WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium sized industries

  1. The prediction of bankruptcy of small- and medium-sized industrial firms

    Pompe, Paul P.M.; Bilderbeek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small- and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines several aspects of bankruptcy prediction. We have tested a hypothesis on the predictive power of different ratio categories during the successive phases before bankruptcy, and one on the relationship betwe

  2. Development of a Simplified Process Integration Methodology for application in Medium-Size Industries

    Bergamini, Riccardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Bühler, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    opportunities may be missed in the case of medium-size industries. Applying these methods may indeed be costly and time consuming,as it can require large engineering efforts, e.g., for data acquisition.This paper presents a methodology based on process integration techniques, termed "Specific Savings...... tools are introduced. They are used to reduce the problem size before applying the traditional design procedure. They are based on engineering experience and simple mathematical criteria, including both thermodynamic and economic considerations. Moreover, possibility of using less accurate data...... or estimates is discussed, since data acquisition is a severely time-consuming task in retrofit projects.This novel methodology is applied to a Danish dairy factory: the results and the method itself are compared with conventional pinch analysis. The findings show that the SSP method is a tool able to simplify...

  3. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezvani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  4. Documentation of New Promotion Approaches in Small and Medium Sized Businesses of the Textile Industry

    Mehran Rezavani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important marketing activity of the owner/manager of SMEs is to concentrate on entrepreneurial promotion methods of their businesses. New and entrepreneurial promotion plays a leading role in progress and development of SMEs. There has been an emerging concentration on the concept of promotion and the role of its elements in progress of SMEs in marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to identify and document promotion methods in small and medium sized businesses of the textile industry, particularly in Iran. In order to identify the concepts and methods of promotion and to present practical results in this context, a quality research has been conducted by interviewing the owners/managers of SMEs.

  5. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  6. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  7. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  8. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  9. Sustainability of small and medium-sized agro-industries in Northern Thailand

    Wattanapinyo, A.

    2006-01-01

    For many yearsThailandhas faced unexpected environmental impacts and risks from (industrial) development. In spreading over the country these impacts and risks have caused growing social conflicts around resident com

  10. The Research on the Status of Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises of County in the Dominant Industry of Shaanxi County Economy

    2010-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the role of small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county in promoting county economy:the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the material basis of developing production and boosting county economy;the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the main channel of increasing farmers’ job opportunities and realizing affluent life;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the propeller of development of urbanization and county economy;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county creates excellent conditions for the construction of modern agriculture.The thesis indicates that the low level of county industrialization is the principal factor impeding the county economy of Shaanxi Province and it also analyzes the opportunities and challenges when quickening the development of county industry.The countermeasures of developing small-and-medium-sized enterprises are put forward as follows:raise the awareness and determine the concept of using industry to make county powerful;build scientific planning and outline of county enterprise development to propel the innovation of developing and operating system of county enterprise;create beneficial conditions and reinforce the degree of county enterprise support entrepreneurship;take the park construction as vehicle and reinforce the degree of attracting investments from overseas;take the autonomous innovation as the impetus and develop the recycling economy;improve and optimize the service environment so as to create an excellent investment environment for enterprise.

  11. Analysis on Profit Quality of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises: A Case Study of YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province

    Ling; JIANG; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, under the influence of system and environment and other factors, some small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in China only seek growth of profit in quantity, but neglect the growth of profit in quality, leading to low profit quality. This study reasonably defines the concept of profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and expounds general characteristics of high quality profit. On the basis of general factors influencing profit quality of enterprises, it builds indicator system for evaluating the profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises. Also, it conducts an empirical analysis on profit quality of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises with YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province as an example.

  12. Innovative capabilities, firm performance and foreign ownership: Empirical analysis of large and medium-sized companies form all industries

    Anita Talaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article innovative capability, i.e. the ability of new products and markets development, is analyzed and empirically tested. The results have proven that the companies with more developed innovative capabilities achieve higher performance levels, but that there is no difference in innovative capabilities between large and medium-sized companies. On the other hand, medium-sized companies have slightly higher levels of sales growth and increase in market share. Also, companies in foreign ownership are better at development of new products and new production methods, and they have higher levels of sales growth, market share and increase in market share.

  13. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  14. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Наталья Николаевна Масюк

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification in small businesses in the general sense is an extension of business activities to new areas of business (expanding the range of products, types of services provided, etc.. Application of the strategy of diversification in the small and medium business is justified in cases where the industry does not give us opportunities for further growth or when growth opportunities outside the industry more attractive. To determine whether diversification overdue and justified, the entrepreneur must clearly define the algorithm for their actions.Purpose: To determine the algorithm implementation of the strategy of diversification.Methodology: Desk research.Results: The developed algorithm.Practical implications: Management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-19

  15. The role of Christian leadership in the workplace in China ----A case study of a medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry

    Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This article examines religious leadership in workplace. It focuses on the practice of Christian leadership in Chinese business context. It attempts to, firstly, explore why employers adopt Christian leadership and promote Christian values in workplaces, and secondly, investigate employees’ reactions and understanding of the presence of Christian leadership in their organizations. The research is based on a private medium-sized enterprise in Chinese service industry of which the leader adopts...

  16. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  17. Medium-size-vessel vasculitis

    Dillon, Michael J.; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Medium-size-artery vasculitides do occur in childhood and manifest, in the main, as polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), cutaneous PAN and Kawasaki disease. Of these, PAN is the most serious, with high morbidity and not inconsequential mortality rates. New classification criteria for PAN have been validated that will have value in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Renal involvement is common and recent therapeutic advances may result in improved treatment options. Cutaneous PAN is a milder ...

  18. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  19. Automated payload and instruments for astrobiology research developed and studied by German medium-sized space industry in cooperation with European academia

    Schulte, Wolfgang; Hofer, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Thiele, Hans; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Toporski, Jan; Rettberg, Petra

    2007-06-01

    For more than a decade Kayser-Threde, a medium-sized enterprise of the German space industry, has been involved in astrobiology research in partnership with a variety of scientific institutes from all over Europe. Previous projects include exobiology research platforms in low Earth orbit on retrievable carriers and onboard the Space Station. More recently, exobiology payloads for in situ experimentation on Mars have been studied by Kayser-Threde under ESA contracts, specifically the ExoMars Pasteur Payload. These studies included work on a sample preparation and distribution systems for Martian rock/regolith samples, instrument concepts such as Raman spectroscopy and a Life Marker Chip, advanced microscope systems as well as robotic tools for astrobiology missions. The status of the funded technical studies and major results are presented. The reported industrial work was funded by ESA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).

  20. THE INFLUENCE IN ROMANIAN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS AND THEIR SPECIFIC MEANS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE

    Baltescu Codruta Adina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SMEs play an important role in fostering variety, self-fulfillment, and independence in society as well as essentially contributing to social and local integration. Because the tourism sector, especially the hospitality industry, in Europe is dominated by

  1. Holonic Business Process Modeling in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Holonic modeling analysis which is the application of system thinking in design, manage, and improvement, is used in a novel context for business process modeling. An approach and techniques of holon and holarchies is presented specifically for small and medium sized enterprise process modeling development. The fitness of the approach is compared with well known reductionist or task breakdown approach. The strength and weaknesses of the holonic modeling is discussed with illustrating case example in term of its suitability for an Indonesia’s small and medium sized industry. The novel ideas in this paper have great impact on the way analyst should perceive business process. Future research is applying the approach in supply chain context.Key words: Business process, holonic modeling, operations management, small to medium sized enterprise

  2. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  3. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  4. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Concern

    2008-01-01

    @@ A common concern The outer environment At present,small and medium-sized enterprises are faced with many serious challenges.Since most of the large-sized enterprises ln China are state-owned ones,small and medium-sized enterprises in this article are referred mainly to those in the private sector.

  5. Analysis on the Development of S&T Human Resources for Large and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises%大中型工业企业科技人力资源发展状态分析

    党亚茹; 陈韦宏

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively describe the development of human resources in science and technology for large and medium sized industrial enterprises in each province of China, especially the development of scientists and engineers, this paper uses chain growth and development indicators to analyze annual changes of data and divides the human resource categories into several ranges according to the speed of development by using the magnitude volatility of coefficient index. Depending on different ranges, we evaluate and compare the status about the research of S & T human resource development in provinces of China from 2000 to 2008, analyze the reflection in the development, and then put forward countermeasures and suggestions.%为定量刻画中国各省区大中型工业企业中科技活动人员以及其中的科学家和工程师的发展情况,运用环比增长率和发展指数来分析年度变化数据,并应用波动系数指标对发展变化的幅度进行分区,根据不同的区间,给出2000-2008年间中国各省区科技人力资源发展状态的评价和比较研究,分析反映出来的发展问题,并对问题提出对策性建议.

  6. The survival analysis of small and medium -sized enterprises-based on the industry of Hunan Province%中小企业生存分析—以湖南省工业企业为样本

    曹裕; 陈晓红; 王傅强

    2011-01-01

    A detailed analysis on the Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) survival and its determinants are conducted,based on a sample of 54,573 new- registered industrial SMEs in Hunan Province, whichs capitals are all below 10 million Yuan and establish during the period of 1998 -2007.The main research methods used are life table method and accelerated failure time model, they are mostly used in the survival analysis.The empirical results show that the risk of enterprise death follows a U - shape pattern relationship with the time for SMEs in Hunan Province, and the death risk begins to increase after nine and half years since the establishment of enterprises.The indicators, such as the original size of enterprises, industrial sector size, industrial added value rate, sales margin and profit tax rate of output value, all have significant positive impacts on business survival.However, the industry growth, liquidity capital turnover rate, and all - personnel labor productivity have no signifieant correlation with the business survival; Monopoly enterprises have better living conditions, the SMEs with high intensive technology have worse living conditions, SMEs located in agglomerate regions have greater risk of death.The interest rate has a significant negative impact on the survival of SMEs.While the GDP growth rate based on the city - level has a significant positive impact on the survival of SMEs.Vis - a - vis private enterprises, the survival pe.rformance of state - owned enterprises and foreign - funded enterprises in Hunan Province are even worse.%本文运用湖南省1998-2007年新成立的54573家注册资本在1000万以下的工业中小企业数据具体分析了我国中小企业的生存状况及影响因素.主要的研究方法为生命表方法和加速失效时间模型等生存分析方法.研究主要发现:我国湖南省地区中小企业死亡危险随时间呈"U"型关系,企业在成立9.5年左右时死亡危险开始增大;企业原始规模

  7. Marketing legal services to medium-sized companies

    Hodges, S

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines marketing and buying of legal services in the context of medium-sized companies from theoretical and empirical perspectives. The theoretical foundations for the market of legal services are laid by studying the particularities of services and their intrinsic challenges for marketing. Different ways to segment the legal market are examined, including client-led segmentation, which includes segmentation by client size, such as medium-sized companies. After studying the theo...

  8. Aneurysms of medium-sized arteries in Marfan syndrome.

    Awais, Mazen; Williams, David M; Deeb, G Michael; Shea, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Marfan syndrome is a relatively common connective tissue disorder that causes skin, ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular abnormalities. High morbidity and mortality occur with aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other large-artery aneurysms, including carotid, subclavian, and iliac artery aneurysms, have also been associated with Marfan syndrome. It is not clear whether small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms are associated with Marfan syndrome. This report describes 4 patients with Marfan syndrome who have associated small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms with several complications. Additional investigations are needed to determine whether Marfan syndrome can cause small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms and how patients with these aneurysms should be treated.

