidimensional turbulent medium. Our model is based on the following principle: the medium is represented by a great number of independent realizations of a turbulent field and for each of them we calculate the acoustic field in a deterministic way. Statistics over a great number of realizations enable us to access to the different quantities of the distorted acoustic field: variance of the time of flight fluctuations, scintillation index and intensity probability density function. In the case of small fluctuations, the results for these three quantities are in a good agreement with analytical solutions. When the level of the fluctuations grows, the model predicts correct evolutions. However, a great sensitivity to the location of a receiver in the vicinity of a caustic has been proved. Calculations in the temporal domain have also been performed. They give an illustration of the possible effects of the turbulence on an impulsion signal. An experimental device, fitted with thermocouples and acoustic transducers, has been used to study the ultrasonic propagation in turbulent water. The different measures permitted to characterize the turbulent field and to get aware of the effect of the turbulence on the acoustic propagation. The acoustical measures agree well with the analytical solution of Chernov and Rytov. They are show the importance of the knowledge of the real spectrum of the fluctuations and the limitations of
Statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in toroidal magnetized plasmas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Labit, B.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Iraji, D.; Muller, S.H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F.M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Horáček, Jan
2007-01-01
Roč. 49, 12B (2007), B281-B290 ISSN 0741-3335. [European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physicaa/34th./. Warsaw, 02.07.2007-06.07.2007] Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGETURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2007
Launching Cosmic-Ray-driven Outflows from the Magnetized Interstellar Medium
Girichidis, Philipp; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Hanasz, Michał; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Gatto, Andrea; Peters, Thomas; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Baczynski, Christian
2016-01-01
We present a hydrodynamical simulation of the turbulent, magnetized, supernova (SN)-driven interstellar medium (ISM) in a stratified box that dynamically couples the injection and evolution of cosmic rays (CRs) and a self-consistent evolution of the chemical composition. CRs are treated as a relativistic fluid in the advection-diffusion approximation. The thermodynamic evolution of the gas is computed using a chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, CO, C+, and free electrons and includes (self-)shielding of the gas and dust. We find that CRs perceptibly thicken the disk with the heights of 90% (70%) enclosed mass reaching ≳ 1.5 {kpc} (≳ 0.2 {kpc}). The simulations indicate that CRs alone can launch and sustain strong outflows of atomic and ionized gas with mass loading factors of order unity, even in solar neighborhood conditions and with a CR energy injection per SN of {10}50 {erg}, 10% of the fiducial thermal energy of an SN. The CR-driven outflows have moderate launching velocities close to the midplane (≲ 100 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are denser (ρ ˜ 10-24-10-26 g cm-3), smoother, and colder than the (thermal) SN-driven winds. The simulations support the importance of CRs for setting the vertical structure of the disk as well as the driving of winds.
Magnetic and turbulent evolution of the Taurus molecular cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemeon-Heyer, M.C.
1986-01-01
The role of the interstellar magnetic field in the dynamics of molecular clouds is investigated from extensive mapping of the 13 CO J = 1 - 0 emission to delineate gas morphology and kinematics and polarization of background starlight to determine the magnetic field direction within the Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex. The signature for a dynamically significant magnetic field is a rotating, flattened cloud with the rotational and minor axes parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. It was found that molecular regions characterized by mean densities less than 10 3 cm -3 exhibit such magnetic signatures and are likely a result of magnetically dominated evolution. A method to spatially and kinematically isolate the subcondensations within the clouds is developed. These cores are characterized by mean densities greater than 10 4 cm -3 and are the sites of star formation. However, based on core morphology and kinematics, it appears the magnetic field no longer provides a significant stress to the mostly neutral gas. Therefore, a constraint on the mean density at which the magnetic field decouples from the gas is a molecular density of less than 10 4 cm -3 . The role of stellar winds from pre-main sequence stars as an internal energy source for molecular clouds is investigated from 12 CO and 13 CO mapping of star forming regions delineated by point sources of far infrared emission. Evidence for mass outflow is found toward three of the thirty sources surveyed
Transverse Cascade and Sustenance of Turbulence in Keplerian Disks with an Azimuthal Magnetic Field
Gogichaishvili, D.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Horton, W.; Chagelishvili, G.; Bodo, G.
2017-10-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the sheared rotational Keplerian explains fundamental problems for both astrophysics and toroidal laboratory plasmas. The turbulence occurs before the threshold for the linear eigen modes. The work shows the turbulence occurs in nonzero toroidal magnetic field with a sheared toroidal flow velocity. We analyze the turbulence in Fourier k-space and x-space each time step to clarify the nonlinear energy-momentum transfers that produce the sustenance in the linearly stable plasma. The nonlinear process is a type 3D angular redistribution of modes in Fourier space - a transverse cascade - rather than the direct/inverse cascades. The turbulence is sustained an interplay of the linear transient growth from the radial gradient of the toroidal velocity (which is the only energy supply for the turbulence) and the transverse cascade. There is a relatively small ``vital area in Fourier space'' is crucial for the sustenance. Outside the vital area the direct cascade dominates. The interplay of the linear and nonlinear processes is generally too intertwined in k-space for a classical turbulence characterization. Subcycles occur from the interactions that maintain self-organization nonlinear turbulence. The spectral characteristics in four simulations are similar showing the universality of the sustenance mechanism of the shear flow driven MHDs-turbulence. Funded by the US Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-04ER54742 and the Space and Geophysics Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin. G. Mamatsashvili is supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, S. Y.; Yuan, Z. G.; Wang, D. D.; Yu, X. D. [School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Sahraoui, F.; Contel, O. Le [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-UPMC, Palaiseau (France); He, J. S. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhao, J. S. [Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Deng, X. H.; Pang, Y.; Li, H. M. [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhou, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fu, H. S.; Yang, J. [School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Shi, Q. Q. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai (China); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche and Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse (UPS), Toulouse (France); Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T., E-mail: shiyonghuang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); and others
2017-02-20
We report on the observations of an electron vortex magnetic hole corresponding to a new type of coherent structure in the turbulent magnetosheath plasma using the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission data. The magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. The estimated size of the magnetic hole is about 0.23 ρ {sub i} (∼30 ρ {sub e}) in the quasi-circular cross-section perpendicular to its axis, where ρ {sub i} and ρ {sub e} are respectively the proton and electron gyroradius. There are no clear enhancements seen in high-energy electron fluxes. However, there is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angle inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components V {sub em} and V {sub en} suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the cross-section in the M – N plane. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations.
Magnetic induction strength on surface of a ferro-medium circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Based on the Ampere molecular current hypothesis and the Biot–Savart law, a magnetic model on the metal magnetic memory (MMM testing of a specimen is proposed. Relation between magnetic flux leakage (MFL and magnetization of a ferro-medium circular cylinder is set up. We can predict magnetization of material according to the MFL on surface of the circular cylinder.
Turbulent stress measurements with phase-contrast magnetic resonance through tilted slices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacKenzie, Jordan; Soederberg, Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Stockholm (Sweden); Swerin, Agne [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden-Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Stockholm (Sweden); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-05-15
Aiming at turbulent measurements in opaque suspensions, a simplistic methodology for measuring the turbulent stresses with phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry is described. The method relies on flow-compensated and flow-encoding protocols with the flow encoding gradient normal to the slice. The experimental data is compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS), both directly but also, more importantly, after spatial averaging of the DNS data that resembles the measurement and data treatment of the experimental data. The results show that the most important MRI data (streamwise velocity, streamwise variance and Reynolds shear stress) is reliable up to at least anti r = 0.75 without any correction, paving the way for dearly needed turbulence and stress measurements in opaque suspensions. (orig.)
2D turbulence structure observed by a fast framing camera system in linear magnetized device PANTA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohdachi, Satoshi; Inagaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Goto, M.
2015-01-01
Mesoscale structure, such as the zonal flow and the streamer plays important role in the drift-wave turbulence. The interaction of the mesoscale structure and the turbulence is not only interesting phenomena but also a key to understand the turbulence driven transport in the magnetically confined plasmas. In the cylindrical magnetized device, PANTA, the interaction of the streamer and the drift wave has been found by the bi-spectrum analysis of the turbulence. In order to study the mesoscale physics directly, the 2D turbulence is studied by a fast-framing visible camera system view from a window located at the end plate of the device. The parameters of the plasma is the following; Te∼3eV, n ∼ 1x10 19 m -3 , Ti∼0.3eV, B=900G, Neutral pressure P n =0.8 mTorr, a∼ 6cm, L=4m, Helicon source (7MHz, 3kW). Fluctuating component of the visible image is decomposed by the Fourier-Bessel expansion method. Several rotating mode is observed simultaneously. From the images, m = 1 (f∼0.7 kHz) and m = 2, 3 (f∼-3.4 kHz) components which rotate in the opposite direction can be easily distinguished. Though the modes rotate constantly in most time, there appear periods where the radially complicated node structure is formed (for example, m=3 component, t = 142.5∼6 in the figure) and coherent mode structures are disturbed. Then, a new rotating period is started again with different phase of the initial rotation until the next event happens. The typical time interval of the event is 0.5 to 1.0 times of the one rotation of the slow m = 1 mode. The wave-wave interaction might be interrupted occasionally. Detailed analysis of the turbulence using imaging technique will be discussed. (author)
Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E.; Forest, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ross, J.; Ryutov, D.; Ryu, D.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Froula, D.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.
2017-10-01
The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model for cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo. We have conceived experiments to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through large-scale 3D FLASH simulations on the Mira supercomputer at ANL, and the laser-driven experiments we conducted with the OMEGA laser at LLE. Our results indicate that turbulence is capable of rapidly amplifying seed fields to near equipartition with the turbulent fluid motions. This work was supported in part from the ERC (FP7/2007-2013, No. 256973 and 247039), and the U.S. DOE, Contract No. B591485 to LLNL, FWP 57789 to ANL, Grant No. DE-NA0002724 and DE-SC0016566 to the University of Chicago, and DE-AC02-06CH11357 to ANL.
Piecewise parabolic method on a local stencil for magnetized supersonic turbulence simulation
Ustyugov, Sergey D.; Popov, Mikhail V.; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Norman, Michael L.
2009-11-01
Stable, accurate, divergence-free simulation of magnetized supersonic turbulence is a severe test of numerical MHD schemes and has been surprisingly difficult to achieve due to the range of flow conditions present. Here we present a new, higher order-accurate, low dissipation numerical method which requires no additional dissipation or local “fixes” for stable execution. We describe PPML, a local stencil variant of the popular PPM algorithm for solving the equations of compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The principal difference between PPML and PPM is that cell interface states are evolved rather that reconstructed at every timestep, resulting in a compact stencil. Interface states are evolved using Riemann invariants containing all transverse derivative information. The conservation laws are updated in an unsplit fashion, making the scheme fully multidimensional. Divergence-free evolution of the magnetic field is maintained using the higher order-accurate constrained transport technique of Gardiner and Stone. The accuracy and stability of the scheme is documented against a bank of standard test problems drawn from the literature. The method is applied to numerical simulation of supersonic MHD turbulence, which is important for many problems in astrophysics, including star formation in dark molecular clouds. PPML accurately reproduces in three-dimensions a transition to turbulence in highly compressible isothermal gas in a molecular cloud model. The low dissipation and wide spectral bandwidth of this method make it an ideal candidate for direct turbulence simulations.
Blazar Variability from Turbulence in Jets Launched by Magnetically Arrested Accretion Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, Michael O’; Pe’er, Asaf [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: michael_oriordan@umail.ucc.ie [Department of Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-07-10
Blazars show variability on timescales ranging from minutes to years, the former being comparable to and in some cases even shorter than the light-crossing time of the central black hole. The observed γ -ray light curves can be described by a power-law power density spectrum (PDS), with a similar index for both BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We show that this variability can be produced by turbulence in relativistic jets launched by magnetically arrested accretion flows (MADs). We perform radiative transport calculations on the turbulent, highly magnetized jet launching region of a MAD with a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole. The resulting synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton emission, originating from close to the black hole horizon, is highly variable. This variability is characterized by PDS, which is remarkably similar to the observed power-law spectrum at frequencies less than a few per day. Furthermore, turbulence in the jet launching region naturally produces fluctuations in the plasma on scales much smaller than the horizon radius. We speculate that similar turbulent processes, operating in the jet at large radii (and therefore a high bulk Lorentz factor), are responsible for blazar variability over many decades in frequency, including on minute timescales.
Lahiri, B. B.; Ranoo, Surojit; Zaibudeen, A. W.; Philip, John
2017-11-01
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a promising cancer treatment modality where alternating magnetic field is used for heating cancerous cells loaded with magnetic nanofluids. Of late, it is realized that magnetic nano-carriers in the size range ∼100-200 nm (e.g. magnetic nanocomposites, magnetic liposomes and magnetic nanoemulsions) are ideal candidates for multimodal MFH coupled with drug delivery or photodynamic therapy due to enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) in the leaky vasculature of cancerous tissues. Here, we study the radiofrequency alternating magnetic field induced heating in magnetically polarizable oil-in-water nanoemulsions of hydrodynamic diameter ∼200 nm, containing single domain superparamagnetic nanoparticles of average diameter ∼10 nm in the oil phase. We probe the effects of size polydispersity of the droplets and medium viscosity on the field induced heating efficiency. The contribution of Neel and Brown relaxation of the magnetic nanoparticles on specific absorption rate (SAR) of the magnetic nanoemulsions, was found to increase linearly with the square of the applied field, with a maximum value of 164.4 ± 4.3 W/gFe. In magnetic nanoemulsions, the heating is induced by the Neel-Brown relaxation of the MNP over a length scale of 10 nm, and the whole scale Brownian relaxation of the emulsion droplets has over a length scale of 200 nm. The magnetic nanoemulsion sample with lower polydispersity (σ = 0.2) exhibited a significantly higher SAR value (3.3 times higher) as compared to the sample with larger polydispersity (σ = 0.4). The SAR values of the samples with 4.6 and 1.7 wt.% of MNP loading with σ values 0.4 a 0.3, respectively were comparable, suggesting a higher heating efficiency in nanofluid containing particles of lower size polydispersity even at lower particle loading. The emulsion droplets, immobilized in an agar matrix (4 wt.%), gave a maximum SAR value of 41.7 ± 2.4 W/gFe as compared to 111.8 ± 3.4 W/gFe in the
Gyrofluid computation of magnetic perturbation effects on turbulence and edge localized bursts
Peer, J.; Kendl, A.; Ribeiro, T. T.; Scott, B. D.
2017-08-01
The effects of non-axisymmetric resonant magnetic perturbation fields (RMPs) on saturated drift-wave turbulence and on ballooning mode bursts in the edge pedestal of tokamak plasmas are investigated by numerical simulations with a nonlinear six-moment electromagnetic gyrofluid model including zonal profile evolution. The vacuum RMP fields are screened by plasma response currents, so that magnetic transport by perturbed parallel motion is not significantly changed. Radial transport of both particles and heat is dominated by turbulent convection even for large RMP amplitudes, where formation of quasi-stationary convective structures leads to edge profile degradation. Modelling of ideal ballooning mode unstable edge profiles for single bursts including RMP fields causes resonant mode locking and destabilization.
Interaction of supra-thermal ions with turbulence in a magnetized toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchev, G.
2009-01-01
This thesis addresses the interaction of a supra-thermal ion beam with turbulence in the simple magnetized toroidal plasma of TORPEX. The first part of the Thesis deals with the ohmic assisted discharges on TORPEX. The aim of these discharges is the investigation of the open to closed magnetic field line transition. The relevant magnetic diagnostics were developed. Ohmic assisted discharges with a maximum plasma current up to 1 kA are routinely obtained. The equilibrium conditions on the vacuum magnetic field configuration were investigated. In the second part of the Thesis, the design of the fast ion source and detector are discussed. The accelerating electric field needed for the fast ion source was optimized. The fast ion source was constructed and commissioned. To detect the fast ions a specially designed gridded energy analyzer was used. The electron energy distribution function was obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the detector. The experiments with the fast ion beam were conducted in different plasma regions of TORPEX. In the third part of the Thesis, numerical simulations are used to interpret the measured fast ion beam behavior. It is shown that a simple single particle equation of motion explains the beam behavior in the experiments in the absence of plasma. To explain the fast ion beam experiments with the plasma a turbulent electric field must be used. The model that takes into account this turbulent electrical field qualitatively explains the shape of the fast ion current density profile in the different plasma regions of TORPEX. The vertically elongated fast ion current density profiles are explained by a spread in the fast ion velocity distribution. The theoretically predicted radial fast ion beam spreading due to the turbulent electric field was observed in the experiment. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dritselis, C.D., E-mail: dritseli@mie.uth.g [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Athens Avenue, 38334 Volos (Greece); Sarris, I.E.; Fidaros, D.K.; Vlachos, N.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, Athens Avenue, 38334 Volos (Greece)
2011-04-15
The effect of Lorentz force on particle transport and deposition is studied by using direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow of electrically conducting fluids combined with discrete particle simulation of the trajectories of uncharged, spherical particles. The magnetohydrodynamic equations for fluid flows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers are adopted. The particle motion is determined by the drag, added mass, and pressure gradient forces. Results are obtained for flows with particle ensembles of various densities and diameters in the presence of streamwise, wall-normal or spanwise magnetic fields. It is found that the particle dispersion in the wall-normal and spanwise directions is decreased due to the changes of the underlying fluid turbulence by the Lorentz force, while it is increased in the streamwise direction. The particle accumulation in the near-wall region is diminished in the magnetohydrodynamic flows. In addition, the tendency of small inertia particles to concentrate preferentially in the low-speed streaks near the walls is strengthened with increasing Hartmann number. The particle transport by turbophoretic drift and turbulent diffusion is damped by the magnetic field and, consequently, particle deposition is reduced.
van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Amili, Omid; Coletti, Filippo; Toloui, Mostafa
2017-11-01
Cardiovascular flows are predominantly laminar. Nevertheless, transient and even turbulent flows have been observed in the vicinity of the heart (e.g. valves, ascending aorta, valvular/vascular stenosis). Effective in-vivo hemodynamic-based diagnostics in these sites require both high-resolution velocity measurements (especially in the near-vessel wall regions) and accurate evaluation of blood flow turbulence level (e.g. in terms of TKE). In addition to phase contrast (PC), appropriately designed PC-MRI sequences provide intravoxel incoherent motion encoding, a unique tool for simultaneous, non-invasive evaluation of velocity 3D vector fields and Reynolds stresses in cardiovascular flows in vivo. However, limited spatial and temporal resolution of PC-MRI result in inaccuracies in the estimation of hemodynamics (e.g. WSS) and of flow turbulence characteristics. This study aims to assess whether SNR gains at higher magnetic field could overcome these limits, providing more accurate velocity and turbulence characterization at higher spatial resolution. Experiments are conducted on MR Scanners at 3 and 7 Tesla with a U-bent pipe flow shaped phantom. 3D velocity fields, Reynolds stresses and TKE are analyzed and compared to a reference PIV experiments.
Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoneking, W.R.
1994-05-01
The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10 6 m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 10 11 cm -3 independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a∼0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a∼0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST
Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoneking, Matthew Randall [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1994-05-01
The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10^{6} m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 10^{11} cm^{-3} independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a~0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a~0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST.
Huang, S.; Sahraoui, F.; Yuan, Z.; He, J.; Zhao, J.; Du, J.; Le Contel, O.; Wang, X.; Deng, X.; Fu, H.; Zhou, M.; Shi, Q.; Breuillard, H.; Pang, Y.; Yu, X.; Wang, D.
2017-12-01
Magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. There is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components Vem and Ven suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the circular cross-section. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations. We perform a statistically study using high time solution data from the MMS mission. The magnetic holes with short duration (i.e., < 0.5 s) have their cross section smaller than the ion gyro-radius. Superposed epoch analysis of all events reveals that an increase in the electron density and total temperature, significantly increase (resp. decrease) the electron perpendicular (resp. parallel) temperature, and an electron vortex inside the holes. Electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles with selective energies increase in the KSMHs, are trapped inside KSMHs and form the electron vortex due to their collective motion. All these features are consistent with the electron vortex magnetic holes obtained in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, indicating that the observed the magnetic holes seem to be best explained as electron vortex magnetic holes. It is furthermore shown that the magnetic holes are likely to heat and accelerate the electrons. We also investigate the coupling between whistler waves and electron vortex magnetic holes. These whistler waves can be locally generated inside electron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takamoto, Makoto [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Lazarian, Alexandre, E-mail: mtakamoto@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: alazarian@facstaff.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2016-11-10
In this Letter, we report compressible mode effects on relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations. We decomposed fluctuations in the turbulence into 3 MHD modes (fast, slow, and Alfvén) following the procedure of mode decomposition in Cho and Lazarian, and analyzed their energy spectra and structure functions separately. We also analyzed the ratio of compressible mode to Alfvén mode energy with respect to its Mach number. We found the ratio of compressible mode increases not only with the Alfvén Mach number, but also with the background magnetization, which indicates a strong coupling between the fast and Alfvén modes. It also signifies the appearance of a new regime of RMHD turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas where the fast and Alfvén modes are strongly coupled and, unlike the non-relativistic MHD regime, cannot be treated separately. This finding will affect particle acceleration efficiency obtained by assuming Alfvénic critical-balance turbulence and can change the resulting photon spectra emitted by non-thermal electrons.
Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on secondary structures in Drift-Wave turbulence
Leconte, Michael
2011-10-01
In this work, we study the effects of RMPs on turbulence, flows and confinement, in the framework of two paradigmatic models, resistive ballooning and resistive drift waves. For resistive ballooning turbulence, we use 3D global numerical simulations, including RMP fields and (externally-imposed) sheared rotation profile. Without RMPs, relaxation oscillations of the pressure profile occur. With RMPs, results show that long-lived convection cells are generated by the combined effects of pressure modulation and toroidal curvature coupling. These modify the global structure of the turbulence and eliminate relaxation oscillations. This effect is due mainly to a modification of the pressure profile linked to the presence of residual magnetic island chains. Hence convection-cell generation increases for increasing δBr/B0. For RMP effect on zonal flows in drift wave turbulence, we extend the Hasegawa-Wakatani model to include RMP fields. The effect of the RMPs is to induce a linear coupling between the zonal electric field and the zonal density gradient, which drives the system to a state of electron radial force balance for large δBr/B0. Both the vorticity flux (Reynolds stress), and particle flux are modulated. We derive an extended predator prey model which couples zonal potential and density dynamics to the evolution of turbulence intensity. This model has both turbulence drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters, and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. We find a novel set of system states that are similar to the Hmode-like state of the standard predator-prey model, but for which the power threshold is now a function of the RMP strength. For small RMP amplitude and low collisionality, both the ambient turbulence and zonal flow energy increase with δBr/B0. For larger RMP strength, the turbulence energy increases, but the energy of zonal flows decreases with δBr/B0, corresponding to a damping of zonal flows. At high
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrell, K.H.
1996-11-01
One of the scientific success stories of fusion research over the past decade is the development of the ExB shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices. This model was originally developed to explain the transport barrier formed at the plasma edge in tokamaks after the L (low) to H (high) transition. This concept has the universality needed to explain the edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines. More recently, this model has been applied to explain the further confinement improvement from H (high)-mode to VH (very high)-mode seen in some tokamaks, where the edge transport barrier becomes wider. Most recently, this paradigm has been applied to the core transport barriers formed in plasmas with negative or low magnetic shear in the plasma core. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to a higher energy state with reduced turbulence and transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease that is associated with ExB velocity shear effects also has significant practical consequences for fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of ExB shear on the growth, radial extent and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same fundamental transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number ways to change the radial electric field Er. An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of ExB velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the ExB velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of ExB velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization.
Weber, Maria Ann
2014-12-01
The Sun exhibits cyclic properties of its large-scale magnetic field on the order of sigma22 years, with a ˜11 year frequency of sunspot occurrence. These sunspots, or active regions, are the centers of magnetically driven phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Volatile solar magnetic events directed toward the Earth pose a threat to human activities and our increasingly technological society. As such, the origin and nature of solar magnetic flux emergence is a topic of global concern. Sunspots are observable manifestations of solar magnetic fields, thus providing a photospheric link to the deep-seated dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which bundles of magnetic field, or flux tubes, traverse the convection zone to eventual emergence at the solar surface is not well understood. To provide a connection between dynamo-generated magnetic fields and sunspots, I have performed simulations of magnetic flux emergence through the bulk of a turbulent, solar convective envelope by employing a thin flux tube model subject to interaction with flows taken from a hydrodynamic convection simulation computed through the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. The convective velocity field interacts with the flux tube through the drag force it experiences as it traverses through the convecting medium. Through performing these simulations, much insight has been gained about the influence of turbulent solar-like convection on the flux emergence process and resulting active region properties. I find that the dynamic evolution of flux tubes change from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength of the flux tubes increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. Additionally, active-region-scale flux tubes of 40 kG and greater exhibit properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun, such as: tilt angles, rotation rates, and morphological asymmetries. The joint effect of the Coriolis force and helical motions present in convective
Pathak, N.; Sharma, R. P.; Uma, R.
2017-12-01
Whistler waves have ample of observations in the magnetosphere near the dayside magnetopause. Also, the role of whistler waves is well established in the context of magnetic reconnection as well as turbulence generation. In the present work, we examine the combined effect of guide field and nonlinearity in the development of turbulence in magnetic reconnection sites. We have derived the dynamical equation of 3D whistler wave propagating through Harris sheet assuming that background number density and background field are perturbed. The nonlinear dynamical equation is then solved numerically using pseudo spectral method and finite difference method. Simulation results represent the nonlinear evolution of X-O field line in the presence of nonlinearity, which causes the generation of turbulence. When the system reaches quasi steady state, we have evaluated power spectrum in magnetopause and it shows two different scaling having k-3/2 at larger saclesand k-3 at smaller scales. Energy distribution at smaller scales leads to the formation of thermal tail of energetic particles. The energy of these electrons is also calculated and comes out to be in the order of 100 keV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Guseva; Avila, M; Willis, A P; Hollerbach, R
2015-01-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence and momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs, but obtaining observational evidence of its operation is challenging. Recently, laboratory experiments of Taylor–Couette flow with externally imposed axial and azimuthal magnetic fields have revealed the kinematic and dynamic properties of the MRI close to the instability onset. While good agreement was found with linear stability analyses, little is known about the transition to turbulence and transport properties of the MRI. We here report on a numerical investigation of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal magnetic field. We show that the laminar Taylor–Couette flow becomes unstable to a wave rotating in the azimuthal direction and standing in the axial direction via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Subsequently, the flow features a catastrophic transition to spatio-temporal defects which is mediated by a subcritical subharmonic Hopf bifurcation. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the PROMISE experiment and dramatically extend their realizable parameter range. We find that as the Reynolds number increases defects accumulate and grow into turbulence, yet the momentum transport scales weakly. (paper)
Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Turbulence and Finite Larmor Radius Effects at Mercury
Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Donovan, E. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.
2011-01-01
We use a nonstationary generalization of the higher-order structure function technique to investigate statistical properties of the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by MESSENGER spacecraft during its first flyby (01/14/2008) through the near-Mercury space environment, with the emphasis on key boundary regions participating in the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. Our analysis shows, for the first time, that kinetic-scale fluctuations play a significant role in the Mercury's magnetosphere up to the largest resolvable timescale (approx.20 s) imposed by the signal nonstationariry, suggesting that turbulence at this plane I is largely controlled by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, we report the presence of a highly turbulent and extended foreshock system filled with packets of ULF oscillations, broad-band intermittent fluctuations in the magnetosheath, ion-kinetic turbulence in the central plasma sheet of Mercury's magnetotail, and kinetic-scale fluctuations in the inner current sheet encountered at the outbound (dawn-side) magnetopause. Overall, our measurements indicate that the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as the surrounding region, are strongly affected by non-MHD effects introduced by finite sizes of cyclotron orbits of the constituting ion species. Physical mechanisms of these effects and their potentially critical impact on the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetic field remain to be understood.
FORMING CHONDRITES IN A SOLAR NEBULA WITH MAGNETICALLY INDUCED TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Turner, Neal J.; Masiero, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi, E-mail: yasuhiro@caltech.edu [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2016-03-20
Chondritic meteorites provide valuable opportunities to investigate the origins of the solar system. We explore impact jetting as a mechanism of chondrule formation and subsequent pebble accretion as a mechanism of accreting chondrules onto parent bodies of chondrites, and investigate how these two processes can account for the currently available meteoritic data. We find that when the solar nebula is ≤5 times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula at a ≃ 2–3 au and parent bodies of chondrites are ≤10{sup 24} g (≤500 km in radius) in the solar nebula, impact jetting and subsequent pebble accretion can reproduce a number of properties of the meteoritic data. The properties include the present asteroid belt mass, the formation timescale of chondrules, and the magnetic field strength of the nebula derived from chondrules in Semarkona. Since this scenario requires a first generation of planetesimals that trigger impact jetting and serve as parent bodies to accrete chondrules, the upper limit of parent bodies’ masses leads to the following implications: primordial asteroids that were originally ≥10{sup 24} g in mass were unlikely to contain chondrules, while less massive primordial asteroids likely had a chondrule-rich surface layer. The scenario developed from impact jetting and pebble accretion can therefore provide new insights into the origins of the solar system.
The turbulent life of dust grains in the supernova-driven, multiphase interstellar medium
Peters, Thomas; Zhukovska, Svitlana; Naab, Thorsten; Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Clark, Paul C.; Seifried, Daniel
2017-06-01
Dust grains are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. We present the first direct measurement of the residence times of interstellar dust in the different ISM phases, and of the transition rates between these phases, in realistic hydrodynamical simulations of the multiphase ISM. Our simulations include a time-dependent chemical network that follows the abundances of H+, H, H2, C+ and CO and take into account self-shielding by gas and dust using a tree-based radiation transfer method. Supernova explosions are injected either at random locations, at density peaks, or as a mixture of the two. For each simulation, we investigate how matter circulates between the ISM phases and find more sizeable transitions than considered in simple mass exchange schemes in the literature. The derived residence times in the ISM phases are characterized by broad distributions, in particular for the molecular, warm and hot medium. The most realistic simulations with random and mixed driving have median residence times in the molecular, cold, warm and hot phase around 17, 7, 44 and 1 Myr, respectively. The transition rates measured in the random driving run are in good agreement with observations of Ti gas-phase depletion in the warm and cold phases in a simple depletion model. ISM phase definitions based on chemical abundance rather than temperature cuts are physically more meaningful, but lead to significantly different transition rates and residence times because there is no direct correspondence between the two definitions.
Impact of electric and magnetic fields in a resistant medium on the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we compare the impact of electric and magnetic fields in a resistant medium on the velocity of a particle subject to varying path angles by using numerical integration of finite difference method. The results show that the magnetic field has much impact on the velocity than the electric field. Journal of the Nigerian ...
Nonlocal interaction of inverse magnetic energy transfer in hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araki, Keisuke; Miura, Hideaki
2011-01-01
A detailed analysis of forward and inverse energy transfer processes due to the Hall term effect in freely decaying, homogeneous, isotropic Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) turbulence is performed through Fourier and wavelet analyses. We analyzed three snapshot datasets that were taken from such a period to allow the turbulence to develop sufficiently with a nearly constant magnetic Reynolds number. Because the Fourier energy spectra in these snapshots show remarkable agreement after the normalization in terms of the dissipation rates and the diffusion coefficients, they are considered as a universal equilibrium state. By analyzing the numerical solutions that are generated without any external forcing, it is confirmed that the inverse energy transfer due to the Hall term effect is intrinsic to HMHD dynamics. Orthonormal divergence-free wavelet analysis reveals that nonlinear mode interactions contributing to the inverse energy transfer exhibit a nonlocal feature, while those for the forward transfer are dominated by a local feature. (author)
RADIO SYNCHROTRON FLUCTUATION STATISTICS AS A PROBE OF MAGNETIZED INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herron, C. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.
2016-01-01
We investigate how observations of synchrotron intensity fluctuations can be used to probe the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers of interstellar turbulence, based on mock observations performed on simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the structure function slope and a diagnostic of anisotropy that we call the integrated quadrupole ratio modulus both depend on the Alfvénic Mach number. However, these statistics also depend on the orientation of the mean magnetic field in the synchrotron emitting region relative to our line of sight, and this creates a degeneracy that cannot be broken by observations of synchrotron intensity alone. We conclude that the polarization of synchrotron emission could be analyzed to break this degeneracy, and suggest that this will be possible with the Square Kilometre Array.