  9. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  10. Conducta Innovadora en el Sector Industrial: El caso de Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas en Mar del Plata, Argentina (Innovating behavior in the Industrial Sector: Small and medium size enterprises in Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Lucía Mercedes Mauro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio tecnológico es central en una estrategia de desarrolloeconómico endógeno, y su abordaje exitoso por partede las empresas requiere de un entorno a partir del que sepromueva y acompañe dicho proceso. El objetivo del estudioes comprender, desde una óptica territorial, la conducta innovadorade empresas industriales. Para ello se analiza el caso decuatro PYMES en segmentos con alto potencial de crecimientoeconómico de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (Argentina en el períodopost-convertibilidad. Se concluye que estas empresas tienenun marcado perfil innovador, aún cuando no se encuentraconsolidado el sistema de innovación local, falta de personalcon las competencias necesarias para llevar adelante el cambiotecnológico, y se observan desconexiones entre el sectorpúblico y el privado.   ABSTRACT Technological changes are paramount for an endogenous economicdevelopment programs, and require that companies developingit operate in an environment promoting and nurturing suchprograms. This study´s goal is to understand the innovation behaviorof industrial companies from a territorial point of view. To thatend we analyzed four SMEs operating, in a high economic growthsegment after the conversion period in Mar del Plata, Argentina.It was deduced that said companies possess an innovative profile(even despite the fact that the local innovation support system isnot fully consolidated, lack personnel with the appropriate knowledgeto pursue technological changes, and there are mismatchesbetween the private and public sectors.

  11. The economic and social impacts of site accidents on the small and medium sized construction companies in Nigeria

    Okorie, V.N.; Aigbavboa, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Small and medium sized contractors represent the large number of construction companies in Nigeria. They play an important role in the construction industry. However, site fatalities and injuries cases among the small and medium sized construction companies still remain the most health and safety (H&S) issues around the world. This study seeks to examine the economic and social impacts of site accidents on the small and medium sized construction companies in Nigeria. Questionnaire s...

  12. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  13. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define their mar......All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...

  14. Development of large and medium size biogas plants

    Kejun Yang; Datong Zhang [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst. (China)

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has expanded from a few (scraped sludge, animal manure, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses) to more than 200 kinds of wastewaters from several industries such as pharmacy, food, and chemicals. According to incomplete statistics, up to now more than 2,000 large and medium-scale biogas plants have been constructed. They provide biogas to 54,000 households as daily fuel. About 300 biogas power stations have been installed. (orig.)

  15. Development of ESCO as a tool for realising energy efficiency in small and medium sized industry; ESCO = Energy Service Company; Udvikling af ESCO som vaerktoej til realisering af energieffektivisering i smaa og mellemstore erhvervsvirksomheder

    Jensen, Ove Folmer (DS Haandvaerk og Industri, Odense (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project carried out an advisory process in 10 different SME (small and medium-sized enterprises). The process was based on energy management and employee involvement in energy conservation activities, which has led to a wide variety of projects in companies that have focused on the initiation and solution of diverse energy-saving activities. Results of the project consist of a series of case studies that describe the processes that have been implemented in the company. The selected cases demonstrate the diversity of businesses, their energy saving potential and need for funding. It also describes and assesses the various financing possibilities, a model for qualitative advising in SMEs and a module for the training of the people involved - including installers, craftsmen and advisor. (LN)

  16. Industrial Particle Size Measurement Using Light Scattering

    Muly, E. C.; Frock, H. N.

    1980-12-01

    The precise knowledge of particle size and particle size distribution is fundamental to the control of a wide variety of industrial processes. Processing steps as diverse as crystallization, grinding, emulsification, and atomization, produce particles in the size range .1 to 1000 micrometers in diameter. While the object of some processes may be the production of particles of specified sizes, e.g., abrasives and glass beads, other processes may require particle size control for process efficiency, e.g., crystallization, and still others for control of final product quality, e.g., minerals, cement, and ceramics. In many processes more than one of these reasons may be important. A line of instruments has been developed using light scattering to measure various parameters of particulate distributions. These instruments employ laser illumination of a flowing stream of particles, producing Fraunhofer diffraction patterns which are processed both optically and electronically with unique, proprietary techniques. Various parameters of the particle size distribution are measured. The measurement is both rapid and precise. This paper will cover the importance of particle size measurements in various processes, different types of measurement methods, and the application of light scattering technology to size determinations in wet slurries and dry powders. A number of specific applications will be discussed encompassing minerals grinding, Portland cement, and rolling mill emulsions. Some references will be made to energy savings through automation.

  17. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim;

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  18. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  19. Performance measuring of tourism small medium-sized enterprises

    Anca Borza; Ovidiu Bordean

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the performance measurement processes within the small medium-sized enterprises that run businesses in Romania's tourism sector. Related to contemporary approaches to improving business performance in the management literature, performance measurement approaches are analyzed using the balanced scorecard framework. Balanced scorecards proved to be a powerful tool that can inform the managers about the things that are working or not within a company, what is to be improved ...

  20. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  1. ERP adoption in small and medium sized enterprises

    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is established among a majority of small and medium sized companies in Kista Science City and seems to have a positive effect on organizational effectiveness. Kista Science City is Sweden’s largest corporate centre, with more companies and employees in a limited area than anywhere else in Europe. This study looks at the level of adoption of ERP functions, perceived organizational effectiveness and critical success factors. The most common use of ERP is for f...

  2. Initial Exploration of the Network Marketing in Jiangsu Small and Medium-Sized Logistics Industry%江苏中小物流企业网络营销初探

    许豪彦

    2012-01-01

    Jiangsu province program outline of Content networking industry(2009~2012) has been a practice.Jiangsu is lying tostrive to realize leaders in EPC global net work.But now in the current global financial crisis environment,Jiangsu small andmedium-sized logistics industry have such shortcomings as high cost and low efficiency.We try to put forward some measures forimproving management in enterprises from the angle of the network marketing.%《江苏省物联网产业发展规划纲要(2009~2012年)》已正式启动,江苏力争用3~6年左右的时间,建设成为物联网领域先导省。但是在全球金融危机环境下,江苏中小物流企业经营存在着成本高、效率低等问题,文章通过数据分析今年网络发展的现状,结合江苏中小物流企业的问题,提出利用网络营销为企业改善经营提出一些措施,进而发展江苏中小物流企业。

  3. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  4. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  5. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Gunduz, Murat; Laitinen, Heikki

    2016-07-20

    It is of great importance to develop an occupational health and safety management system (OHS MS) to form a systemized approach to improve health and safety. It is a known fact that thousands of accidents and injuries occur in the construction industry. Most of these accidents occur in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This article provides a 10-step user-friendly OHS MS for the construction industry. A quantitative OHS MS indexing method is also introduced in the article. The practical application of the system to real SMEs and its promising results are also presented.

  6. Medium-sized rock heat source systems. Mellanstora bergvaermesystem; Dimensioneringsanalyser

    Spante, L.

    1989-05-24

    Results from these medium-sized rock heat source systems show that more functional trouble and inferior performance than expected are obtained if the borehole system is not adapted to the temperature demands of the heat pump cold transfer fluid. The design of the evaporator causes the evaporation temperature to become to low when the cold transfer fluid temperature reaches its lowest level for the year in two of the three plants studied. The third plant presents no functional trouble despite being operated at the same lowest cold transfer fluid temperature during the first years of operation. An analysis of complementary addition of boreholes in one of the plants with functional trouble reveals that the solution may be interesting if the heat pumps has to be capacity controlled for long periods during the heating season. In that plant the space for additional boreholes is limited, why the cost of this measure might be higher than the estimated SEK 240 per meter borehole. The computer code SBMA shows good agreement with measured weekly notations of the cold transfer fluid temperature during the first years of operation. The long-term temperature reduction caused by interaction between the closely located boreholes cannot be verified from only three years of operation. This fact gives cause for a follow-up of a number of medium-sized rock heat source systems for some additional years. 13 illus., 16 tabs. (author).

  7. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  8. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Charles DeVoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

  9. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Tuomas Ihme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  10. Ionic Structure and Photoabsorption in Medium Sized Sodium Clusters

    Kümmel, S; Reinhard, P G

    1998-01-01

    We present ground-state configurations and photoabsorption spectra of Na-7+, Na-27+ and Na-41+. For the first time, both the ionic structure and the photoabsorption spectra of medium-size sodium clusters beyond Na-20 have been calculated self-consistently with a non-spherical treatment of the valence electrons in density functional theory. We use a local pseudopotential that has been adjusted to experimental bulk properties and the atomic 3s level of sodium. Our studies have shown that both the ionic structure of the ground state and the positions of the plasmon resonances depend sensitively on the pseudopotential used in the calculation, which stresses the importance of its consistent use in both steps.

  11. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  12. The Medium Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Pühlhofer, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ~20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  13. he Importance of the use of the Information and Communication Technologies(ICT) in the Small and Medium-size Enterprises(SMEs) of trade, industry and services in Colima and Villa de Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    The ICT revolution has increased the use of technology because of knowledge intensive economy that aims to improve efficiency and productivity levels in the enterprises due to ICT. This is the reason to quantify the adoption degree of ICT used by the small and medium enterprises (SME) in Colima and Villa de Alvarez. The aggregation level hides the diversity in the behavior patterns of the SME, as a result the SME in commerce and services have similar patterns in the adoption of ICT, wh...

  14. The Research on the Status of Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises of County in the Dominant Industry of Shaanxi County Economy%中小企业在陕西县域经济主导产业中的地位研究

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the role of small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county in promoting county economy: the small-and-mediumsized enterprises of county become the material basis of developing production and boosting county economy; the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the main channel of increasing farmers'job opportunities and realizing affluent life; the development of the smalland-medium-sized enterprises of county become the propeller of development of urbanization and county economy; the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county creates excellent conditions for the construction of modern agriculture. The thesis indicates that the low level of county industrialization is the principal factor impeding the county economy of Shaanxi Province and it also analyzes the opportunities and challenges when quickening the development of county industry. The countermeasures of developing small-and-medium-sized enterprises are put forward as follows: raise the awareness and determine the concept of using industry to make county powerful; build scientifie planning and outline of county enterprise development to propel the innovation of developing and operating system of county enterprise; create beneficial conditions and reinforce the degree of county enterprise support entrepreneurship; take the park construction as vehicle and reinforce the degree of attracting investments from overseas; take the autonomous innovation as the impetus and develop the recycling economy; improve and optimize the service environment so as to create an excellent investment environment for enterprise.%分析了县域中小企业对县域经济的推动作用:县域中小企业发展是生产发展、经济振兴的物质基础;是扩大农民就业、实现生活富裕的主渠道;是城镇化发展的助推器;为建设现代农业创造了良好的条件.指出当前县域工业化水平低成为制约陕西省县域经济的主要因素,并分析了

  15. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies.

  16. he Importance of the use of the Information and Communication Technologies(ICT in the Small and Medium-size Enterprises(SMEs of trade, industry and services in Colima and Villa de Alvarez

    Mayrén Polanco Gaytán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ICT revolution has increased the use of technology because of knowledge intensive economy that aims to improve efficiency and productivity levels in the enterprises due to ICT. This is the reason to quantify the adoption degree of ICT used by the small and medium enterprises (SME in Colima and Villa de Alvarez. The aggregation level hides the diversity in the behavior patterns of the SME, as a result the SME in commerce and services have similar patterns in the adoption of ICT, while the manufacturing follows a different one. Finally, it has been quantify the ICT diffusion index at the messo level of aggregation for the first time. The ICT diffusion index shows the heterogeneity in the adoption of ICT by the states in México and in the municipalities in Colima.