RADIO SYNCHROTRON FLUCTUATION STATISTICS AS A PROBE OF MAGNETIZED INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herron, C. A.; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Burkhart, Blakesley [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M., E-mail: C.Herron@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)
2016-05-01
We investigate how observations of synchrotron intensity fluctuations can be used to probe the sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers of interstellar turbulence, based on mock observations performed on simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We find that the structure function slope and a diagnostic of anisotropy that we call the integrated quadrupole ratio modulus both depend on the Alfvénic Mach number. However, these statistics also depend on the orientation of the mean magnetic field in the synchrotron emitting region relative to our line of sight, and this creates a degeneracy that cannot be broken by observations of synchrotron intensity alone. We conclude that the polarization of synchrotron emission could be analyzed to break this degeneracy, and suggest that this will be possible with the Square Kilometre Array.
Magnetic field line random walk in two-dimensional dynamical turbulence
Wang, J. F.; Qin, G.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.
2017-08-01
The field line random walk (FLRW) of magnetic turbulence is one of the important topics in plasma physics and astrophysics. In this article, by using the field line tracing method, the mean square displacement (MSD) of FLRW is calculated on all possible length scales for pure two-dimensional turbulence with the damping dynamical model. We demonstrate that in order to describe FLRW with the damping dynamical model, a new dimensionless quantity R is needed to be introduced. On different length scales, dimensionless MSD shows different relationships with the dimensionless quantity R. Although the temporal effect affects the MSD of FLRW and even changes regimes of FLRW, it does not affect the relationship between the dimensionless MSD and dimensionless quantity R on all possible length scales.
Coherent structures and turbulence evolution in magnetized non-neutral plasmas
Romé, M.; Chen, S.; Maero, G.
2018-01-01
The evolution of turbulence of a magnetized pure electron plasma confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap is investigated by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical code. The transverse plasma dynamics is studied both in the case of free evolution and under the influence of non-axisymmetric, multipolar radio-frequency drives applied on the circular conducting boundary. In the latter case the radio-frequency fields are chosen in the frequency range of the low-order azimuthal (diocotron) modes of the plasma in order to investigate their effect on the insurgence of azimuthal instabilities and the formation and evolution of coherent structures, possibly preventing the relaxation to a fully-developed turbulent state. Different initial density distributions (rings and spirals) are considered, so that evolutions characterized by different levels of turbulence and intermittency are obtained. The time evolution of integral and spectral quantities of interest are computed using a multiresolution analysis based on a wavelet decomposition of density maps. Qualitative features of turbulent relaxation are found to be similar in conditions of both free and forced evolution, but the analysis allows one to highlight fine details of the flow beyond the self-similarity turbulence properties, so that the influence of the initial conditions and the effect of the external forcing can be distinguished. In particular, the presence of small inhomogeneities in the initial density configuration turns out to lead to quite different final states, especially in the presence of competing unstable diocotron modes characterized by similar growth rates.
Hydromagnetic turbulence in the direct interaction approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagarajan, S.
1975-01-01
The dissertation is concerned with the nature of turbulence in a medium with large electrical conductivity. Three distinct though inter-related questions are asked. Firstly, the evolution of a weak, random initial magnetic field in a highly conducting, isotropically turbulent fluid is discussed. This was first discussed in the paper 'Growth of Turbulent Magnetic Fields' by Kraichnan and Nagargian. The Physics of Fluids, volume 10, number 4, 1967. Secondly, the direct interaction approximation for hydromagnetic turbulence maintained by stationary, isotropic, random stirring forces is formulated in the wave-number-frequency domain. Thirdly, the dynamical evolution of a weak, random, magnetic excitation in a turbulent electrically conducting fluid is examined under varying kinematic conditions. (G.T.H.)
Disruption of Alfvénic turbulence by magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma
Mallet, Alfred; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.
2017-12-01
We calculate the disruption scale \\text{D}$ at which sheet-like structures in dynamically aligned Alfvénic turbulence are destroyed by the onset of magnetic reconnection in a low- collisionless plasma. The scaling of \\text{D}$ depends on the order of the statistics being considered, with more intense structures being disrupted at larger scales. The disruption scale for the structures that dominate the energy spectrum is \\text{D}\\sim L\\bot 1/9(de\\unicode[STIX]{x1D70C}s)4/9$ , where e$ is the electron inertial scale, s$ is the ion sound scale and \\bot $ is the outer scale of the turbulence. When e$ and s/L\\bot $ are sufficiently small, the scale \\text{D}$ is larger than s$ and there is a break in the energy spectrum at \\text{D}$ , rather than at s$ . We propose that the fluctuations produced by the disruption are circularised flux ropes, which may have already been observed in the solar wind. We predict the relationship between the amplitude and radius of these structures and quantify the importance of the disruption process to the cascade in terms of the filling fraction of undisrupted structures and the fractional reduction of the energy contained in them at the ion sound scale s$ . Both of these fractions depend strongly on e$ , with the disrupted structures becoming more important at lower e$ . Finally, we predict that the energy spectrum between \\text{D}$ and s$ is steeper than \\bot -3$ , when this range exists. Such a steep `transition range' is sometimes observed in short intervals of solar-wind turbulence. The onset of collisionless magnetic reconnection may therefore significantly affect the nature of plasma turbulence around the ion gyroscale.
Non-Linear Dynamics of a Porous Medium Saturated With Electrolyte in the Magnetic Field
Perepechko, Y.
2006-12-01
The correct description of dynamics of saturated porous media in the magnetic field is one of the topical problems for mechanics of electromagnetic multi-phase media. This report studies the non-linear model of the conducting liquid flow through non-conducting deformable porous medium in the external magnetic field. We consider the most interesting case with the magnetic field, transverse to the fluid flow, what allows us to examine interaction between the magnetic field and transverse oscillations. The determining equations of the model, including non-linear two-velocity equations for dynamics of saturated porous deformable medium and Maxwell equation in magnetic-hydrodynamic approximation, are invariant relative to Galileo transformation and coordinated from the point of thermal dynamics. This model includes two longitudinal types of acoustic waves and two transverse types of magnetic-acoustic waves, which are transformed into transverse sound-waves and Alfven waves without magnetic-acoustic interaction. The effect of external magnetic field on the pattern of non- linear filtration of electrolyte through an inelastically-deformable porous medium is studied numerically together with the analysis of coordinated magnetic fields, generated during electrolyte filtration and porous matrix deformation. An increase in the magnetic field by a liquid conducting phase is examined in two cases: for the trapped magnetic field and for diffusion of the magnetic field due to electric conductivity of electrolyte. This model allows investigation of magnetic-seismic and seismic-magnetic effects and their use in applied geophysics, particularly, for earthquake forecast and development of new methods for geophysical research. This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 06.05.65110, by the President's grants NSh.1573.2003.5, and by the Russian Ministry Science and Education grant RNP.2.1.1.702.
Myburgh, Ilana Katinka
2001-01-01
The magnetic dense medium cyclone project was undertaken at Koingnaas Mine on a 250 mm diameter cyclone during 1998 and a 510 mm cyclone during 2000. The aim of the project was to evaluate the performance of a magnetic DM cyclone in a production environment. Previous test work on magnetic DM cyclones were conducted during 1995 and 1996 on small (100 mm) cyclones in a laboratory environment, with medium feed only. Solenoid position, magnetic field strength and medium inlet de...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Greco
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The ion dynamics in the distant Earth's magnetotail is studied in the case that a cross tail electric field and reconnection parity magnetic turbulence are present in the neutral sheet. A test particle simulation is performed for the ions, and moments of the ion distribution function are obtained as a function of the magnetic fluctuation level, δB/B0, and of the value of the cross tail electric field, Ey. It is found that magnetic turbulence can split the current carrying region into a double current sheet, in agreement with inferences from observations in the distant magnetotail. The problem of ion conductivity is addressed by varying the value of the cross tail electric field from zero to the observed one: we find that Ohm's law is not enforced, and that a non local, system dependent conductivity is necessary to describe the ion response to the electric field. Also, it appears that the relation between current and electric field may be nonlinear.
Chaotic dynamics of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action in a turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrelis, F; Fauve, S [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, CNRS UMR 8550, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: petrelis@lps.ens.fr
2008-12-10
We present models related to the results of a recent experiment (the 'VKS experiment') showing the generation of a magnetic field by a fully turbulent flow of liquid sodium. We first discuss the geometry of the mean magnetic field when the two coaxial impellers driving the flow counter-rotate at the same frequency. We then show how we expect this geometry to be modified when the impellers rotate at different frequencies. We also show that, in the latter case, dynamical regimes of the magnetic field can be easily understood from the interaction of modes with dipolar (respectively quadrupolar) symmetry. In particular, this interaction generates magnetic field reversals that have been observed in the experiment and display a hierarchy of timescales similar to the Earth's magnetic field: the duration of the steady phases is widely distributed, but is always much longer than the time needed to switch polarity. In addition to reversals, several other large scale features of the generated magnetic field are obtained when varying the governing parameters of the flow. These results are also understood in the framework of the same model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wootton, A.J.
1993-01-01
A test particle model is verified and then used to interpret estimates of fast electron diffusivities in terms of magnetic fluctuation levels. The implied fluctuation levels are themselves interpreted with another verified model to predict electron thermal diffusivities. If the fast electron diffusivities represent local values, then the implied associated thermal transport is too small to explain experimental values. That is, magnetic fluctuations are not important. However, if the fast electron diffusivities represent effective values across mixed good (i.e. with no magnetic fluctuations) and bad (with magnetic fluctuations) surfaces then the implied magnetic fluctuation levels can influence electron thermal transport. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Mikhailov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Testing of numerical solution algorithm for integral equation for calculation of plane meridian magnetostatic field source distribution at interfaces of piecewise homogeneous magnetized medium by means of electrostatic analogy. Methodology. The piecewise homogeneous medium consists of three regions with different magnetic permeabilities: the shell of arbitrary meridian section, external unlimited medium outside the shell, and the medium inside the shell. For testing external homogeneous magnetic field effect on spherical shell is considered. The analytical solution of this problem on the basis of electrostatic analogy from the solution of the problem uniform electrostatic field effect on dielectric shell is obtained. We have compared results of numerical solution of integral equation with the data obtained by means of analytical solution at the variation of magnetic permeabilities of regions of medium. Results. Integral equation and the algorithm of its numerical solution for calculation of source field distribution at the boundaries of piecewise homogeneous medium is validated. Testing of integral equations correctness for calculation of fictitious magnetic charges distribution on axisymmetric boundaries of piecewise homogeneous magnetized medium and algorithms of their numerical solutions can be carried out by means of analytical solutions of problems of homogeneous electrostatic field effect analysis on piecewise homogeneous dielectric medium with central symmetry of boundaries – single-layer and multilayer spherical shells. In the case of spherical shell in wide range of values of the parameter λk, including close to ± 1, numerical solution of integral equation is stable, and relative error in calculating of fictitious magnetic charges surface density and magnetic field intensity inside the shell is from tenths of a percent up to several percent except for the cases of very small values of these quantities. Originality. The use
Detection of magnetic discontinuities in the dissipation regime of solar wind turbulence
Perri, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Dorelli, J.; Sahraoui, F.
2012-12-01
Recent spacecraft observations of solar wind magnetic field fluctuations have shown the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius ρ_cp, where kinetic properties of ions invalidate fluid approximations, down to the electron Larmor radius ρ_ce, where electrons become demagnetized. This energy cascade has been conjectured to consist of highly oblique kinetic Alfvénic fluctuations (KAW) that are dissipated by proton and electron Landau damping. Analyzing the 450 vec/s resolution data from the STAFF search-coil magnetometer on Cluster, we report, for the first time, evidence for the existence in the solar wind of thin current sheets and discontinuities that exhibit spatial scales that range from the proton Larmor scale down to the electron Larmor scale. In the cases studied, the current sheets are very localized and have an extent between 20-200 km, size that is often close to both the proton Larmor radius and the proton inertial length. These isolated structures appear to be a manifestation of intermittency and may localize sites turbulent dissipation. Furthermore, we compare in-situ observations of thin current sheets and discontinuities in the solar wind at proton scales with results that come from two-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence simulations in the presence of a strong guide field. The initial condition in the simulations is a large scale flux rope structure which breaks down into smaller and smaller current sheets due to the turbulent energy transfer. The comparison shows good qualitative agreement between the properties of the structures observed in Cluster data and the properties of current sheets that arise in the simulations. Our results highlight two competing processes that contribute to the dissipation of solar wind turbulence when the plasma beta is of order unity; viz., kinetic (Landau) damping by protons and electrons and the general tendency of the cascade to form thin current sheets where reconnection and
Electrostatic and magnetic measurements of turbulence and transport in Extrap T2
Möller, Anders; Sallander, Eva
1999-10-01
Langmuir probe and magnetic pick-up coil measurements are used to study edge turbulence in the Extrap T2 reversed field pinch. Magnetic fluctuations resonant outside the toroidal field reversal surface are observed where previously only fluctuations in the spectra of potential and electron density and temperature have been measured. Results are presented which imply that these fluctuations are coupled to and also correlated to the internally resonant tearing mode fluctuations. Evidence of coupling between low-frequency (<100 kHz) and high-frequency fluctuations is also presented. The normalized floating potential fluctuations are seen to increase with the edge electron temperature. This causes an increase of the potential and density fluctuation driven transport with the temperature which is faster than linear. These results, in combination, are consistent with a picture where internally resonant fluctuations couple to edge fluctuations through radial heat conduction from the stochastic core to the edge.
Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing
2017-09-01
In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.
Prakash, Jyoti; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumari, Kultaran; Manan, Shweta
2018-02-01
The effect of magnetic-field-dependent (MFD) viscosity on the thermal convection in a ferromagnetic fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field is investigated for a fluid layer saturating a densely packed porous medium using the Darcy model. A correction is applied to the model by Sunil et al. [Z. Naturforsch. 59, 397 (2004)], which is very important to predict the correct behaviour of MFD viscosity. A linear stability analysis is carried out for stationary modes. The critical wave number and critical Rayleigh number for the onset of instability, for the case of free boundaries, are determined numerically for sufficiently large values of the magnetic parameter M1. Numerical results are obtained and illustrated graphically. It is shown that MFD viscosity has stabilizing effect on the system, whereas medium permeability has a destabilizing effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirsky, V.V.; Ledenev, V.G.; Tomozov, V.M.
2001-01-01
We consider the process of generation of electromagnetic waves as a consequence of the merging of two Langmuir plasmons. The case of a hot plasma in a magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that under such conditions the frequency of Langmuir plasmons can vary over the range from 0.8 to 1.1 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons. The spectrum and polarization of electromagnetic radiation are analyzed. It is shown that allowance for the thermal motion of plasma particles under the conditions involved permits electromagnetic waves in the range from 1.6 to 2.2 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons to be generated. The degree of circular polarization of the radiation can reach 50% even in the case of an isotropic spectrum of Langmuir turbulence. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aistov, A.V.; Gavrilenko, V.G.
1996-01-01
The normal incidence of a small-amplitude electromagnetic wave upon a semi-infinite turbulent collisional plasm with an oblique external magnetic field is considered. Within a small-angle-scattering approximation of the radiative transport theory, a system of differential equations is derived for statistical moments of the angular power spectrum of radiation. The dependences of the spectrum centroid, dispersion, and asymmetry on the depth of penetration are studied numerically. The nonmonotonic behavior of the dispersion is revealed, and an increase in the spectrum width with absorption anisotropy is found within some depth interval. It is shown that, at large depths, the direction of the displacement of the spectrum centroid, does not always coincide with the direction of minimum absorption
MAGNETIC FIELD LINE RANDOM WALK IN ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE WITH ZERO MEAN FIELD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonsrettee, W.; Ruffolo, D.; Snodin, A. P.; Wongpan, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Chuychai, P., E-mail: bturbulence@gmail.com, E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th, E-mail: andrew.snodin@gmail.com, E-mail: pat.wongpan@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, E-mail: piyanate@gmail.com, E-mail: prasub@udel.edu, E-mail: whm@udel.edu [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)
2015-01-01
In astrophysical plasmas, magnetic field lines often guide the motions of thermal and non-thermal particles. The field line random walk (FLRW) is typically considered to depend on the Kubo number R = (b/B {sub 0})(ℓ{sub ∥}/ℓ ) for rms magnetic fluctuation b, large-scale mean field B {sub 0}, and parallel and perpendicular coherence scales ℓ{sub ∥} and ℓ , respectively. Here we examine the FLRW when R → ∞ by taking B {sub 0} → 0 for finite b{sub z} (fluctuation component along B {sub 0}), which differs from the well-studied route with b{sub z} = 0 or b{sub z} << B {sub 0} as the turbulence becomes quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D). Fluctuations with B {sub 0} = 0 are typically isotropic, which serves as a reasonable model of interstellar turbulence. We use a non-perturbative analytic framework based on Corrsin's hypothesis to determine closed-form solutions for the asymptotic field line diffusion coefficient for three versions of the theory, which are directly related to the k {sup –1} or k {sup –2} moment of the power spectrum. We test these theories by performing computer simulations of the FLRW, obtaining the ratio of diffusion coefficients for two different parameterizations of a field line. Comparing this with theoretical ratios, the random ballistic decorrelation version of the theory agrees well with the simulations. All results exhibit an analog to Bohm diffusion. In the quasi-2D limit, previous works have shown that Corrsin-based theories deviate substantially from simulation results, but here we find that as B {sub 0} → 0, they remain in reasonable agreement. We conclude that their applicability is limited not by large R, but rather by quasi-two-dimensionality.
Generation of High-Power Sub-THz Waves in Magnetized Turbulent Electron Beam Plasmas
Thumm, M. K. A.; Arzhannikov, A. V.; Astrelin, V. T.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kalinin, P. V.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Kurkuchekov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Makarov, M. A.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Popov, S. A.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Sklyarov, V. F.; Stepanov, V. D.; Trunev, Yu. A.; Timofeev, I. V.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.
2013-02-01
Sub-THz radiation can be generated by conversion of plasma waves into electromagnetic (EM) radiation in a plasma with strong Langmuir (LT) turbulence produced via a two-stream instability of a high current relativistic electron beam (REB). Nonlinear plasmon-plasmon merging results in the generation of photons nearby the 2nd harmonic of the plasma frequency 2ω p ("2ω p -process"). For plasma densities of 1014 - 1015 cm-3, these frequencies are in the range of sub-THz waves at 370-570 GHz. The specific power density of sub-THz-wave emission from plasmas in the multi-mirror magnetic trap GOL-3 (at BINP) during injection of a 10-μs-REB with a current density of about 1 kA/cm2 at plasma densities n e ≈ 5•1014 cm-3, electron temperatures T e ≈ 1.5 keV and magnetic induction B ≈ 4 T was measured to be approx. 1 kW/cm3 in the frequency band around 300 GHz. In the case of a weakly relativistic 100-μs-electron beam (90 keV) with 250 A/cm2 the corresponding results are 700 W/cm3 around 90 GHz with an efficiency of 1-2 % at n e ≈ 3•1013 cm-3 (total power ≈ 30 kW). Theoretical investigations show that at a density of n e ≈ 3•1015 cm-3 and a turbulence level of 5 % the generated sub-THz power can reach ≈ 1 MW/cm3.
Sung, C.; Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, S. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Ono, M.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Groebner, R. J.; Davis, E. M.; Zeng, L.; Peebles, W. A.; Evans, T. E.
2017-11-01
The first observation of increased electron temperature turbulence during edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is presented. These are long wavelength fluctuations (kθρs ≤ 0.2, where kθ = poloidal wavenumber and ρs = ion sound gyroradius) observed during H-mode plasmas on the DIII-D. This increase occurs only after ELMs are suppressed and are not observed during the initial RMP application. The T˜ e/Te increases ( >60%) are coincident with changes in normalized density and electron temperature gradients in the region from the top of the pedestal outward to the upper portion of the steep edge gradient. Density turbulence (kθρs ≤ 0.4) in this location was also observed to increase only after ELM suppression. These results are significant since they indicate that increased gradient-driven turbulent transport is one possible mechanism to regulate and maintain ELM-free H-mode operation. Investigation of linear stability of drift wave instabilities using the CGYRO code [Candy et al., J. Comput. Phys. 324, 73 (2016)] shows that the dominant mode moves closer to the electron mode branch from the ion mode branch only after ELMs are suppressed, correlated with the increased turbulence. The increased turbulence during ELM suppression, rather than with the initial RMP application, indicates that the often observed RMP induced "density pump-out" cannot be attributed to long wavelength edge turbulence level changes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • We succeeded the establishing DNS database for the epsilon transport equation for turbulent channel flows under high-Re and Ha conditions. • Turbulent dissipation process under the MHD effects shows the similarity under the same R condition, where R is the Reynolds number based on the Hartmann layer thickness and the laminar centerline velocity. • Modulation of the non-MHD terms is important from the view point of the turbulence modeling. - Abstract: In this study, we succeeded in establishing DNS database significantly increased the range of Reynolds number and Hartmann numbers for the epsilon transport equation in turbulent channel flows imposed on a wall-normal uniform magnetic field. Maximum friction Reynolds number based on the channel half-height is 1000 with the Hartmann number based on the channel half-height, 0, 24, and 34. The contribution of MHD source term derived from Lorentz force on the turbulent dissipation process is very small. However, modulation of the other terms in this process was remarkably observed with Hartmann number increasing. The turbulent dissipation process under the MHD effects is similar under the same R condition, where R is the Reynolds number based on the Hartmann layer thickness and the laminar centerline velocity.
Leng, Xueyuan; Kolesnikov, Yurii B.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Li, Benwen
2018-01-01
The effect of an axial homogeneous magnetic field on the turbulence in the Taylor-Couette flow confined between two infinitely long conducting cylinders is studied by the direct numerical simulation using a periodic boundary condition in the axial direction. The inner cylinder is rotating, and the outer one is fixed. We consider the case when the magnetic Reynolds number Rem ≪ 1, i.e., the influence of the induced magnetic field on the flow is negligible that is typical for industry and laboratory study of liquid metals. Relevance of the present study is based on the similarity of flow characteristics at moderate and high magnetic field for the cases with periodic and end-wall conditions at the large flow aspect ratio, as proven in the earlier studies. Two sets of Reynolds numbers 4000 and 8000 with several Hartmann numbers varying from 0 to 120 are employed. The results show that the mean radial induced electrical current, resulting from the interaction of axial magnetic field with the mean flow, leads to the transformation of the mean flow and the modification of the turbulent structure. The effect of turbulence suppression is dominating at a strong magnetic field, but before reaching the complete laminarization, we capture the appearance of the hairpin-like structures in the flow.
Hirai, Kenichiro; Katoh, Yuto; Terada, Naoki; Kawai, Soshi
2018-02-01
Magnetic turbulence in accretion disks under ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conditions is expected to be driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) followed by secondary parasitic instabilities. We develop a three-dimensional ideal MHD code that can accurately resolve turbulent structures, and carry out simulations with a net vertical magnetic field in a local shearing box disk model to investigate the role of parasitic instabilities in the formation process of magnetic turbulence. Our simulations reveal that a highly anisotropic Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) mode parasitic instability evolves just before the first peak in turbulent stress and then breaks large-scale shear flows created by MRI. The wavenumber of the enhanced parasitic instability is larger than the theoretical estimate, because the shear flow layers sometimes become thinner than those assumed in the linear analysis. We also find that interaction between antiparallel vortices caused by the K–H mode parasitic instability induces small-scale waves that break the shear flows. On the other hand, at repeated peaks in the nonlinear phase, anisotropic wavenumber spectra are observed only in the small wavenumber region and isotropic waves dominate at large wavenumbers unlike for the first peak. Restructured channel flows due to MRI at the peaks in nonlinear phase seem to be collapsed by the advection of small-scale shear structures into the restructured flow and resultant mixing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Schwartz, S. J. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pantellini, F. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universit Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Velli, M. [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, California (United States)
2015-03-20
We investigate the properties of plasma fluid motion in the large-amplitude, low-frequency fluctuations of highly Alfvénic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles which, due to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low-frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform the proton velocity into the frame of Alfvénic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfvénic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfvénic turbulence, is the origin of the observed constancy of the magnetic field; while the constant velocity corresponding to constant energy can only be observed in the frame of the fluctuations, the corresponding constant total magnetic field, invariant for Galilean transformations, remains the observational signature in the spacecraft frame of the constant total energy in the Alfvén turbulence frame.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu
2011-01-01
The turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the solar convection zone is one of the most poorly constrained ingredients of mean-field dynamo models. This lack of constraint has previously led to controversy regarding the most appropriate set of parameters, as different assumptions on the value of turbulent diffusivity lead to radically different solar cycle predictions. Typically, the dynamo community uses double-step diffusivity profiles characterized by low values of diffusivity in the bulk of the convection zone. However, these low diffusivity values are not consistent with theoretical estimates based on mixing-length theory, which suggest much higher values for turbulent diffusivity. To make matters worse, kinematic dynamo simulations cannot yield sustainable magnetic cycles using these theoretical estimates. In this work, we show that magnetic cycles become viable if we combine the theoretically estimated diffusivity profile with magnetic quenching of the diffusivity. Furthermore, we find that the main features of this solution can be reproduced by a dynamo simulation using a prescribed (kinematic) diffusivity profile that is based on the spatiotemporal geometric average of the dynamically quenched diffusivity. This bridges the gap between dynamically quenched and kinematic dynamo models, supporting their usage as viable tools for understanding the solar magnetic cycle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roux, A.
1989-01-01
The interaction between the supersonic and super-Alfvenic solar wind plasma and the Earth's magnetic field leads to the formation of critical layers, such as the bow shock, the magnetopause, the polar cusp, and the inner and outer edge of the plasmasheet. The mean free path between binary colisions being much larger than the transverse scale of these layers, plasma turbulence must ensure the thermalization, the magnetic diffusion, the dissipation within these critical layers. We suggest the existence of small scale, presumably 2D structures, developing within these thin layers. The unambiguous characterization of these small-scale structures is, however, beyond the capabilities of existing spacecraft, which cannot spatially resolve them, nor disentangle spatial/temporal variations. We present a new mission concept: a cluster of four relatively simple spacecraft, which will make it possible (i) to disentangle spatial from temporal variations, (ii) to evaluate, by finite differences between spacecraft measurements, the gradients, divergences, curls of MHD parameters, and )iii) to characterize small-scale structures, via inter-spacecraft correlations. (author). 10 refs.; 10 figs
Huang, Susie Y.; Lin, Yung-Ya; Lisitza, Natalia; Warren, Warren S.
2002-06-01
Artifacts arising from aperiodic turbulent spin dynamics in gradient-based nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications are comprehensively surveyed and numerically simulated by a nonlinear Bloch equation. The unexpected dynamics, triggered by the joint action of radiation damping and the distant dipolar field, markedly deteriorate the performance of certain pulse sequences incorporating weak pulsed-field gradients and long evolution times. The effects are demonstrated in three general classes of gradient NMR applications: solvent signal suppression, diffusion measurements, and coherence pathway selection. Gradient-modulated solvent transverse magnetization can be partially rephased in a series of self-refocusing gradient echoes that blank out solute resonances in the CHESS (chemical-shift-selective spectroscopy) and WATERGATE (gradient-tailored water suppression) solvent suppression schemes. In addition, the discovered dynamics contribute to erratic echo attenuation in pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) and PGSE stimulated echo diffusion measurements and produce coherence leakage in gradient-selected DQFCOSY and HMQC experiments. Specific remedies for minimizing unwanted effects are presented.
Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M
2017-05-01
The influence of the uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated by using the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the one-loop approximation of a perturbation theory. The infrared stable fixed point of the renormalization group equations, which drives the scaling properties of the model in the inertial range, is investigated as the function of the anisotropy parameters and it is shown that, at least at the one-loop level of approximation, the diffusion processes of the weak passive magnetic field in the anisotropically driven kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are completely equivalent to the corresponding diffusion processes of passively advected scalar fields in the anisotropic Navier-Stokes turbulent environments.
ExB-Shear Effects on Magnetic-Flutter Diffusion of Electron-Drift Trajectories in ITG Turbulence
Dimits, A. M.; Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.
2015-11-01
Magnetic-field stochasticity arises due to microtearing perturbations, which can be driven linearly or nonlinearly, even at very modest values of the plasma beta. The resulting magnetic-flutter contribution may or may not be a significant component of the overall electron (particle and thermal) transport. Initial investigations of the effect of ExB shear on electron-drift magnetic-flutter diffusion coefficient Dedr (r ,v||) using perturbed magnetic fields from GYRO simulations of ITG turbulence show two interesting results: 1) an absence of any peak in Dedr (r ,v||) at values of the ``resonant'' parallel velocity, v||, at which the ExB shear negates the magnetic shear, and 2) a significant increase in Dedr (r ,v||) for electrons with v|| surprisingly far from the resonant velocity. We explore these effects both through a more detailed quantification of the displacement and decorrelation rates of the orbits, as a function of parallel distance, and through a simplified model of electron drift motion in a poloidally localized turbulent magnetic field. Furthermore, we argue that a correct model will have ExB shearing of the perturbed magnetic field structures themselves, and we extend our investigations to include this effect. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by GA under Contract DE-FG03-95ER54309.
Cartagena-Sanchez, C. A.; Schaffner, D. A.; Johnson, H. K.; Fahim, L. E.
2017-10-01
A long-pulsed magnetic coaxial plasma gun is being implemented and characterized at the Bryn Mawr Plasma Laboratory (BMPL). A cold cathode discharged between the cylindrical electrodes generates and launches plasma into a 24cm diameter, 2m long chamber. Three separately pulsed magnetic coils are carefully positioned to generate radial magnetic field between the electrodes at the gun edge in order to provide stuffing field. Magnetic helicity is continuously injected into the flux-conserving vacuum chamber in a process akin to sustained slow-formation of spheromaks. The aim of this source, however, is to supply long pulses of turbulent magnetized plasma for measurement rather than for sustained spheromak production. The work shown here details the optimization of the magnetic field structure for this sustained helicity injection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandell, Arnold J.
2013-01-01
A common manifestation of nonlinear mathematical and experimental neurobiological dynamical systems in transition, intermittence, is currently being attended by concepts from physics such as turbulent eddy and the avalanche of critical systems. Do these concepts constitute an enticing poetry of dynamical universality or do these metaphors from physics generate more specific novel and relevant concepts and experiments in the neurosciences? Using six graphics and ten measures derived from the ergodic theory of dynamical systems, we study the magnetoencephalic, MEG, records of taskless, “resting” human subjects to find consistent evidence for turbulent (chaotic) dynamics marked by intermittent turbulent eddies. This brings up an apparent discrepancy via the juxtaposition of the superposition characteristics of magnetic fields and the non-superposition properties of turbulent flow. Treating this apparent inconsistency as an existent duality, we propose a physical model for how that might be the case. This leaves open the question: has the physical metaphor, turbulent eddy, contributed to a scientific understanding of the human resting MEG?
Medium-range order of magnetic amorphous alloys containing rare earth metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, B.
1989-01-01
The influence of nuclear order and surface layers on the magnetic order and the existence of two characteristic lengths (ξ=2π/k∼10 3 A or 10 A) have been established. The principal conclusions of theorists: concerning the abscence of infinite ferromagnetic clusters and the correlated spin glass or ferromagnet with wandering axis models are verified. The published results seem to indicate the existence of a critical temperature. The role of 3d ions in the magnetic ordering has not been extensively studied; it seems that the presence of 3d ions leads smaller correlation lengths. The Lorentzian scattering term correspond not only to spin waves but also to a static order. The origin of the L 3/2 scattering term observed in severals cases is discussed. It would be very useful to carry out measurements at lower q values so as to obtain more detailed informations concerning the nuclear or magnetic medium range order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamm, B.; Roemer, T.; Felix, R.; Wolf, K.J.; Klinikum Charlottenburg, Berlin
1986-01-01
The use of the para-magnetic contrast medium gadolinium DTPA for magnetic resonance tomography of focal lesions in the liver was investigated in 31 patients. Two dosage schedules of the contrast medium (0.1 and 0.2 mmol/kg body weight) were used with field strengths of 0.35 and 0.5 Tesla. Using T 1 sequences, gadolinium DTPA showed increased signal intensity in the liver and in tumours, but this was significantly more marked in the tumour. On T 1 spin-echo sequences, previously iso-intense lesions became visible after administration of contrast. On the other hand, contrast-enhanced lesions were less well seen on inversion recovery sequences because of a reduction in the contrast between tumour and liver tissue. The contrast between tumour and liver tissue was not improved by gadolinium DTPA in comparison with precontrast inversion recovery sequences and T 2 spin-echo sequences. The perfusion of intra-hepatic tumours could be elucidated by magnetic resonance tomography after the administration of gadolinium DTPA. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshimura, H.; Wang, Z.; Wu, F.