  17. Empi rical Research on Catering Theory of Dividends Based on Industrial Characteristics Taking Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises for Examples%基于行业特征的股利迎合政策研究--以中小板上市公司送转股为例

    许立新; 杨淼

    2014-01-01

    Based on the modification of dividend premium and the industrial characteristics ,this article ,utilizing the catering theory of dividends ,examines w hether the paying stock dividend and reserve transfer dividend poli-cy of small and medium-sized enterprises caters to the preference for industrial dividend demand .The results show that preference for industrial dividends have important effects not only on the probability of paying stock dividend and reserve transfer ,but also on the proportion of these two behaviors .Therefore ,it indicates that the listed enterprises in China indeed rationally cater to the industrial dividend demand by paying stock dividend and reserve transfer .And the purpose of catering is to obtain the dividend premium .%文章运用股利迎合理论,在对股利溢价改造的基础上,基于行业特征实证研究了我国中小板上市公司送转股股利政策是否存在迎合行业股利需求偏好的行为。研究表明,行业股利需求偏好不仅对中小板上市公司送转股概率高低有显著影响,而且对送转股比例高低也有着重要影响。可见,我国中小板上市公司确实存在理性迎合行业股利需求偏好热衷送转股的行为,而迎合的目的,是为了获得更高股利溢价。

  18. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  19. Consórcio de exportação como alternativa de pequenas e médias empresas: um estudo de caso na cadeia têxtil The export consortium as a best initial alternative for small and medium sized industries: a case study in clothing

    Gustavo Barbieri Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste estudo é evidenciar a grande importância e utilidade da formação de consórcios de exportação - que é a união de indústrias do mesmo segmento ou complementares para a exportação de seus produtos em conjunto - para empresas brasileiras de pequeno e médio porte, em detrimento da adoção da exportação indireta ou direta como modo de entrada no mercado internacional. Realizou-se, para isso, a revisão bibliográfica sobre Estratégias ou Modos de Entrada em Mercados Internacionais e Consórcios de Exportação (MALHOTRA, 2001. Utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso (YIN, 2001 para analisar a Associação Brasileira do Vestuário (ABRAVEST, entidade que vem se destacando na formação e consolidação de consórcios de exportação na indústria do setor vestuário, com ênfase nos seguintes tópicos: desenvolvimento do programa, compromissos setoriais e metas de exportação, aplicação dos recursos e consórcios em atividade. Como resultado, foi possível verificar que, entre as três opções analisadas no artigo (exportação direta, exportação indireta e consórcios de exportação, a terceira opção foi aceita como a melhor ou mais viável para a internacionalização de empresas de pequeno porte.The importance and value of an export consortium was investigated as a means for small and medium sized Brazilian industries to orchestrate export efforts instead of adopting indirect or direct export to enter foreign markets. An export consortium is an association of industries in the same or complementary segments for the purpose of export. Bibliography was reviewed for initial export strategies including a case study of the Brazilian Clothing Association. The consortia of this exemplary Association have emphasized program development, sector agreements, export objectives and resource application integrated with local activities. An export consortium was found to be the best and most viable alternative for

  20. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  1. Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry

    Gerard de Valence

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry beginswith a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it isnecessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish itstrue economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australianbuilding and construction industry, firstly, from a traditional industry economics approachby firm size and business characteristics using data from three construction industrysurveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster'perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found inindustry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and thealternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of theindustry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a casewhere the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied.53

  2. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  3. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  4. Predictors of organisational performance in small and medium-sized professional service firms

    Glunk, Ursula; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper sets out our theoretical and empirical approach to delineating predictors of stakeholder performance in medium-sized computer service firms. It combines a resource-based approach with recent insights from the literature on small and medium-sized firms, professional service, and computer-se

  5. Meaningfullness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...... in 2013 and finished January 2017. Preliminary findings are revealed and have been discussed with the participating SMEs. Important antecedent tensions are present in all SMEs on historical capabilities and the freedom to pursue new ideas as very important for the creation of meaningfulness for utilizing...... create tensions to overcome, which takes time. Additionally the daily operations tend to get more awareness on behalf on the more long-term development of innovation and growth. The meaningfulness created therefore has to be robust to get enough prioritisation to pursue the new ideas for innovation...

  6. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    solving? Do the interdisciplinary teams add value for the SME? The elective SME Innovation and Intrapreneurship has been developed by DTU Diplom a department of the Technical University of Denmark. The department is mainly responsible for the education of the degree Bachelor of Engineering which is a 3......To acquire the right competences as an engineer in the 21st century1 ((King, 2007), you need to be able to work inter-disciplinary and learn the necessary innovation methods and tools2. This paper will strive to answer some of questions identified in the progress of developing and implementing...... of a compulsory 10 ECTS element with focus on interdisciplinary and industry collaboration for all Bachelors of Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark in 2016. As collaboration partner the elective has chosen to work with small and medium sized enterprises (SME) as more than half of the value added...

  7. Development of CAPP System for Small and Medium Size Apparel Enterprises

    YIN Ling; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2006-01-01

    Existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems for garment manufacturing emphasize all-purpose ones, lack of specialism and availability. So, few developed is popular in the garment industries. This study is intended for developing a CAPP system, which aims at the actual condition of process planning in the small and medium size apparel enterprises (SMAs). It enables the technologists of process planning to be quicker in generating suitable plans that are similar to existing styles or new. It also automatically provides labor cost by considering the shop-flocr conditions. Process planning is achieved by adopting the Hybrid Interactive-variant process planning method. The proposed system has been realized in Borland Delphi 7 and Oracle 8. For validation of the system,the software has been implemented successfully in a firm named Jingchen in China.

  8. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-07

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  9. 中小企业技术联盟成员之间信任、关系承诺与合作绩效——基于浙江地区产业集群实证研究%Trust, Relationship Commitment and Cooperative Performance of Medium and Small-sized Enterprises Technological Alliance: Research on Zhejiang Local Industrial Clusters

    潘文安; 骆李佳

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires investigating was used in Zhejiang local industrial clusters to study the trust and relationship commitment on cooperative performance among medium and small — sized enterprises technological alliance. Results showed: (1) both organizational and individual trust were positively correlated; (2) indirect effect of organizational trust on cooperative performance through relationship commitment was significantly greater than its direct effect, and individual trust played only direct positive effect on cooperative performance; (3) members of the technological alliance payed more attention to short - term objective.%以浙江部分地方产业集群中小企业技术联盟为研究对象,通过问卷调查探讨联盟成员间信任对关系承诺和合作绩效的影响.结果显示,(1)组织信任与个人信任存在着相互正向影响;(2)组织信任通过关系承诺对合作绩效的间接影响明显高于其直接影响,个人信任对合作绩效存在着显著的直接影响;(3)联盟成员在技术合作过程中更关注短期目标.

  10. 基于产教融合的中小企业会计信息化发展策略分析%Accounting Informationization Development Strategy of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Based on the Integration of Industry and Education

    谈先球

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises( SMEs) are an important force in China′s economic growth, and many of them do not get fully development, due to the lack of attention of leadership, the short of tal-ents, not making good use of information technology and the fund shortage. This article describes some problems of SMEs in terms of accounting informationization, proposes a solution by the integration of in-dustry and education, analyzes the feasibility of cooperation, and provides some specific development strategy recommendations at last.%中小企业是我国经济增长的重要力量,由于领导重视不够、人才缺乏、没有充分发挥信息化优势、资金不足等,使得不少企业未得到充分发展。文章首先阐述了当前中小企业会计信息化中存在的一些问题,提出了与职业院校进行产教融合的解决方法,分析了双方合作的可行性,最后给出了具体的发展策略建议。

  11. Small-to medium-sized manufacturers in supply chains : Development of effective customer relationships and growth

    Valsamakis, Vassilios P.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis details a study into the role of Small- to Medium- sized Manufacturers (SMMs) in supply chains and how this may affect SMMs' growth potential. The study draws upon a variety of research streams including Supply Chain Management, Industrial Marketing, and the literature on factors that affect firm growth. The objectives of the study are to: identify relationship management activities employed by SMMs and investigate the links between relationship management activi...

  12. Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry

    Gerard de Valence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format. The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied.

  13. Defining an Industry: What is the Size and Scope of the Australian Building and Construction Industry

    Gerard de Valence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a reprint from Vol 1, no 1, which has not previously been available in electronic format.The analysis and understanding of the conduct and performance of an industry begins with a study of its structure. However, before analysing an industry's structure it is necessary to define the industry and identify its size, scope and scale to establish its true economic contribution. This paper discusses the size and scope of the Australian building and construction industry, firstly froma traditional industry economics approach by firm size and business characteristics using data fron three construction industry surveys done over 15 years by the ABS. Secondly, data from an industry 'cluster' perspective is shown. The objective of the paper is to compare the differences found in industry size and scope in the structure-conduct-performance approach and the alternative industry cluster approach. Each model reveals different characteristics of the industry. The conclusion finds that the building and construction industry is a case where the traditional structure-conduct-performance model cannot be easily applied. 

  14. 基于中小企业技术创新需求的特色产业数据库与服务体系构建--以湖南省新材料产业竞争情报服务为例*%Characteristic Industry Database and Service System Construction Based on Technological Innovation Demands of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises-Taking New Material Industry Competitive Intelligence Service in Hunan For Example

    李维思; 史敏; 肖雪葵

    2013-01-01

      中小企业由于受到人才、技术、资本等资源限制,在技术创新过程中经常产生信息不对称,情报获取困难等问题,所以难以形成核心技术与核心竞争力。文章首先对中小企业技术创新需求进行分析,然后结合湖南省新材料产业的发展情况,构建了新材料产业数据库,为新材料的中小企业提供决策支持。特色数据库建设与竞争情报服务体系在示范应用中获取了较好的社会效益,为科技情报机构服务中小企业提供了方法借鉴。%Limited by the lack of talents, technologies and capitals, the SMEs (smal and medium-sized enterprises) cannot establish core competitiveness beacause of Information asymmetry. In this paper, the demands of technology innovation in SMEs are firstly analysed. Then combined with the development of new material industry in Hunan, new material industry database and service system is constructed to support SMEs' strategy decision. In the demonstration application, the system obtains a good social benefits, and provids referable methods for Science and technology intel igence agency service for SMEs.

  15. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  16. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  17. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  18. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators(infrastructure,transaction process,operation management,and transaction safety),which are divided into 11 second-level indicators(hardware equipment,computer network,e-procurement,logistics distribution,supply chain management,customer relationship management,and payment security).We use analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to determine the weight of indicator at all levels,and establish fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.Finally,through examples,we verify the rationality and reliability of evaluation method of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises combining analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

  19. Mechanism of Interaction between Entrepreneurial Spirit and Growth of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises

    Peng XIE

    2016-01-01

    In the context of government appeal of " mass entrepreneurship and innovation",all areas launched the movement of " mass entrepreneurship" and " grassroots entrepreneurship". As parts of vitality of China’s market economy,small and medium sized private enterprises become grassroots of market competition in talents,funds,and technologies. This paper combined three levels of entrepreneurial spirit and small and medium sized private enterprises,studied acting mechanism of entrepreneurial spirit,discussed competitive power of small and medium sized private enterprises,and recommended that small and medium sized private enterprises should cultivate core competitive power,adapt to external environment,and create external environment support,to realize sound development.