1984-01-01
Differential rotation dependence of the selection mechanism for magnetic parity of solar and stellar cycles is studied by assuming various differential rotation profiles inn the dynamo equation. The parity selection depends on propagation direction of oscillating magnetic fields in the form of dynamo waves which propagate along isorotation surfaces. When there is any radial gradient in the differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate either equatorward or poleward. In the former case, field systems of the two hemispheres approach each other and collide at the equator. Then, odd parity is selected. In the latter case, field systems of the two hemispheres recede from each other and do not collide at the equator, an even parity is selected. Thus the equatorial migration of wings of the butterfly iagram of the solar cycle and its odd parity are intrinsically related. In the case of purely latitudibnal differential rotation, dynamo waves propagate purely radially and growth rates of odd and even modes are nearly the same even when dynamo strength is weak when the parity selection mechanism should work most efficiently. In this case, anisotropy of turbulent diffusivity is a decisive factor to separate odd and even modes. Unlike in the case of radial-gradient-dominated differential rotation in which any difference between diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields enhancess the parity selection without changing the parity, the parity selection in the case of latitudinal-gradient-dominated differential rotation depends on the difference of diffusivities for poloidal and toroidal fields. When diffusivity for poloidal fields iss larger than that for toroidal fields, odd parity is selected; and when diffusivity for toroidal fields is larger, even parity is selected
Turbulence in the Heliospheric Jets
Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Opher, M.; Hassam, A.; Ohia, O.
2016-12-01
The conventional picture of the heliosphere is that of a comet-shaped structure with an extended tail produced by the relative motion of the sun through the local interstellar medium (LISM). Recent MHD simulations of the global heliosphere have revealed, however, that the heliosphere drives magnetized jets to the North and South similar to those driven by the Crab Nebula and other astrophysical objects. These simulations reveal that the jets become turbulent with scale lengths as large as 100AU [1,2]. An important question is what drives this large-scale turbulence, what are the implications for mixing of interstellar and heliospheric plasma and does this turbulence drive energetic particles? An analytic model of the heliospheric jets in the simple limit in which the interstellar flow and magnetic field are neglected yields an equilibrium state that can be analyzed to explore potential instabilities [3]. Calculations suggest that because the axial magnetic field within the jets is small, the dominant instability is the sausage mode, driven by the azimuthal solar magnetic field. Other drive mechanisms, including Kelvin Helmholtz, are also being explored. 3D MHD and Hall MHD simulations are being carried out to explore the development of this turbulence, its impact on the mixing of interstellar and heliosheath plasma and the production of energetic particles. [1] Opher et al ApJ Lett. 800, L28, 2015[2] Pogorelov et al ApJ Lett. 812,L6, 2015[3] Drake et al ApJ Lett. 808, L44, 2015
Magnetic Reconnection May Control the Ion-scale Spectral Break of Solar Wind Turbulence
Vech, Daniel; Mallet, Alfred; Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.
2018-03-01
The power spectral density of magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibits several power-law-like frequency ranges with a well-defined break between approximately 0.1 and 1 Hz in the spacecraft frame. The exact dependence of this break scale on solar wind parameters has been extensively studied but is not yet fully understood. Recent studies have suggested that reconnection may induce a break in the spectrum at a “disruption scale” {λ }{{D}}, which may be larger than the fundamental ion kinetic scales, producing an unusually steep spectrum just below the break. We present a statistical investigation of the dependence of the break scale on the proton gyroradius ρ i , ion inertial length d i , ion sound radius ρ s , proton–cyclotron resonance scale ρ c , and disruption scale {λ }{{D}} as a function of {β }\\perp i. We find that the steepest spectral indices of the dissipation range occur when β e is in the range of 0.1–1 and the break scale is only slightly larger than the ion sound scale (a situation occurring 41% of the time at 1 au), in qualitative agreement with the reconnection model. In this range, the break scale shows a remarkably good correlation with {λ }{{D}}. Our findings suggest that, at least at low β e , reconnection may play an important role in the development of the dissipation range turbulent cascade and cause unusually steep (steeper than ‑3) spectral indices.
THE ROLE OF TURBULENCE AND MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SIMULATED FILAMENTARY STRUCTURE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirk, Helen; Pudritz, Ralph [Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Klassen, Mikhail; Pillsworth, Samantha, E-mail: helen.kirk@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)
2015-04-01
We use numerical simulations of turbulent cluster-forming regions to study the nature of dense filamentary structures in star formation. Using four hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations chosen to match observations, we identify filaments in the resulting column density maps and analyze their properties. We calculate the radial column density profiles of the filaments every 0.05 Myr and fit the profiles with the modified isothermal and pressure-confined isothermal cylinder models, finding reasonable fits for either model. The filaments formed in the simulations have similar radial column density profiles to those observed. Magnetic fields provide additional pressure support to the filaments, making “puffier” filaments less prone to fragmentation than in the pure hydrodynamic case, which continue to condense at a slower rate. In the higher density simulations, the filaments grow faster through the increased importance of gravity. Not all of the filaments identified in the simulations will evolve to form stars: some expand and disperse. Given these different filament evolutionary paths, the trends in bulk filament width as a function of time, magnetic field strength, or density are weak, and all cases are reasonably consistent with the finding of a constant filament width in different star-forming regions. In the simulations, the mean FWHM lies between 0.06 and 0.26 pc for all times and initial conditions, with most lying between 0.1 to 0.15 pc; the range in FWHMs is however, larger than seen in typical Herschel analyses. Finally, the filaments display a wealth of substructure similar to the recent discovery of filament bundles in Taurus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberbeck, D; Zirpel, P; Trahms, L [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Kettering, M; Hilger, I [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Bergemann, C, E-mail: dietmar.eberbeck@ptb.d [Chemicell GmbH, Eresburgstrasse 22-23, 12103 Berlin (Germany)
2010-10-13
The knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is essential to enhance the efficacy of MNP-based therapeutic treatments (e.g. magnetic heating, magnetic drug targeting). According to the literature, the MNP uptake by cells may depend on the coating of MNPs, the surrounding medium as well as on the aggregation behaviour of the MNPs. Therefore, in this study, the aggregation behaviour of MNPs in various media was investigated. MNPs with different coatings were suspended in cell culture medium (CCM) containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and the distribution of the hydrodynamic sizes was measured by magnetorelaxometry (MRX). FCS as well as bovine serum albumin (BSA) buffer (phosphate buffered saline with 0.1% bovine serum albumin) may induce MNP aggregation. Its strength depends crucially on the type of coating. The degree of aggregation in CCM depends on its FCS content showing a clear, local maximum at FCS concentrations, where the IgG concentration (part of FCS) is of the order of the MNP number concentration. Thus, we attribute the observed aggregation behaviour to the mechanism of agglutination of MNPs by serum compartments as for example IgG. No aggregation was induced for MNPs coated with dextran, polyarabic acid or sodium phosphate, respectively, which were colloidally stable in CCM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberbeck, D; Zirpel, P; Trahms, L; Kettering, M; Hilger, I; Bergemann, C
2010-01-01
The knowledge of the physico-chemical characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is essential to enhance the efficacy of MNP-based therapeutic treatments (e.g. magnetic heating, magnetic drug targeting). According to the literature, the MNP uptake by cells may depend on the coating of MNPs, the surrounding medium as well as on the aggregation behaviour of the MNPs. Therefore, in this study, the aggregation behaviour of MNPs in various media was investigated. MNPs with different coatings were suspended in cell culture medium (CCM) containing fetal calf serum (FCS) and the distribution of the hydrodynamic sizes was measured by magnetorelaxometry (MRX). FCS as well as bovine serum albumin (BSA) buffer (phosphate buffered saline with 0.1% bovine serum albumin) may induce MNP aggregation. Its strength depends crucially on the type of coating. The degree of aggregation in CCM depends on its FCS content showing a clear, local maximum at FCS concentrations, where the IgG concentration (part of FCS) is of the order of the MNP number concentration. Thus, we attribute the observed aggregation behaviour to the mechanism of agglutination of MNPs by serum compartments as for example IgG. No aggregation was induced for MNPs coated with dextran, polyarabic acid or sodium phosphate, respectively, which were colloidally stable in CCM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki, E-mail: kunugi@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku 615-8540, Kyoto (Japan)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • We show the applicability to predict the heat transfer imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field by means of the zero-equation heat transfer model. • Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers with various molecular Prandtl number fluids were obtained. • Improvements of the prediction accuracy in turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate under the magnetic fields were accomplished. - Abstract: Zero-equation heat transfer models based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number are evaluated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for fully developed channel flows imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field. Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers are estimated by DNS data of various molecular Prandtl number fluids. From the viewpoint of highly-accurate magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) heat transfer prediction, the parameters of the turbulent eddy viscosity of the k–É› model are optimized under the magnetic fields. Consequently, we use the zero-equation model based on a constant turbulent Prandtl number to demonstrate MHD heat transfer, and show the applicability of using this model to predict the heat transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R.C.; Kumar, Pardeep
1994-01-01
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of electrically conducting Oldroydian viscoelastic fluid in porous medium is considered in the presence of a variable horizontal magnetic field. The cases of two uniform fluids separated by a horizontal boundary and exponentially varying density, viscosity and magnetic field are considered. In each case, the magnetic field succeeds in stabilizing certain wavenumber range which were unstable in the absence of magnetic field whereas the system is found to be stable for potentially stable configuration/stable stratifications. It is found that the stability criterion is independent of the effects of medium permeability, viscosity and viscoelasticity and is dependent on the orientation and magnitude of the magnetic field. The growth rates both increase for certain wavenumbers and decrease for different wavenumbers with the increase in kinematic viscosity, medium permeability, stress relaxation time and strain retardation time. (author). 5 refs
A wide-range magnetic spectrometer for electron scattering in medium energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Zhenlin
1988-01-01
A non-focusing magnetic spectrometer design for electron scattering in medium energy region is proposed. The positions read out from the position-sensitive detectors in the spectrometer are used for track reconstruction and momentum measurement by means of a computer program. The construction of this spectrometer is simple and there is no special technique and element for correction to aberration. It is suitable for usage of spectrometer with large solid angle and wide momentum range. The momentum resolution, momentum range and acceptance in a practical case are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leconte, M.
2008-11-15
The H confinement regime is set when the heating power reaches a threshold value P{sub c} and is linked to the formation of a transport barrier in the edge region of the plasma. Such a barrier is characterized by a high pressure gradient and is submitted to ELM (edge localized mode) instabilities. ELM instabilities trigger violent quasi-periodical ejections of matter and heat that induce quasi-periodical relaxations of the transport barrier called relaxation oscillations. In this work we studied the interaction between sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas. In particular, we studied the complex dynamics of a transport barrier and we show through a simulation that resonant magnetic perturbations could control relaxation oscillations without a significant loss of confinement
Self-consistency constraints on turbulent magnetic transport and relaxation in collisionless plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Diamond, P.H.; Hahm, T.S.
1985-10-01
Novel constraints on collisionless relaxation and transport in drift-Alfven turbulence are reported. These constraints arise due to the consideration of mode coupling and incoherent fluctuations and the proper application of self-consistency conditions. The result that electrostatic fluctuations alone regulate transport in drift-Alfven turbulence follows directly. Quasilinear transport predictions are discussed in light of these constraints
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model
Hammer, James
2005-10-01
K-epsilon models find wide application as approximate models of fluid turbulence. The models couple equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to the usual fluid equations, where the turbulence is driven by Reynolds stress or buoyancy source terms. We generalize to the case with magnetic forces in a Z-pinch geometry (azimuthal fields), using simple energy arguments to derive the turbulent source terms. The field is presumed strong enough that 3 dimensional twisting or bending of the field can be ignored, i.e. the flow is of the interchange type. The generalized source terms show the familiar correspondence between magnetic curvature and acceleration as drive terms for Rayleigh-Taylor and sausage instability. The source terms lead naturally to a modification of Ohm's law including a turbulent electric field that allows magnetic field to diffuse through material. The turbulent magnetic diffusion parallels a corresponding ohmic heating term in the equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.
InGaAs Quantum Dots on Cross-Hatch Patterns as a Host for Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teeravat Limwongse
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Storage density on magnetic medium is increasing at an exponential rate. The magnetic region that stores one bit of information is correspondingly decreasing in size and will ultimately reach quantum dimensions. Magnetic quantum dots (QDs can be grown using semiconductor as a host and magnetic constituents added to give them magnetic properties. Our results show how molecular beam epitaxy and, particularly, lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy can be used to form laterally aligned, high-density semiconducting host in a single growth run without any use of lithography or etching. Representative results of how semiconductor QD hosts arrange themselves on various stripes and cross-hatch patterns are reported.
Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lekdim, Atef, E-mail: atef.lekdim@univ-lyon1.fr; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange
2017-04-15
increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe{sub 73.5}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 15.5}B{sub 7} alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena. - Highlights: • The magnetic ageing of the nanocrystalline materials is related to their annealing. • The degradations with ageing are not related to a change of the grain size diameter. • The amount of anisotropies introduced with ageing depends just on ageing conditions.
MHD STABILITY OF INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASE TRANSITION LAYERS. I. MAGNETIC FIELD ORTHOGONAL TO FRONT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, Jennifer M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.
2009-01-01
We consider the scenario of a magnetic field orthogonal to a front separating two media of different temperatures and densities, such as cold and warm neutral interstellar gas, in a two-dimensional plane-parallel geometry. A linear stability analysis is performed to assess the behavior of both evaporation and condensation fronts when subject to incompressible, corrugational perturbations with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the front. We discuss the behavior of fronts in both super-Alfvenic and sub-Alfvenic flows. Since the propagation speed of fronts is slow in the interstellar medium (ISM), it is the sub-Alfvenic regime that is relevant, and magnetic fields are a significant influence on front dynamics. In this case, we find that evaporation fronts, which are unstable in the hydrodynamic regime, are stabilized. Condensation fronts are unstable, but for parameters typical of the neutral ISM the growth rates are so slow that steady-state fronts are effectively stable. However, the instability may become important if condensation proceeds at a sufficiently fast rate. This paper is the first in a series exploring the linear and nonlinear effects of magnetic field strength and orientation on the corrugational instability, with the ultimate goal of addressing outstanding questions about small-scale ISM structure.
GRILLIX. A 3D turbulence code for magnetic fusion devices based on a field line map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stegmeir, Andreas Korbinian
2015-01-01
The complex geometry in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks poses problems to existing turbulence codes. The usually employed field aligned coordinates become ill defined at the separatrix. Therefore the parallel code GRILLIX was developed, which is based on a field line map. This allows simulations in additional complex geometries, especially across the separatrix. A new discretisation, based on the support operator method, for the highly anisotropic diffusion was developed and applied to a simple turbulence model (Hasegawa-Wakatani).
Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the intergalactic medium with primordial magnetic fields
Minoda, Teppei; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2017-12-01
The presence of ubiquitous magnetic fields in the universe is suggested from observations of radiation and cosmic ray from galaxies or the intergalactic medium (IGM). One possible origin of cosmic magnetic fields is the magnetogenesis in the primordial universe. Such magnetic fields are called primordial magnetic fields (PMFs), and are considered to affect the evolution of matter density fluctuations and the thermal history of the IGM gas. Hence the information of PMFs is expected to be imprinted on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect in the IGM. In this study, given an initial power spectrum of PMFs as P (k )∝B1Mpc 2knB , we calculate dynamical and thermal evolutions of the IGM under the influence of PMFs, and compute the resultant angular power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter on the sky. As a result, we find that two physical processes driven by PMFs dominantly determine the power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter; (i) the heating due to the ambipolar diffusion effectively works to increase the temperature and the ionization fraction, and (ii) the Lorentz force drastically enhances the density contrast on small scale just after the recombination epoch. These facts result in making the anisotropies of the CMB temperature on small scales, and we find that the signal goes up to 10 μ K2 around ℓ˜106 with B1 Mpc=0.1 nG and nB=0.0 . Therefore, CMB measurements on such small scales may provide a hint for the existence of the PMFs.
Nonlinear instability of an Oldroyd elastico–viscous magnetic nanofluid saturated in a porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moatimid, Galal M.; Alali, Elham M. M.; Ali, Hoda S. M.
2014-01-01
Through viscoelastic potential theory, a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of two semi-infinite fluid layers, of Oldroydian viscoelastic magnetic nanofluids (MNF), is investigated. The system is saturated by porous medium through two semi-infinite fluid layers. The Oldroyd B model is utilized to describe the rheological behavior of viscoelastic MNF. The system is influenced by uniform oblique magnetic field that acts at the surface of separation. The model is used for the MNF incorporated the effects of uniform basic streaming and viscoelasticity. Therefore, a mathematical simplification must be considered. A linear stability analysis, based upon the normal modes analysis, is utilized to find out the solutions of the equations of motion. The onset criterion of stability is derived; analytically and graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values to the various parameters. These graphs depict the stability characteristics. Regions of stability and instability are identified and discussed in some depth. Some previous studies are recovered upon appropriate data choices. The stability criterion in case of ignoring the relaxation stress times is also derived. To relax the mathematical manipulation of the nonlinear approach, the linearity of the equations of motion is taken into account in correspondence with the nonlinear boundary conditions. Taylor's theory is adopted to expand the governing nonlinear characteristic equation according to of the multiple time scales technique. This analysis leads to the well-known Ginzburg–Landau equation, which governs the stability criteria. The stability criteria are achieved theoretically. To simplify the mathematical manipulation, a special case is considered to achieve the numerical estimations. The influence of orientation of the magnetic fields on the stability configuration, in linear as well as nonlinear approaches, makes a dual role for the magnetic field strength in the stability graphs. Stability diagram is plotted for
Martínez, G; Malumbres, A; Mallada, R; Hueso, J L; Irusta, S; Bomatí-Miguel, O; Santamaría, J
2012-10-26
The present work addresses the main bottleneck in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis. Since the introduction of laser pyrolysis for the production of nanoparticles nearly three decades ago, this method has been repeatedly presented as a highly promising alternative, on account of two main characteristics: (i) its flexibility, since nanoparticles can be formed from a wide variety of precursors in both gas and liquid phase, and (ii) its continuous nature, avoiding the intrinsic variability of batch processing. However, the results reported to date invariably show considerable aggregation of the obtained nanoparticles, which strongly limits their application in most fields. In this work, we have been able to circumvent this problem by collecting the particles in a polyol liquid medium. This method prevents the formation of aggregates and renders a uniform distribution of well dispersed ultrasmall nanoparticles (applications wherever there is a strict requirement for non-agglomerated nanoparticles.
Ruiz, M. E.; Dasso, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Weygand, J. M.
2014-10-01
The solar wind is a structured and complex system, in which the fields vary strongly over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As an example, the turbulent activity in the wind affects the evolution in the heliosphere of the integral turbulent scale or correlation length [ λ], usually associated with the breakpoint in the turbulent-energy spectrum that separates the inertial range from the injection range. This large variability of the fields demands a statistical description of the solar wind. We study the probability distribution function (PDF) of the magnetic-autocorrelation lengths observed in the solar wind at different distances from the Sun. We used observations from the Helios, ACE, and Ulysses spacecraft. We distinguished between the usual solar wind and one of its transient components (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs), and also studied solar-wind samples with low and high proton beta [βp]. We find that in the last three regimes the PDF of λ is a log-normal function, consistent with the multiplicative and nonlinear processes that take place in the solar wind, the initial λ (before the Alfvénic point) being larger in ICMEs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, P.K.; Tiwari, Anita; Argal, Shraddha; Chhajlani, R.K.
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to an investigation of Quantum effects and magnetic field effects on the Rayleigh Taylor instability of two superposed incompressible fluids in bounded porous medium. The Quantum magneto hydrodynamic equations are solved by using normal mode method and a dispersion relation is obtained. The dispersion relation is derived for the case where plasma is bounded by two rigid planes z = 0 and z = h. The Rayleigh Taylor instability growth rate and stability condition of the medium is discussed in the presence of quantum effect, magnetic field, porosity and permeability. It is found that the magnetic field and medium porosity have stabilizing influence while permeability has destabilizing influence on the Rayleigh Taylor instability. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Depine, Ricardo A [Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de FIsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States); Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2005-08-01
Diffraction of linearly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at the periodically corrugated boundary of vacuum and a linear, homogeneous, uniaxial, dielectric-magnetic medium is formulated as a boundary-value problem and solved using the Rayleigh method. The focus is on situations where the diffracted fields maintain the same polarization state as the s- or p-polarized incident plane wave. Attention is paid to two classes of diffracting media: those with negative definite permittivity and permeability tensors, and those with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors. For the situations investigated, whereas the dispersion equations in the diffracting medium turn out to be elliptic for the first class of diffracting media, they are hyperbolic for the second class. Examples are reported with the first class of diffracting media of instances when the grating acts either as a positively refracting interface or as a negatively refracting interface. For the second class of diffracting media, hyperbolic dispersion equations imply the possibility of an infinite number of refraction channels.
Low-Mach-number turbulence in interstellar gas revealed by radio polarization gradients.
Gaensler, B M; Haverkorn, M; Burkhart, B; Newton-McGee, K J; Ekers, R D; Lazarian, A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Robishaw, T; Dickey, J M; Green, A J
2011-10-05
The interstellar medium of the Milky Way is multiphase, magnetized and turbulent. Turbulence in the interstellar medium produces a global cascade of random gas motions, spanning scales ranging from 100 parsecs to 1,000 kilometres (ref. 4). Fundamental parameters of interstellar turbulence such as the sonic Mach number (the speed of sound) have been difficult to determine, because observations have lacked the sensitivity and resolution to image the small-scale structure associated with turbulent motion. Observations of linear polarization and Faraday rotation in radio emission from the Milky Way have identified unusual polarized structures that often have no counterparts in the total radiation intensity or at other wavelengths, and whose physical significance has been unclear. Here we report that the gradient of the Stokes vector (Q, U), where Q and U are parameters describing the polarization state of radiation, provides an image of magnetized turbulence in diffuse, ionized gas, manifested as a complex filamentary web of discontinuities in gas density and magnetic field. Through comparison with simulations, we demonstrate that turbulence in the warm, ionized medium has a relatively low sonic Mach number, M(s) ≲ 2. The development of statistical tools for the analysis of polarization gradients will allow accurate determinations of the Mach number, Reynolds number and magnetic field strength in interstellar turbulence over a wide range of conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linkmann, Moritz; Sahoo, Ganapati; Biferale, Luca [Department of Physics and INFN, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); McKay, Mairi; Berera, Arjun [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, EH9 3FD, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2017-02-10
We present a numerical and analytical study of incompressible homogeneous conducting fluids using a helical Fourier representation. We analytically study both small- and large-scale dynamo properties, as well as the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, in the most general minimal subset of interacting velocity and magnetic fields on a closed Fourier triad. We mainly focus on the dependency of magnetic field growth as a function of the distribution of kinetic and magnetic helicities among the three interacting wavenumbers. By combining direct numerical simulations of the full magnetohydrodynamics equations with the helical Fourier decomposition, we numerically confirm that in the kinematic dynamo regime the system develops a large-scale magnetic helicity with opposite sign compared to the small-scale kinetic helicity, a sort of triad-by-triad α -effect in Fourier space. Concerning the small-scale perturbations, we predict theoretically and confirm numerically that the largest instability is achived for the magnetic component with the same helicity of the flow, in agreement with the Stretch–Twist–Fold mechanism. Vice versa, in the presence of Lorentz feedback on the velocity, we find that the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity is mostly local if magnetic and kinetic helicities have opposite signs, while it is more nonlocal and more intense if they have the same sign, as predicted by the analytical approach. Our analytical and numerical results further demonstrate the potential of the helical Fourier decomposition to elucidate the entangled dynamics of magnetic and kinetic helicities both in fully developed turbulence and in laminar flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asahina, Yuta; Ohsuga, Ken [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nomura, Mariko, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)
2017-05-01
By performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subrelativistic jets and disk winds propagating into the magnetized inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM), we investigate the magnetic effects on the active galactic nucleus feedback. Our simulations reveal that the magnetic tension force promotes the acceleration of the dense gas clouds, since the magnetic field lines, which are initially straight, bend around the gas clouds. In the jet models, the velocity dispersion of the clouds increases with an increase in the initial magnetic fields. The increment of the kinetic energy of the clouds is proportional to the initial magnetic fields, implying that the magnetic tension force increases the energy conversion efficiency from the jet to the gas clouds. Through simulations of the mildly collimated disk wind and the funnel-shaped disk wind, we confirm that such an enhancement of the energy conversion efficiency via the magnetic fields appears even if the energy is injected via the disk winds. The enhancement of the acceleration of the dense part of the magnetized ISM via the magnetic tension force will occur wherever the magnetized inhomogeneous matter is blown away.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke
2015-01-01
, according to the lifetime power cycles, the lifespan can be calculated when operating in various wind classes. It is concluded that, although the low-speed permanent-magnet synchronous generator is able to eliminate the gearbox, the lifespan of its machine-side converter is lower than the one-stage medium...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H., E-mail: Rahimpour@guilan.ac.ir
2014-03-01
In this paper, group velocity control of Gaussian beam in a dielectric medium doped with nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers under optical excitation is discussed. The shape of transmitted and reflected pulses from dielectric can be tuned by changing the intensity of magnetic field and polarization of the control beam. The effect of intensity of control beam on group velocity is also investigated.
Das, Aritra; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Roy, Pradip K.; Mustafa, Munshi G.
2018-02-01
We have systematically constructed the general structure of the fermion self-energy and the effective quark propagator in the presence of a nontrivial background such as a hot magnetized medium. This is applicable to both QED and QCD. The hard thermal loop approximation has been used for the heat bath. We have also examined transformation properties of the effective fermion propagator under some of the discrete symmetries of the system. Using the effective fermion propagator we have analyzed the fermion dispersion spectra in a hot magnetized medium along with the spinor for each fermion mode obtained by solving the modified Dirac equation. The fermion spectra is found to reflect the discrete symmetries of the two-point functions. We note that for a chirally symmetric theory the degenerate left- and right-handed chiral modes in vacuum or in a heat bath get separated and become asymmetric in the presence of a magnetic field without disturbing the chiral invariance. The obtained general structure of the two-point functions is verified by computing the three-point function, which agrees with the existing results in one-loop order. Finally, we have computed explicitly the spectral representation of the two-point functions which would be very important to study the spectral properties of the hot magnetized medium corresponding to QED and QCD with background magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chinthaka GOONERATNE
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Hyperthermia treatment has been gaining momentum in the past few years as a possible method to manage cancer. Cancer cells are different to normal cells in many ways including how they react to heat. Due to this difference it is possible for hyperthermia treatment to destroy cancer cells without harming the healthy normal cells surrounding the tumor. Magnetic particles injected into the body generate heat by hysteresis loss and temperature is increased when a time varying external magnetic field is applied. Successful treatment depends on how efficiently the heat is controlled. Thus, it is very important to estimate the magnetic fluid density in the body. Experimental apparatus designed for testing, numerical analysis, and results obtained by experimentation using a simple yet novel and minimally invasive needle type spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR sensor, to estimate low concentration magnetic fluid weight density and detection of magnetic fluid in a reference medium is reported.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
W. Davis, S.; M. Stone, J.; Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
We examine the effects of density stratification on magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in local simulations that adopt the shearing box approximation. Our primary result is that, even in the absence of explicit dissipation, the addition of vertical gravity ....... Confirming the results of previous studies, we find oscillations in the large scale toroidal field with periods of ~10 orbits and describe the dynamo process that underlies these cycles....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poidevin, Frederick; Bastien, Pierre; Matthews, Brenda C.
2010-01-01
The SCUBA polarized 850 μm thermal emission data of the OMC-2 region in Orion A are added to and homogeneously reduced with data already available in the OMC-3 region. The data set shows that OMC-2 is a region generally less polarized than OMC-3. Where coincident, most of the 850 μm polarization pattern is similar to that measured in 350 μm polarization data. Only 850 μm polarimetry data have been obtained in and around MMS7, FIR1 and FIR2, and in the region south of FIR6. A realignment of the polarization vectors with the filament can be seen near FIR1 in the region south of OMC-3. An analysis shows that the energy injected by CO outflows and H 2 jets associated with OMC-2 and OMC-3 does not appear to alter the polarization patterns at a scale of the 14'' resolution beam. A second-order structure function analysis of the polarization position angles shows that OMC-2 is a more turbulent region than OMC-3. OMC-3 appears to be a clear case of a magnetically dominated region with respect to the turbulence. However, for OMC-2 it is not clear that this is the case. A more in-depth analysis of five regions displayed along OMC-2/3 indicates a decrease of the mean polarization degree and an increase of the turbulent angular dispersion from north to south. A statistical analysis suggests the presence of two depolarization regimes in our maps: one regime including the effects of the cores, the other one excluding it.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Chushiro
1982-01-01
First, distributions of surface densities of dust materials and gases in a preplanetary solar nebula, which give a good fit to the distribution of the planetary mass, are presented and the over-all structure of this nebula, which is in thermal and gravitational equilibrium, is studied. Second, in order to see magnetic effect on the structure, electric conductivity of a gas ionized by cosmic rays and radioactivities contained in dust grains is estimated for each region of the nebula and, then, the growth and decay of seed magnetic fields, which are due to differential rotation of the nebula and to the Joule dissipation, respectively, are calculated. The results indicate that, in regions of the terrestrial planets, magnetic fields decay much faster than they grow and magnetic effects can be ignored, except for the outermost layers of very low density. This is not the case for regions of Uranus and Neptune where magnetic fields can be amplified to considerable extents. Third, the transport of angular momentum due to magnetic and mechanical turbulent viscosities and the resultant redistribution of surface density in the nebula are investigated. The results show that the density redistribution occurs, in general, in a direction to attain a distribution of surface density which has nearly the same ν-dependence as that obtained from the present distribution of the planetary mass. This redistribution seems to be possible if it occurs at a formation stage of the nebula where the presence of large viscosities is expected. Finally, a comment is given on the initial condition of a collapsing interstellar cloud from which the solar nebula is formed at the end of the collapse. (author)
Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.
1991-01-01
Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem
Coronae as Consequence of Large Scale Magnetic Fields in Turbulent Accretion Disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
G. Blackman, Eric; Pessah, Martin Elias
2009-01-01
emission. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of the magnetic energy in accretion disks resides in large scale fields, which in turn provides circumstantial evidence for significant non-local transport phenomena and the need for large scale magnetic field generation. For the example of Seyfert...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Podesta, John J., E-mail: kristopher-klein@uiowa.edu [Center for Space Plasma Physics, Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)
2014-04-20
Motivated by recent observations of distinct parallel and perpendicular signatures in magnetic helicity measurements segregated by wave period and angle between the local magnetic field and the solar wind velocity, this paper undertakes a comparison of three intervals of Ulysses data with synthetic time series generated from a physically motivated turbulence model. From these comparisons, it is hypothesized that the observed signatures result from a perpendicular cascade of Alfvénic fluctuations and a local, non-turbulent population of ion-cyclotron or whistler waves generated by temperature anisotropy instabilities. By constraining the model's free parameters through comparison to in situ data, it is found that, on average, ∼95% of the power near dissipative scales is contained in a perpendicular Alfvénic cascade and that the parallel fluctuations are propagating nearly unidirectionally. The effects of aliasing on magnetic helicity measurements are considered and shown to be significant near the Nyquist frequency.
Non-Force-Free Magnetic Flux Ropes with Minimum Complexity in anAmbient Medium: A Parameter Study
2012-10-16
nonzero (Chen 2012, henceforth referred to as Paper 1). The work is formulated using standard magnetohydrodynamics ( MHD ) and develops a new physical...embedded in a plasma medium of pressure pa. The method presented in Paper 1 self-consistently solves the basic one-dimensional (1D) MHD equation subject...channel of electric current and the magnetic field arising from this current. An analytic method has been developed to obtain one-dimensional equilibrium
Is the Magnetic Field in the Heliosheath Laminar or a Turbulent Sea of Bubbles?
Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Schoeffler, K. M.; Richardson, J. D.; Decker, R. B.; Toth, G.