  20. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Popović Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  1. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons...... associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used...... separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...

  2. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

  3. PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED-ENTERPRISES

    Tang Hongtao; Tang Renzhong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the common limitations of business process management (BPM) methodologies and the requirements of small and medium sized-enterprises (SMEs), the importance of a "performance construct" of BPM methodologies is identified, a six-phase performance-driven BPM methodology for the production and operation processes of Chinese SMEs is developed. A case study on the process management of a medium-sized enterprise shows a successful example of running the methodology.

  4. Family Business Governance - A necessity or a voluntary obligation for German medium-sized family businesses?

    Lamparter, Ann-Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to examine whether Corporate Governance is necessary for medium-sized family companies in Germany or if it can be seen more as a voluntary commitment. The study also aimed at gaining a deep understanding of the elements and instruments of family business governance. In addition, it was a goal to analyse the level of implementation of family business governance in medium-sized family businesses. The information for the theoretical framework was gathered from a...

  5. Design parameter investigation of industrial size ultrasound textile treatment bath.

    Perincek, Seher; Uzgur, A Erman; Duran, Kerim; Dogan, Aydin; Korlu, Aysegul E; Bahtiyari, Ibrahim M

    2009-01-01

    Design requirements for industrial size ultrasound bath for textile treatments have been determined. For this purpose, effects of sound pressure level, bath temperature, bath volume, textile material type and hydrophility degree of fabric were examined extensively. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate spacing and alignment of the ultrasound source transducers to reach effective and homogenous acoustic pressure distribution in the bath. It was found that textile material type, bath temperature and volume led to significant changes at sound pressure level. These parameters should be taken into consideration in designing of industrial size ultrasound bath for textile treatments. Besides, wettability of textiles is highly dependent to the distance from the transducers.

  6. Differential foraging preferences on seed size by rodents result in higher dispersal success of medium-sized seeds.

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhenyu; Yan, Chuan; Chen, Jin; Guo, Cong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-11-01

    Rodent preference for scatter-hoarding large seeds has been widely considered to favor the evolution of large seeds. Previous studies supporting this conclusion were primarily based on observations at earlier stages of seed dispersal, or on a limited sample of successfully established seedlings. Because seed dispersal comprises multiple dispersal stages, we hypothesized that differential foraging preference on seed size by animal dispersers at different dispersal stages would ultimately result in medium-sized seeds having the highest dispersal success rates. In this study, by tracking a large number of seeds for 5 yr, we investigated the effects of seed size on seed fates from seed removal to seedling establishment of a dominant plant Pittosporopsis kerrii (Icacinaceae) dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents in tropical forest in southwest China. We found that small seeds had a lower survival rate at the early dispersal stage where more small seeds were predated at seed stations and after removal; large seeds had a lower survival rate at the late dispersal stage, more large seeds were recovered, predated after being cached, or larder-hoarded. Medium-sized seeds experienced the highest dispersal success. Our study suggests that differential foraging preferences by scatter-hoarding rodents at different stages of seed dispersal could result in conflicting selective pressures on seed size and higher dispersal success of medium-sized seeds.

  7. Xinjiang Dabancheng Project Forecasts Copper Mine Prospecting Metal Volume to Reach Medium Size

    2016-01-01

    Based on forecast for current engineering workload,controlled copper metal volume was320,000 tonnes,and zinc metal volume was 220,000 tonnes,which respectively can reach medium sized deposit size,meanwhile associated selenium and silver resource volumes respectively reached 150 plus tonnes;

  8. The Sustainable Strategy for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: The Relationship between Mission Statements and Performance

    Ethem Duygulu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to contribute to the literature by empirically examining the relationship between small and medium sized enterprises’ (SMEs mission statements and their performance in sustainable strategy formulation. Although it seems that there is a relatively vast amount of research with regard to mission statements of companies, very few studies have focused on the relationship between mission statements and performance. When these few studies are taken into consideration, it is difficult to reach any overall conclusion since their findings are mixed and inconclusive. To achieve this aim, 3034 SMEs operating in organized industrial zones in Turkey were examined via a survey approach. In order to investigate the relationships among the variables, nine categories of mission statements as independent variables and four performance indicators (financial, market, production, and overall as dependent variables were analyzed through logistic regression. This study identified three mission components, (1 survival, growth, and profit; (2 philosophy and values; and (3 public image, as the common independent variables in explaining the performance of SMEs. Survival, growth, and profit is the most frequently observed mission component regardless of the subsector differentiation in the entire sample, which reflects the significance of business sustainability for SMEs in the Turkish manufacturing context. Besides, among all performance indicators, SMEs’ market performance was found to be the lowest when compared to other performance indicators (financial, production, overall. Although the firms were placed in different manufacturing subsectors, similar mission statements were highlighted so that the discourse similarity might be considered as evidence of isomorphism characteristics for SMEs.

  9. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  10. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  11. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  12. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  13. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZE ENTERPRISES AS A FORM OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RURAL AREAS

    Maria Bucka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In rural areas, we are now dealing with a surplus of labour in agriculture and lack of jobs for the population without land. The decreasing role of agriculture and the benefits of agricultural production as a primary source of income of the rural population makes it necessary to supplement income from other activities. Making activities in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises can significantly be replenished. Small and medium-sized enterprises can be regarded as a manifestation of entrepreneurship in rural areas. The aim of the study is to identify the role and importance of small and medium-sized enterprises in rural activation. In this study, the statistical material available from GUS contained in the publications concerning rural areas in Poland and literature.

  14. THE SUCCESS FACTORS OF FOOD SMALL MEDIUM ENTREPRENEURS UNDER THE ONE DISTRICT ONE INDUSTRY PROGRAMME: A CASE ON FOOD MANUFACTURING ENTREPRENEURS IN MELAKA

    Othman Aman; Md Nor Hayati Tahir; Izaidin Abdul Majid; Nor Azah Abdul Aziz; Filda Rahmiati

    2011-01-01

    The nurturing of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) has been given a high priority in Malaysia and has been the backbone of economic growth. One of the Malaysia government initiatives to coordinate and monitor the development of small medium enterprises is the One District One Industry (ODOI) Programme. The ODOI Programme is a strategic approach that can improve the wellbeing of rural population in Malaysia. This research attempts to study the internal and external performance indicato...

  15. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  16. Analysis of the quality of service of small and medium size hotel companies in Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area

    Carolina Monsalve Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the hotel industry has been facing an increment of travelers willing to enjoy better conditions in tourist destinations. The demanding changes in tourist preferences, and the increasing range of offers that they find to meet their needs, has made the hotel industry to focus its attention to service. Therefore, in this document, the principles that impact the evaluation of a quality service are analyzed. This research takes a sample of 384 small and medium size hotel companies’ guests. A Likert type questionnaire is applied. Its evaluation is conducted through SPSS software through bivariate analysis. In the results, influential aspects were identified such as: encouraging customer loyalty, special offers, innovation, premises and equipment, human talent training, among others.

  17. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  18. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies f

  19. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands

    Timans, W.; Antony, J.; Ahaus, K.; van Solingen, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide an exploration and analysis of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation in Dutch manufacturing/engineering small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Critical success factors (CSFs) and impeding factors are identified and analysed. Exploratory empirical evidence about LSS implem

  20. Planning an Authority Control Project at a Medium-Sized University Library.

    Zhang, Sha Li

    2001-01-01

    Authority control is a vital part of providing students and faculty with adequate access to collections in university libraries. Small and medium-sized libraries find it challenging to meet rising user expectations and provide adequate access in an online environment through appropriate authority work. A planning process is offered on an authority…

  1. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends

  2. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

  3. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  4. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  5. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  6. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  7. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Sager-Klauß, C.V.

    2016-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders la

  8. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  9. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental proble

  10. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  11. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  12. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  13. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  14. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces

  15. Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

    Runge Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone. Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km. The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in

  16. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  17. Employment and other selected personnel attributes in metallurgical and industrial enterprises of different size - research results

    A. Pawliczek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the issue of employment and other selected personnel attributes as employees’ affiliations, employees’ benefits, monitoring of employees’ satisfaction, monitoring of work productivity, investments into employees education and obstacles in hiring qualified human resources. The characteristics are benchmarked on the background of enterprise size based on the employees count in the year 2013. The relevant data were collected in Czech industrial enterprises, including metallurgical companies, with the help of university questionnaire research in order to induce synergy effect arising from mutual communication of academy-students-industry. The most important results are presented later in the paper, complemented with discussion based on relevant professional literature sources. The findings suggest that bigger companies check productivity and satisfaction and dismiss employees more frequently, unlike medium companies which do not reduce their workforce and solve the impact of crisis by decreased affiliations, reduced benefits and similar savings.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP MARKETING APPLICATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    SABOU FELICIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the importance of relationship marketing, the communication between customers and romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, analyzing also how are investigated and resolved the complaints received from the customers. In the paper, I made a study through I analyzed if the small and medium-sized enterprises undertake investigations about the reasons which they have lost customers. The study was conducted during january - february 2016, the main research methods used in the study were observation, documentation, analysis and market survey. Also, I chose the study questionnaire as research tool. From this study resulted that 79,31% of companies surveyed, were concerned and investigated the reasons they lost customers. Customer satisfaction is very important to business success, so it is recommended that companies must pay attention to the customers reactions and customers dissatisfaction consequences.

  19. A Sustainable Financing Credit Rating Model for China’s Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Yu Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a sustainable financing credit rating index system for small- and medium-sized enterprises in China from the perspective of sustainability. Then, a quantitative model for credit rating evaluation based on our index system is proposed by using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, which has the advantage of considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Our numerical example shows that the index system is effective and practical. Our system improves the existing credit rating system to a certain extent. The evaluation method proposed can play an important guiding role for China's small- and medium-sized enterprises in the current transformation age. In particular, interested stakeholders can use this model to evaluate the investment risk of companies, especially with a focus on sustainability.

  20. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  1. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  2. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies

    Schøler, Finn

    2012-01-01

    . For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common......In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions...... of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily...

  3. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and parti......The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task...

  4. The Role of Branding in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Franc Vidic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between branding and brand management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Traditionally, branding was associated with large and global corporations. However, we often forget that small and medium-sized enterprises also deal with their own names (brands in their own way. The study identified four types of businesses, regardless of their association with brands. We named these four types, as follows: Ignorant; User; Low-Cost Producer; and Differentiation Producer. If the first two types (i.e. Ignorant and User differ primarily in the extent to which they use simple branding activities, and are used mainly in the local market where the enterprises tend to operate, we found that the last two types (i.e. low-cost producers and differentiation producers design their branding strategies in accordance with their generic strategies and mode of growth.

  5. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises

    Dinesh Vallabh; Laetitia Radder; Danie Venter

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Customer relationship management (CRM) is important to organisations striving for competitive advantage through building relationships with their customers.Research purpose: This study identified the factors preceding CRM and assessed selected South African small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises’ (SMTEs) readiness for CRM.Motivation: CRM is likely to enhance SMTEs’ competitiveness. However, successful adoption and implementation of CRM is unlikely unless the organisation is ...

  6. Medium and large sized mammals of a semideciduous forest remnant in southern Brazil

    Pires, Daniel Paulo de Souza; Cademartori, Cristina Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about mammals of the Atlantic Forest is still lacking, especially because some places remain poorly studied or inventoried, which makes conservation initiatives difficult. We aimed to determine the species richness and composition of medium and large sized mammals in a semideciduous forest remnant, Morro do Coco, thus contributing information about the occurrence of mammalian fauna in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. The methods consisted of interviews with ...

  7. The employment of graduates within small and medium sized firms in England

    Hart, Trevor; BARRATT, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a research study prompted by the uneven distribution of graduates between small and large businesses. In particular, it sought to understand the main drivers or impediments to recruitment of graduates by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) through an in-depth study of a matched sample of small firms employing and not employing graduates. It also sought to understand the nature of the benefits which might accrue to an SME from employing graduates. While some of the bar...

  8. On the graphical analysis of the electronic structure of ferromagnetic clusters of medium size.

    Collado, José Ramón Alvarez

    2004-12-01

    In a previous work, a theoretical approach, suitable to describe systems having a large number of fermions, was proposed, and results for ferromagnetic surface clusters of medium size (100-1000 atoms) were presented. The aim of the present contribution is to complete this previous work. Several significant theoretical and technical details, omitted previously, are provided here. The obtained spin orbitals are analyzed, by studying their symmetry, energy, and d contribution properties.

  9. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Kamran Rousta; Ekström, Karin M.

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  10. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  11. Wireless magnetic sensors applied in the signal control of small and medium-sized cities

    Liang Zijun; Zhang Bo; Huang Zhen; Song Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    This topic is mainly about the typical applications of Wireless magnetic sensors in the signal control of smal and medium-sized cities. Based on the traffic characteristics of Fenghua city, through the networked control of Wireless magnetic sensors and signal controler, from "point, line, face" three aspects to optimize the traffic flow of Fenghua. The application results show that Wireless magnetic sensors can effectively improve the efficiency of traffic signal control in Fenghua.

  12. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Sonja Brandenburger; Marc Birringer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC) 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Thr...

  13. Cooperative Strategies: evaluating network strategy management of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Bortolaso,Ingridi; Verschoore,Jorge Renato; Antunes Júnior,José Antônio Valle

    2012-01-01

    Network formation aiming the development of cooperation among small and medium-sized companies has received increasing interest from the organizational field. Recent studies have been devoted to understand the management of those networks, deepening the collective aspects of the structure, the coordination, and the processes, among others. This article lies within the context of network strategy management progress and tries to understand how cooperative strategies are developed and executed....

  14. Modelling of the costs of decision support for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Viera Tomišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The support of decision-making activities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has its specific features. When suggesting steps for the implementation of decision-support tools in the enterprise, we identified two main ways of decision-making support based on the data analysis: ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning without BI (Business Intelligence and ERP with BI. In our contribution, we present costs models of both mentioned decision support systems and their practical interpretation.

  15. THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSIHP IN PROMOTING SMALL AND MEDIUM - SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRO-BUSINESS

    Dalibor Paniæ

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary markets that are distinguished by high degree of instability have prompted the necessity for correction of development models in all economies that are market-orientated and aspiring to be competitive on a global level. As a response to the challenge, many countries have ’turned’ to the sector of small and medium-size companies that have the necessary degree of business flexibility and adaptability in response to external influences. The fundamental development resource of the „s...

  16. Case Study of Loaned Employee Utilization in Small & Medium Sized Company (Article)

    那須, 一貴

    2012-01-01

     It is essential to hire skillful workers for small and medium sized company to realize sustainable growth and solve insufficiency of talented person. Utilization of loaned skillful employee from large company is one of the solutions for this issue. Such loaned employee can bring not only technical knowledge that has been developed through long working experience but also personal connections to the host company. But loaned employee faces difficulties under the new working environment because...

  17. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  18. 山西省11个地市中小型工业企业用地利用效率及影响因素%Research on land-use efficiency and influence factors of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises among 11 cities in Shanxi province

    刘蕾; 毕如田; 张孟容

    2016-01-01

    中小型工业企业是我国国民经济的重要力量,其用地利用效率评价及影响因素研究,对提高中小型工业企业用地集约度,促进经济发展具有重要作用。本研究采用调查问卷获取山西省11个地市中小型工业企业用地利用情况相关数据,利用数据包络分析(DEA)模型对山西省中小企业工业用地利用效率进行评价,利用Tobit模型对影响中小型工业企业用地利用效率的影响因子进行分析。结果表明:山西省各地市中小型工业企业用地利用效率水平各异,太原市、临汾市、运城市和吕梁市4个地市的综合用地效率水平较高,忻州市和阳泉市土地利用效率较低;影响山西省中小型工业企业用地利用效率的宏观影响因素主要有人均GDP、人均财政收入、人口规模、工业化率、外商投资比和工业企业出口交货值。这6个影响因子与山西省中小型工业企业用地利用效率均呈现正相关关系。其中,人口规模、人均GDP、工业企业出口交货值3个因子对现阶段山西省中小型工业企业用地效率的影响相对较大,工业化率、人均财政收入和外商投资比3个因子的影响力相对较小。%The evaluation of land‐use efficiency and the research of influence factors about small and medium‐sized industrial en‐terprises which are the main force of China's national economy ,and play an important role in improving the land use intensity and promoting economic development .In this study ,information about the land utilization status of small and medium‐sized enterprises in 11 cities of Shanxi province were collected by questionnaire ,the efficiency of industrial land use was evaluated with the help of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model ,and its impact factors was analyzed by using Tobit model .The re‐sults showed that there were large differences among areas of the land use efficiency in small and medium‐sized

  19. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  20. Mass size distributions of elemental aerosols in industrial area

    Mona Moustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor aerosol particles were characterized in industrial area of Samalut city (El-minia/Egypt using low pressure Berner cascade impactor as an aerosol sampler. The impactor operates at 1.7 m3/h flow rate. Seven elements were investigated including Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu, Mn and Pb using atomic absorption technique. The mean mass concentrations of the elements ranged from 0.42 ng/m3 (for Ba to 89.62 ng/m3 (for Fe. The mass size distributions of the investigated elements were bi-modal log normal distribution corresponding to the accumulation and coarse modes. The enrichment factors of elements indicate that Ca, Ba, Fe, K, Cu and Mn are mainly emitted into the atmosphere from soil sources while Pb is mostly due to anthropogenic sources.

  1. A meta-analysis of different HR-enhancing practices and performance of small and medium sized firms

    Rauch, Andreas; Hatak, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The role of human capital has received considerable attention in research on small and medium sized firms. However, much uncertainty remains as to how practices that enhance human resources (HR) affect the performance of small and medium sized firms, whether some practices have stronger effects than

  2. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities... investigations, investigation No. 332-509, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities,...

  3. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study...... indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness...

  5. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  6. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  7. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector.The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three...

  8. Effects of WC particle size on the wear resistance of laser surface alloyed medium carbon steel

    Tong, Xin; Li, Fu-hai; Kuang, Min; Ma, Wen-you; Chen, Xing-chi; Liu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 laser surface alloying technique was used to form wear resistance layers on medium carbon steel with a kind of spherical WC powder. The effects of WC particle size on the abrasive wear resistance were thoroughly investigated. The results indicate that the laser alloyed layer is characterized by dendritic primary phase and ledeburite microstructure, consisting of austenite, martensite and carbides of Fe3W3C, W2C and WC. The laser surface alloying with WC powder could improve the abrasive wear resistance of the medium carbon steel by over 63%. The factors such as the hardness, the amount and the distribution of WC particle determined the laser alloyed samples' wear resistance, and the laser alloyed sample with WC powder of 88-100 μm diameter presented the best wear resistance in this study. Furthermore, the wear resistance mechanisms of the laser alloyed layers were also explored.

  9. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  10. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-valueindustrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  11. Butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty: An alternative approach for management of small- and medium-sized perforations

    Ashish Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty for small- and medium-sized central perforations and compare it with temporalis fascia tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: A prospective, comparative study was conducted on 110 patients, divided into two groups. Patients of tubotympanic type of chronic suppurative otitis media with 2–6 mm size perforation were included in the study. Fifty-five patients were operated by temporalis fascia Type I tympanoplasty and rest 55 by butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty (transcanal technique under local anesthesia. Results were compared in terms of pre- and post-operative air-bone gap improvement and success rates. Results: In our study, in terms of outcomes, both techniques had similar results. The success rate was 93.7% in butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty and 96.3% in temporalis fascia group. However, in terms of time taken, butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty took less time (about 30 min than temporalis fascia (about 55 min. Conclusion: Transcanal butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty is a very good alternative in small- and medium-sized perforations for conventional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty as it is simple, takes less time, day care procedure, on table hearing improvement, cosmetically no postoperative scar, no need of post aural preparation, and patient can go home within hours.

  12. Synthesis of Nature-Inspired Medium-Sized Fused Heterocycles from Amino Acids.

    Ventosa-Andrés, Pilar; La-Venia, Agustina; Ripoll, Carlos Alfonso Barea; Hradilová, Ludmila; Krchňák, Viktor

    2015-09-07

    Herein, we describe the synthesis of molecular scaffolds consisting of medium-sized fused heterocycles using amino acids, which are some of the most useful building blocks used by nature as well as chemists to create structural diversity. The acyclic precursors were assembled by using traditional Merrifield solid-phase peptide synthesis, and cyclization was carried out through acid-mediated tandem endocyclic N-acyliminium ion formation, followed by nucleophilic addition with internal nucleophiles. The synthesis of molecular scaffolds consisting of seven-, eight-, and nine-membered rings proceeded with full stereocontrol of the newly generated stereogenic center in most cases.

  13. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies are faced with a number of challenges whereas the problems arising from “poor financial management” are reported as the major causes of business failures in SMEs. Strategic financial management (SFM which is a research area that has attracted the interest of researchers after 2010, is one of the key managerial areas of SMEs, due to its vital role on the survival, growth and performance of SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the central role of financial management and identify the financial management challenges and practices that influence the organizational performance in Turkish SMEs, from a strategic management perspective. Within the course of this paper, the importance and challenges of SMEs in Turkey are presented in the first section, while the literature on strategic and financial management in SMEs are reviewed in the second part. In the third section, the recent strategic financial management concept, the implications of strategic financial management practices for SMEs in Turkey and the relationships between strategic financial management practices and SME performance, are discussed. Small and medium sized enterprise finance in Turkey is a developing research area, therefore this paper aims to make a significant contribution to the existing literature by analyzing the major challenges at the conduct of financial management in Turkish SMEs and the influence of strategic financial management practices on the performances of small and

  14. Research on Dynamic Distributed Computing System for Small and Medium-Sized Computer Clusters

    Le Kang; Jianliang Xu; Feng Liu

    2012-01-01

      Distributed computing system is a science by which a complex task that need for large amount of computation can be divided into small pieces and calculated by more than one computer,and we can get the final result according to results from each computer.This paper considers a distributed computing system running in the small and medium-sized computer clusters to solve the problem that single computer has a low efficiency,and improve the efficiency of large-scale computing.The experiments show that the system can effectively improve the efficiency and it is a viable program.