2011-06-01
All current global models of the heliosphere are based on the assumption that the magnetic field in the heliosheath, in the region close to the heliopause (HP), is laminar. We argue that in that region the heliospheric magnetic field is not laminar but instead consists of magnetic bubbles. We refer to it as the bubble-dominated heliosheath region. Recently, we proposed that the annihilation of the "sectored" magnetic field within the heliosheath as it is compressed on its approach to the HP produces anomalous cosmic rays and also energetic electrons. As a product of the annihilation of the sectored magnetic field, densely packed magnetic islands (which further interact to form magnetic bubbles) are produced. These magnetic islands/bubbles will be convected with ambient flows as the sector region is carried to higher latitudes filling the heliosheath. We further argue that the magnetic islands/bubbles will develop upstream within the heliosheath. As a result, the magnetic field in the heliosheath sector region will be disordered well upstream of the HP. We present a three-dimensional MHD simulation with very high numerical resolution that captures the north-south boundaries of the sector region. We show that due to the high pressure of the interstellar magnetic field a north-south asymmetry develops such that the disordered sectored region fills a large portion of the northern part of the heliosphere with a smaller extension in the southern hemisphere. We suggest that this scenario is supported by the following changes that occurred around 2008 and from 2009.16 onward: (1) the sudden decrease in the intensity of low energy electrons (0.02-1.5 MeV) detected by Voyager 2, (2) a sharp reduction in the intensity of fluctuations of the radial flow, and (3) the dramatic differences in intensity trends between galactic cosmic ray electrons (3.8-59 MeV) at Voyager 1 and 2. We argue that these observations are a consequence of Voyager 2 leaving the sector region of
Tempered Lévy walk of charged particles in turbulent magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sibatov, R T; Uchaikin, V V; Byzykchi, A N
2017-01-01
Recently, various diffusion regimes of ions and electrons in interplanetary magnetic field have been recognized from the data collected by different spacecrafts. Particularly for protons, superdiffusion and normal diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field were declared, simulation also predicts transient superdiffusive behavior. We interpret parallel motion in terms of the one-dimensional tempered Lévy walk process and show that this representation is consistent with the experimental and simulated results. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandesris, M
2006-12-15
This work deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flows in the whole nuclear reactor core, using multi-scale approaches. First, a macroscopic turbulence model is built, based on a porous media approach, to describe the flow in the fuel assemblies part of the nuclear core. Then, we study the jump conditions that have to be applied at a free fluid/porous interface. A thorough analytical study is carried out for laminar flows. This study allows to answer some fundamental questions about the physical meaning of the jump conditions, the values of the jump parameters and the location of the interface. Using these results, jump conditions for turbulent flows are proposed. The model is then applied to the simulation of a turbulent flow in a simplified model of a reactor core. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Linghuai; Sofia, Sabatino; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Ventura, Paolo; Penza, Valentina; Bi Shaolan
2009-01-01
In the second paper of this series we pursue two objectives. First, in order to make the code more sensitive to small effects, we remove many approximations made in Paper I. Second, we include turbulence and rotation in the two-dimensional framework. The stellar equilibrium is described by means of a set of five differential equations, with the introduction of a new dependent variable, namely the perturbation to the radial gravity, that is found when the nonradial effects are considered in the solution of the Poisson equation. Following the scheme of the first paper, we write the equations in such a way that the two-dimensional effects can be easily disentangled. The key concept introduced in this series is the equipotential surface. We use the underlying cause-effect relation to develop a recurrence relation to calculate the equipotential surface functions for uniform rotation, differential rotation, rotation-like toroidal magnetic fields, and turbulence. We also develop a more precise code to numerically solve the two-dimensional stellar structure and evolution equations based on the equipotential surface calculations. We have shown that with this formulation we can achieve the precision required by observations by appropriately selecting the convergence criterion. Several examples are presented to show that the method works well. Since we are interested in modeling the effects of a dynamo-type field on the detailed envelope structure and global properties of the Sun, the code has been optimized for short timescales phenomena (down to 1 yr). The time dependence of the code has so far been tested exclusively to address such problems.
Magnetic fields in diffuse media
Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio
2015-01-01
This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.
Interstellar MHD Turbulence and Star Formation
Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique
This chapter reviews the nature of turbulence in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and its connections to the star formation (SF) process. The ISM is turbulent, magnetized, self-gravitating, and is subject to heating and cooling processes that control its thermodynamic behavior, causing it to behave approximately isobarically, in spite of spanning several orders of magnitude in density and temperature. The turbulence in the warm and hot ionized components of the ISM appears to be trans- or subsonic, and thus to behave nearly incompressibly. However, the neutral warm and cold components are highly compressible, as a consequence of both thermal instability (TI) in the atomic gas and of moderately-to-strongly supersonic motions in the roughly isothermal cold atomic and molecular components. Within this context, we discuss: (1) the production and statistical distribution of turbulent density fluctuations in both isothermal and polytropic media; (2) the nature of the clumps produced by TI, noting that, contrary to classical ideas, they in general accrete mass from their environment in spite of exhibiting sharp discontinuities at their boundaries; (3) the density-magnetic field correlation (and, at low densities, lack thereof) in turbulent density fluctuations, as a consequence of the superposition of the different wave modes in the turbulent flow; (4) the evolution of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio (MFR) in density fluctuations as they are built up by dynamic compressions; (5) the formation of cold, dense clouds aided by TI, in both the hydrodynamic (HD) and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cases; (6) the expectation that star-forming molecular clouds are likely to be undergoing global gravitational contraction, rather than being near equilibrium, as generally believed, and (7) the regulation of the star formation rate (SFR) in such gravitationally contracting clouds by stellar feedback which, rather than keeping the clouds from collapsing, evaporates and disperses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Murphy, Neil [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 180-600, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nuno, Raquel G., E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: cjl46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: raquel.nuno@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)
2014-06-01
The low-frequency magnetic waves that arise from the isotropization of newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) are reasonably well described by linear and quasi-linear kinetic theory in so far as those theories predict the wave frequency and polarization in the spacecraft frame. Those theories fail to describe the scarce observability of the waves. Quasilinear theory predicts that the wave power should accumulate over long periods of time as the relatively weak kinetic instability slowly adds power to the observed spectrum. At the same time it has been argued that the same wave energy must serve as a secondary source of thermal ion heating in the outer heliosphere once the initial turbulence is depleted. To the extent that turbulent transport of the wave energy acts against the spectrally confined accumulation of wave energy, turbulence should be a limiting factor in observability. We argue that turbulence does limit the observability of the waves and we use turbulence theory to predict the observed wave energy. We compare this prediction against a database of 502 wave observations attributed to newborn interstellar PUIs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cannon, Bradford E.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G.
2014-01-01
The low-frequency magnetic waves that arise from the isotropization of newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) are reasonably well described by linear and quasi-linear kinetic theory in so far as those theories predict the wave frequency and polarization in the spacecraft frame. Those theories fail to describe the scarce observability of the waves. Quasilinear theory predicts that the wave power should accumulate over long periods of time as the relatively weak kinetic instability slowly adds power to the observed spectrum. At the same time it has been argued that the same wave energy must serve as a secondary source of thermal ion heating in the outer heliosphere once the initial turbulence is depleted. To the extent that turbulent transport of the wave energy acts against the spectrally confined accumulation of wave energy, turbulence should be a limiting factor in observability. We argue that turbulence does limit the observability of the waves and we use turbulence theory to predict the observed wave energy. We compare this prediction against a database of 502 wave observations attributed to newborn interstellar PUIs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft.
Tu, C.; Wang, X.; He, J.; Marsch, E.; Wang, L.
2013-12-01
The magnetic intermittent micro-structures (on time scales of 20-40s) in both fast and slow solar wind are studied by using plasma and field measurements from the WIND spacecraft. In the fast wind these structures are found to be composed of mostly rotational discontinuities (RDs) and rarely tangential current sheets (TCSs). The RDs do not show prominent plasma-parameter changes. Conversely, the TCSs have a distinct tendency to be associated with local enhancements of the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta, and a local decrease of the magnetic field magnitude. These results show that dissipation of solar wind turbulence can take place in intermittent or locally isolated small-scale regions which correspond to the TCSs found in fast wind. However in slow wind, magnetic intermittent micro-structures are found to consist of mainly magnetic field directional turnings (MFDTs, Tu & Marsch, Ann. Geophysicae, 9, 319,1991) and rarely tangential current sheets (TCSs). The MFDTs are characterized by: (1) clear variation of the field component in the L dimension of the LMN coordinate system using the MVA method; (2) at least one of B_M or B_N is near to zero, or the velocity component V_L is near to zero; (3) the magnetic magnitude does not have a clear change; (4) no significant temperature and density peaks. The TCSs found in slow wind are not associated with prominent temperature enhancements. The TCSs found in both fast and slow wind may be created by turbulence interactions. The heating effect of TCSs in slow wind is weaker because the turbulence level is lower. The origin of the RDs in fast wind and the MFDTs in slow wind will be a topic for future studies. MFDTs may be observed when crossing a magnetic helical micro-tube, which may be formed due to tearing mode instability and magnetic multi-x-point reconnection in the slow wind.
Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection into Two–phase Flow in a Porous Medium
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-06-09
In this paper, the problem of magnetic nanoparticles injection into a water–oil two–phase flow under an external permanent magnetic field is investigated. The mathematical model of the problem under consideration has been developed. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture while it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetized phase pressure includes an additional pressure term with the conventional thermodynamic pressure. The countercurrent imbibition flow problem is taken as an example. Physical variables including water–nanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat deposited nanoparticles are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguirre, R.M.; Paoli, A.L. de [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and IFLP, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina)
2016-11-15
We obtain the covariant propagator at finite temperature for interacting baryons immersed in a strong magnetic field. The effect of the intrinsic magnetic moments on the Green function are fully taken into account. We make an expansion in terms of eigenfunctions of a Dirac field, which leads us to a compact form of its propagator. We present some simple applications of these propagators, where the statistical averages of nuclear currents and energy density are evaluated. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Smolkova, I.S.; Kazantseva, N.E.; Babayan, V.; Smolka, P.; Parmar, H.; Vilcakova, J.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Pizúrová, Naděžda
2015-01-01
Roč. 374, JAN (2015), s. 508-515 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Iron oxide nanoparticles * Coprecipitation * Magnetic interactions * Specific loss power * Hyperthermia Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015
Medium alloyed magnetic steel with low core loss and high permeability
Huneus, H.; Kochmann, T.; Schoppa, A.; Wich, H.
1992-07-01
In non-oriented silicon-steel the high-field permeability usually decreases with decreasing core loss. A new magnetic steel grade Staboperm T 1 is presented which combines the low core loss of high silicon steel grades with the high magnetic polarization of non-alloyed grades.
Medium alloyed magnetic steel with low core loss and high permeability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huneus, H.; Kochmann, T.; Schoppa, A.; Wich, H.
1992-01-01
In non-oriented silicon-steel the high-field permeability usually decreases with decreasing core loss. A new magnetic steel grade Staboperm T 1 is presented which combines the low core loss of high silicon steel grades with the high magnetic polarization of non-alloyed grades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (India)
2016-11-20
At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-Alla, A.M.; Abo-Dahab, S.M.; Al-Simery, R.D.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effects of both rotation and magnetic field of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium induced by sinusoidal peristaltic waves traveling down the channel walls are studied analytically and computed numerically. Closed-form solutions under the consideration of long wavelength and low-Reynolds number is presented. The analytical expressions for axial velocity, pressure rise per wavelength, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient are obtained in the physical domain. The effect of the rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude in the wave frame is analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically in each case considered. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and magnetic field. The results indicate that the effect of rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude are very pronounced in the phenomena. - Highlights: • The effects of induced magnetic field and rotation in peristaltic motion of a two dimensional of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium • The exact and closed form solutions are presented • Different wave shapes are considered to observe the behavior of the axial velocity, pressure rise, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd-Alla, A.M., E-mail: mohmrr@yahoo.com [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Abo-Dahab, S.M., E-mail: sdahb@yahoo.com [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Maths Department, Faculty of Science, SVU, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Al-Simery, R.D. [Maths Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Saudi Arabia)
2013-12-15
In this paper, the effects of both rotation and magnetic field of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium induced by sinusoidal peristaltic waves traveling down the channel walls are studied analytically and computed numerically. Closed-form solutions under the consideration of long wavelength and low-Reynolds number is presented. The analytical expressions for axial velocity, pressure rise per wavelength, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient are obtained in the physical domain. The effect of the rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude in the wave frame is analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically in each case considered. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and magnetic field. The results indicate that the effect of rotation, density, Hartmann number, permeability, coupling number, micropolar parameter and the non-dimensional wave amplitude are very pronounced in the phenomena. - Highlights: • The effects of induced magnetic field and rotation in peristaltic motion of a two dimensional of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium • The exact and closed form solutions are presented • Different wave shapes are considered to observe the behavior of the axial velocity, pressure rise, mechanical efficiency, spin velocity, stream function and pressure gradient.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarazin, Y
2004-03-01
This document gathers the lectures made in the framework of a Ph.D level physics class dedicated to plasma physics. This course is made up of 3 parts : 1) collisions and transport, 2) transport and turbulence, and 3) study of a few exchange instabilities. More precisely the first part deals with the following issues: thermonuclear fusion, Coulomb collisions, particles trajectories in a tokamak, neo-classical transport in tokamaks, the bootstrap current, and ware pinch. The second part involves: particle transport in tokamaks, quasi-linear transport, resonance islands, resonance in tokamaks, from quasi to non-linear transport, and non-linear saturation of turbulence. The third part deals with: shift velocities in fluid theory, a model for inter-change instabilities, Rayleigh-Benard instability, Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and Hasegawa-Mima model. This document ends with a series of appendices dealing with: particle-wave interaction, determination of the curvature parameter G, Rossby waves.
Study of two medium size 'C' core electromagnets generating low magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatia, M.S.; Dass, S.; Chatterjee, U.K.
1987-01-01
Magnetic field requirements of laboratories may impose constraints that often call for a variety of non-standard designs. The designer has to fulfil these demands without letting the design to become too inefficient. Since no ready design procedures are available he has to resort to intuition calculation and modelling. In spite of this there may be wide discrepancy between the design values and the actual results. This report describes the experience gained on two 'C' core electromagnets being used by authors. These magnets generate low magnetic fields over reasonably large volumes, a requirement that runs opposite to that of most other magnets. The study reveals the dependence of overall performance efficiency, field uniformity etc. on the design parameters. 31 figures. (author)
Chhiber, Rohit; Usmanov, Arcadi V.; DeForest, Craig E.; Matthaeus, William H.; Parashar, Tulasi N.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2018-04-01
Recent analysis of Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) imaging observations have described the early stages of the development of turbulence in the young solar wind in solar minimum conditions. Here we extend this analysis to a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the corona and solar wind based on inner boundary conditions, either dipole or magnetogram type, that emulate solar minimum. The simulations have been calibrated using Ulysses and 1 au observations, and allow, within a well-understood context, a precise determination of the location of the Alfvén critical surfaces and the first plasma beta equals unity surfaces. The compatibility of the the STEREO observations and the simulations is revealed by direct comparisons. Computation of the radial evolution of second-order magnetic field structure functions in the simulations indicates a shift toward more isotropic conditions at scales of a few Gm, as seen in the STEREO observations in the range 40–60 R ⊙. We affirm that the isotropization occurs in the vicinity of the first beta unity surface. The interpretation based on early stages of in situ solar wind turbulence evolution is further elaborated, emphasizing the relationship of the observed length scales to the much smaller scales that eventually become the familiar turbulence inertial range cascade. We argue that the observed dynamics is the very early manifestation of large-scale in situ nonlinear couplings that drive turbulence and heating in the solar wind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kakar Rajneesh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of gravity, initial stress, non-homogeneity, electric and magnetic field on the propagation of shear waves in an anisotropic incompressible medium. Various graphs are plotted to show the effect of direction of propagation, the anisotropy, magnetic field, electric field, non-homogeneity of the medium and the initial stress on shear waves. The dispersion equations for shear waves are obtained and discussed for different cases. In fact, in the absence of various material parameters, these equations are in agreement with the classical results for isotropic medium.
Strelniker, Yakov M.; Bergman, David J.
2017-12-01
A calculational method based on Fourier expansion is developed and applied to the study of the strong-field galvanomagnetic thermoelectric properties of a free-electron metal, inside of which is embedded a simple cubic array of identical spheres or cylinders, which have different thermoelectric and conductivity tensors. When the magnetic field is strong enough, the effective galvanomagnetic thermoelectric properties of such composites exhibit very strong variations with the direction of the applied magnetic field with respect to the symmetry axes of the composite microstructure. This is qualitatively similar to the predicted magnetoinduced angular magnetoresistance anisotropy [D. J. Bergman and Y. M. Strelniker, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16256 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevB.49.16256] which was verified experimentally [M. Tornow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 147 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.147]. This is a purely classical effect, even though it is qualitatively similar to what is observed in some metallic crystals which have a noncompact Fermi surface. The current results can be useful for studying the possibility of increasing the thermoelectric figure of merit in periodic composites by application of a strong magnetic field. As follows from our very preliminary results, the figure of merit can be increased by application of a strong magnetic field to the composite.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karolis ŠILEIKA
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this research paper a design of magnetic device comprising Halbach arrays which maximizes the magnetic forces acting on magnetic nanoparticles and which can be used for successful steering of said particles to a zone of interest and captured thereat while exhibiting a certain flow and accumulation pattern after injection into a stream of a liquid medium is presented. The aim was to investigate efficiency of such design of a magnetic device for application in magnetic targeting techniques. The presented construction was assembled from 10 magnetic elements having the same dimensions and residual magnetic field, and casing of Plexiglas material. Aggregating of clusters of FePt nanoparticles was evidently successful at preferable region located between two opposing parts of a magnetic device, which was tested for flow rates of (1 – 10 mL/min of main stream medium. To simulate the viscosity of blood a 1.5 % PVP 90 solution was used as the flowing medium. The shallow depth of targeting was chosen for practical reason: to ensure a maximum visibility of particle "steering" pattern obtainable by the magnetic device consisting of two adjacent parts comprising Halbach arrays. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3371
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark D.
2015-01-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A.; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Li, Hui; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe
2015-07-01
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2015-07-15
Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.
Zulfikar, Aldi; Girsang, Denni Yulius; Saepuzaman, Duden; Samsudin, Achmad
2017-05-01
Conceptual understanding is one of the most important aspects in the study of Physics because of it useful to understand principles behind certain phenomenon which happened. An innovative method was needed to strengthen and enhance student's conceptual understanding, especially regarding the abstract subject such as magnetic field. For this reason, worksheet and exploration sheet based on PDEODE*E (Predict, Discuss, Explain, Observe, Discuss, Explore, and Explain) that uses Gauss Meter application as the smartphone technology has been designed to answer the problem. The magnetic field strength in different mediums is the physics subject which covered in this research. The research was conducted with the aim to know how effective smartphone technology-based PDEODE*E could be implemented as a physics learning strategy. The result of this research shows that students could show improvements in conceptual understanding that shown by the conclusion that was constructed during the learning process. Based on this result, PDEODE*E could become a solution to strengthen students' conceptual understanding regarding physics subject, especially those that requires abstract thinking. This result also has shown that the application ofsmartphone technology could be used to support physics learning processes in the classroom, such as Gauss Meter in this research which used to measure the magnetic field, Light Meter which could be used in the concept of light, and Harmonicity Meter for the context of the sound wave.
D'Aprile, Paola; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Tarantino, Alfredo; Cornacchia, Samantha; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Jinkins, J Randy
2018-01-19
To examine both anterior and posterior elements of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain using MRI T2-weighted sequences with Fat Saturation (FS) and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences with FS. Two thousand eight hundred and twenty (2820) patients (1628 male, 1192 female, mean age 54) presenting low back pain underwent MRI standard examination (Sagittal T1w TSE and T2w TSE, axial T1 SE) with the addition of sagittal and axial T2w Fat Sat (FS) sequences. Among all the patients, 987 (35%) have been studied adding Contrast Enhanced (CE) T1w FS sequences after administration of contrast medium. Among 987 patients studied with contrast medium, we found: active-inflammatory intervertebral osteochondrosis in 646 (65%) patients; degenerative-inflammatory changes in facet joints (facet joint effusion, synovitis, synovial cysts) in 462 (47%); spondylolysis in 69 (7%); degenerative-inflammatory changes of the flava, interspinous and supraspinous ligaments in 245 (25%); inflammatory changes of posterior perispinal muscles in 84 (8%) patients. In patients with suspected no-disc-related low back pain, the implementation of T2w FS and CE T1w FS sequences to the standard MR protocol could allow a better identification of degenerative-inflammatory changes more likely associated to the pain.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk; Shahzad, S. A.; Meraj, M. A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M. K. [Department of CASPAM, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Raza, J. [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)
2016-03-15
A numerical study is carried out for two dimensional steady incompressible mixed convective flow of electrically conductive micro nanofluid in a stretchable channel. The flow is generated due to the stretching walls of the channel immersed in a porous medium. The magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the walls. The impact of radiation, viscous dissipation, thermophoretic and Brownian motion of nanoparticles appear in the energy equation. A numerical technique based on Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order (RFK45) method is used to express the solutions of velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields. The dimensionless physical parameters are discussed both in tabular and graphical forms. The results are also found in a good agreement with previously published literature work.
Mahmud, Mohammad Hazzaz
There is a developing enthusiasm for electric vehicle (EV) innovations as a result of their lessened fuel utilization and greenhouse emission especially through wireless power transfer (WPT) due to the convenience and continuous charging. Numerous research initiatives target on wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the attempt to improve the transportation for last few decades. But several problems like less efficiency, high frequency, long distance energy transfer etc. were always been occupied by the wireless power transfer system. Two ideas have been developed in this research to resolve the two main problems of WPT for electric vehicles which are low efficiency due to large distance between the two coils and slow charging time. As the first phase of study, a proper model, including the coils and cores were required. The selected model was a finite element (FE) modeling. Another part of this study was to create a modified cement that will act as a semi-conductive material for covering the transmitting antenna area. A high frequency wide band gap switch will be used for transferring high amount of power in a very short time. More over this research also proves that, if cores could be added with the transmitter coil and receiver coil then the output efficiency dramatically increased comparing with without core model of transmitter and receiver. The wireless charging is not restricted to parking lot, since it's planned to be embedded into parking space concrete or roadway concrete or asphalt. Therefore, it can also be installed at junctions (behind red lights), stop signs or any spot that the vehicle might stop for several moments. This technology will become more feasible, if the charging time decreases. Therefore, a new model of for wireless power transfer has been proposed in this study which has shown significant improvement. Another motive of this study was to improve the conductivity and permeability in such a way that the medium that is on the top of the
Dynamics and relaxation in confined medium. Application to 129Xe magnetic relaxation in Vycor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquier, Virginie
1995-01-01
Porous media morphology and topology drive the exploration of pore space by fluid. So, analysis of transport process, associated with relaxation mechanism, allows indirect study of pore geometry. The purpose of this work is to understand better the relation between geometry and transport. This study involves two parts: a modelization and prediction step is followed by an experimental application of magnetic relaxation. Numerical simulations and analytical models allow to quantify the influence on the solid interface of the dynamical behavior of confined gas in disordered porous media (granular structure and porous network) or in common geometry (cylindrical and lamellar interfaces). The formalism of diffusion propagator is a powerful tool to quantify the influence of the pore geometry on the diffusion of confined gas. The propagator holds all dynamical information on the system; it also predicts the temporal evolution of the autocorrelation functions of the Hamiltonian describing local coupling. In an intermediate time scale, magnetic relaxation shows complex diffusional regime: the autocorrelation functions decrease in a power law with a exponent smaller than d/2 (where d is the Euclidian dimension of the system). This behavior is analogous to dynamic in low-dimensional space, but here arises from surface correlations of the porous media. The long-time behavior of the autocorrelation functions retrieves the asymptotic decrease t -d/2 . Moreover, atypical behavior is observed for the Knudsen diffusion between infinite planes. It turns out that 129 Xe NMR is a appropriate technique to characterize organization and diffusion of gas confined in Vycor. Systematic studies of temperature and pressure effect on the 129 Xe chemical shift allow to specify the Xe/solid interaction. The analysis of the relaxation measurements, thanks to the numerical development, confirms conclusions arising from the study of diffusion propagator. (author) [fr
Yamazaki, Ken'ichi
2016-07-01
Fault ruptures in the Earth's crust generate both elastic and electromagnetic (EM) waves. If the corresponding EM signals can be observed, then earthquakes could be detected before the first seismic waves arrive. In this study, I consider the piezomagnetic effect as a mechanism that converts elastic waves to EM energy, and I derive analytical formulas for the conversion process. The situation considered in this study is a whole-space model, in which elastic and EM properties are uniform and isotropic. In this situation, the governing equations of the elastic and EM fields, combined with the piezomagnetic constitutive law, can be solved analytically in the time domain by ignoring the displacement current term. Using the derived formulas, numerical examples are investigated, and the corresponding characteristics of the expected magnetic signals are resolved. I show that temporal variations in the magnetic field depend strongly on the electrical conductivity of the medium, meaning that precise detection of signals generated by the piezomagnetic effect is generally difficult. Expected amplitudes of piezomagnetic signals are estimated to be no larger than 0.3 nT for earthquakes with a moment magnitude of ≥7.0 at a source distance of 25 km; however, this conclusion may not extend to the detection of real earthquakes, because piezomagnetic stress sensitivity is currently poorly constrained.
Magnesium sulfate as an oral contrast medium in magnetic resonance imaging of the small intestine.
Shi, Hao; Liu, Cun; Ding, Hong Yu; Li, Chun Wei
2012-03-01
To explore the use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as an oral contrast medium (CM) in MRI of the small intestine. By comparing MgSO4 SNRs at different concentrations, we determined that 2.5% MgSO4 is the ideal concentration for small bowel MRI. Twenty volunteers underwent MRI after drinking 2.5% MgSO4. Thirty-one patients with clinical suspicion of small intestinal pathology underwent both MRI and the air-barium contrast examination. The patient's tolerance, side effects and complications were noted. 2.5% MgSO4 can decrease the absorption of water and fully fill the enteric cavity, thereby increasing the contrast between the intestinal wall and lumen and facilitating radiographic examination of the small bowel. The mean diameter of the small intestine was 19.8±1.21 mm in the 20 volunteers consuming 2.5% MgSO4 and 12.7±0.84 mm in the 20 volunteers given water. There was a significant difference (P0.05) in side effects between MgSO4 and water groups. Small intestinal MRI was successfully performed in all 31 patients, who were also examined by the double contrast barium, which gave almost identical diagnoses to MRI in all cases except for 1 patient with small intestinal hemorrhage. MRI with 2.5% MgSO4 can demonstrate intestinal abnormalities. Therefore, 2.5% MgSO4 solution is an ideal oral CM for small bowel MRI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.
2011-01-01
It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.
Multi-Spacecraft Turbulence Analysis Methods
Horbury, Tim S.; Osman, Kareem T.
Turbulence is ubiquitous in space plasmas, from the solar wind to supernova remnants, and on scales from the electron gyroradius to interstellar separations. Turbulence is responsible for transporting energy across space and between scales and plays a key role in plasma heating, particle acceleration and thermalisation downstream of shocks. Just as with other plasma processes such as shocks or reconnection, turbulence results in complex, structured and time-varying behaviour which is hard to measure with a single spacecraft. However, turbulence is a particularly hard phenomenon to study because it is usually broadband in nature: it covers many scales simultaneously. One must therefore use techniques to extract information on multiple scales in order to quantify plasma turbulence and its effects. The Cluster orbit takes the spacecraft through turbulent regions with a range of characteristics: the solar wind, magnetosheath, cusp and magnetosphere. In each, the nature of the turbulence (strongly driven or fully evolved; dominated by kinetic effects or largely on fluid scales), as well as characteristics of the medium (thermalised or not; high or low plasma sub- or super-Alfvenic) mean that particular techniques are better suited to the analysis of Cluster data in different locations. In this chapter, we consider a range of methods and how they are best applied to these different regions. Perhaps the most studied turbulent space plasma environment is the solar wind, see Bruno and Carbone [2005]; Goldstein et al. [2005] for recent reviews. This is the case for a number of reasons: it is scientifically important for cosmic ray and solar energetic particle scattering and propagation, for example. However, perhaps the most significant motivations for studying solar wind turbulence are pragmatic: large volumes of high quality measurements are available; the stability of the solar wind on the scales of hours makes it possible to identify statistically stationary intervals to
Turbulent dispersion of many particles
Pratt, J.; Busse, A.; Muller, W. C.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate the utility of the convex hull to analyze dispersion of groups of many Lagrangian tracer particles in turbulence. We examine dispersion in turbulent flows driven by convection, relevant to geophysical flows and the spread of contaminants in the atmosphere, and in turbulent flows affected by magnetic fields, relevant to stellar winds and stellar interiors. Convex hull analysis can provide new information about local dispersion, in the form of the surface area and volume for a cluster of particles. We use dispersive information to examine the local anisotropy that occurs in these turbulent settings, and to understand fundamental characteristics of heat transfer and the small-scale dynamo.
Javed, Tariq; Mehmood, Z.; Abbas, Z.
2017-02-01
This article contains numerical results for free convection through square enclosure enclosing ferrofluid saturated porous medium when uniform magnetic field is applied upon the flow along x-axis. Heat is provided through bottom wall and a square blockage placed near left or right bottom corner of enclosure as a heat source. Left and right vertical boundaries of the cavity are considered insulated while upper wall is taken cold. The problem is modelled in terms of system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Finite element method has been adopted to compute numerical simulations of mathematical problem for wide range of pertinent flow parameters including Rayleigh number, Hartman number, Darcy number and Prandtl number. Analysis of results reveals that the strength of streamline circulation is an increasing function of Darcy and Prandtl number where convection heat transfer is dominant for large values of these parameters whereas increase in Hartman number has opposite effects on isotherms and streamline circulations. Thermal conductivity and hence local heat transfer rate of fluid gets increased when ferroparticles are introduced in the fluid. Average Nusselt number increases with increase in Darcy and Rayleigh numbers while it is decreases when Hartman number is increased.
Deamici, Kricelle Mosquera; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira
2018-02-01
This study aimed at evaluating whether a magnetic field (MF) affects the growth of Spirulina sp. when applied to it at different exposure times in indoor and outdoor culture systems. The effects of MF on chlorophyll content, medium consumption and protein profile were also investigated. In raceway tanks, a 25 mT MF was applied for 24 h or for 1 h d -1 . MF for 24 h to outdoor assays increased biomass concentration and chlorophyll-a content besides altering the protein profile. Outdoor Spirulina growth was higher (∼3.65 g L -1 ) than the growth found in indoor assays (∼1.80 g L -1 ), while nitrogen and phosphorus consumption was not enhanced by the application of MF. This is the first study that investigated the influence of MF on outdoor microalga assays, and the results showed that MF affected the metabolism of Spirulina cultured in raceways, especially when it was grown outdoors in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cosmic ray diffusion in a violent interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bykov, A.M.; Toptygin, I.N.
1985-01-01
A variety of the avaiable observational data on the cosmic ray (CR) spectrum, anisotropy and composition are in good agreement with a suggestion on the diffusion propagation of CR with energy below 10(15) eV in the interstellar medium. The magnitude of the CR diffusion coefficient and its energy dependence are determined by interstellar medium (ISM) magnetic field spectra. Direct observational data on magnetic field spectra are still absent. A theoretical model to the turbulence generation in the multiphase ISM is resented. The model is based on the multiple generation of secondary shocks and concomitant large-scale rarefactions due to supernova shock interactions with interstellar clouds. The distribution function for ISM shocks are derived to include supernova statistics, diffuse cloud distribution, and various shock wave propagation regimes. This permits calculation of the ISM magnetic field fluctuation spectrum and CR diffusion coefficient for the hot phase of ISM
PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW EVOLUTION IN TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.
2009-01-01
The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.
SHOCKFIND - an algorithm to identify magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in turbulent clouds
Lehmann, Andrew; Federrath, Christoph; Wardle, Mark
2016-11-01
The formation of stars occurs in the dense molecular cloud phase of the interstellar medium. Observations and numerical simulations of molecular clouds have shown that supersonic magnetized turbulence plays a key role for the formation of stars. Simulations have also shown that a large fraction of the turbulent energy dissipates in shock waves. The three families of MHD shocks - fast, intermediate and slow - distinctly compress and heat up the molecular gas, and so provide an important probe of the physical conditions within a turbulent cloud. Here, we introduce the publicly available algorithm, SHOCKFIND, to extract and characterize the mixture of shock families in MHD turbulence. The algorithm is applied to a three-dimensional simulation of a magnetized turbulent molecular cloud, and we find that both fast and slow MHD shocks are present in the simulation. We give the first prediction of the mixture of turbulence-driven MHD shock families in this molecular cloud, and present their distinct distributions of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. Using subgrid one-dimensional models of MHD shocks we estimate that ˜0.03 per cent of the volume of a typical molecular cloud in the Milky Way will be shock heated above 50 K, at any time during the lifetime of the cloud. We discuss the impact of this shock heating on the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakier Yousof Ahmed
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoretic and magnetic field. The resulting similarity equation are solved by finite difference marching technique. The nature of variation of particle concentration profile and magnetic field with respect to buoyancy force, Fw, and Prandtl number is found to be similar. Comparisons with previous published work are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement. .
The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere
Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.
2011-12-01
Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these
Li, P.-D.; Li, X.-Y.; Kang, G.-Z.; Müller, R.
2017-09-01
This paper is devoted to investigating the thermal-induced electric and magnetic polarization saturations (PS) at the tip of a penny-shaped crack embedded in an infinite space of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic medium. In view of the symmetry with respect to the cracked plane, this crack problem is formulated by a mixed boundary value problem. By virtue of the solution to the Abel type integral equation, the governing equations corresponding to the present problem are analytically solved and the generalized crack surface displacement and field intensity factors are obtained in closed-forms. Applying the hypothesis of the electric and magnetic PS model to the analytical results, the sizes of the electric and magnetic yielding zones are determined. Numerical calculations are carried out to reveal the influences of the thermal load and the electric and magnetic yielding strengths on the results, and to show the distributions of the electric and magnetic potentials on the crack surfaces. It is found that the sizes of electric and magnetic yielding zones are mainly dependent on the electric and magnetic yielding strengths, respectively. Since the multi-ferroic media are widely used in various complex thermal environments, the present work could serve as a reference for the designs of various magneto-electric composite structures.
The impact of supernova remnants on interstellar turbulence and star formation
Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo; Haugboelle, Troels; Nordlund, Ake
2016-06-01
The explosion energy of supernovae is believed to be a major energy source to drive and maintain turbulent motions in the interstellar gas. The interaction of supernova remnants with the interstellar medium plays a crucial role in shaping the statistics of interstellar turbulence, and has important effects on physical properties of molecular clouds. To investigate supernova-driven turbulence in molecular clouds and the implications for star formation, we conducted a large-scale MHD simulation, keeping track of the evolution of supernova remnants and their interactions with the interstellar gas in a region of 250 pc. The simulation accounts for the effects of gas heating and cooling, the magnetic fields and self-gravity, and the explosion energy of supernovae is injected as thermal energy at randomly selected locations in the simulation box. We analyzed the dense molecular clouds formed in our simulation, and showed that their properties, including the mass-size, velocity-size relations, mass and size probability distributions, and magnetic field-density relation, are all consistent with observational results, suggesting that the dynamics and structure of molecular clouds are the natural result of supernova-driven turbulence. We also found that, at the scale of molecular clouds, turbulent motions contain more power in solenoidal modes than in compressive modes. This suggests that the effective driving force for interstellar turbulence is largely solenoidal, in contrast to the recenthypothesis that supernova driving is purely compressive. The physical reason is that, as a supernova remnant impacts the ambient interstellar gas, the baroclinic effect arises immediately, which preferentially converts compressive motions to solenoidal modes throughout the evolution of the remnant in the interstellar medium. The implications of our results concerning the statistics of supernova-driven turbulence in molecular clouds on theoretical modeling of star formation will be
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Yokoi, N.
2017-12-01
Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow
Evolution of vorticity and enstrophy in the intracluster medium
Wittor, D.; Jones, T.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.
2017-11-01
Turbulence generated by large-scale motions during structure formation affects the evolution of the thermal and non-thermal components of the intracluster medium. As enstrophy is a measure of the magnitude of vorticity, we study the generation and evolution of turbulence by analysing the Lagrangian history of enstrophy. For this purpose, we combine cosmological simulations carried out with the enzo code with our Lagrangian post-processing tool CRaTer. This way we are able to quantify the individual source terms of enstrophy in the course of the accretion of groups on to galaxy clusters. Here, we focus on the redshift range from z = 1 to z = 0. Finally, we measure the rate of dissipation of turbulence and estimate the resulting amplification of intracluster magnetic fields. We find that compressive and baroclinic motions are the main sources of enstrophy, while stretching motions and dissipation affect most of the ensuing enstrophy evolution. The rate of turbulent dissipation is able to sustain the amplification of intracluster magnetic fields to observed levels.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
presentations were published in the Book of Abstracts, International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', August 18-26, 2007, Copyright 2007 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, ISBN 92-95003-36-5. This Topical Issue consists of nearly 60 articles accepted for publication in the Conference Proceedings and reflects a substantial part of the Conference contributions. The articles cover a broad variety of TMB-2007 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each of the following topics: Canonical Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing (invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports) Wall-bounded Flows (structure and fundamentals, unsteady boundary layers, super-sonic flows, shock - boundary layer interaction) Interfacial Dynamics (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities) Unsteady Turbulent Processes (turbulence and turbulent mixing in unsteady, multiphase and anisotropic flows) High Energy Density Physics (laser-material interaction, Z-pinches, laser-driven, heavy-ion and magnetic fusion) Astrophysics (supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic micro-wave background) Magneto-hydrodynamics (magneto-convection, magneto-rotational instability, accretion disks, dynamo) Plasmas in Ionosphere (coupled plasmas, anomalous resistance, ionosphere) Physics of Atmosphere (environmental fluid dynamics, forecasting, data analysis, error estimate) Geophysics (turbulent convection in stratified, rotating and active flows) Combustion (dynamics of flames, fires, blast waves and explosions) Mathematical Aspects of Multi-Scale Dynamics (vortex dynamics, singularities, discontinuities, asymptotic dynamics, weak solutions, well- and ill-posedness) Statistical Approaches, Stochastic Processes and Probabilistic Description (uncertainty quantification, anomalous diffusion, long-tail distributions, wavelets) Advanced Numerical Simulations
Radio emission from young supernova remnants - Effects of an inhomogeneous circumstellar medium
Dickel, John R.; Eilek, Jean A.; Jones, Eric M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.
1989-01-01
The evolution of young supernova remnants has been modeled using a one-dimensional hydrodynamics code. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor fingers have been included in the code. Turbulent dynamo amplification of magnetic fields and both turbulent and shock acceleration of relativistic electrons have been included macroscopically. From this, the distribution of synchrotron luminosity in the remnant has been calculated. It is found that the radio morphology of model remnants expanding into a homogeneous medium does not agree with observations. Expansion into a circumstellar medium with many small cloudlets does produce radio shells which agree with observations. It is suggested that supernova remnants reflect the interaction of ejected matter with a cloudy circumstellar medium.
Interstellar Magnetic Fields and Polarimetry of Dust Emission
Dowell, Darren
2010-01-01
Magnetic fields are an important ingredient in the stormy cosmos. Magnetic fields: (1) are intimately involved with winds from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and stars (2) create at least some of the structures observed in the ISM (3) modulate the formation of clouds, cores, and stars within a turbulent medium (4) may be dynamically important in protostellar accretion disks (5) smooth weak shocks (C-shocks).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Fan; Giacalone, Joe
2010-01-01
We study the physics of electron acceleration at collisionless shocks that move through a plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations. We numerically integrate the trajectories of a large number of electrons, which are treated as test particles moving in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields determined from two-dimensional hybrid simulations (kinetic ions and fluid electron). The large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons mainly follow along magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons to cross the shock front several times, leading to efficient acceleration. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. The current study is also helpful in understanding the injection problem for electron acceleration by collisionless shocks. It is also shown that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons is similar to in situ observations. The process may be important to our understanding of energetic electrons in planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks, and explaining herringbone structures seen in some type II solar radio bursts.
Baryshevsky, Vladimir G.
1999-01-01
It is shown that the T- and P-odd weak interactions yield to the existence of both electric field and magnetic (directed along the electric field) field around an electric charge. Similarly the assotiated magnetic field is directed along the vector of strength of stationary gravitational field.
Louis, Evelyne; Cantrelle, Francois-Xavier; Mesotten, Liesbet; Reekmans, Gunter; Bervoets, Liene; Vanhove, Karolien; Thomeer, Michiel; Lippens, Guy; Adriaensens, Peter
2017-08-01
Accurate identification and quantification of human plasma metabolites can be challenging in crowded regions of the NMR spectrum with severe signal overlap. Therefore, this study describes metabolite spiking experiments on the basis of which the NMR spectrum can be rationally segmented into well-defined integration regions, and this for spectrometers having magnetic field strengths corresponding to 1 H resonance frequencies of 400 MHz and 900 MHz. Subsequently, the integration data of a case-control dataset of 69 lung cancer patients and 74 controls were used to train a multivariate statistical classification model for both field strengths. In this way, the advantages/disadvantages of high versus medium magnetic field strength were evaluated. The discriminative power obtained from the data collected at the two magnetic field strengths is rather similar, i.e. a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 90 and 97% for the 400 MHz data versus 88 and 96% for the 900 MHz data. This shows that a medium-field NMR spectrometer (400-600 MHz) is already sufficient to perform clinical metabolomics. However, the improved spectral resolution (reduced signal overlap) and signal-to-noise ratio of 900 MHz spectra yield more integration regions that represent a single metabolite. This will simplify the unraveling and understanding of the related, disease disturbed, biochemical pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Gilmore, M.; Fisher, D. M.; Kelly, R. F.; Hatch, M. W.; Rogers, B. N.
2017-10-01
Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling of the dynamics of electrostatic turbulence and transport in the presence of flow shear are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the linear HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. Modeling is being done using GBS, a 3D, global two-fluid Braginskii code that solves self-consistently for plasma equilibrium as well as fluctuations. Past experimental measurements of flows have been difficult to reconcile with simple expectations, such as azimuthal flows being dominated by Er x Bz rotation. Therefore, recent measurements have focused on understanding plasma flows, and the role of neutral dynamics. In the model, a set of two-fluid drift-reduced Braginskii equations are evolved using the Global Braginskii Solver Code (GBS). For low-field helicon-sourced Ar plasmas a non-negligible cross-field thermal collisional term must be added to shift the electric potential in the ion momentum and vorticity equations as the ions are unmagnetized. Significant radially and axially dependent neutral profiles are also included in the simulations to try and match those observed in HelCat. Ongoing simulations show a mode dependence on the axial magnetic field along with strong axial variations that suggest drift waves may be important in the low-field case. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.
Turbulent dynamo action in stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburg, A.; Nordlund, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Stein, R.F.; Tuominen, I.
1990-01-01
The way in which dynamo action amplifies magnetic fields in the Sun, the Earth, and indeed galaxies is a classic problem of theoretical physics. Here we present the results of direct simulations of turbulent compressible hydromagnetic convection with a stable overshoot layer underneath (to model the Sun). We find spontaneous dynamo action followed by saturation, with most of the generated magnetic field appearing as coherent flux tubes in the vicinity of strong downdrafts. Here both the generation and destruction of magnetic field is at its most vigorous, and which process ultimately dominates depends on the sizes of the magnetic Reynolds and magnetic Prandtl numbers. (orig.)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Keohane, Jonathan Wilmore
1998-01-01
Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Part I discusses the spatial correlation between the x-ray and radio morphologies of Cas A, and in the process address: the effect of inhomogeneous absorption on the apparent x-ray morphology, the interaction between the SNR and a molecular cloud, and the rapid move toward equipartition between the magnetic and gas energy densities. Discussions of the x-ray./radio correlation continues in Chapter 5, where we present a new, deep, ROSAT HRI image of Cas A. Chapter 7 presents ASCA spectra, with non-thermal spectral fits for 13 of the youngest SNRs in the Galaxy.
Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berhanu, Michael
2008-01-01
In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, D.
1997-01-01
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)
Studies of HED Plasmas with Self-Generated Magnetic Field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Medvedev, Mikhail [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)
2016-02-08
High-amplitude sub-Larmor-scale electromagnetic turbulence is ubiquitous in high-energy density environments, such as laboratory plasmas produced by high-intensity lasers, e.g., NIF, Omega-EP, Trident, and others, and in astrophysical and space plasmas, e.g., at high-Mach-number collisionless shocks in weakly magnetized plasmas upstream regions of quasi-parallel shocks, sites of magnetic reconnection and others. Studies of plasmas and turbulence in these environments are important for fusion energy sciences and the inertial confinement concept, in particular, as well as to numerous astrophysical systems such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovae blast waves, jets of quasars and active galactic nuclei, shocks in the interplanetary medium, solar flares and many more. Such turbulence can be of various origin and thus have rather different properties, from being purely magnetic (Weibel) turbulence to various types of electromagnetic turbulence (for example, whistler wave turbulence or turbulence produced by filamentation or Weibel-type streaming instability), to purely electrostatic Langmuir turbulence. In this project we use analytical and numerical tools to study the transport, radiative, and magneto-optical properties of plasmas with sub-Larmor-scale turbulence. We discovered the connection of transport/diffusion properties to certain spectral benchmark features of (jitter) radiation produced by the plasma and radiation propagation through it. All regimes, from the relativistic to non-relativistic, were thoroughly investigated and predictions were made for laboratory plasmas and astrophysical plasmas. Thus, all the tasks outlined in the proposal were fully and successfully accomplished.
Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, P.
1979-01-01
By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath
Effects of interacting magnetic islands on magnetic topology and plasma transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1991-01-01
Density and temperature gradients via neoclassical effects can cause the growth of magnetic islands in the nonlinear Rutherford regime of tearing mode theory. As neighboring magnetic islands interact, profiles of the plasma density and temperature in the vicinity of the island separatrix flatten; thus, the free energy source for the magnetic perturbation is shut off. In addition, the diamagnetic flow velocity tends toward zero and thus drift wave effects are reduced. A model is presented that takes both the neoclassical pressure gradient effect and island interaction into account. The magnetic configuration is described as a bath of low to medium mode number (m congruent 3-10) magnetic islands whose amplitudes sporadically grow and decay (magnetic bubbling). The effects of magnetic islands produced by low to medium mode number magnetic perturbations are generally not addressed in statistical theories of transport due to magnetic turbulence, where coherent structures are mostly neglected and magnetic stochasticity is usually assumed because of island overlap. Consequently, the transport due to magnetic bubbling has a different character than that described by stochastic processes since the magnetic island width becomes the cross-field step size for plasma transport. These studies suggest the possibility that tokamak discharges have short-lived (approximately 1 msec) relatively coherent magnetic structures present. 4 refs
Mantica, Paola
2016-10-01
Heat transport experiments in JET, based on ICRH heat flux scans and temperature modulation, have confirmed the importance of two transport mechanisms that are often neglected in modeling experimental results, but are crucial to reach agreement between theory and experiment and may be significant in ITER. The first mechanism is the stabilizing effect of the total pressure gradient (including fast ions) on ITG driven ion heat transport. Such stabilization is found in non-linear gyro-kinetic electro-magnetic simulations using GENE and GYRO, and is the explanation for the observed loss of ion stiffness in the core of high NBI-power JET plasmas. The effect was recently observed also in JET plasmas with dominant ICRH heating and small rotation, due to ICRH fast ions, which is promising for ITER. Such mechanism dominates over ExB flow shear in the core and needs to be included in quasi-linear models to increase their ability to capture the relevant physics. The second mechanism is the capability of small- scale ETG instabilities to carry a significant fraction of electron heat. A decrease in Te peaking is observed when decreasing Zeff Te/Ti, which cannot be ascribed to TEMs but is in line with ETGs. Non-linear GENE single-scale simulations of ETGs and ITG/TEMs show that the ITG/TEM electron heat flux is not enough to match experiment. TEM stiffness is also much lower than measured. In the ETG single scale simulations the external flow shear is used to saturate the ETG streamers. Multi-scale simulations are ongoing, in which the ion zonal flows are the main saturating mechanism for ETGs. These costly simulations should provide the final answer on the importance of ETG-driven electron heat flux in JET. with JET contributors [F.Romanelli, Proc.25thIAEA FEC]. Supported by EUROfusion Grant 633053.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Turbulence of high-beta plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.
1999-01-01
Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)
Stochastic acceleration by hydromagnetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1979-03-01
A general theory for particle acceleration by weak hydromagnetic turbulence with a given spectrum of waves is described. Various limiting cases, corresponding to Fermi acceleration and magnetic pumping, are discussed and two numerical examples illustrating them are given. An attempt is made to show that the expression for the rate of Fermi acceleration is valid for finite amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varshney, A.K.; Varshney, N.K.
1995-01-01
In this paper the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in porous medium near a wall suddenly set in motion has been studied for a particular class of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids. For the description of such a fluid one has used the Rivlin-Ericksen constitutive equation, only the first three material constants have been taken into consideration. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing of porosity constant. Due to the presence of elastic property of these elasticoviscous fluids smaller velocities are observed in a thin liquid layer than that for the Newtonian fluids whereas effect of elastic forces beyond this thin liquid layer is just reverse but decreases with the increases of elasticity in the presence of constant magnetic field. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig
A dynamics investigation into edge plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomsen, H.
2002-08-01
The present experimental work investigates plasma turbulence in the edge region of magnetized high-temperature plasmas. A main topic is the turbulent dynamics parallel to the magnetic field, where hitherto only a small data basis existed, especially for very long scale lengths in the order of ten of meters. A second point of special interest is the coupling of the dynamics parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. This anisotropic turbulent dynamics is investigated by two different approaches. Firstly, spatially and temporally high-resolution measurements of fluctuating plasma parameters are investigated by means of two-point correlation analysis. Secondly, the propagation of signals externally imposed into the turbulent plasma background is studied. For both approaches, Langmuir probe arrays were utilized for diagnostic purposes. (orig.)
Scaling, Intermittency and Decay of MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon
2005-01-01
We discuss a few recent developments that are important for understanding of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is usually believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, viscosity by neutrals does not suppress MHD turbulence in a partially ionized gas. Instead, MHD turbulence develops magnetic cascade at scales below the scale at which neutrals damp ordinary hydrodynamic motions. Forth, density statistics does not exhibit the universality that the velocity and magnetic field do. For instance, at small Mach numbers the density is anisotropic, but it gets isotropic at high Mach numbers. Fifth, the intermittency of magnetic field and velocity are different. Both depend on whether the measurements are done in a local system of reference oriented along the local magnetic field or in the global system of reference related to the mean magnetic field
Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.
2012-01-01
Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.
1976-07-01
The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence
Wavenumber spectrum of whistler turbulence: Particle-in-cell simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, S.; Gary, S. Peter; Narita, Y.
2010-01-01
The forward cascade of decaying whistler turbulence is studied in low beta plasma to understand essential properties of the energy spectrum at electron scales, by using a two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. This simulation demonstrates turbulence in which the energy cascade rate is greater than the dissipation rate at the electron inertial length. The PIC simulation shows that the magnetic energy spectrum of forward-cascaded whistler turbulence at electron inertial scales is anisotropic and develops a very steep power-law spectrum which is consistent with recent solar wind observations. A comparison of the simulated spectrum with that predicted by a phenomenological turbulence scaling model suggests that the energy cascade at the electron inertial scale depends on both magnetic fluctuations and electron velocity fluctuations, as well as on the whistler dispersion relation. Thus, not only kinetic Alfven turbulence but also whistler turbulence may explain recent solar wind observations of very steep magnetic spectra at short scales.
Turbulent Liquid Metal Dynamo Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, Cary
2007-01-01
The self-generation of magnetic fields in planets and stars--the dynamo effect--is a long-standing problem of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Until recently, research on the self-excitation process has been primarily theoretical. In this talk, I will begin with a tutorial on how magnetic fields are generated in planets and stars, describing the 'Standard Model' of self-excitation known as the alpha-omega dynamo. In this model, axisymmetric differential rotation can produce the majority of the magnetic field, but some non-axisymmetric, turbulence driven currents are also necessary. Understanding the conversion of turbulent kinetic energy in the fluid motion into electrical currents and thus magnetic fields, is a major challenge for both experiments and theory at this time. I will then report on recent results from a 1 meter diameter, spherical, liquid sodium dynamo experiment at the University of Wisconsin, in which the first clear evidence for these turbulence driven currents has been observed.
Reduced Models for Gyrokinetic Turbulence
Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne
2009-09-01
Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge demand on computer resources. A unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore, finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Here we present the derivation of nonlinear gyro-water-bag models and their numerical approximations by backward Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and forward Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes.
Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.
1991-01-01
It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
, maintaining the scope and the interdisciplinary character of the meeting while keeping the focus on a fundamental scientific problem of non-equilibrium processes and on the Conference objectives. The abstracts of the 194 accepted presentations of more than 400 authors were published in the Book of Abstracts of the Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', 27 July-7 August 2009 , Copyright © 2009, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (ISBN 92095003-41-1). This Topical Issue consists of 70 articles accepted for publication in the Conference Proceedings and represents a substantial part of the Conference contributions. The articles are in a broad variety of TMB-2009 themes and are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author within each of the following topics: Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing: invariant, scaling, spectral properties, scalar transports, convection; Wall-bounded flows: structure and fundamentals, non-canonical turbulent boundary layers, including unsteady and transitional flows, supersonic and hypersonic flows, shock-boundary layer interactions; Non-equilibrium processes: unsteady, multiphase and shock-driven turbulent flows, anisotropic non-local dynamics, connection of continuous description at macro-scales to kinetic processes at atomistic scales; Interfacial dynamics: instabilities of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Richtmyer-Meshkov, Landau-Darrieus, Saffman-Taylor High energy density physics: inertial confinement and heavy-ion fusion, Z-pinches, light-matter and laser-plasma interactions, non-equilibrium heat transfer; Material science: material transformation under high strain rates, equation of state, impact dynamics, mixing at nano- and micro-scales; Astrophysics: supernovae, interstellar medium, star formation, stellar interiors, early Universe, cosmic-microwave background, accretion disks; Magneto-hydrodynamics: magnetic fusion and magnetically
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Energetics of turbulent transport processes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, F.A.; Thyagaraja, A.
1987-01-01
The effect of electromagnetic turbulence on electrons and ions under Tokamak conditions is considered using a kinetic description. Taking the magnetic fluctuation spectrum as given, the density fluctuation spectrum is self-consistently calculated taking account of quasi-neutrality. The calculation is valid for arbitrary collisionality and appropriate to low frequencies typical of experiment. In addition to the usual enhancement of the radial electron energy transport, it is found that the turbulent fluctuations can heat the plasma at rates comparable to ordinary ohmic heating under well-defined conditions. Interestingly, electromagnetic turbulence appears to imply only an insignificant correction to the toroidal resistance of the plasma as estimated from Spitzer resistivity. The scalings of anomalous transport, fluctuations and heating with temperature and plasma volume are investigated. The assumption that the magnetic fluctuation spectrum of the turbulence is invariant under a wide range of conditions is shown to result in interesting consequences for JET-like plasmas. (author)
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chagovets, Tymofiy; Gordeev, A. V.; Skrbek, L.
2007-01-01
Roč. 76, č. 2 (2007), 027301/1-027301/4 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ĺiquid helium II * decaying counetrflow turbulence * mutual friction * grid turbulence * rotating helium * finite channel * heat current Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2007
Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion
Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon
2016-01-01
We test a new technique of studying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence suggested by Lazarian \\& Pogosyan, using synthetic synchrotron polarization observations. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed the polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of wavelengths along a single line of sight. We adopt a ratio $\\eta$ of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the...
The structure and statistics of interstellar turbulence
Kritsuk, A. G.; Ustyugov, S. D.; Norman, M. L.
2017-06-01
We explore the structure and statistics of multiphase, magnetized ISM turbulence in the local Milky Way by means of driven periodic box numerical MHD simulations. Using the higher order-accurate piecewise-parabolic method on a local stencil (PPML), we carry out a small parameter survey varying the mean magnetic field strength and density while fixing the rms velocity to observed values. We quantify numerous characteristics of the transient and steady-state turbulence, including its thermodynamics and phase structure, kinetic and magnetic energy power spectra, structure functions, and distribution functions of density, column density, pressure, and magnetic field strength. The simulations reproduce many observables of the local ISM, including molecular clouds, such as the ratio of turbulent to mean magnetic field at 100 pc scale, the mass and volume fractions of thermally stable Hi, the lognormal distribution of column densities, the mass-weighted distribution of thermal pressure, and the linewidth-size relationship for molecular clouds. Our models predict the shape of magnetic field probability density functions (PDFs), which are strongly non-Gaussian, and the relative alignment of magnetic field and density structures. Finally, our models show how the observed low rates of star formation per free-fall time are controlled by the multiphase thermodynamics and large-scale turbulence.
Cho, Dong-Wan; Yoon, Kwangsuk; Kwon, Eilhann E; Biswas, Jayanta Kumar; Song, Hocheol
2017-10-01
This study investigated the preparation of magnetic biochar from N 2 - and CO 2 -assisted pyrolysis of spent coffee ground (SCG) for use as an adsorption medium for As(V), and the effects of FeCl 3 pretreatment of SCG on the material properties and adsorption capability of the produced biochar. Pyrolysis of FeCl 3 -pretreated SCG in CO 2 atmosphere produced highly porous biochar with its surface area ∼70 times greater than that produced in N 2 condition. However, despite the small surface area, biochar produced in N 2 showed greater As(V) adsorption capability. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer analyses identified Fe 3 C and Fe 3 O 4 as dominant mineral phases in N 2 and CO 2 conditions, with the former being much more adsorptive toward As(V). The overall results suggest functional biochar can be facilely fabricated by necessary pretreatment to expand the applicability of biochar for specific purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kořínek, R.; Mikulka, J.; Hřib, J.; Hudec, J.; Havel, L.; Bartušek, K.
2017-02-01
The paper describes the visualization of the cells (ESEs) and mucilage (ECMSN) in an embryogenic tissue via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry measurement combined with the subsequent multi-parametric segmentation. The computed relaxometry maps T1 and T2 show a thin layer (transition layer) between the culture medium and the embryogenic tissue. The ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer differ in their relaxation times T1 and T2; thus, these times can be used to characterize the individual parts within the embryogenic tissue. The observed mean values of the relaxation times T1 and T2 of the ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer are as follows: 1469 ± 324 and 53 ± 10 ms, 1784 ± 124 and 74 ± 8 ms, 929 ± 164 and 32 ± 4.7 ms, respectively. The multi-parametric segmentation exploiting the T1 and T2 relaxation times as a classifier shows the distribution of the ESEs and mucilage within the embryogenic tissue. The discussed T1 and T2 indicators can be utilized to characterize both the growth-related changes in an embryogenic tissue and the effect of biotic/abiotic stresses, thus potentially becoming a distinctive indicator of the state of any examined embryogenic tissue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, I.R.
1984-01-01
A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)
Turbulent transport in low-beta plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, A.H.; Pécseli, H.L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1996-01-01
Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations are studied experimentally in a low-P plasma, with particular attention to their importance for the anomalous plasma transport across magnetic field lines. The presence of large coherent structures in a turbulent background at the edge of the plasma column...... is demonstrated by a statistical analysis. The importance of these structures for the turbulent transport is investigated. The study is extended by a multichannel conditional analysis to illustrate detailed properties and parameter dependences of the turbulent transport. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....
Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401,CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-04-01
The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much
Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion
Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon
2016-07-01
We test a new technique for studying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence suggested by Lazarian & Pogosyan, using synthetic observations of synchrotron polarization. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of the wavelength along a single line of sight. We adopt the ratio η of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the line-of-sight mean magnetic field to depict the level of turbulence. When this ratio is large (η \\gg 1), which characterizes a region dominated by turbulent field, or small (η ≲ 0.2), which characterizes a region dominated by the mean field, we obtain the polarization variance \\propto {λ }-2 or \\propto {λ }-2-2m, respectively. At small η, I.e., in the region dominated by the mean field, we successfully recover the turbulent spectral index from the polarization variance. We find that our simulations agree well with the theoretical prediction of Lazarian & Pogosyan. With existing and upcoming data cubes from the Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy (LOFAR) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), this new technique can be applied to study the magnetic turbulence in the Milky Way and other galaxies.
Fade statistics of M-turbulent optical links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Maria Garrido-Balsells, Jose; Castillo-Vazquez, Miguel
2017-01-01
A new and generalized statistical model, called Malaga or simply M distribution, has been derived recently to characterize the irradiance fluctuations of an unbounded optical wavefront propagating through a turbulent medium under all irradiance fluctuation conditions. The aforementioned model ext...
Turbulence in molecular clouds - A new diagnostic tool to probe their origin
Canuto, V. M.; Battaglia, A.
1985-01-01
A method is presented to uncover the instability responsible for the type of turbulence observed in molecular clouds and the value of the physical parameters of the 'placental medium' from which turbulence originated. The method utilizes the observational relation between velocities and sizes of molecular clouds, together with a recent model for large-scale turbulence (constructed by Canuto and Goldman, 1985).
Evaluation of turbulence mitigation methods
van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Huebner, Claudia S.; Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Schwering, Piet B. W.
2014-05-01
Atmospheric turbulence is a well-known phenomenon that diminishes the recognition range in visual and infrared image sequences. There exist many different methods to compensate for the effects of turbulence. This paper focuses on the performance of two software-based methods to mitigate the effects of low- and medium turbulence conditions. Both methods are capable of processing static and dynamic scenes. The first method consists of local registration, frame selection, blur estimation and deconvolution. The second method consists of local motion compensation, fore- /background segmentation and weighted iterative blind deconvolution. A comparative evaluation using quantitative measures is done on some representative sequences captured during a NATO SET 165 trial in Dayton. The amount of blurring and tilt in the imagery seem to be relevant measures for such an evaluation. It is shown that both methods improve the imagery by reducing the blurring and tilt and therefore enlarge the recognition range. Furthermore, results of a recognition experiment using simulated data are presented that show that turbulence mitigation using the first method improves the recognition range up to 25% for an operational optical system.
Probing Magnetic Fields with Square Kilometre Array and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
/fulltext/joaa/037/04/0042. Keywords. Magnetic fields; telescopes; galaxies: magnetic fields; ISM: magnetic fields; stars: magnetic fields; turbulence. Abstract. Origin of magnetic fields, its structure and effects on dynamical processes in stars to ...
Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.
1981-01-01
This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)
Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Werner, Gregory R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2018-02-01
We describe results from particle-in-cell simulations of driven turbulence in collisionless, magnetized, relativistic pair plasma. This physical regime provides a simple setting for investigating the basic properties of kinetic turbulence and is relevant for high-energy astrophysical systems such as pulsar wind nebulae and astrophysical jets. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of turbulent fluctuations in simulations on lattices of up to 10243 cells and containing up to 2 × 1011 particles. Due to the absence of a cooling mechanism in our simulations, turbulent energy dissipation reduces the magnetization parameter to order unity within a few dynamical times, causing turbulent motions to become sub-relativistic. In the developed stage, our results agree with predictions from magnetohydrodynamic turbulence phenomenology at inertial-range scales, including a power-law magnetic energy spectrum with index near -5/3, scale-dependent anisotropy of fluctuations described by critical balance, lognormal distributions for particle density and internal energy density (related by a 4/3 adiabatic index, as predicted for an ultra-relativistic ideal gas), and the presence of intermittency. We also present possible signatures of a kinetic cascade by measuring power-law spectra for the magnetic, electric and density fluctuations at sub-Larmor scales.
On the nature of interstellar turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altunin, V.I.
1981-01-01
Possible reasons of interstellar medium turbulence manifested in pulsar scintillation and radio-frequency emission scattering of extragalactic sources near by the Galaxy plane, are discussed. Sources and conditions of turbulence emergence in HII region shells, supernova, residue and in stellar wind giving observed scattering effects are considered. It is shown that in the formation of the interstellar scintillation pattern of discrete radio-frequency emission sources a certain role can be played by magnetosound turbulence, which arises due to shock-waves propagating in the interstellar medium at a velocity Vsub(sh) approximately 20-100 km/s as well as by stellar-wind inhomogeneity of OB classes stars [ru
Hypersonic Transition and Turbulence with Non-Equilibrium Thermochemistry
2009-08-31
unsolved problem in classical physics’ by Nobel-prize winning physicist Richard Feynman . Similar statements regarding the intricacies of turbulence have...jets and turbulence.’ MS thesis (2006). 2. B. M. Riley, J. C. Richard and S. S. Girirnaji. ’Magnetic field effects on axis-switching and notabilities...B. M. Riley, J. C. Richard and S. S. Girirnaji. ’Assessment of magneto-hydrodynamic Lattice-Boltzmann schemes in turbulence and rectangular jets
Compressible turbulence in one dimension
Fleischer, Jason Wolf
1999-11-01
The Burgers' model of compressible fluid dynamics in one dimension is extended to include the effects of pressure back-reaction. The new system consists of two coupled equations: Burgers' equation with a pressure gradient (essentially the 1-D Navier-Stokes equation) and an advection-diffusion equation for the pressure field. It presents a minimal model of both adiabatic gas dynamics and compressible magnetohydrodynamics. From the magnetic perspective, it is the simplest possible system which allows for Alfvenization, i.e. energy transfer between the fluid and the magnetic field. For the special case of equal fluid viscosity and (magnetic) diffusivity, the system is completely integrable, reducing to two decoupled Burgers' equations in the characteristic variables v +/- vsound ( v +/- vAlfven). For arbitrary diffusivities, renormalized perturbation theory is used to calculate the effective transport coefficients for forced Burgerlence. It is shown that energy equi- dissipation, not equipartition, is fundamental to the turbulent state. Both energy and dissipation are localized to shock-like structures, in which wave steepening is inhibited by small-scale forcing and by pressure back-reaction. The spectral forms predicted by theory are confirmed by numerical simulations. It is shown that the velocity structures lead to an asymmetric velocity PDF, as in Burgers' turbulence. Pressure fluctuations, however, are symmetrically distributed. A Fokker-Planck calculation of these distributions is compared and contrasted with a path integral approach. The latter instanton solution suggests that the system maintains its characteristic directions in steady-state turbulence, supporting the results from perturbation theory. Implications for the spectra of turbulence and self-organization phenomena in compressible fluids and plasmas are also discussed.