  15. IMPACT OF INNOVATION UPON THE DYNAMICS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    JEANINA CIUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is central to economic growth, as the area in which it develops takes the whole sphere of economic activities: product, process, service, organization, marketing, hence the economic effects they may cause. Creating "innovative enterprises", giving tax cuts to certain periods of time, preferential loans, creating funds 'risk capital' are just some of the measures that European countries which already apply and Romania, willing to encourage innovation. The present paper presents two ways of exposing this issue, using theoretical sources but also real official data concerning the concept of innovation and also the ways of applying it within small and medium sized enterprises.

  16. A Pointing Solution for the Medium Size Telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Tiziani, D; Oakes, L; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of the calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is the pointing, which enables an exact alignment of each telescope and therefore allows to transform a position in the sky to a point in the plane of the Cherenkov camera and vice versa. The favoured approach for the pointing calibration of the medium size telescopes (MST) is the installation of an optical CCD-camera in the dish of the telescope that captures the position of the Cherenkov camera and of the stars in the night sky simultaneously during data taking. The adaption of this approach is presented in this proceeding.

  17. IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON OPERATING COST FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM - SIZED BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS AFFILIATED TO A PURCHASING GROUP

    Dominik Zimon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to ask one question. How the implementation of the requirements of ISO 9001 system affects the costs of running the business? Design/methodology/approach - The research covered time from 2006 to 2011 and was an attempt to assess the impact of the maintenance of the ISO 9001 Quality Management System on the costs of small and medium sized business organizations. The main objective was the selection of right research subjects that would allow the formulation of the most reliable and statistically valid conclusions. For this purpose we obtained permissions to conduct research in organizations characterized by comparable futures such as size, industry, type of business and strategy. Findings - The study shows that the costs associated with the implementation and maintenance of the Quality Management System standard is still too high, and effectively discourages representatives of small and medium-sized commercial organizations from implementing ISO 9001 system.

  18. Actuator Development at IAAT for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescopes

    Diebold, S; Pühlhofer, G; Renner, S; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Tenzer, C

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the future observatory for TeV gamma-ray astronomy. In order to increase the sensitivity and to extend the energy coverage beyond the capabilities of current facilities, its design concept features telescopes of three different size classes. Based on the experience from H.E.S.S. phase II, the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics T\\"ubingen (IAAT) develops actuators for the mirror control system of the CTA Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs). The goals of this effort are durability, high precision, and mechanical stability under all environmental conditions. Up to now, several revisions were developed and the corresponding prototypes were extensively tested. In this contribution our latest design revision proposed for the CTA MSTs are presented.

  19. Status of the Schwarzchild-Couder Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Benbow, W

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next-generation very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observatory. It is anticipated that CTA will improve upon the sensitivity of the current generation of VHE experiments, such as VERITAS, HESS and MAGIC, by an order of magnitude. CTA is planned to consist of two graded arrays of Cherenkov telescopes with three primary-mirror sizes. A proof-of-concept telescope, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzchild-Couder design, is being constructed on the VERITAS site at the F.L. Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA, and is a candidate design for the medium-sized telescopes. The construction of the telescope will be completed in early 2017, and the status of this project is presented here.

  20. NectarCAM, a camera for the medium sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Glicenstein, J-F

    2016-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which covers the core energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The expected performance of the camera are discussed. Prototypes of NectarCAM components have been built to validate the design. Preliminary results of a 19-module mini-camera are presented, as well as future plans for building and testing a full size camera.

  1. Simplified product value measurement framework for small and medium sized enterprises

    S Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For Small Medium Sized Enterprises with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for strong and continuously increasing Product Value to reduce business risks and revenue losses and to increase market share and customer satisfaction. To fulfill this need, Product Value Measurement is necessary to characterize the current status and further improvement. It is not easy to obtain the measures about the Product Value because its many features have qualitative characteristics. We need simplified but result oriented systematic framework to measure it while considering the measurement purpose and how to measure and why do it. Methods: How to design this is the main aim of this research paper. In this paper, GQM (Goal-Question-Metric method as a measurement framework is introduced to measure the Product Value for Small Medium Sized Enterprises along with case study to represent that this framework was effective. Results and conclusions: The proposed Model was effective for focusing on the essence of measurement and for avoiding extra excessive data not necessary for doing the effective measurement.

  2. Microchannel anechoic corner for size-selective separation and medium exchange via traveling surface acoustic waves.

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-05-05

    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 μm and 3, 5, and 7 μm is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ∼5 μm and 7 μm in diameter.

  3. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  4. 77 FR 56755 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    2012-09-14

    ... modifications of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) into its table of small business size... RIN 3245-AG47 Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for Size Standards; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Interim...

  5. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  6. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell

    Hassan, Huzairy; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng; Ngau, Cornelius

    2016-11-01

    The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1.4 mA/m2 and removing 53 % of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method.

  7. A study on the Chinese beliefs and their effects on small and medium sized business after 1990

    Kenneth Wall; Zhang Runtong; Yang Yancheng; Lin Hua

    2008-01-01

    As a result of economic reform commencing in 1978 in China, cultural beliefs of the Chinese business owners are changing. While much has been published concerning large and multinational businesses, there is a gap in knowledge Of cultural beliefs of small and medium sized enterprises. To provide new knowledge, a survey on these smaller sized enterprises located throughout China was conducted in the summer of 2006. Respondents were selected from urban and rural areas, coastal and inland provinces and various industries to provide information on their opinions on how some of their cultural beliefs have changed from 1990 to present. Specific beliefs questioned include: Use of fengshui, Traditional Forbidden Activities, Company Naming Responsibility, Company Name Basis, Use of Numbers, Use of Physiognomy, and Prediction of a Company's Future. The importance of fengshui has risen over in the last sixteen years and certain traditional forbidden activities such as not turning over the fish while eating has remained important as a cultural belief Naming a company is important and the desirability of a good name is based on various factors. Use of numbers, physiognomy, and non-scientific methods for predicting the future success of companies are of lesser use. These aspects of cuhure are reviewed in consideration of the change from a planned economy to a market-based economy.

  8. Estratégias tecnológicas e desempenhos inovadores das PMEs de equipamentos médico-hospitalares de São Carlos e Ribeirão Preto Technology strategies and innovation performances of the small and medium-sized firms in the medical equipment industry of São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto

    Denise Luciana Rieg

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias tecnológicas (ETs adotadas por pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs produtoras de equipamentos médico-hospitalares localizadas em São Carlos e em Ribeirão Preto. Procura-se verificar se há diferenças entre o grupo de empresas que alcançou desempenhos inovadores (DIs mais altos e o grupo daquelas que tiveram DIs mais baixos nos últimos anos. Para isso, foi realizado um survey, aplicando-se um questionário estruturado em trinta e nove empresas que concordaram em participar da pesquisa. Os resultados (resultados referentes a vinte e sete empresas que puderam ser classificadas como sendo de maior ou menor DI, dentre as trinta e nove empresas investigadas mostram que as ETs adotadas pelas empresas com DIs mais altos são diferentes em muitos aspectos daquelas adotadas pelo grupo com DIs mais baixos. Foram obtidos indícios de que maiores investimentos em atividades internas de P&D&E e em fontes externas de tecnologia, maior dedicação à previsão tecnológica preliminar voltada para monitoramento do perfil de produtos e processos e o desenvolvimento de um amplo portfolio de tecnologias de produto e de processo permitem às empresas alcançarem DIs mais significativos.The goal of this article is to identify and to analyze the technology strategies (TSs adopted by small and medium-sized firms of the medical equipment sector located in São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto. It seeks to verify whether there are differences between the group of firms that reached higher innovation performances (IPs and the one with lower (IPs in recent years. In order to analyze that, data about TSs and IPs were collected from twenty seven medical equipment producers. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the TSs adopted by the medical equipment firms that reached higher IPs are different in many aspects from the ones adopted by those that reached lower IPs. Some indications were obtained

  9. Industry innovativeness, firm size, and entrepreneurship : Schumpeter Mark III?

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; van der Velde, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Emphasizing the dynamics in economies and industries, Schumpeter points to entrepreneurs carrying out 'new combinations'. His work, and in particular the Theory of Economic Development, is often interpreted as praising individual entrepreneurs setting up new firms to contribute to an industry's inno

  10. Cogeneration in the sugarcane industry - medium plants; A cogeracao no setor sucroalcooleiro - usinas de medio porte

    Pellegrini, Maria Cristina [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: epg@cesp.com.br; Ramos, Dorel Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: dorelram@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work aims at to analyze the re powering of medium sized sugar and alcohol plants located in the Southeast area of Sao Paulo State. Through a study case considering a standard unit that processes ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, simulations were made using a mathematical model denominated Modelo de Despacho Hidrotermico, which supports the decision process for the expansion of electric energy offers. As a result of these simulations, it was possible to get the standard dispatch profile for such cogeneration plants, expressed by a medium capacity factor of 89%, demonstrating, therefore, the significant participation that these units can have in the energy context. Furthermore, a brief discussion about the energy price and capital return time is introduced, emphasizing the attractiveness of this kind of enterprise. (author)

  11. Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation

    F. Mirzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.

  12. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  13. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  14. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  15. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  16. Thermal utilization opportunities with a small-to-medium sized BWR

    Konkin, D.; Simonson, C.J.; Dalai, A.K.; Tanino, K.; Guo, H., E-mail: doug.konkin@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan (Canada); Nishida, K.; Mochida, T. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Ikegawa, T.; Kito, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Knudsen, R. [LeanOptions Consulting, Inc., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Aikman, A. [SNC-Lavalin, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Humphries, R. [AMEC, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd. (Hitachi-GE) has developed a conceptual design for a Double MS: Modular Simplified & Medium Small Reactor (DMS) under the sponsorship of The Japan Atomic Power Company. Recent efforts have yielded enhancements for improved safety and reactor core performance. The DMS is an innovative small-to-medium sized Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), which, based only on electricity generation, has been estimated to almost overcome economy of scale concerns when compared to proven conventional Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) technologies. In order to make the DMS more attractive, the University of Saskatchewan (U of S), Hitachi-GE and Hitachi Ltd. (Hitachi) have collaborated on a joint research and development (R&D) initiative to study the utilization of heat and steam from the Balance of Plant (BOP) associated with the DMS for thermal utilization (TU) applications. In this paper, the advanced features of the DMS and the individual projects of the R&D program will be described. (author)

  17. Nonlinear size-dependent longitudinal vibration of carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium

    Fernandes, R.; El-Borgi, S.; Mousavi, S. M.; Reddy, J. N.; Mechmoum, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the longitudinal linear and nonlinear free vibration response of a single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in an elastic medium subjected to different boundary conditions. This formulation is based on a large deformation analysis in which the linear and nonlinear von Kármán strains and their gradient are included in the expression of the strain energy and the velocity and its gradient are taken into account in the expression of the kinetic energy. Therefore, static and kinetic length scales associated with both energies are introduced to model size effects. The governing motion equation along with the boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton's principle. Closed-form solutions for the linear free vibration problem of the embedded CNT rod are first obtained. Then, the nonlinear free vibration response is investigated for various values of length scales using the method of multiple scales.