Scale-locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aluie, Hussein [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eyink, Gregory L [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV.
2009-01-01
We investigate the scale-locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the 'inertial-inductive range' of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross-helicity - or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsaesser energies - are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Corresponding spectral transfers are also scale-local when defined using octave wavenumber bands. Flux and transfer of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term also may be dominated by non-local triads but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion non locally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{sup 3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.
Spectral properties of electromagnetic turbulence in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Shaikh
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We report on the nonlinear turbulent processes associated with electromagnetic waves in plasmas. We focus on low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency nonlinearly interacting electron whistlers and nonlinearly interacting Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD fluctuations in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear whistler mode turbulence study in a magnetized plasma involves incompressible electrons and immobile ions. Two-dimensional turbulent interactions and subsequent energy cascades are critically influenced by the electron whisters that behave distinctly for scales smaller and larger than the electron skin depth. It is found that in whistler mode turbulence there results a dual cascade primarily due to the forward spectral migration of energy that coexists with a backward spectral transfer of mean squared magnetic potential. Finally, inclusion of the ion dynamics, resulting from a two fluid description of the H-MHD plasma, leads to several interesting results that are typically observed in the solar wind plasma. Particularly in the solar wind, the high-time-resolution databases identify a spectral break at the end of the MHD inertial range spectrum that corresponds to a high-frequency regime. In the latter, turbulent cascades cannot be explained by the usual MHD model and a finite frequency effect (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency arising from the ion inertia is essentially included to discern the dynamics of the smaller length scales (in comparison with the ion skin depth. This leads to a nonlinear H-MHD model, which is presented in this paper. With the help of our 3-D H-MHD code, we find that the characteristic turbulent interactions in the high-frequency regime evolve typically on kinetic-Alfvén time-scales. The turbulent fluctuation associated with kinetic-Alfvén interactions are compressive and anisotropic and possess equipartition of the kinetic and magnetic energies.
Energy transfer in compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Grete, Philipp; O'Shea, Brian W.; Beckwith, Kris; Schmidt, Wolfram; Christlieb, Andrew
2017-09-01
Magnetic fields, compressibility, and turbulence are important factors in many terrestrial and astrophysical processes. While energy dynamics, i.e., how energy is transferred within and between kinetic and magnetic reservoirs, has been previously studied in the context of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, we extend shell-to-shell energy transfer analysis to the compressible regime. We derive four new transfer functions specifically capturing compressibility effects in the kinetic and magnetic cascade, and capturing energy exchange via magnetic pressure. To illustrate their viability, we perform and analyze four simulations of driven isothermal MHD turbulence in the sub- and supersonic regime with two different codes. On the one hand, our analysis reveals robust characteristics across regime and numerical method. For example, energy transfer between individual scales is local and forward for both cascades with the magnetic cascade being stronger than the kinetic one. Magnetic tension and magnetic pressure related transfers are less local and weaker than the cascades. We find no evidence for significant nonlocal transfer. On the other hand, we show that certain functions, e.g., the compressive component of the magnetic energy cascade, exhibit a more complex behavior that varies both with regime and numerical method. Having established a basis for the analysis in the compressible regime, the method can now be applied to study a broader parameter space.
Turbulent Transport in a Three-dimensional Solar Wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bruno, R., E-mail: shiota@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)
2017-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind can play essential roles in the heating of coronal and solar wind plasma and the acceleration of the solar wind and energetic particles. Turbulence sources are not well understood and thought to be partly enhanced by interaction with the large-scale inhomogeneity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field and/or transported from the solar corona. To investigate the interaction with background inhomogeneity and the turbulence sources, we have developed a new 3D MHD model that includes the transport and dissipation of turbulence using the theoretical model of Zank et al. We solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of three moments or variables, the energy in the forward and backward fluctuating modes and the residual energy and their three corresponding correlation lengths. The transport model is coupled to our 3D model of the inhomogeneous solar wind. We present results of the coupled solar wind-turbulence model assuming a simple tilted dipole magnetic configuration that mimics solar minimum conditions, together with several comparative intermediate cases. By considering eight possible solar wind and turbulence source configurations, we show that the large-scale solar wind and IMF inhomogeneity and the strength of the turbulence sources significantly affect the distribution of turbulence in the heliosphere within 6 au. We compare the predicted turbulence distribution results from a complete solar minimum model with in situ measurements made by the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft, finding that the synthetic profiles of the turbulence intensities show reasonable agreement with observations.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Plasmoid-mediated Regime
Comisso, L.; Huang, Y.-M.; Lingam, M.; Hirvijoki, E.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2018-02-01
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and magnetic reconnection are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments. In most situations these processes do not occur in isolation but interact with each other. This renders a comprehensive theory of these processes highly challenging. Here we propose a theory of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven at a large scale that self-consistently accounts for the mutual interplay with magnetic reconnection occurring at smaller scales. Magnetic reconnection produces plasmoids (flux ropes) that grow from turbulence-generated noise and eventually disrupt the sheet-like structures in which they are born. The disruption of these structures leads to a modification of the turbulent energy cascade, which in turn exerts a feedback effect on the plasmoid formation via the turbulence-generated noise. The energy spectrum in this plasmoid-mediated range steepens relative to the standard inertial range and does not follow a simple power law. As a result of the complex interplay between turbulence and reconnection, we also find that the length scale that marks the beginning of the plasmoid-mediated range and the dissipation length scale do not obey true power laws. The transitional magnetic Reynolds number above which the plasmoid formation becomes statistically significant enough to affect the turbulent cascade is fairly modest, implying that plasmoids are expected to modify the turbulent path to dissipation in many astrophysical systems.
Drift wave turbulence in low-β plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Pécseli, Hans
1983-01-01
of wavenumber spectra. The spectral index of the turbulent potential fluctuations is determined and the variation of the spectral intensity is investigated for varying magnetic fields. The results compare favourably with theoretical predictions. The importance of distinguishing subranges in the turbulent...
Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence.
Eyink, Gregory L
2006-12-01
Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
High Reynolds Number Turbulence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smits, Alexander J
2007-01-01
The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Drikakis, D; Geurts, Bernard
2002-01-01
... discretization 3 A test-case: turbulent channel flow 4 Conclusions 75 75 82 93 98 4 Analysis and control of errors in the numerical simulation of turbulence Sandip Ghosal 1 Introduction 2 Source...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob
2011-01-01
The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....
Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective
Levich, Eugene
2009-07-01
. In particular, theoretical and numerical evidence is given indicating that BCC in turbulent channel/pipe flows have the depth at the walls proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number in wall units, Ly ∝ √Re, which is equivalent to the fractal dimension in normal to the walls y direction DyF = 0, 5, and the total dimension DF = Dx, zF + DyF = 2 + 0.5 = 2.5. Similar BCC structure and the same fractal dimension are suggested for geophysical turbulence, in near agreement with the recent comprehensive analysis of experimental and observational data. It is asserted that the atmospheric and oceanic events, e.g., tropical hurricanes, tornadoes and other mesoscale phenomena, and probably ocean currents are manifestations of BCC and their environs. Generally BCC should be rather seen as the turbulence core, while the whole surrounding 3D flow as being created and sustained by the intense vorticity of BCC by means of induction, in a manner similar to that for an electric current generating magnetic field. It is further argued that BCC is not only a theoretical concept important for fundamental grasp on turbulence, but may be a practical asset furnishing tools for turbulence management in regular fluids and plasmas. The concept of helical fluctuations in turbulence goes 25 years back in time, and while never totally abandoned nevertheless has been residing on the fringes of research activity. Experiment and numerical simulations had not been able to either validate or repudiate decisively the concept. However, recent large scale direct numerical simulations and proliferation of experimental and observational data showed convincingly how ubiquitous is the phenomenon of helicity fluctuations in various turbulent flows, from hurricanes and tornadoes to turbulent jets to solar wind plasma turbulence to turbulent flows in compressible fluids. This allowed a fresh look at the concept and led to a quantitative theory exposed in this paper. The paper concludes with a
by B. Curé
2011-01-01
The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...
Jiansen, He; Xingyu, Zhu; Yajie, Chen; Chadi, Salem; Michael, Stevens; Hui, Li; Wenzhi, Ruan; Lei, Zhang; Chuanyi, Tu
2018-04-01
The magnetic reconnection exhaust is a pivotal region with enormous magnetic energy being continuously released and converted. The physical processes of energy conversion involved are so complicated that an all-round understanding based on in situ measurements is still lacking. We present the evidence of plasma heating by illustrating the broadening of proton and electron velocity distributions, which are extended mainly along the magnetic field, in an exhaust of interchange reconnection between two interplanetary magnetic flux tubes of the same polarity on the Sun. The exhaust is asymmetric across an interface, with both sides being bounded by a pair of compound discontinuities consisting of rotational discontinuity and slow shock. The energized plasmas are found to be firehose unstable, and responsible for the emanation of Alfvén waves during the second step of energy conversion. It is realized that the energy conversion in the exhaust can be a two-step process involving both plasma energization and wave emission.
Gyrokinetic simulation of microtearing turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerk, Hauke
2013-01-01
In modern fusion experiments, plasma turbulence is responsible for the radial heat transport and thus determines the plasma confinement within the magnetic field of tokamak devices. Deeper theoretical understanding is needed to explain today's and future fusion experiments. The goal of fusion research is to establish nuclear fusion as a safe and sustainable energy source. In future fusion power plants, and also in large fusion experiments like the presently constructed ITER, plasma heating predominantly affects the electron species. The reason is of fundamental nature: the collisional cross section of fast ions that are produced by the heating systems is larger for thermal electrons than for thermal ions. It is thus essential to correctly predict electron thermal transport, but the overall picture still continues to evolve. Besides microinstabilities on the electron gyroradius scales, also a stochastized magnetic field can contribute to enhanced electron transport. Already since the 1970's, the so-called microtearing instability is discussed as a source of stochastic fields. This microinstability deserves its name for breaking up the magnetic field structure by forming small-scale magnetic islands. The linear microtearing instability and its nonlinear, turbulent behavior is investigated in this thesis by means of numerical simulations with the gyrokinetic turbulence code Gene. The underlying gyrokinetic equations are not only appropriate to predict turbulent transport, but also describe neoclassical transport that is drift-kinetic in nature. Besides revealing interesting physics on long time scales, solving the neoclassical equation serves as an excellent test for the numerical implementation of the collision operator in Gene. Focusing on the local limit, it is found that a modification of this implementation that considers certain symmetries is necessary to obtain a satisfactory agreement with the well-established drift-kinetic neoclassical code Neo. Also the
Coherent vortical structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, H.L.; Coutsias, E.A.; Huld, T.
1992-01-01
A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the nonlinear saturated stage of the cross-field electrostatic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly magnetized plasma. The presence of large vortex-like structures in a background of wide-band turbulent fluctuations was demonstrated...... simulations. The importance of the large scale structures for the turbulent plasma transport across magnetic field lines was analyzed in detail....
Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladmir; Mikhailenko, Vladimir
2017-10-01
The temporal evolution of the resistive pressure-gradient-driven mode in the sheared flow is investigated by employing the shearing modes approach. It reveals an essential difference in the processes, which occur in the case of the flows with velocity shearing rate less than the growth rate of the instability in the steady plasmas, and in the case of the flows with velocity shear larger than the instability growth rate in steady plasmas. It displays the physical content of the empirical ``quench rule'' which predicts the suppression of the turbulence in the sheared flows when the velocity shearing rate becomes larger than the maximum growth rate of the possible instability. We found that the distortion of the perturbations by the sheared flow with such velocity shear introduces the time dependencies into the governing equations, which prohibits the application of the eigenmodes formalism and requires the solution of the initial value problem.
Progress in turbulence research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradshaw, P.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in experiments and eddy simulations, as an introduction to a discussion of turbulence modeling for engineers is reviewed. The most important advances in the last decade rely on computers: microcomputers to control laboratory experiments, especially for multidimensional imaging, and supercomputers to simulate turbulence. These basic studies in turbulence research are leading to genuine breakthroughs in prediction methods for engineers and earth scientists. The three main branches of turbulence research: experiments, simulations (numerically-accurate three-dimensional, time-dependent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, with any empiricism confined to the smallest eddies), and modeling (empirical closure of time-averaged equations for turbulent flow) are discussed. 33 refs
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
Nuclear and magnetic medium range order in amorphous Tb65Cu35 and Er69.5Cu30.5 alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, B.; Sanquer, M.; Tourbot, R.
1989-01-01
Small angle neutron scattering on amorphous and mechanical polished Tb 65 Cu 35 and Er 69.5 Cu 30.5 alloys has been measured at different temperatures between 4 and 300K on samples cooled in zero or in applied magnetic fields. The isotropic scattering is analyzed quantitatively in terms of spatial variations of chemical concentration or magnetization. The influence of the magnetic field is discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela Ilieva
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.
B. Curé
2012-01-01
Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...
B. Curé
2012-01-01
The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...
B. Curé
2013-01-01
The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...
B. Curé
2011-01-01
The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...
B. Curé
2012-01-01
The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...
Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence
Kupka, Friedrich
2008-01-01
What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...
Improved model of quasi-particle turbulence (with applications to Alfven and drift wave turbulence)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J. T.; Hizanidis, K.
2011-01-01
We consider the classical problem of wave stability and dispersion in a turbulent plasma background. We adopt a kinetic description for the quasi-particle turbulence. We describe an improved theoretical approach, which goes beyond the geometric optics approximation and retains the recoil effects associated with the emission and absorption of low frequency waves by nearly resonant quasi-particles. We illustrate the present approach by considering two particular examples. One is the excitation of zonal flows by drift wave turbulence or driftons. The other is the coupling between ion acoustic waves and Alfven wave turbulence, eventually leading to saturation of Alfven wave growth. Both examples are relevant to anomalous transport in magnetic fusion devices. Connection with previous results is established. We show that these results are recovered in the geometric optics approximation.
The Theory of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Homogeneous Description
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Avinash, K.
2017-09-01
The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, particularly the relationship of density fluctuations to incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Of interest was the identification of distinct leading-order incompressible descriptions for plasma beta β ≫ 1 and β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 environments. In the first case, the “dimensionality” of the MHD description is 3D whereas for the latter two, there is a collapse of dimensionality in that the leading-order incompressible MHD description is 2D in a plane orthogonal to the large-scale or mean magnetic field. Despite the success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in a low-frequency plasma environment such as the solar wind, a basic turbulence description has not been developed. Here, we rewrite the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. We discuss the distinction that emerges between the three cases. However, we focus on the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 regimes since these are appropriate to the solar wind and solar corona. In both cases, the leading-order turbulence model describes 2D turbulence and the higher-order description corresponds to slab turbulence, which forms a minority component. The Elsäasser β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 formulation exhibits the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components very clearly, and shows that slab fluctuations respond in a passive scalar sense to the turbulently evolving majority 2D component fluctuations. The coupling of 2D and slab fluctuations through the β ∼ 1 or ≪ 1 NI MHD description leads to a very natural emergence of the “Goldreich-Sridhar” critical balance scaling parameter, although now with a different interpretation. Specifically, the critical balance parameter shows that the energy flux in wave number space is a consequence of the intensity of Alfvén wave sweeping versus passive scalar
CHARACTERIZATION OF TURBULENCE FROM SUBMILLIMETER DUST EMISSION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chitsazzadeh, Shadi; Houde, Martin; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Vaillancourt, John
2012-01-01
In this paper, we use our recent technique for estimating the turbulent component of the magnetic field to derive the structure functions of the unpolarized emission as well as that of the Stokes Q and U parameters of the polarized emission. The solutions for the structure functions to 350 μm SHARP polarization data of OMC-1 allow the determination of the corresponding turbulent correlation length scales. The estimated values for these length scales are 9.''4 ± 0.''1, 7.''3 ± 0.''1, 12.''6 ± 0.''2 (or 20.5 ± 0.2, 16.0 ± 0.2, and 27.5 ± 0.4 mpc at 450 pc, the adopted distance for OMC-1) for the Stokes Q and U parameters, and for the unpolarized emission N, respectively. Our current results for Q and U are consistent with previous results obtained through other methods and may indicate presence of anisotropy in magnetized turbulence. We infer a weak coupling between the dust component responsible for the unpolarized emission N and the magnetic field B from the significant difference between their turbulent correlation length scales.
A new maser effect in plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nambu, M.
1983-01-01
The present state of understanding of a new maser effect is reviewed. The new maser effect, the idea that the resonant electrons in a turbulent plasma can radiate amplified electromagnetic radiation, does not require population inversion of electrons. The new maser effect always coexists with Landau (or cyclotron) damping; thus it is a fundamental effect in plasma turbulence. In nuclear fusion, magnetic confinement will be at a disadvantage due to the enhanced radiation losses in the long wave length region, while inertial confinement will be improved by the laser effect in the X-ray region. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assadi, S.
1994-01-01
Linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of current-driven modes are studied in the MST reversed field pinch. Measured low frequency (f < 35 kHz) magnetic fluctuations are consistent with the global resistive tearing instabilities predicted by 3-D MHD simulations. At frequencies above 35 kHz, the magnetic fluctuations were detected to be localized and externally resonant. Discrete dynamo events, ''sawtooth oscillations,'' have been observed in the experimental RFP plasmas. This phenomenon causes the plasma to become unstable to m = 1 tearing modes. The modes that may be important in different phases of these oscillations are identified. These results then assist in nonlinear studies and also help to interpret the spectral broadening of the measured data during a discrete dynamo event. Three-wave nonlinear coupling of spectral Fourier modes is measured in the MST by applying bispectral analysis to magnetic fluctuations measured at the plasma edge at 64 toroidal locations and 16 poloidal locations, permitting observation of coupling over 8 poloidal and 32 toroidal modes. Comparison to bispectra predicted by resistive MHD computation indicates reasonably good agreement. However, during the crash phase of the sawtooth oscillation the nonlinear coupling is strongly enhanced, concomitant with a broadened k-spectrum. During the sawtooth formation the plasma is undergoing a pure diffusive process. The dynamo only occurs during the sawtooth crash. High frequency activity prior to a sawtooth crash is caused by nonlinear frequency (small-scale) mode coupling. Growth rate and coupling coefficients of toroidal mode spectra are calculated by statistical modeling. Temporal evolution of edge toroidal mode spectra has been predicted by transfer function analysis. The driving sources of electrostatic fields are different than for the magnetic fields. The characteristics of tearing modes can be altered by external field errors and addition of impurities to the plasma
B. Curé
2011-01-01
The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....
Self-regulation of turbulence bursts and transport barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floriani, E; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Sarazin, Y; Lima, R
2013-01-01
The interplay between turbulent bursts and transport barriers is analyzed with a simplified model of interchange turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. The turbulent bursts spread into the transport barriers and, depending on the competing magnitude of the burst and stopping capability of the barrier, can burn through. Simulations of two models of transport barriers are presented: a hard barrier where interchange turbulence modes are stable in a prescribed region and a soft barrier with external plasma biasing. The response of the transport barriers to the non-linear perturbations of the turbulent bursts, addressed in a predator–prey approach, indicates that the barriers monitor an amplification factor of the turbulent bursts, with amplification smaller than one for most bursts and, in some cases, amplification factors that can significantly exceed unity. The weak barriers in corrugated profiles and magnetic structures, as well as the standard barriers, are characterized by these transmission properties, which then regulate the turbulent burst transport properties. The interplays of barriers and turbulent bursts are modeled as competing stochastic processes. For different classes of the probability density function (PDF) of these processes, one can predict the heavy tail properties of the bursts downstream from the barrier, either exponential for a leaky barrier, or with power laws for a tight barrier. The intrinsic probing of the transport barriers by the turbulent bursts thus gives access to the properties of the barriers. The main stochastic variables are the barrier width and the spreading distance of the turbulent bursts within the barrier, together with their level of correlation. One finds that in the case of a barrier with volumetric losses, such as radiation or particle losses as addressed in our present simulations, the stochastic model predicts a leaky behavior with an exponential PDF of escaping turbulent bursts in agreement with the simulation
Li, Jing; Xu, Li; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yan
2014-10-01
A portable sample preparation device with a magnetic polymer monolith as the extraction medium was constructed. The monolith was synthesized by polymerizing methacrylic acid and ethylene dimethacrylate around a cylindrical magnet. In this way, the monolith with a magnetic core could be readily attached to the extraction device by magnetism. The constructed device was evaluated for the enrichment of UV filters in water samples, followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The extraction efficiency for the targets was satisfactory with no matrix interference. Good linearities were obtained for the UV filters with the correlation coefficients >0.9986. The limits of detection and quantification for the UV filters were 0.3-0.8 and 1.0-2.4 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of the UV filters from the spiked water samples at the concentration of 100 ng/mL were 95.3-101.7%, with relative standard deviations <10%. Accordingly, the proposed portable device was demonstrated to be suitable for on-site simultaneous sampling, purification, and preconcentration within a single step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bale, S. D.; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P. R.; Turin, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Ergun, R. E.; MacDowall, R. J.; Pulupa, M.; Choi, M. K.;
2016-01-01
NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.
Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Ng, Chung-Sang; Dennis, T.
2016-10-01
We present results from a series of three-dimensional simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VA *Tc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. This simulation setup allows easier comparison of turbulence properties with one-dimensional turbulence transport models, which have been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to much higher level of complexity involved. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models. This work is supported by a NASA Grant NNX15AU61G.
Resistive fluid turbulence and tokamak edge plasma dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.; Ritz, C.P.
1988-01-01
Electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence has been linked to particle and heat transport in tokamaks. Here we report on several related theoretical and experimental investigations of edge plasma dynamics. The theory of thermally-driven convective cell edge turbulence has been developed to treat the coupling of the radiative-condensation instability to the resistivity-gradient expansion free energy. This model of edge turbulence has led to theoretical understanding of several anomalies in electrostatic edge turbulence found from experiment: that fluctuation levels and transport coefficients are larger than naively expected, that potential fluctuations are significantly larger than the density. Impurity gas-puffing experiments on the TEXT tokamak have been performed to test this theory, and have indicated favorable results. Resistive fluid turbulence models have also been explored and applied in the hope of understanding the extensive edge magnetic fluctuation studies. We discuss models of electromagnetic microtearing turbulence, resistive-pressure-gradient-driven turbulence, and ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. In particular we study the role of resistive fluid turbulence with separatrix effects in the L /yield/ H mode transition. 36 refs., 2 figs
Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1980-01-01
An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...
Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.; Umansky, M.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P.
2008-05-01
The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T e ; T i ) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pope, Stephen B
2006-01-01
.... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...
Benoit Curé
2010-01-01
The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...
B. Curé
MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...
B. Curé
2013-01-01
The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...
Benoit Curé.
The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...
Energy partitioning constraints at kinetic scales in low-β turbulence
Gershman, Daniel J.; F.-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Shuster, Jason; Avanov, Levon A.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Stawarz, Julia E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Schiff, Conrad; Lavraud, Benoit; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R.; Giles, Barbara L.; Pollock, Craig J.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Torbert, Roy B.; Moore, Thomas E.; Burch, James L.
2018-02-01
Turbulence is a fundamental physical process through which energy injected into a system at large scales cascades to smaller scales. In collisionless plasmas, turbulence provides a critical mechanism for dissipating electromagnetic energy. Here, we present observations of plasma fluctuations in low-β turbulence using data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission in Earth's magnetosheath. We provide constraints on the partitioning of turbulent energy density in the fluid, ion-kinetic, and electron-kinetic ranges. Magnetic field fluctuations dominated the energy density spectrum throughout the fluid and ion-kinetic ranges, consistent with previous observations of turbulence in similar plasma regimes. However, at scales shorter than the electron inertial length, fluctuation power in electron kinetic energy significantly exceeded that of the magnetic field, resulting in an electron-motion-regulated cascade at small scales. This dominance is highly relevant for the study of turbulence in highly magnetized laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Nagendra Prakash, Vivek
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in
Dynamic paradigm of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, Alfred M.
2006-01-01
In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced
Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1991-10-01
The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs
Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.
1986-01-01
Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares
Inertial range spectrum of field-aligned whistler turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dwivedi, Navin Kumar; Singh, Shobhana
2017-01-01
An analytical model to study the whistler turbulence spectrum and inertial range spectral scalings related with the electric and magnetic field spectra in a weakly non-collisional magnetized plasma is developed. In the present model, the dispersion relation of whistler wave propagating along...
Sources of nonadiabaticity in tokamak turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F.A.
1993-01-01
The two-fluid equations governing the nonlinear evolution and saturation of drift wave-like turbulence and transport in tokamaks under quasi-neutral conditions in periodic cylinder geometry are investigated. Using experiment as guide and employing appropriate orderings, two non-adiabaticity parameters, Υ es and Υ em are derived as functions of the reduced frequency ωa/v thi and wave number ρ i k r characteristic of the turbulent fluctuation spectrum. These parameters correspond respectively to the electrostatic limit and the general electromagnetic case. It is shown that they must be O(1) if significant particle and ion energy transport are to be expected from the turbulence. In other words, they are measures of the departure from neo-classical particle and ion energy transport due to the turbulence. These analytic results are complementary to, and serve as guidelines for, any future direct numerical simulations of the set of seven nonlinear partial differential equations which must be solved with suitable sources of particles, momentum and energy to determine the turbulence evolution and resultant saturated power spectra of density, pressure, electrostatic potential and magnetic field. The nonadiabaticity parameters discussed suggest possible qualitative explanations of the isotope effect and reduction of anomalous transport noted in H-mode tokamak discharges. (orig.)
A study of runaway electron confinement and theory of neoclassical MHD turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Oh Jin
1989-07-01
This thesis consists of two major studies: a study of runaway electron confinement and a theory of neoclassical MHD turbulence. The aim of the former is to study the structure of internal magnetic turbulence in tokamaks, which is thought by many to be responsible for the heat transport. The aim of the latter is to extend existing theories of MHD turbulence in tokamaks into experimentally relevant low-collisionality regimes. This section contains a theory of neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and a theory of neoclassical resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence
Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*
Nevins, William
2005-10-01
Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits
Steady-state magnetohydrodynamic clump turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetreault, D.J.
1989-01-01
The turbulent steady state of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) clump instability [Phys. Fluids 31, 2122 (1988)] is investigated. The steady state is determined by the balance between clump growth by turbulent mixing and clump decay by field line stochasticity. The turbulent fields driving the mixing are generated self-consistently from Ampere's law and conserve the magnetic helicity. In the steady state, the mean current and magnetic field satisfy J 0 = μB 0 , where μ depends on the mean-square fluctuation level. Above this critical point (J 0 >μB 0 ), the plasma is MHD clump unstable. MHD clump instability is a dynamical route to the force-free, Taylor state. For the steady state to exist, μ must exceed a threshold on the order of that required for B 0 /sub z/ field reversal. Steady-state MHD clump turbulence corresponds to field reversed Taylor states. From the μ threshold condition, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum (δB/sub rms//B) is calculated and shown to increase with mean driving current as θ 3 , where θ is the pinch parameter
Compressibility and rotation effects on transport suppression in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshizawa, A.
1996-01-01
Compressibility and rotation effects on turbulent transports in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows under arbitrary mean field are investigated using a Markovianized two-scale statistical approach. Some new aspects of MHD turbulence are pointed out in close relation to plasma compressibility. Special attention is paid to the turbulent electromotive force, which plays a central role in the generation of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. In addition to plasma rotation, the interaction between compressibility and magnetic fields is shown to bring a few factors suppressing MHD fluctuations and, eventually, density and temperature transports, even in the presence of steep mean density and temperature gradients. This finding is discussed in the context of the turbulence-suppression mechanism in the tokamak close-quote s high-confinement modes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Benoit Curé
The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...
B. Curé
During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R.; Shiota, D.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.
2018-02-01
A new model describing the transport and evolution of turbulence in the quiet solar corona is presented. In the low plasma beta environment, transverse photospheric convective fluid motions drive predominantly quasi-2D (nonpropagating) turbulence in the mixed-polarity “magnetic carpet,” together with a minority slab (Alfvénic) component. We use a simplified sub-Alfvénic flow velocity profile to solve transport equations describing the evolution and dissipation of turbulence from 1\\hspace{0.5em}{{t}}{{o}} 15 {R}ȯ (including the Alfvén surface). Typical coronal base parameters are used, although one model uses correlation lengths derived observationally by Abramenko et al., and the other assumes values 10 times larger. The model predicts that (1) the majority quasi-2D turbulence evolves from a balanced state at the coronal base to an imbalanced state, with outward fluctuations dominating, at and beyond the Alfvén surface, i.e., inward turbulent fluctuations are dissipated preferentially; (2) the initially imbalanced slab component remains imbalanced throughout the solar corona, being dominated by outwardly propagating Alfvén waves, and wave reflection is weak; (3) quasi-2D turbulence becomes increasingly magnetized, and beyond ∼ 6 {R}ȯ , the kinetic energy is mainly in slab fluctuations; (4) there is no accumulation of inward energy at the Alfvén surface; (5) inertial range quasi-2D rather than slab fluctuations are preferentially dissipated within ∼ 3 {R}ȯ ; and (6) turbulent dissipation of quasi-2D fluctuations is sufficient to heat the corona to temperatures ∼ 2× {10}6 K within 2 {R}ȯ , consistent with observations that suggest that the fast solar wind is accelerated most efficiently between ∼ 2\\hspace{0.5em}{{a}}{{n}}{{d}} 4 {R}ȯ .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, S. E.
2001-01-01
A comparison is made between two alternative approaches for the analysis of polarization evolution of em waves in a magnetized plasma. The two approaches are the Coupled Wave-Equation Formalism (CWF) and the Stokes Vector Formalism (SVF). After brief descriptions of the two formalisms the correspondence between them is spelled out. The two formalisms are then compared and their relative advantages and limitations are discussed [it
Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics
Matthaeus, W.
1992-01-01
In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.
Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.
2004-01-01
Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)
Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.
2004-01-01
Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Childress, S.
1995-01-01
The authors formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. The authors apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully, developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)
Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM
2005-01-01
The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.
Turbulent current drive mechanisms
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2017-08-01
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction
Lane, Todd
2016-01-01
Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.
1974-01-01
Spectral measurements are reported of plasma turbulence in the Cs plasma of a Q device, modified to a magnetic cusp geometry. The excitation mechanism for the fluctuations appears to be the centrifugal instability discussed by Chen. A transition from an f−5 to an f−3 power spectrum is observed...... as one moves from the hot plates to the midplane of the cusp. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W; LeBlanc, B P; Mikkelsen, D R
2011-03-23
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
What drives galactic magnetism?
Chyży, K. T.; Sridhar, S. S.; Jurusik, W.
2017-07-01
Aims: Magnetic fields are important ingredients of the interstellar medium. They are suspected to be maintained by dynamo processes related to star-formation activity, properties of the interstellar medium and global features of galaxies. We aim to use statistical analysis of a large number of various galaxies to probe, model, and understand relations between different galaxy properties and magnetic fields. Methods: We have compiled a sample of 55 galaxies including low-mass dwarf and Magellanic-types, normal spirals and several massive starbursts, and applied principal component analysis (PCA) and regression methods to assess the impact of various galaxy properties on the observed magnetic fields. Results: According to PCA the global galaxy parameters (like H I, H2, and dynamical mass, star formation rate (SFR), near-infrared luminosity, size, and rotational velocity) are all mutually correlated and can be reduced to a single principal component. Further PCA performed for global and intensive (not size related) properties of galaxies (such as gas density, and surface density of the star formation rate, SSFR), indicates that magnetic field strength B is connected mainly to the intensive parameters, while the global parameters have only weak relationships with B. We find that the tightest relationship of B is with SSFR, which is described by a power-law with an index of 0.33 ± 0.03. The relation is observed for galaxies with the global SFR spread over more than four orders of magnitude. Only the radio faintest dwarf galaxies deviate from this relation probably due to the inverse Compton losses of relativistic electrons or long turbulence injection timescales. The observed weaker associations of B with galaxy dynamical mass and the rotational velocity we interpret as indirect ones, resulting from the observed connection of the global SFR with the available total H2 mass in galaxies. Using our sample we constructed a diagram of B across the Hubble sequence which
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.
1994-01-01
The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated
B. Curé
The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...
Benoit Curé
The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...
Benoit Curé
2013-01-01
Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...
A Vorticity-Magnetic Field Dynamo Instability
Blackman, Eric G.; Chou, Tom
1997-01-01
We generalize the mean field magnetic dynamo to include local evolution of the mean vorticity in addition to the mean magnetic field. The coupled equations exhibit a general mean field dynamo instability that enables the transfer of turbulent energy to the magnetic field and vorticity on larger scales. The growth of the vorticity and magnetic field both require helical turbulence which can be supplied by an underlying global rotation. The dynamo coefficients are derived including the backreac...
DRIVING TURBULENCE AND TRIGGERING STAR FORMATION BY IONIZING RADIATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Burkert, Andreas; Heitsch, Fabian
2009-01-01
We present high-resolution simulations on the impact of ionizing radiation of massive O stars on the surrounding turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). The simulations are performed with the newly developed software iVINE which combines ionization with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and gravitational forces. We show that radiation from hot stars penetrates the ISM, efficiently heats cold low-density gas and amplifies overdensities seeded by the initial turbulence. The formation of observed pillar-like structures in star-forming regions (e.g. in M16) can be explained by this scenario. At the tip of the pillars gravitational collapse can be induced, eventually leading to the formation of low-mass stars. Detailed analysis of the evolution of the turbulence spectra shows that UV radiation of O stars indeed provides an excellent mechanism to sustain and even drive turbulence in the parental molecular cloud.
Turbulence-induced persistence in laser beam wandering.
Zunino, Luciano; Gulich, Damián; Funes, Gustavo; Pérez, Darío G
2015-07-01
We have experimentally confirmed the presence of long-memory correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. A laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions. Horizontal and vertical displacements of the laser beam centroid were subsequently analyzed by implementing detrended fluctuation analysis. This is a very well-known and widely used methodology to unveil memory effects from time series. Results obtained from this experimental analysis allow us to confirm that both coordinates behave as highly persistent signals for strong turbulent intensities. This finding is relevant for a better comprehension and modeling of the turbulence effects in free-space optical communication systems and other applications related to propagation of optical signals in the atmosphere.
Lee, Jeong Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk
2015-01-01
This letter reports the one-pot synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 composites. By the electrostatic interaction of exfoliated graphene oxide and Fe3+ ions, graphene oxide/Fe3+ ions were prepared in a diethylene glycol. In situ formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on graphene oxide sheets and reduction of graphene oxide were then achieved simultaneously by the thermal decomposition reaction of Fe(acac)3 at high temperature. This synthetic method enables control over the phase of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on graphene sheets, further preventing restacking of the graphene sheets and aggregation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. By controlling the mass ratio of Fe(acac)3 and graphene oxide, a series of reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 composites were prepared. Magnetic properties of the reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 composites are investigated.
MHD turbulent dynamo in astrophysics: Theory and numerical simulation
Chou, Hongsong
2001-10-01
This thesis treats the physics of dynamo effects through theoretical modeling of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems and direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. After a brief introduction to astrophysical dynamo research in Chapter 1, the following issues in developing dynamic models of dynamo theory are addressed: In Chapter 2, nonlinearity that arises from the back reaction of magnetic field on velocity field is considered in a new model for the dynamo α-effect. The dependence of α-coefficient on magnetic Reynolds number, kinetic Reynolds number, magnetic Prandtl number and statistical properties of MHD turbulence is studied. In Chapter 3, the time-dependence of magnetic helicity dynamics and its influence on dynamo effects are studied with a theoretical model and 3D direct numerical simulations. The applicability of and the connection between different dynamo models are also discussed. In Chapter 4, processes of magnetic field amplification by turbulence are numerically simulated with a 3D Fourier spectral method. The initial seed magnetic field can be a large-scale field, a small-scale magnetic impulse, and a combination of these two. Other issues, such as dynamo processes due to helical Alfvénic waves and the implication and validity of the Zeldovich relation, are also addressed in Appendix B and Chapters 4 & 5, respectively. Main conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 5. Applications of these studies are intended for astrophysical magnetic field generation through turbulent dynamo processes, especially when nonlinearity plays central role. In studying the physics of MHD turbulent dynamo processes, the following tools are developed: (1)A double Fourier transform in both space and time for the linearized MHD equations (Chapter 2 and Appendices A & B). (2)A Fourier spectral numerical method for direct simulation of 3D incompressible MHD equations (Appendix C).
Interstellar turbulence model : A self-consistent coupling of plasma and neutral fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, Gary P.; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2006-01-01
We present results of a preliminary investigation of interstellar turbulence based on a self-consistent two-dimensional fluid simulation model. Our model describes a partially ionized magnetofluid interstellar medium (ISM) that couples a neutral hydrogen fluid to a plasma through charge exchange interactions and assumes that the ISM turbulent correlation scales are much bigger than the shock characteristic length-scales, but smaller than the charge exchange mean free path length-scales. The shocks have no influence on the ISM turbulent fluctuations. We find that nonlinear interactions in coupled plasma-neutral ISM turbulence are influenced substantially by charge exchange processes
Magnetization behavior of hard/soft-magnetic composite pillar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, T.; Matsuzaki, J.; Kurisu, H.; Yamamoto, S.
2008-01-01
Hard/soft-magnetic composite pillar array medium is proposed for ultra-high-density recording media. Magnetization reversal process for a single hard/soft-magnetic composite pillar in the medium is calculated using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Magnetization reversal of the soft-magnetic unit helps the magnetization reversal for the hard-magnetic unit, and the effective coercivity for the hard-magnetic unit is greatly reduced. Thereby saturation recording to the high-K u -hard-magnetic material used for perpendicular magnetic recording will be realizable
Group-kinetic theory of turbulence
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
The two phases are governed by two coupled systems of Navier-Stokes equations. The couplings are nonlinear. These equations describe the microdynamical state of turbulence, and are transformed into a master equation. By scaling, a kinetic hierarchy is generated in the form of groups, representing the spectral evolution, the diffusivity and the relaxation. The loss of memory in formulating the relaxation yields the closure. The network of sub-distributions that participates in the relaxation is simulated by a self-consistent porous medium, so that the average effect on the diffusivity is to make it approach equilibrium. The kinetic equation of turbulence is derived. The method of moments reverts it to the continuum. The equation of spectral evolution is obtained and the transport properties are calculated. In inertia turbulence, the Kolmogoroff law for weak coupling and the spectrum for the strong coupling are found. As the fluid analog, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation has a driving force in the form of emission of solitons by velocity fluctuations, and is used to describe the microdynamical state of turbulence. In order for the emission together with the modulation to participate in the transport processes, the non-homogeneous Schrodinger equation is transformed into a homogeneous master equation. By group-scaling, the master equation is decomposed into a system of transport equations, replacing the Bogoliubov system of equations of many-particle distributions. It is in the relaxation that the memory is lost when the ensemble of higher-order distributions is simulated by an effective porous medium. The closure is thus found. The kinetic equation is derived and transformed into the equation of spectral flow.
Turbulence in Natural Environments
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M.; Gates, Richard J.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.
2013-09-11
A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth–tellurium–selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. Finally, the laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.
Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows
Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M
2016-01-01
This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.
Quantum turbulence of bellows-driven .sup.4./sup.He superflow: decay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Vinen, W. F.; Skrbek, L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 18 (2015), "184503-1"-"184503-13" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vortex-line density * counterflow turbulence * quantum turbulence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Doppler spectral line shapes in low frequency turbulent plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marandet, Y.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.
2003-01-01
In this paper we investigate the influence of low frequency, i.e. drift wave like turbulence on the spectral line shapes in magnetized plasmas. The measured spectrum, which is obtained through both spatial and time averaging processes, is shown to contain information on turbulence. Using a statistical description of the turbulent fluctuations, we investigate the effects of density, fluid velocity and temperature fluctuations on the Doppler profile of a spectral line. The model we built, relies on 2 separations of scales, first between the atomic processes and the turbulence, allowing the use of a simple LTE model for the VDF (velocity distribution function) of the emitters. Then between turbulent scales and the measurement scales, allowing a statistical treatment of the turbulent fluctuations. The relevant quantity pertaining to turbulence for line shape calculations is found to be the joint PDF (probability distribution function) of the fluctuating plasma parameters. Using our model, we were able to investigate the limiting cases where only one variable fluctuates. At this level of approximation, the Doppler line does not contain information on the density fluctuations. A non-Gaussian PDF leads to a profile which is also non-Gaussian. Thus information on this PDF might be obtained from the measured line shape
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosetto, A.
2014-01-01
The tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) is the plasma region characterized by open field lines that start and end on the vessel walls. The plasma dynamics in the SOL plays a crucial role in determining the overall performance of a tokamak, since it controls the plasma-wall interactions, being responsible of exhausting the tokamak power, it regulates the overall plasma confinement, and it governs the plasma refueling and the removal of fusion ashes. Scrape-off layer physics is intrinsically non-linear and characterized by phenomena that occur on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Free energy sources drive a number of unstable modes that develop into turbulence and lead to transport of particles and heat across the magnetic field lines. Depending on the driving instability, different SOL turbulent regimes can be identified. As the SOL turbulent regimes determine the plasma confinement properties and the SOL width (and, consequently, the power flux on the vessel wall, for example), it is of crucial importance to understand which turbulent regimes are active in the SOL, under which conditions they develop, and which are the main properties of the associated turbulent transport. In the present thesis we define the SOL turbulent regimes, and we provide a framework to identify them, given the operational SOL parameters. Our study is based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations and it is focused on a limited tokamak SOL configuration. We first describe the main SOL linear instabilities, such as the inertial and resistive branches of the drift waves, the resistive, inertial and ideal branches of the ballooning modes, and the ion temperature gradient mode. Then, we find the SOL turbulent regimes depending on the instability driving turbulent transport, assuming that turbulence saturates when the radial gradient associated to the pressure fluctuations is comparable to the equilibrium one. Our methodology for the turbulent regime identification is supported by the analysis
Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, David
1977-01-01
A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)
PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND HEATING BY TURBULENT RECONNECTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vlahos, Loukas; Pisokas, Theophilos; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)
2016-08-10
Turbulent flows in the solar wind, large-scale current sheets, multiple current sheets, and shock waves lead to the formation of environments in which a dense network of current sheets is established and sustains “turbulent reconnection.” We constructed a 2D grid on which a number of randomly chosen grid points are acting as scatterers (i.e., magnetic clouds or current sheets). Our goal is to examine how test particles respond inside this large-scale collection of scatterers. We study the energy gain of individual particles, the evolution of their energy distribution, and their escape time distribution. We have developed a new method to estimate the transport coefficients from the dynamics of the interaction of the particles with the scatterers. Replacing the “magnetic clouds” with current sheets, we have proven that the energization processes can be more efficient depending on the strength of the effective electric fields inside the current sheets and their statistical properties. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck (FP) equation, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles only for the stochastic Fermi process. We have shown that the evolution of the particles inside a turbulent reconnecting volume is not a solution of the FP equation, since the interaction of the particles with the current sheets is “anomalous,” in contrast to the case of the second-order Fermi process.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.
3D fluid simulations of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeiler, A.; Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.N.
1995-09-01
3D simulations of drift resistive ballooning turbulence are presented. The turbulence is basically controlled by a parameter α, the ratio of the drift wave frequency to the ideal ballooning growth rate. If this parameters is small (α≤1, corresponding to Ohmic or L-mode plasmas), the system is dominated by ballooning turbulence, which is strongly peaked at the outside of the torus. If it is large (α≥1, corresponding to H-mode plasmas) field line curvature plays a minor role. The turbulence is nonlinearly sustained even if curvature is removed and all modes are linearly stable due to magnetic shear. In the nonlinear regime without curvature the system obeys a different scaling law compared to the low α regime. The transport scaling is discussed in both regimes and the implications for OH-, L-mode and H-mode transport are discussed. (orig.)
Direct numerical simulations of two-fluid plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thyagaraja, A. [UKAEA/Euratom Fusion Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
1995-10-01
Electromagnetic turbulence thought to be responsible for anomalous transport in magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks is very complicated, involving a multitude of physical processes, length and time-scales. It cannot be investigated by traditional linear theories any more than aerodynamic fluid turbulence. The relatively longer wavelength (k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {sub {rho}{sub i}} << 1), low frequency ({omega} {approx_equal} {omega}{sub *} << {omega}{sub ci}) drift-type modes are, however, susceptible to a direct numerical solution approach pioneered in the case of fluid turbulence by Orszag and Patera. A substantial two-fluid nonlinear code called CUTIE has been developed at Culham in recent years to study the nonlinear saturation and transport consequences of electromagnetic drift wave turbulence in simplified tokamak geometry. This development and some results obtained using such a model are briefly described in this contribution. (orig.).
Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.
1995-01-01
This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs
Statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.; Goldman, M.V.
1979-01-01
A statistical theory of Langmuir turbulence is developed by applying a generalization of the direction interaction approximation (DIA) of Kraichnan to the Zakharov equations describing Langmuir turbulence. 7 references
Probing the local interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suess, S.T.; Dessler, A.J.
1985-01-01
The paper concerns the location of the heliospheric shock, in view of the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values. To determine whether the discrepancy may be attributed to parameters used to describe the local interstellar medium [LISM], the authors applied a sophisticated model of solar-wind expansion to deduce a range of parameters for the LISM. Both the interstellar magnetic field and the pressure due to galactic cosmic rays are considered. (U.K.)
Age-Related Vascular Changes Affect Turbulence in Aortic Blood Flow.
Ha, Hojin; Ziegler, Magnus; Welander, Martin; Bjarnegård, Niclas; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste; Ebbers, Tino; Dyverfeldt, Petter
2018-01-01
Turbulent blood flow is implicated in the pathogenesis of several aortic diseases but the extent and degree of turbulent blood flow in the normal aorta is unknown. We aimed to quantify the extent and degree of turbulece in the normal aorta and to assess whether age impacts the degree of turbulence. 22 young normal males (23.7 ± 3.0 y.o.) and 20 old normal males (70.9 ± 3.5 y.o.) were examined using four dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow MRI) to quantify the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), a measure of the intensity of turbulence, in the aorta. All healthy subjects developed turbulent flow in the aorta, with total TKE of 3-19 mJ. The overall degree of turbulence in the entire aorta was similar between the groups, although the old subjects had about 73% more total TKE in the ascending aorta compared to the young subjects (young = 3.7 ± 1.8 mJ, old = 6.4 ± 2.4 mJ, p flow velocity and suppressed the development of turbulence. In conclusion, turbulent blood flow develops in the aorta of normal subjects and is impacted by age-related geometric changes. Non-invasive assessment enables the determination of normal levels of turbulent flow in the aorta which is a prerequisite for understanding the role of turbulence in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.
Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection.
King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2015-01-27
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent convection in the vast oceans of liquid metal within them. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of planetary rotation and magnetic fields through the Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that planetary dynamo systems naturally settle into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. Although this magnetostrophic theory correctly predicts the strength of Earth's magnetic field, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first, to our knowledge, turbulent, magnetostrophic convection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the dynamically optimal magnetostrophic state is the natural expression of turbulent planetary dynamo systems.
Issues in direct numerical simulation of plasma turbulence and transport
Thyagaraja, A.; Arter, W.; Haas, F. A.
1991-04-01
The problem of direct numerical simulation of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement systems such as a tokamak is important in gaining a theoretical understanding of anomalous transport of particles, energy, momentum and impurities in such systems. Two approaches to this question are being developed. The design philosophy and the basic numerical problems encountered and solved in the construction of a two-fluid, 3-D, electro-magnetic, finite difference, time evolution code, CUTIE, are outlined. The importance of qualitative consistency, time-reversal, conservation properties, phase mixing, and boundary conditions are illustrated in the context of both passive and active electrostatic turbulence. A separate study was undertaken to aid in the understanding of drift wave turbulence in tokamak plasmas. In this connection a 3-D, time-dependant, electrostatic drift wave code called DRIFT was written. This has features which take account of toroidicity, non-adiabaticity and magnetic shear. The resulting code is very flexible, and was used to solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation efficiently in 2-D. Results from time-dependant, 3-D calculation run on a Cray-2 are presented. The aim is to obtain a proper physical understanding of plasma turbulence in typical tokamak conditions by calculating the power spectra of the turbulent fluctuations and their transport consequences. It is believed that this can only be achieved by a step-by-step approach to the numerics, making sure that the calculated effects represent genuine physics and are not mere artifacts of the numerical simulation.
Higher order mode laser beam intensity fluctuations in strong oceanic turbulence
Baykal, Yahya
2017-05-01
Intensity fluctuations of the higher order mode laser beams are evaluated when these beams propagate in a medium exhibiting strong oceanic turbulence. Our formulation involves the modified Rytov solution that extends the Rytov solution to cover strong turbulence as well, and our recently reported expression that relates the atmospheric turbulence structure constant to the oceanic turbulence parameters and oceanic wireless optical communication link parameters. The variations of the intensity fluctuations are reported against the changes of the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, viscosity and the source size of the higher order mode laser beam. Our results indicate that under any oceanic turbulence parameters, it is advantageous to employ higher order laser modes in reducing the scintillation noise in wireless optical communication links operating in a strongly turbulent ocean.
Magnetic Turbulence in Clusters of Galaxies
2009-01-01
espectro de potencias de los campos magnéticos turbulentos se puede estudiar a través del análisis de la rotación de Faraday de las fuentes de radio... potencias de la fuerza de tensión magnética. Dicha cantidad estad́ıstica de cuarto orden ofrece una forma para discriminar diferentes escenarios de
An overview of turbulence compensation
Schutte, K.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Iersel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.
2012-01-01
In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification
Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence: An astronomical perspective
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theories have since found applications in many areas of astrophysics. Spacecraft measurements of solar-wind turbulence show that there is more power in Alfvén waves that travel away from the. Sun than towards it. Theories of imbalanced MHD turbulence have now been proposed to address interplanetary turbulence.
Turbulent resistive heating of solar coronal arches
Benford, G.
1983-01-01
The possibility that coronal heating occurs by means of anomalous Joule heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is examined, with consideration given to currents running from foot of a loop to the other. It is assumed that self-fields generated by the currents are absent and currents follow the direction of the magnetic field, allowing the plasma cylinder to expand radially. Ion and electron heating rates are defined within the cylinder, together with longitudinal conduction and convection, radiation and cross-field transport, all in terms of Coulomb and turbulent effects. The dominant force is identified as electrostatic ion cyclotron instability, while ion acoustic modes remain stable. Rapid heating from an initial temperature of 10 eV to 100-1000 eV levels is calculated, with plasma reaching and maintaining a temperature in the 100 eV range. Strong heating is also possible according to the turbulent Ohm's law and by resistive heating.
Basic issues of atmospheric turbulence and turbulent diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortak, H.
1985-01-01
A major concern of the institutions commissioned with the protection of the environment is the prognostication of the environment's exposure to various pollutant emissions. The transport and turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances largely take place within a planetary boundary layer of a thickness between 500 to 1,500 m in which the atmosphere continues to be in a turbulent state of flow. The basic theories for the origination and formation of turbulence in flow fields, for the application of these theories to turbulent flows over complex terrain structures and, finally, for the turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances within the planetary boundary layer are presented. (orig./PW) [de
Numerical and theoretical investigations of resistive drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunn Pedersen, T.
1995-07-01
With regard to the development of thermonuclear fusion utilizing a plasma confined in a magnetic field, anomalous transport is a major problem and is considered to be caused by electrostatic drift wave turbulence. A simplified quasi-two-dimensional slab model of resistive drift wave turbulence is investigated numerically and theoretically. The model (Hasegawa and Wakatani), consists of two nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation φ. It includes the effect of a background density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic field and a generalized Ohm's law for the electrons in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It may be used to model the basic features of electrostatic turbulence and the associated transport in an edge plasma. Model equations are derived and some important properties of the system are discussed. It is described how the Fourier spectral method is applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, how the time integration is developed to ensure accurate and fast simulations in a large parameter regime, and how the accuracy of the code is checked. Numerical diagnostics are developed to verify and extend the results in publications concerning quasi-stationary turbulent states and to give an overview of the properties of the quasi-stationary turbulent state. The use of analysis tools, not previously applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani system, and the results obtained are described. Fluid particles are tracked to obtain Lagrangian statistics for the turbulence. A new theoretical analysis of relative dispersion leads to a decomposition criterion for the particles. The significance of this is investigated numerically and characteristic time scales for particles are determined for a range of parameter values. It is indicated that the turbulent state can be characterized in the context of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory as an attractor with a large basin of attraction. The basic
TSALLIS STATISTICS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We used magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of interstellar turbulence to study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of increments of density, velocity, and magnetic field. We found that the PDFs are well described by a Tsallis distribution, following the same general trends found in solar wind and electron MHD studies. We found that the PDFs of density are very different in subsonic and supersonic turbulence. In order to extend this work to ISM observations, we studied maps of column density obtained from three-dimensional MHD simulations. From the column density maps, we found the parameters that fit to Tsallis distributions and demonstrated that these parameters vary with the sonic and Alfven Mach numbers of turbulence. This opens avenues for using Tsallis distributions to study the dynamical and perhaps magnetic states of interstellar gas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Turbulence and Flying Machines
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
for Advanced Scientific. Research. She is currently working on problems of flow stability, transition to turbulence and vortex dynamics. Rama Govindarajan. This article is intended to introduce the young reader to the ... T applied by the engines and the drag force D due to the resistance of the air, i.e., under cruise condi~ions,.
Incremental Similarity and Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen
This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...
Stochastic modelling of turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse
previously been shown to be closely connected to the energy dissipation. The incorporation of the small scale dynamics into the spatial model opens the door to a fully fledged stochastic model of turbulence. Concerning the interaction of wind and wind turbine, a new method is proposed to extract wind turbine...
Turbulence compressibility corrections
Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.
1994-01-01
The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.
van der Veen, Roeland
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study
Turbulent current layer equilibrium and current layer of the Earth magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonova, E.E.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.
1996-01-01
Analysis of distribution of plasma and magnetic field concentration in the unidimensional current layer under the condition of equality of the current inflowing into the layer and the counter diffusion current by various dependences of the regular velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient on the magnetic field. Corresponding two-dimensional solutions are obtained in the tail approximation. Comparison of the model turbulent current layer with characteristics of the plasma layer of the Earth magnetosphere tail is carried out. 16 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tal, Balazs; Bencze, Attila; Zoletnik, Sandor; Veres, Gabor; Por, Gabor
2011-01-01
Time delay estimation methods (TDE) are well-known techniques to investigate poloidal flows in hot magnetized plasmas through the propagation properties of turbulent structures in the medium. One of these methods is based on the estimation of the time lag at which the cross-correlation function (CCF) estimation reaches its maximum value. The uncertainty of the peak location refers to the smallest determinable flow velocity modulation, and therefore the standard deviation of the time delay imposes important limitation to the measurements. In this article, the relative standard deviation of the CCF estimation and the standard deviation of its peak location are calculated analytically using a simple model of turbulent signals. This model assumes independent (non interacting) overlapping events (coherent structures) with randomly distributed spatio-temporal origins moving with background flow. The result of our calculations is the derivation of a general formula for the CCF variance, which is valid not exclusively in the high event density limit, but also for arbitrary event densities. Our formula reproduces the well known expression for high event densities previously published in the literature. In this paper we also present a derivation of the variance of time delay estimation that turns out to be inversely proportional to the applied time window. The derived formulas were tested in real plasma measurements. The calculations are an extension of the earlier work of Bencze and Zoletnik [Phys. Plasmas 12, 052323 (2005)] where the autocorrelation-width technique was developed. Additionally, we show that velocities calculated by a TDE method possess a broadband noise which originates from this variance, its power spectral density cannot be decreased by worsening the time resolution and can be coherent with noises of other velocity measurements where the same turbulent structures are used. This noise should not be confused with the impact of zero mean frequency zonal flow
Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Bruno, R. [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)
2017-02-01
The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed largely in the early 1990s, together with an important extension to inhomogeneous flows in 2010. Much of the focus in the earlier work was to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, and the relationship of density fluctuations to apparently incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Further important predictions about the “dimensionality” of solar wind turbulence and its relationship to the plasma beta were made and subsequently confirmed observationally. However, despite the initial success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in the solar wind, a detailed application to solar wind turbulence has not been undertaken. Here, we use the equations of NI MHD to describe solar wind turbulence, rewriting the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. Distinct descriptions of 2D and slab turbulence emerge naturally from the Elsässer formulation, as do the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components. For plasma beta order 1 or less regions, predictions for 2D and slab spectra result from the NI MHD description, and predictions for the spectral characteristics of density fluctuations can be made. We conclude by presenting a NI MHD formulation describing the transport of majority 2D and minority slab turbulence throughout the solar wind. A preliminary comparison of theory and observations is presented.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Transition to turbulence in the Hartmann boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thess, A.; Krasnov, D.; Boeck, T.; Zienicke, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Zikanov, O. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States); Moresco, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Alboussiere, T. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, Observatoire des Science de l' Univers de Grenoble, Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)
2007-07-01
The Hartmann boundary layer is a paradigm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hartmann boundary layers develop when a liquid metal flows under the influence of a steady magnetic field. The present paper is an overview of recent successful attempts to understand the mechanisms by which the Hartmann layer undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. (orig.)
Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Franci, Luca
2017-01-01
We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.
Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Franci, Luca, E-mail: offelius@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2017-07-20
We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.
Equipartition and transport in two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Nycander, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1998-01-01
Turbulent equipartition is investigated for the nonlinear evolution of pressure driven flute modes of a plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is recovered by linear stability analysis, and occurs when the pressure profile is more peaked than the profile of the...
Effective viscosity in quantum turbulence: a steady-state approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.; Lévêque, E.; Roche, P.-E.
2014-01-01
Roč. 106, č. 2 (2014), "24006-1"-"24006-6" ISSN 0295-5075 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum turbulence * effective viscosity * superfluid hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014
Depression of Nonlinearity in Decaying Isotropic MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dmitruk, P.
2008-01-01
Spectral method simulations show that undriven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence spontaneously generates coherent spatial correlations of several types, associated with local Beltrami fields, directional alignment of velocity and magnetic fields, and antialignment of magnetic and fluid acceleration components. These correlations suppress nonlinearity to levels lower than what is obtained from Gaussian fields, and occur in spatial patches. We suggest that this rapid relaxation leads to non-Gaussian statistics and spatial intermittency
Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence
Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.
1975-01-01
An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.
Measuring the Alfvénic nature of the interstellar medium: Velocity anisotropy revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.
2014-01-01
The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel and Lazarian method to estimate the Alfvén Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from Position-Position-Velocity maps. We utilize three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfvén Mach number dependency found in Esquivel and Lazarian might change when taking the second moment of the Position-Position-Velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the magnetic field strength (i.e., Alfvén Mach number) and the line-of-sight orientation, with a secondary effect on sonic Mach number. If the line of sight is parallel to up to ≈45 deg off of the mean field direction, the velocity centroid anisotropy is not prominent enough to distinguish different Alfvénic regimes. The observed anisotropy is not strongly affected by including radiative transfer, although future studies should include additional tests for opacity effects. These results open up the possibility of studying the magnetic nature of the ISM using statistical methods in addition to existing observational techniques.
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an
Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence
Gibson, Carl H.
2004-11-01
Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.
Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas
2018-02-01
The interplay between gravity, turbulence and the magnetic field determines the evolution of the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) and the formation of the stars. In spite of growing interests, there remains a lack of understanding of the importance of magnetic field over multiple scales. We derive the magnetic energy spectrum - a measure that constraints the multiscale distribution of the magnetic energy, and compare it with the gravitational energy spectrum derived in Li & Burkert. In our formalism, the gravitational energy spectrum is purely determined by the surface density probability density distribution (PDF), and the magnetic energy spectrum is determined by both the surface density PDF and the magnetic field-density relation. If regions have density PDFs close to P(Σ) ˜ Σ-2 and a universal magnetic field-density relation B ˜ ρ1/2, we expect a multiscale near equipartition between gravity and the magnetic fields. This equipartition is found to be true in NGC 6334, where estimates of magnetic fields over multiple scales (from 0.1 pc to a few parsec) are available. However, the current observations are still limited in sample size. In the future, it is necessary to obtain multiscale measurements of magnetic fields from different clouds with different surface density PDFs and apply our formalism to further study the gravity-magnetic field interplay.
On the problem of turbulent arcs modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yas'ko, O.I.
1998-01-01
A new hypothesis is proposed which considers mass as a charge which produces a special field during its movement likewise the electric charge creates magnetic one. This approach throws new light on vortexes formation since interaction of moving mass with the considered field exerts swirling effect. Some aspects of turbulence in flows near walls and in blown electric arc discharge were considered to validate the hypothesis in the cases of cold and high-temperature flows. The theoretical results are found to comply with experiment well. (author)
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed. The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS), Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN), Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...
Aerotaxis in Bacterial Turbulence
Fernandez, Vicente; Bisson, Antoine; Bitton, Cindy; Waisbord, Nicolas; Smriga, Steven; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman
2012-11-01
Concentrated suspensions of motile bacteria exhibit correlated dynamics on spatial scales much larger than an individual bacterium. The resulting flows, visually similar to turbulence, can increase mixing and decrease viscosity. However, it remains unclear to what degree the collective dynamics depend on the motile behavior of bacteria at the individual level. Using a new microfluidic device to create controlled horizontal oxygen gradients, we studied the two dimensional behavior of dense suspensions of Bacillus subtilis. This system makes it possible to assess the interplay between the coherent large-scale motions of the suspension, oxygen transport, and the directional response of cells to oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). At the same time, this device has enabled us to examine the onset of bacterial turbulence and its influence on the propagation of the diffusing oxygen front, as the bacteria begin in a dormant state and transition to swimming when exposed to oxygen.
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Topological signatures of interstellar magnetic fields - I. Betti numbers and persistence diagrams
Makarenko, Irina; Shukurov, Anvar; Henderson, Robin; Rodrigues, Luiz F. S.; Bushby, Paul; Fletcher, Andrew
2018-04-01
The interstellar medium (ISM) is a magnetized system in which transonic or supersonic turbulence is driven by supernova explosions. This leads to the production of intermittent, filamentary structures in the ISM gas density, whilst the associated dynamo action also produces intermittent magnetic fields. The traditional theory of random functions, restricted to second-order statistical moments (or power spectra), does not adequately describe such systems. We apply topological data analysis (TDA), sensitive to all statistical moments and independent of the assumption of Gaussian statistics, to the gas density fluctuations in a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the multiphase ISM. This simulation admits dynamo action, so produces physically realistic magnetic fields. The topology of the gas distribution, with and without magnetic fields, is quantified in terms of Betti numbers and persistence diagrams. Like the more standard correlation analysis, TDA shows that the ISM gas density is sensitive to the presence of magnetic fields. However, TDA gives us important additional information that cannot be obtained from correlation functions. In particular, the Betti numbers per correlation cell are shown to be physically informative. Magnetic fields make the ISM more homogeneous, reducing the abundance of both isolated gas clouds and cavities, with a stronger effect on the cavities. Remarkably, the modification of the gas distribution by magnetic fields is captured by the Betti numbers even in regions more than 300 pc from the mid-plane, where the magnetic field is weaker and correlation analysis fails to detect any signatures of magnetic effects.
EVOLUTION OF SHOCKS AND TURBULENCE IN MAJOR CLUSTER MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, S.; Mannheim, K.; Iapichino, L.; Miniati, F.; Bagchi, J.
2011-01-01
We performed a set of cosmological simulations of major mergers in galaxy clusters, in order to study the evolution of merger shocks and the subsequent injection of turbulence in the post-shock region and in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The computations have been performed with the grid-based, adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamical code Enzo, using a refinement criterion especially designed for refining turbulent flows in the vicinity of shocks. When a major merger event occurs, a substantial amount of turbulence energy is injected in the ICM of the newly formed cluster. Our simulations show that the shock launched after a major merger develops an ellipsoidal shape and gets broken by the interaction with the filamentary cosmic web around the merging cluster. The size of the post-shock region along the direction of shock propagation is of the order of 300 kpc h -1 , and the turbulent velocity dispersion in this region is larger than 100 km s -1 . We performed a scaling analysis of the turbulence energy within our cluster sample. The best fit for the scaling of the turbulence energy with the cluster mass is consistent with M 5/3 , which is also the scaling law for the thermal energy in the self-similar cluster model. This clearly indicates the close relation between virialization and injection of turbulence in the cluster evolution. As for the turbulence in the cluster core, we found that within 2 Gyr after the major merger (the timescale for the shock propagation in the ICM), the ratio of the turbulent to total pressure is larger than 10%, and after about 4 Gyr it is still larger than 5%, a typical value for nearly relaxed clusters. Turbulence at the cluster center is thus sustained for several gigayears, which is substantially longer than typically assumed in the turbulent re-acceleration models, invoked to explain the statistics of observed radio halos. Striking similarities in the morphology and other physical parameters between our simulations and the
Turbulence and other processes for the scale-free texture of the fast solar wind
Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Gogoberidze, G.; Wicks, R. T.