  18. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  19. Mapping mobility patterns to public spaces in a medium-sized city using geolocated tweets

    Salas-Olmedo, María Henar

    2016-01-01

    This research evidences the usefulness of open big data to map mobility patterns in a medium-sized city. Motivated by the novel analysis that big data allow worldwide and in large metropolitan areas, we developed a methodology aiming to complement origin-destination surveys with \\`a la carte spatial boundaries and updated data at a minimum cost. This paper validates the use of Twitter data to map the impact of public spaces on the different parts of the metropolitan area of Concepci\\'on, Chile. Results have been validated by local experts and evidence the main mobility patterns towards spaces of social interaction like malls, leisure areas, parks and so on. The map represents the mobility patterns from census districts to different categories of public spaces with schematic lines at the metropolitan scale and it is centred in the city of Concepci\\'on (Chile) and its surroundings (~10 kilometres).

  20. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  1. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  2. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    Moleri, L

    2016-01-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  3. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed assets. This paper aims to present available sources of financing of fixed assets for enterprises from the SME sector and the assessment of their use by these companies.

  4. Accelerating Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the ICT Services Sector

    Juan Vicente García Manjón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at establishing key organizational strategies that push small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the information and communication technologies (ICT services sector to be more innovative. Following an input and output approach, a theoretical model is built that helps determine such key factors. Then the model is validated with fieldwork carried out on a representative sample in Castile-Leon region (Spain. According to this model, the decision to innovate (and the trigger for research and development [R&D] activities in SMEs in the ICT services sector is the result of needs that are presented by customers (public or private sector in tailored projects. All the same, the factors leading to innovation are in order of importance, the technological level of the company, the effort made by the company in R&D, and finally, systems of incentives.

  5. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  6. Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen

    Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

  7. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    2016-01-01

    management within SMEs and to further develop frameworks, models and mechanisms that will lead to higher adoption of supply chain capabilities within the SME community. Practical Impact: While this research was exploratory in nature, due to the importance of the SME sector on economic development......Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... management (Vaaland & Heide 2007). The aim of this research was to explore supply chain adoption in SMEs. The research was based upon investigating the extent to which supply chain management is adopted by SMEs, and what factors support companies in achieving consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  8. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  9. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  10. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  11. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  12. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  13. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  14. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based γ-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  15. Credit Rationing and the Simulation of Bank-Small and Medium Sized Firm Artificial Credit Market

    LIU Xuefeng; ZHANG Wei; XIONG Xiong; SHEN Dehua; ZHANG Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the financing difficulties faced by the small and medium-sized firms,the paper built an artificial credit markets with the agent-based computational modeling to simulate the real world credit transactions.There are firms,banks,different risk-type projects as well as legal and supervision environments in which debt contracts constitute the financial instruments.The simulation results show that the number of collateral,average success probability of projects,and the prime interest rate have materially impact on bank's average profit,bank's capital,the overall interest rate,the number of borrowing firms,loan size,and the degree of credit rationing.These results in line with those of the classical S-W model in the sense that the relationship between bank profits and interest rates is non-monotonic as well as the relationship between credit rationing and interest rates.And thus there is an adverse selection effect in credit rationing theory.

  16. Organizational Culture and Open Innovation Performance in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Poland

    Mazur Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the links between organizational culture, the use of open innovation sources and the performance of SMEs. The main hypothesis of the study is that a special type of organizational culture (termed innovative culture, which fosters creativity, learning and inter-employee cooperation – will correspond with a greater scope of open innovation sources and higher levels of innovative, operational and financial performance. The study was based on a representative CATI survey of 473 SMEs operating in manufacturing and services industries in Poland. Our statistical analysis relied on building and testing structural equation model with the AMOS software. The findings confirmed a positive association between innovative culture and the scope of open sources of innovation. However, innovative culture had no direct effect on the percentage of sales from new and modified products, which is often used as a metric of innovativeness, but did show a positive influence on an index of operational performance and ROI. Such statistical patterns suggest that fostering innovative culture is beneficial to a company, though probably not through an increased number of product innovations, but rather via process, administrative and marketing innovations, as well as other gains in efficiency attained due to more streamlined employee cooperation and knowledge exchange. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge in management science by providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying innovative culture’s impacts on open innovation practices and metrics of operational and financial performance in the context of small and medium enterprises.

  17. Sustainable Product Service Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Opportunities in the Leather Manufacturing Industry

    Ricardo J. Hernández Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to identify opportunities to develop sustainable Product Service Systems (PSS involving Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The purpose of the research is to build understanding of how the integration of product and service design and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can contribute to identify opportunities to develop sustainable PSS involving SMEs. In order to develop the approach, research with 16 Colombian Manufacturing SMEs was carried out. A reference model and four generic types of PSS according to the relationships between product and service design and ICT are used to analyse the data. Finally, the possibility of extending the approach into a general framework to work with other industries is discussed.

  18. Estimation of the Treatment Effects of Ownership on the Indirect Financing of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Xiuzhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the important driving forces for the growth of China’s economy. However, financing difficulty has always been the important problem besetting the development of SMEs for a long time. In particular, in recent years, US subprime crisis in 2008 caused a heavy blow to the development of some externally oriented SMEs. Thus, how to effectively overcome financing predicament for the SMEs is crucial for Chinese government. In this paper, based on microdata from China Industrial Enterprise Database, propensity score matching (PSM method is adopted to conduct empirical analysis about the treatment effects of indirect financing level of SMEs under different systems. Empirical results reveal that state-owned enterprises enjoy indirect financing advantages compared with other enterprises and there is certain ownership discrimination against foreign-funded enterprises and private enterprises. In particular, the indirect financing rate of state-owned enterprises is 1.4% higher than that of other enterprises, and the indirect financing rate of foreign-funded enterprises is 6% lower than that of other enterprises; private enterprises are advantageous in indirect financing compared with other enterprises; however, indirect financing rate of private enterprises is 1.8% lower than that of state-owned enterprises, which also reveals ownership discrimination to certain extent.

  19. Repair of Small and Medium Size Umbilical Hernias with the "Proceed Ventral Patch" in the Preperitoneal Position.

    Zarmpis, Nikolaos; Wassenberg, Dirk; Ambe, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    Small- and medium-sized ventral hernias including umbilical hernias can be repaired using prosthetic patches placed in the peritoneum. However, bowel-associated complications secondary to intraperitoneally placed hernia patches have been reported. Herein, we report the outcome of small and medium umbilical hernia closure with prosthetic hernia patches in the preperitoneal space. Prospectively collected data of patients undergoing repair of small- and medium-sized umbilical hernias with the proceed ventral patch in a primary care hospital in Germany was retrospectively analyzed. A total of 39 cases, including 11 female and 28 male patients, were managed with prosthetic patches in the preperitoneal position. Small-sized patches were implantated in 16 cases, whereas medium-sized patches were used in 23 cases. The median duration of surgery was 40 minutes. The median length of hospital stay was four days. Four minor complications were recorded (10.3%) and the rate of recurrence was 2.6 per cent within a follow-up period of up to 30 months. Small and medium size umbilical hernias can be effectively closed with prosthetic patches placed in the preperitoneal space without risk of serious bowel associated complications.

  20. Organisational culture as a part in the development of open innovation - the perspective of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce various concepts and business models is nowadays a prerequisite of creating a competitive advantage. This is to a large extent closely linked to the ability of enterprises to create, implement and disseminate a variety of innovative solutions. Today the use of open innovation is a necessity. This applies not only to large organisations, but also to small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to implement open innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises need to effectively manage their own growth through the preparation of appropriate strategies and the development of a model that encompasses all changes, taking into account a number of factors related to the growth dynamics of this sector. It is understood that an appropriate organisational culture plays an important role in the implementation of innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. There are many indications that a cultural mismatch and misunderstanding are the main reasons for major problems related to the low level of implementation of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of the paper is to outline the issue of the impact of organisational culture on the development of the concept of open innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  1. On the small and medium-sized enterprise development strategy%论中小企业发展战略

    陈少华; 吴丹洁

    2013-01-01

    中小企业是是我国国民经济建设一支重要的战略力量,是构建市场经济的主题。研究国家对促进中小企业发展制定的政策措施,对中小企业在新的历史发展阶段、在世界经济环境激烈的竞争中加快发展步伐具有重大的意义。本文以中小企业为研究对象,结合中小企业发展环境、发展现状,对中小企业发展现状进行研究与探讨。阐述了中小企业发展理论、历史进程、中小企业的作用以及存在的问题,阐释了政府支持中小企业发展的理论依据,及近期国内促进中小企业发展的优惠政策措施,分析中小企业现阶段的环境,提出促进中小企业发展的政策措施以及改善的建议。%The small and medium-sized enterprise is our country national economy construction is an important strategic forces, is the construction of market economy subject. Study on promoting the development of SMEs policy measures, to the small and medium-sized enterprise in the new historical stage of development, in the fierce competition in the world economic environment to speed up the pace of development is of great significance. In this paper, small and medium-sized enterprises as the research object, combining with the current situation of small and medium-sized enterprise development environment, development, research and discussion on the development of small and medium enterprises. The small and medium-sized enterprise development theory, historical process, the role of small and medium-sized enterprises and the existing problems, explains the theoretical basis for the government to support the development of SMEs, and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in China's preferential policies and measures, the analysis of small and medium enterprises at the present stage of environment, put forward to promote the development of small and medium enterprises policy measures and suggestions for

  2. A framework for effective implementation of lean production in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Amine Belhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present paper aims at developing an effective framework including all the components necessary for implementing lean production properly in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with the review of the main existing framework of lean implementation in order to highlight shortcomings in the literature through a lack of suitable framework for small companies. To overcome this literature gap, data of successful initiatives of lean implementation were collected based on a multiple case study approach. These initiatives has been juxtaposed in order to develop a new, practical and effective framework that includes all the components (process, tools, success factors that are necessary to implement lean in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Findings: The proposed framework presents many significant contributions: First, it provides an overcoming for the limitations of the existing frameworks by proposing for consultants, researchers and organizations an effective framework for lean implementation in SMEs that allows SMEs to benefit from competitive advantages  gained by lean. Second, it brings together a set of the more essential and critical elements of lean implementation commonly used by SMEs and derived from the practical experiences of them in lean implementation. Finally, it highlights the successful experiences of small companies in implementing lean programs and then proves that lean can give a relevant results even for SMEs. Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework presents a number of limitations and still evokes extension for further researches: Although it was derived from practical experiences of SMEs, the proposed framework is not supported by practical implementation. On the other hand and even though the elements in the proposed framework from the practical experiences of four SMEs, the identified elements need to be generalized and enriching by conducting

  3. Sexual dimorphism of medium-sized neurons with spines in human nucleus accumbens

    Sazdanović Маја

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens is a limbic nucleus, representing part of the striatum body, and together with the caudate nucleus and putamen, it lies on the septum. The aim of this study was to examine morphological sexual dimorphism in spine density and also to undertake an immunohistochemical study of expression for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the medium-sized neurons in the nucleus accumbens. The research was conducted on twenty human brains of persons of both sexes, between the age of 20-75 years. The Golgi method was applied to determine the types and subtypes of neurons, morphologies of soma, dendrites and axons, as well as the relations between the cells and glial elements. The following were quantitatively examined: the maximum diameter of the neurons, the minimal diameter of the neurons, and the total length of the dendrites. The expression of receptors for estrogen and progesterone, their distribution and intensity were defined immunohistochemically. The parameters of the bodies of neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens were studied in both men and women. No statistically significant differences were found. Examination of the spine density showed statistical significance in terms of a higher density of spines in women. Immunohistochemically, in the female brain estrogen expression is diffusely spread in a large number of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance and high intensity. In the male brain, expression of estrogen is visible and distributed over about one half of different types of neurons; it is extra nuclear, of granular appearance, mostly of middle and low staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the female brain was very discreet and on a very small number of neurons; it was extra nuclear and with a weak staining intensity. Expression of progesterone in the male brain was distributed on a small number of neurons. It had a granular appearance, it was extra nuclear, with a very low

  4. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  5. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  6. Statistical Analysis and Calculation Model of Flexibility Coefficient of Low- and Medium-Sized Arch Dam

    Su Huaizhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility coefficient is popularly used to implement the macroevaluation of shape, safety, and economy for arch dam. However, the description of flexibility coefficient has not drawn a widely consensus all the time. Based on a large number of relative instance data, the relationship between influencing factor and flexibility coefficient is analyzed by means of partial least-squares regression. The partial least-squares regression equation of flexibility coefficient in certain height range between 30 m and 70 m is established. Regressive precision and equation stability are further investigated. The analytical model of statistical flexibility coefficient is provided. The flexibility coefficient criterion is determined preliminarily to evaluate the shape of low- and medium-sized arch dam. A case study is finally presented to illustrate the potential engineering application. According to the analysis result of partial least-squares regression, it is shown that there is strong relationship between flexibility coefficient and average thickness of dam, thickness-height ratio of crown cantilever, arc height ratio, and dam height, but the effect of rise-span ratio is little relatively. The considered factors in the proposed model are more comprehensive, and the applied scope is clearer than that of the traditional calculation methods. It is more suitable for the analogy analysis in engineering design and the safety evaluation for arch dam.