2012-04-01
The higher-order statistics of magnetic field magnitude fluctuations in the fast quiet solar wind are quantified systematically, scale by scale. We find a single global non-Gaussian scale-free behavior from minutes to over 5 hours. This spans the signature of an inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and a ˜1/f range in magnetic field components. This global scaling in field magnitude fluctuations is an intrinsic component of the underlying texture of the solar wind which co-exists with the signature of MHD turbulence but extends to lower frequencies. Importantly, scaling and non- Gaussian statistics of fluctuations are not unique to turbulence and can imply other physical mechanisms- our results thus place a strong constraint on theories of the dynamics of the solar corona and solar wind. Intriguingly, the magnetic field and velocity components also show scale-dependent dynamic alignment outside of the inertial range of MHD turbulence.
Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
or virtual particles excited by an external field) running in the loop which, when integrated out, confer their ... neutron stars or late stages of stellar evolution) the field strength is almost always smaller than the QED ...... [26] I S Gradshteyn and I M Ryzhik, Table of integrals, series and products (Academic. Press, London, 2000).
A review of flow modeling for dense medium cyclones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Narasimha; M.S. Brennan; P.N. Holtham [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India). R& amp; D Division
2006-06-15
A critical assessment is presented for the existing fluid flow models used for dense medium cyclones (DMCs) and hydrocyclones. As the present discussion indicates, the understanding of dense medium cyclone flow is still far from the complete. However, its similarity to the hydrocyclone provides a basis for improved understanding of fluid flow in DMCs. The complexity of fluid flow in DMCs is basically due to the existence of medium as well as the dominance of turbulent particle size and density effects on separation. Both the theoretical and experimental analysis is done with respect to two-phase motions and solid phase flow in hydrocyclones or DMCs. A detailed discussion is presented on the empirical, semiempirical, and the numerical models based upon both the vorticity-stream function approach and Navier-Stokes equations in their primitive variables and in cylindrical coordinates available in literature. The existing equations describing turbulence and multiphase flows in cyclone are also critically reviewed.
Exact law for homogeneous compressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics turbulence
Andrés, N.; Galtier, S.; Sahraoui, F.
2018-01-01
We derive an exact law for three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous compressible isothermal Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, without the assumption of isotropy. The Hall current is shown to introduce new flux and source terms that act at the small scales (comparable or smaller than the ion skin depth) to significantly impact the turbulence dynamics. The law provides an accurate means to estimate the energy cascade rate over a broad range of scales covering the magnetohydrodynamic inertial range and the sub-ion dispersive range in 3D numerical simulations and in in situ spacecraft observations of compressible turbulence. This work is particularly relevant to astrophysical flows in which small-scale density fluctuations cannot be ignored such as the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the interstellar medium.
Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)
4th European Turbulence Conference
1993-01-01
The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...
Edge Turbulence Imaging on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
S.J. Zweben; R.A. Maqueda; J.L. Terry; B. Bai; C.J. Boswell; C.E. Bush; D. D'Ippolito; E.D. Fredrickson; M. Greenwald; K. Hallatschek; S. Kaye; B. LaBombard; R. Maingi; J. Myra; W.M. Nevins; B.N. Rogers; D.P. Stotler; J. Wilgen; and X.Q. Xu
2002-01-01
Edge turbulence images have been made using an ultra-high speed CCD camera on both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the D-alpha or HeI (587.6 nm) line emission from localized deuterium or helium gas puffs was viewed along a local magnetic field line near the outer midplane. Fluctuations in this line emission reflect fluctuations in electron density and/or electron temperature through the atomic excitation rates, which can be modeled using the DEGAS-2 code. The 2-D structure of the measured turbulence can be compared with theoretical simulations based on 3-D fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birkenmeier, Gregor
2012-01-01
For more than 60 years, fusion scientists try to confine a plasma by means of external magnetic fields in order to achieve appropriately high densities and temperatures for the ignition of nuclear fusion. Despite of great progress in the design of confinement concepts, which are considered for the confinement of burning plasmas in the near future, theoretical plasma physics promises further confinement improvements using novel magnetic field geometries. Therefor, the key is the minimization of turbulent transport by choosing appropiate magnetic field geometries, which necessitates a fundamental understanding of the influence of magnetic field geometry on plasma turbulence. There are several theoretical works on turbulent plasma dynamics in three-dimensional geometries, but only a few experimental studies for validation of the theoretical results exist. Hence, the present work aims at providing experimental data for comparison with theory and to gain insights into the interplay between drift-wave turbulence and magnetic field geometry. By means of two multi-probe arrays, local density and potential fluctuations are measured in low-temperature plasmas at 128 positions on a single flux surface of the stellarator TJ-K with high temporal resolution. Using methods of statistical timeseries analysis structure sizes and dynamic properties of the drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K are determined. Thereby, it is shown that the size of turbulent structures perpendicular to the magnetic field is reduced in regions of high absolute local magnetic shear. In addition, a poloidal displacement with respect to the magnetic field lines and a complex propagation pattern of parallelly extended turbulent structures is found. Also, poloidal profiles of turbulent transport are calculated from the probe data. The maximum transport is found to be poloidally localized in a region of negative normal curvature (unfavourable curvature). In addition, the results point to an influence of geodesic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleiner, S.C.; Dickman, R.L.
1985-01-01
The velocity autocorrelation function (ACF) of observed spectral line centroid fluctuations is noted to effectively reproduce the actual ACF of turbulent gas motions within an interstellar cloud, thereby furnishing a framework for the study of the large scale velocity structure of the Taurus dark cloud complex traced by the present C-13O J = 1-0 observations of this region. The results obtained are discussed in the context of recent suggestions that widely observed correlations between molecular cloud widths and cloud sizes indicate the presence of a continuum of turbulent motions within the dense interstellar medium. Attention is then given to a method for the quantitative study of these turbulent motions, involving the mapping of a source in an optically thin spectral line and studying the spatial correlation properties of the resulting velocity centroid map. 61 references
Keenan, Brett D; Ford, Alexander L; Medvedev, Mikhail V
2015-09-01
Plasmas with electromagnetic fields turbulent at sub-Larmor scales are a feature of a wide variety of high-energy-density environments and are essential to the description of many astrophysical and laboratory plasma phenomena. Radiation from particles, whether they are relativistic or nonrelativistic, moving through small-scale magnetic turbulence has spectral characteristics distinct from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation. The radiation, carrying information on the statistical properties of the magnetic turbulence, is also intimately related to the particle diffusive transport. We have investigated, both theoretically and numerically, the transport of nonrelativistic and trans-relativistic particles in plasmas with high-amplitude isotropic sub-Larmor-scale magnetic turbulence, and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. Consequently, the diffusive and radiative properties of plasmas turbulent on sub-Larmor scales may serve as a powerful tool to diagnosis laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
Electrostatic Turbulence and Anomalous Effects in Reconnection Diffusion Region
Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Li, W.; Divin, A. V.; Andre, M.; Markidis, S.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Peng, I. B.; Argall, M. R.; Ergun, R.; Le Contel, O.; Magnes, W.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.
2017-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process whereby microscopicplasma processes cause macroscopic changes in magnetic field topology,so that initially separated plasmas become magnetically connected.Waves can produce particle diffusion, and anomalous resistivity, aswell as heat the plasma and accelerate plasma particles, all of whichcan impact ongoing reconnection. We report electrostatic turbulencedeveloping within the diffusion region of asymmetric magnetopausereconnection using observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscalemission and large-scale particle-in-cell simulations, and characterizeanomalous effects and plasma heating within the diffusion region. Ourobservations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays animportant role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetricreconnection.
Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Pickett
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Polar Spacecraft Observations of the Turbulent Outer Cusp/Magnetopause Boundary Layer of Earth
Pickett, J. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Dowell, J. H.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scudder, J. D.
1999-01-01
The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 R(sub E). The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfven waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry
Braam, M.
2014-01-01
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (
Calculation and Comparison of Turbulence Attenuation by Different Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Dordova
2010-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect of turbulence in atmospheric transmission media. A short introduction of the origin of turbulent atmosphere is given. Two classical methods for the calculation of turbulence attenuation are mentioned and briefly described in the paper – the Rytov approximation and Andrews’s method, and a new technique designed by the authors of this paper – the method of available power – is presented in short as well. We have run simulations in Matlab to compare the results of turbulence attenuation given by the classical methods and by the new technique - the method of available power. These calculations were performed for communication wavelengths of 850 nm and 1550 nm. The distance between the optical transmitter and receiver of horizontal links was set to values ranging from 0 m to 2500 m. We have taken into account the homogenous turbulence with low (10^-16 m^-2/3, medium (10^-15 m^-2/3 and high (10^-14 m^-2/3 structure parameter of refractive index Cn2.
BER evaluations for multimode beams in underwater turbulence
Altay Arpali, Serap; Baykal, Yahya; Arpali, Çağlar
2016-07-01
In underwater optical communication links, bit error rate (BER) is an important performance criterion. For this purpose, the effects of oceanic turbulence on multimode laser beam incidences are studied and compared in terms of average BER (), which is related to the scintillation index. Based on the log-normal distribution, is analysed for underwater turbulence parameters, including the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, the parameter that determines the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving index fluctuations, the Kolmogorov microscale length and other link parameters such as link length, wavelength and laser source size. It is shown that use of multimode improves the system performance of optical wireless communication systems operating in an underwater medium. For all the investigated multimode beams, decreasing link length, source size, the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving the index fluctuations, the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature and Kolmogorov microscale length improve the . Moreover, lower values are obtained for the increasing wavelength of operation and the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy in underwater turbulence.
Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas
Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-11-01
A central concept in the modern understanding of turbulence is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small length scales, or vice versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and such cascades have since been observed in various systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves and financial markets. Despite much progress, a quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge, owing to the interplay between many length scales that makes theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions difficult. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas—a quantum fluid that can be theoretically described on all relevant length scales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest length scale, study its nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gradual development of a cascade characterized by an isotropic power-law distribution in momentum space. We numerically model our experiments using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find excellent agreement with the measurements. Our experiments establish the uniform Bose gas as a promising new medium for investigating many aspects of turbulence, including the interplay between vortex and wave turbulence, and the relative importance of quantum and classical effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Z. Baumert
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.
The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E^{2}. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E^{1}. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.
A strong, highly-tilted interstellar magnetic field near the Solar System.
Opher, M; Bibi, F Alouani; Toth, G; Richardson, J D; Izmodenov, V V; Gombosi, T I
2009-12-24
Magnetic fields play an important (sometimes dominant) role in the evolution of gas clouds in the Galaxy, but the strength and orientation of the field in the interstellar medium near the heliosphere has been poorly constrained. Previous estimates of the field strength range from 1.8-2.5 microG and the field was thought to be parallel to the Galactic plane or inclined by 38-60 degrees (ref. 2) or 60-90 degrees (ref. 3) to this plane. These estimates relied either on indirect observational inferences or modelling in which the interstellar neutral hydrogen was not taken into account. Here we report measurements of the deflection of the solar wind plasma flows in the heliosheath to determine the magnetic field strength and orientation in the interstellar medium. We find that the field strength in the local interstellar medium is 3.7-5.5 microG. The field is tilted approximately 20-30 degrees from the interstellar medium flow direction (resulting from the peculiar motion of the Sun in the Galaxy) and is at an angle of about 30 degrees from the Galactic plane. We conclude that the interstellar medium field is turbulent or has a distortion in the solar vicinity.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Resistance dissipating currents (∼ 20,000 yr for earth). Lorentz force Driving motions, which are damped by. Viscosity or become turbulent and then decay. EM induction by Motions can maintain magnetic fields. ∂B. ∂t. = −∇ × E, E = −U × B +. J σ . Motion in a magnetic field induces electric fields. If this electric field has a ...
Plasma Turbulence in Earth's Magnetotail Observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission
Mackler, D. A.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Pollock, C. J.
2017-12-01
Magnetic reconnection, a process in which the magnetic topology undergoes multi-scale changes, is a significant mechanism for particle energization as well as energy dissipation. Reconnection is observed to occur in thin current sheets generated between two regions of magnetized plasma merging with a non-zero shear angle. Within a thinning current sheet, the dominant scale size approaches first the ion and then electron kinetic scale. The plasma becomes demagnetized, field lines transform, then once again the plasma becomes frozen-in. The reconnection process accelerates particles, leading to heated jets of plasma. Turbulence is another fundamental process in collision less plasmas. Despite decades of turbulence studies, an essential science question remains as to how turbulent energy dissipates at small scales by heating and accelerating particles. Turbulence in both plasmas and fluids has a fundamental property in that it follows an energy cascade into smaller scales. Energy introduced into a fluid or plasma can cause large scale motion, introducing vorticity, which merge and interact to make increasingly smaller eddies. It has been hypothesized that turbulent energy in magnetized plasmas may be dissipated by magnetic reconnection, just as viscosity dissipates energy in neutral fluid turbulence. The focus of this study is to use the new high temporal resolution suite of instruments on board the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to explore this hypothesis. An observable feature of the energy cascade in a turbulent magnetized plasma is its similarity to classical hydrodynamics in that the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of turbulent fluctuations follows a Kolmogorov-like power law (Image-5/3). We use highly accurate (0.1 nT) Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) data to derive the PSD as a function of frequency in the magnetic fluctuations. Given that we are able to confirm the turbulent nature of the flow field; we apply the method of Partial Variance of Increments (PVI
Electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence associated with the Earth's bow shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, P.
1974-01-01
The electric and magnetic field spectral densities of plasma waves in the earth's bow shock have been measured in the frequency range 20 Hz to 200 kHz using two 16-channel spectrum analyzers on the IMP-6 spacecraft. Electrostatic noise with a spectrum similar to the turbulence in the shock, but with lower intensities, is observed throughout the magnetosheath region, downstream of the shock. The intensity of the electrostatic component of turbulence in the bow shock increases as the upstream electron to ion temperature ratio increases, and decreases as the upstream sound velocity increases; both of these variations for the electrostatic component are consistent with ion sound wave turbulence. (U.S.)
Drift wave instability and turbulence in advanced stellarator configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendl, A.
2001-08-01
In the following chapter, an overview and references on the physics and geometry of helical advanced stellarators is given. On the basis of this configuration, the influence of magnetic field geometry is then discussed in a basic model of drift-Alfven wave turbulence which contains the necessary physics that applies to the plasma edge. By means of linear models, core physics in the form of ITG and dissipative trapped electron modes is further included in our survey. These models are, of course, by far not comprehensive in order to cover the complex physics of plasma turbulence in three-dimensional fusion devices, where a large range of parameter and mode regimes is present. Optimization criteria for a possible systematic minimization of turbulent transport in Helias configurations therefore still have to be regarded as tentative. The results presented here should, however, encourage for more detailed future computations. (orig.)
Velocity Fluctuations Driven by the Damped, Aperiodic Mode in the Intergalactic Medium
Kolberg, U.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.
2017-08-01
On account of its finite temperature, the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is subject to thermal fluctuations. Due to the fundamental coupling between particles and fields in a plasma, the field fluctuations generate current densities by means of the Lorentz force and thereby affect both the density and the velocity fluctuations of the particles. Recently, a new damped, aperiodic mode was discovered that dominates field fluctuations in the IGM. Apart from its impact on the transport properties of the IGM that determine the propagation of cosmic rays, previous research has shown that this mode provides turbulent magnetic seed fields of 6× {10}-18 {{G}} that are an essential ingredient in the generation of cosmic magnetic fields. The current investigation addresses the influence of the mode on the particle motion. In order to describe the corresponding state of the turbulence, both the spectrum and the integrated total value of the mode-driven proton velocity fluctuations are computed. It is found that the latter amounts to 1.16× {10}8{ T}47/2{n}-7-1/2 {cm} {{{s}}}-1 assuming a temperature of {T}e={T}p={10}4{T}4 {{K}} and a density of {n}e={n}p={10}-7{n}-7 {{cm}}-3. This value is two orders of magnitude larger than the thermal velocity. If the IGM neutrals adopt the same velocities as the protons by mutual charge exchange and elastic collisions (ambipolar diffusion), atomic lines propagating through the IGM are expected to display spectral broadening, enhanced by a factor of 90 beyond the thermal level in the case of hydrogen. This opens the window to a first direct observation of the damped aperiodic mode. Other observational techniques such as dispersion measure, rotation measure, and scintillation data are not applicable in this case because the mode is a transverse one, and, as such, it does not induce the required density fluctuations, as is shown here.
Gray, William J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
2018-01-01
Star-forming molecular clouds are observed to be both highly magnetized and turbulent. Consequently, the formation of protostellar discs is largely dependent on the complex interaction between gravity, magnetic fields, and turbulence. Studies of non-turbulent protostellar disc formation with realistic magnetic fields have shown that these fields are efficient in removing angular momentum from the forming discs, preventing their formation. However, once turbulence is included, discs can form in even highly magnetized clouds, although the precise mechanism remains uncertain. Here, we present several high-resolution simulations of turbulent, realistically magnetized, high-mass molecular clouds with both aligned and random turbulence to study the role that turbulence, misalignment, and magnetic fields have on the formation of protostellar discs. We find that when the turbulence is artificially aligned so that the angular momentum is parallel to the initial uniform field, no rotationally supported discs are formed, regardless of the initial turbulent energy. We conclude that turbulence and the associated misalignment between the angular momentum and the magnetic field are crucial in the formation of protostellar discs in the presence of realistic magnetic fields.
Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.
1986-01-01
Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...
Active turbulence in active nematics
Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.
2016-07-01
Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.
2018-03-01
We re-consider the plate-like model of turbulence in the Earth's core, proposed by Braginsky and Meytlis (1990), and show that it is plausible for core parameters not only in polar regions but extends to mid- and low-latitudes where rotation and gravity are not parallel, except in a very thin equatorial layer. In this model the turbulence is highly anisotropic with preferred directions imposed by the Earth's rotation and the magnetic field. Current geodynamo computations effectively model sub-grid scale turbulence by using isotropic viscous and thermal diffusion values significantly greater than the molecular values of the Earth's core. We consider a local turbulent dynamo model for the Earth's core in which the mean magnetic field, velocity and temperature satisfy the Boussinesq induction, momentum and heat equations with an isotropic turbulent Ekman number and Roberts number. The anisotropy is modelled only in the thermal diffusion tensor with the Earth's rotation and magnetic field as preferred directions. Nonlocal organising effects of gravity and rotation (but not aspect ratio in the Earth's core) such as an inverse cascade and nonlocal transport are assumed to occur at longer length scales, which computations may accurately capture with sufficient resolution. To investigate the implications of this anisotropy for the proposed turbulent dynamo model we investigate the linear instability of turbulent magnetoconvection on length scales longer than the background turbulence in a rotating sphere with electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and isothermal boundary conditions. The equations are linearised about an axisymmetric basic state with a conductive temperature, azimuthal magnetic field and differential rotation. The basic state temperature is a function of the anisotropy and the spherical radius. Elsasser numbers in the range 1-20 and turbulent Roberts numbers 0.01-1 are considered for both equatorial symmetries of the magnetic basic state. It is found
Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we...
Oscillating electromagnetic soliton in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sathishkumar, P., E-mail: perumal_sathish@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, K.S.R. College of Engineering (Autonomous), Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India); Senjudarvannan, R. [Department of Physics, Jansons Institute of Technology, Karumathampatty, Coimbatore 641659 (India)
2017-05-01
We investigate theoretically the propagation of electromagnetic oscillating soliton in the form of breather in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium. The interaction of magnetization with the magnetic field component of the electromagnetic (EM) wave has been studied by solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a Landau–Lifshitz equation for the magnetization of the medium. We made a small perturbation on the magnetization and magnetic field along the direction of propagation of EM wave in the framework of reductive perturbation method and the associated nonlinear magnetization dynamics is governed by a generalized derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. In order to understand the dynamics of the concerned system, we employ the Jacobi elliptic function method to solve the DNLS equation and deduce breatherlike soliton modes for the EM wave in the medium. - Highlights: • The propagation of electromagnetic oscillating soliton in an anisotropic ferromagnetic medium is investigated in the presence of varying external magnetic field. • The magnetization and electromagnetic wave modulates in the form of breathing like oscillating solitons. • The governing nonlinear spin dynamical equation is studied through a reductive perturbation method. • The magnetization components of the ferromagnetic medium are derived using Jacobi elliptic functions method with the aid of symbolic computation.
Yan, Zheng
This dissertation provides an experimental test of the basic theory of the self-regulating drift wave turbulence (DWT)/sheared zonal flow (ZF) system in a cylindrical plasma device. The work is carried out from three approaches: the first explores the statistical properties of the turbulent Reynolds stress and its link to the ZF generation, the second investigates the dynamical behavior of the DWT/ZF system and the third investigates the variation of the DWT driven ZF verses magnetic field strength and ion-neutral drag. A radially sheared azimuthally symmetric plasma flow is generated by the DWT turbulent Reynolds stress which is directly measured by a multi-tip Langmuir probe. A statistical analysis shows that the cross-phase between the turbulent radial and azimuthal velocity components is the key factor determining the detailed Reynolds stress profile. The coincidence of the radial location of the non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent Reynolds stress and the ion saturation current, as well as the properties of the joint probability distribution function (PDF) between the radial particle flux and turbulent Reynolds stress suggest that the bursts of the particle transport appear to be associated with radial transport of azimuthal momentum as well. The results link the behavior of the Reynolds stress, its statistical properties, generation of bursty radially going azimuthal momentum transport events, and the formation of the large-scale ZF. From both Langmuir probe and fast-faming imaging measurements this shear flow is found to evolve with low frequency (˜250-300Hz). The envelope of the higher frequency (above 5kHz) floating potential fluctuations associated with the DWT, the density gradient, and the turbulent radial particle flux are all modulated out of phase with the strength of the ZF. The divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress is also modulated at the same slow time scale in a phase-coherent manner consistent with a turbulence-driven shear flow
Gyro-water-bag approach in nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence
Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre
2009-06-01
Turbulent transport is a key issue for controlled thermonuclear fusion based on magnetic confinement. The thermal confinement of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by the turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. It has long been acknowledged, that the prediction of turbulent transport requires to solve Vlasov-type gyrokinetic equations. Although the kinetic description is more accurate than fluid models (MHD, gyro-fluid), because among other things it takes into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction, kinetic modeling has the drawback of a huge computer resource request. An unifying approach consists in considering water-bag-like weak solutions of kinetic collisionless equations, which allow to reduce the full kinetic Vlasov equation into a set of hydrodynamic equations, while keeping its kinetic behaviour. As a result this exact reduction induces a multi-fluid numerical resolution cost. Therefore finding water-bag-like weak solutions of the gyrokinetic equations leads to the birth of the gyro-water-bag model. This model is suitable for studying linear and nonlinear low-frequency micro-instabilities and the associated anomalous transport in magnetically-confined plasmas. The present paper addresses the derivation of the nonlinear gyro-water-bag model, its quasilinear approximation and their numerical approximations by Runge-Kutta semi-Lagrangian methods and Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin schemes respectively.
Intermittent Anisotropic Turbulence Detected by THEMIS in the Magnetosheath
Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Kucharuk, B.; Sibeck, D. G.
2017-12-01
Following our previous study of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data, we consider intermittent turbulence in the magnetosheath depending on various conditions of the magnetized plasma behind the Earth’s bow shock and now also near the magnetopause. Namely, we look at the fluctuations of the components of the Elsässer variables in the plane perpendicular to the scale-dependent background magnetic fields and along the local average ambient magnetic fields. We have shown that Alfvén fluctuations often exhibit strong anisotropic non-gyrotropic turbulent intermittent behavior resulting in substantial deviations of the probability density functions from a normal Gaussian distribution with a large kurtosis. In particular, for very high Alfvénic Mach numbers and high plasma beta, we have clear anisotropy with non-Gaussian statistics in the transverse directions. However, along the magnetic field, the kurtosis is small and the plasma is close to equilibrium. On the other hand, intermittency becomes weaker for moderate Alfvén Mach numbers and lower values of the plasma parameter beta. It also seems that the degree of intermittency of turbulence for the outgoing fluctuations propagating relative to the ambient magnetic field is usually similar as for the ingoing fluctuations, which is in agreement with approximate equipartition of energy between these oppositely propagating Alfvén waves. We believe that the different characteristics of this intermittent anisotropic turbulent behavior in various regions of space and astrophysical plasmas can help identify nonlinear structures responsible for deviations of the plasma from equilibrium.
Origins Space Telescope: Nearby Galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Interstellar Medium
Battersby, Cara; Sandstrom, Karin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team
2018-01-01
The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.eduThis presentation will summarize the science case related to Nearby Galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Interstellar Medium (Interstellar Medium). The Origins Space Telescope will enable a wealth of unprecedented scientific advances in this area, both those we know to expect, and the discovery space that lies unexplored. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multiphase ISM; connecting these physics across scales of galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei, and their interplay, over cosmic time. Origins will unveil the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets by allowing us to trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself.
Turbulent stress measurements of fibre suspensions in a straight pipe
MacKenzie, Jordan; Söderberg, Daniel; Swerin, Agne; Lundell, Fredrik
2018-02-01
The focus of the present work is an experimental study of the behaviour of semi-dilute, opaque fibre suspensions in fully developed cylindrical pipe flows. Measurements of the normal and turbulent shear stress components and the mean flow were acquired using phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. Two fibre types, namely, pulp fibre and nylon fibre, were considered in this work and are known to differ in elastic modulus. In total, three different mass concentrations and seven Reynolds numbers were tested to investigate the effects of fibre interactions during the transition from the plug flow to fully turbulent flow. It was found that in fully turbulent flows of nylon fibres, the normal, ⟨uzuz ⟩ +, and shear, ⟨uzur ⟩ + (note that ⟨.⟩ is the temporal average, u is the fluctuating velocity, z is the axial or streamwise component, and r is the radial direction), turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number regardless of the crowding number (a concentration measure). For pulp fibre, the turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number when a fibre plug was present in the flow and were spatially similar in magnitude when no fibre plug was present. Pressure spectra revealed that the stiff, nylon fibre reduced the energy in the inertial-subrange with an increasing Reynolds and crowding number, whereas the less stiff pulp fibre effectively cuts the energy cascade prematurely when the network was fully dispersed.
Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence
Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.
2013-12-01
A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.
Gyrokinetic Simulations of Solar Wind Turbulence from Ion to Electron Scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.; Numata, R.; Quataert, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Tatsuno, T.
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence resolving scales from the ion to electron gyroradius with a realistic mass ratio is presented, where all damping is provided by resolved physical mechanisms. The resulting energy spectra are quantitatively consistent with a magnetic power spectrum scaling of k -2.8 as observed in in situ spacecraft measurements of the 'dissipation range' of solar wind turbulence. Despite the strongly nonlinear nature of the turbulence, the linear kinetic Alfven wave mode quantitatively describes the polarization of the turbulent fluctuations. The collisional ion heating is measured at subion-Larmor radius scales, which provides evidence of the ion entropy cascade in an electromagnetic turbulence simulation.
Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields
Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S
2002-01-01
In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)
Marshall N. Rosenbluth Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Award: Magnetorotational turbulence and dynamo
Squire, Jonathan
2017-10-01
Accretion disks are ubiquitous in astrophysics and power some of the most luminous sources in the universe. In many disks, the transport of angular momentum, and thus the mass accretion itself, is thought to be caused by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). As the MRI saturates into strong turbulence, it also generates ordered magnetic fields, acting as a magnetic dynamo powered by the background shear flow. However, despite its importance for astrophysical accretion processes, basic aspects of MRI turbulence-including its saturation amplitude-remain poorly understood. In this talk, I will outline progress towards improving this situation, focusing in particular on the nonlinear shear dynamo and how this controls the turbulence. I will discuss how novel statistical simulation methods can be used to better understand this shear dynamo, in particular the distinct mechanisms that may play a role in MRI turbulence and how these depend on important physical parameters.
MHD from a Microscopic Concept and Onset of Turbulence in Hartmann Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirkovsky, L.; Bo-ot, L. Ma.; Chiang, C. M.
2010-01-01
We derive higher order magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations from a microscopic picture using projection and perturbation formalism. In an application to Hartmann flow we find velocity profiles flattening towards the center at the onset of turbulence in hydrodynamic limit. Comparison with the system under the effect of a uniform magnetic field yields difference in the onset of turbulence consistent with observations, showing that the presence of magnetic field inhibits onset of instability or turbulence. The laminar-turbulent transition is demonstrated in a phase transition plot of the development in time of the relative average velocities vs. Reynolds number showing a sharp increase of the relative average velocity at the transition point as determined by the critical Reynolds number. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
A Full Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell Study of Turbulent Dynamics and Dissipation
TenBarge, J. M.; Juno, J.; Hakim, A.
2016-12-01
The development of a detailed understanding of turbulence in magnetized plasmas has been a long standing goal of the broader scientific community, both as a fundamental physics process and because of its applicability to a wide variety of phenomena. Turbulence in a magnetized plasma is the primary mechanism responsible for transforming energy at large injection scales into small-scale motions, which are ultimately dissipated as heat in systems such as the solar corona and wind. At large scales, the turbulence is well described by fluid models of the plasma; however, understanding the processes responsible for heating a weakly collisional plasma such as the solar wind requires a kinetic description. We present the first fully kinetic Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell study of turbulence using the Gkeyll simulation code. We focus on the pristine distribution function dynamics that are possible with the Eulerian approach. We also present the signatures and form of dissipation as diagnosed via field-particle correlation functions.
Polarization of submillimetre lines from interstellar medium
Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong
2018-04-01
Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimetre fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by ultraviolet photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. We will, for the first time, perform synthetic observations on the simulated three-dimensional ISM to demonstrate the measurability of the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines. The maximum polarization for different absorption and emission lines expected from various sources, including star-forming regions are provided. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimetre atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimetre astronomy.
Orbital-angular-momentum entanglement in turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Hamadou Ibrahim, A
2013-06-01
Full Text Available that the whole atmospheric medium can be replaced with a single phase screen. FIG. 1. (Color online) A method for measuring the phase dif- ferences between two coherent beams propagating in a turbulent atmosphere. The phase difference is measured...) to calculate the ensemble average and evaluating one of the three-dimensional Fourier integrals we arrive at Bθ (X1 − X2) = k20 ∫∫∫ ∞ −∞ �n(k1) ∫∫ �z 0 exp(−ik1 · x1) × exp(ik1 · x2) dz1 dz2 d 3k1 (2π )3 , (14) where we used the symmetry of the power spectral...
Turbulent deflagrations, autoignitions, and detonations
Bradley, Derek
2012-09-01
Measurements of turbulent burning velocities in fan-stirred explosion bombs show an initial linear increase with the fan speed and RMS turbulent velocity. The line then bends over to form a plateau of high values around the maximum attainable burning velocity. A further increase in fan speed leads to the eventual complete quenching of the flame due to increasing localised extinctions because of the flame stretch rate. The greater the Markstein number, the more readily does flame quenching occur. Flame propagation along a duct closed at one end, with and without baffles to increase the turbulence, is subjected to a one-dimensional analysis. The flame, initiated at the closed end of the long duct, accelerates by the turbulent feedback mechanism, creating a shock wave ahead of it, until the maximum turbulent burning velocity for the mixture is attained. With the confining walls, the mixture is compressed between the flame and the shock plane up to the point where it might autoignite. This can be followed by a deflagration to detonation transition. The maximum shock intensity occurs with the maximum attainable turbulent burning velocity, and this defines the limit for autoignition of the mixture. For more reactive mixtures, autoignition can occur at turbulent burning velocities that are less than the maximum attainable one. Autoignition can be followed by quasi-detonation or fully developed detonation. The stability of ensuing detonations is discussed, along with the conditions that may lead to their extinction. © 2012 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Numerical methods for turbulent flow
Turner, James C., Jr.
1988-01-01
It has generally become accepted that the Navier-Strokes equations predict the dynamic behavior of turbulent as well as laminar flows of a fluid at a point in space away form a discontinuity such as a shock wave. Turbulence is also closely related to the phenomena of non-uniqueness of solutions of the Navier-Strokes equations. These second order, nonlinear partial differential equations can be solved analytically for only a few simple flows. Turbulent flow fields are much to complex to lend themselves to these few analytical methods. Numerical methods, therefore, offer the only possibility of achieving a solution of turbulent flow equations. In spite of recent advances in computer technology, the direct solution, by discrete methods, of the Navier-Strokes equations for turbulent flow fields is today, and in the foreseeable future, impossible. Thus the only economically feasible way to solve practical turbulent flow problems numerically is to use statistically averaged equations governing mean-flow quantities. The objective is to study some recent developments relating to the use of numerical methods to study turbulent flow.
Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms
Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric
2017-07-01
When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeau, Y.
1981-07-01
In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr
Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.
King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M
2013-04-23
The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-05
Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the lev