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum.

  8. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  9. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  10. Microfinance: Diagnosis of the micro-business, medium-sized business and its financial technology

    Emerson Toledo Concha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work shows how the financing for micro and small businesses in Peru has increased and has greatlyexpanded in the last few years, not only in institutions specialized in this field, focused their efforts in giving financialservices to businesspeople of micro and medium-sized business, but most of the so-called traditional banks havefocused their attention to this emerging sector using the know-how of microfinance lending technology, banking seekto work with people of low income sectors, that were not subject for credit opportunities to develop their business andas a consequence not able to improve their quality of life .Throughout this investigation, we make a diagnosis of macro and micro environment of the microfinance field, itsdevelopment and expectations for a strong presence in the Peruvian financial market. We consider the development oflending technology, where the analysis of the ability and willingness to pay are the fundamental basis for the evaluationof credits in specialized companies in this sector.

  11. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Zorica Golić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  12. Service Pyramid Concept of Knowledge Intensive Business Services in the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Sector

    Sándor Nagy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of service companies is more complex today than before the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT became widespread in business. Fewer service companies can be found on the market based solely on physical customer interaction; however, they have been replaced with standardized and automated services. This structural change can be observed particularly among Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS companies where the use of ICT is not simply a market requirement, but a competition tool, as well. Without the application of any ICT instrument, a KIBS company could not meet market expectations, and furthermore, business developments are mainly ICT-based. On the other hand, companies need to develop their businesses more and more, as KIBS companies which are not able to differentiate themselves as trustworthy on the business services market will disappear. ‘Just another business service company’ cannot really sell today. This is applicable to a greater extent to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME, where ICT has opened market opportunities that have never existed for them before. The aim of this paper is to highlight the new features of KIBS business activities in the SME sector and the related research questions.

  13. IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    BĂLĂNESCU MĂDĂLINA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

  14. Organotins in a medium-size Mediterranean basin (the Herault River).

    Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Brissaud, François; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the first assessment of organotin pollution in the Hérault watershed, a medium size Mediterranean basin. Organotin compounds were analyzed in surface waters, wells supplying drinking water and sewage treatment plants (STPs). In surface and ground waters, a background contamination by total organotin compounds has been identified in the range of 0.51 +/- 0.02-71 +/- 2 ng(Sn) L(-1), which is of the same order of magnitude as those observed in other European areas. Organotins were systematically present in STP influents and sludge. Total or partial elimination of organotin compounds from treated wastewater was observed. STP effluents appeared nevertheless to be a non-negligible source of contamination not only of rivers but also of aquifers tapped for drinking water supply. Tributyltin concentration was higher than the maximum allowable concentration proposed by the European Commission in some surface waters and wells supplying drinking water. This could compromise the water resource and have serious and irreversible consequences for the aquatic eco-system. As it was the case for the ban of antifouling paints, a regulatory regime in decreasing point-source emissions of these harmful compounds used in household products might be applied.

  15. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.;

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X......-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci......, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 ke...

  16. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  17. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined.

  18. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Daniela G Morato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants. There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  19. Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation.

    Abe, Kaoru; Kushibiki, Toshisada; Matsue, Hajime; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes.

  20. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand.

    Samuel DeLuca

    Full Text Available RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial 'low-resolution' docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10-15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the 'high-resolution' full atom refinement step.

  1. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  2. Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype

    Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

  3. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  4. Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons

    Miriam eMatamales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

  5. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  6. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  7. Water distribution from medium-size sprinkler in solid set sprinkler systems

    Giuliani do Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the water distribution from a medium-size sprinkler working in solid set sprinkler systems. Water distribution radial curves from the sprinkler operating under four nozzle diameter combinations (4.0 x 4.6; 5.0 x 4.6; 6.2 x 4.6 and; 7.1 x 4.6 mm and four working pressures (196; 245; 294 and 343 kPa were evaluated on the sprinkler test bench of the State University of Maringá, in Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, Brazil. The sixteen water distribution curves were normalized and subjected to clustering analysis (K-Means algorithm, identifying the occurrence of normalized distribution curves with three different geometric shapes. A computer algorithm, in Visual Basic for Applications in Excel spreadsheet, was developed to simulate the water application uniformity (Christiansen's Coefficient - CU from the sprinklers working with rectangular and triangular layouts in solid set sprinkler systems. For the three geometric shapes of the normalized water distribution curves, digital simulation results of water distribution uniformity for the sprinklers on mainline and lateral line spaced between 10 to 100% of wetted diameter indicated that sprinkler spacings around 50% of the wetted diameter provide acceptable CU values.

  8. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  9. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  10. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  11. The efficiency of working capital management and its impact on the profitability of small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the efficiency of working capital management in small, medium and large enterprises of the food industry in Poland years in 2005- -2009. The efficiency of working capital management has been evaluated by using the in-ventory cycle, receivables, liabilities and cash conversion cycle and by its relation to rate of return on non-financial assets. Studies have shown that the effectiveness of working capital was differentiated by size of enterprises and in industries where working capital cycles are the shortest, a relatively higher rate of return on assets was achieved. In the national food industry the highest efficiency, measured by cash conversion cycle and assets profitability, was characteristic for large companies. The beneficial effect of shortening the cycle of working capital on the profitability of assets also verified the regression analysis.

  12. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    František Pollák

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulfillment of the main objective was analyzed based on secondary data on hundreds of company profiles (of local SMEs, operating predominantly in the service sector and conducting their business activities in a business-to-consumer (B2C environment managed by a specific marketing agency operating on the Slovak market. The collected data were subsequently subjected to a thorough statistical testing based on monitored parameters. Findings and implications – From the perspective of the main findings, basic recommendations for the efficient use of selected marketing communication tools on the social networking site Facebook are described in terms of improving the expected user interactions. Limitations – We consider the mainly local nature of the data sources to be the biggest limitation in the research process. Due to the local nature of this study, however, this limitation has no significant effect on the quality of the research. Originality – The findings and information presented in this contribution can help improve our understanding of issues related to the effective implementation of resources (time and finances by entities using selected marketing tools, particularly marketing communication in the context of the social networking site Facebook for the purpose of promotion and branding.

  13. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises

    Dinesh Vallabh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Customer relationship management (CRM is important to organisations striving for competitive advantage through building relationships with their customers.Research purpose: This study identified the factors preceding CRM and assessed selected South African small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises’ (SMTEs readiness for CRM.Motivation: CRM is likely to enhance SMTEs’ competitiveness. However, successful adoption and implementation of CRM is unlikely unless the organisation is ready for it.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach and survey questionnaire yielded primary data from 332 respondent organisations selected by systematic sampling. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the latent factors preceding CRM readiness. Organisational CRM readiness was assessed based on CRM maturity in terms of data collection, use and sharing throughout the organisation.Main findings: Respondent-organisations performed well on the four factors preceding CRM readiness − business strategy, customer strategy, touch points and competencies, skills and technology and also on data collections and use, but not on data sharing.Practical/Managerial implications: CRM practice is believed to assist organisations in tailoring products and services to customers’ needs, providing customer satisfaction, enhancing customer retention and ultimately improving the organisation’s competitiveness and profitability. CRM might fail if SMTEs do not have CRM-enabling conditions in place and a CRM readiness audit should therefore be performed.Contribution: The study contributes to a largely under-researched area concerning CRM in SMTEs by providing an improved understanding of the factors that will enable SMTEs to engage in CRM activities.

  14. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  16. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic

  17. Geological constraints of giant and medium-sized gas fields in Kuqa Depression

    2002-01-01

    There is a gas-rich and well-charged petroleum system in the Kuqa Depression where Triassic and Jurassic source rocks play important roles. Distributed in an area of more than 10000 km2 and with a thickness of up to 1000 m, they are composed of dark mudstones, carbonaceous mudstones and coal seams containing 6%, 40% and 90% of TOC, respectively, and are mainly the humic organic matter. As high-quality regional cap rocks, the Neogene and Eogene gypsum rocks and gypseous mudstones matched well with the underlying Neogene and Cretaceous-Eogene sandstones. They have formed the most favorable reservoir-seal assemblages in the Kuqa Depression. Also the Jurassic sandstones and mudstones formed another favorable reservoir-seal assemblage. The traps are shaped late in the fold-thrust belt, mainly fixed in the Tertiary-Quaternary, where ten structure styles have been distinguished. These traps spread as a zone in N-S, are scattered like a segmental line in W-E and show tier-styled vertically. The best traps are gypsum-salt covered fault-bend anticlines related to the passive roof duplex. This petroleum system is characterized by late accumulation. In the early Himalayan Movement, mainly gas condensate and oil accumulated and were distributed in the outer circular region of the kitchen; whereas in the middle and late Himalayan the gas accumulations mainly formed and were distributed in the inner circular region near the kitchen. The overpressure of gas pools is common and is formed by seal capacity of thick gypsum layers, extensive tectonic compression and large uplift. The well-preserved anticline traps underlying the high-quality regional cap rocks of the Tertiary gypsum rocks and gypseous mudstones are the main targets for the discovery of giant and medium-sized gas fields. Above conclusions are important for the petroleum geology theory and the exploration of the fold-thrust belt in foreland basins in central and western China.

  18. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple ...... research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008)....... Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action......The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  19. Grand Challenge Problem 10: TELEARC an Agile and Productive Networking of TEL Small and Medium Sized Research Labs

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium sized research labs (SMLs) are dominating European TEL research. This is justified by the great numbers of countries and regions in Europe needing to develop a research and innovation competence to facilitate the diverse educational systems contextualized in various institutional...

  20. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  1. Encouraging professional development in small and medium-sized firms. The influence of career history and job content

    Heijden, van der Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    The present study describes the relationship between three job-related predictor variables and the degree of professional expertise of middle and higher level employees, working in small and medium-sized firms, in three different career stages. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that

  2. Deriving Default Dermal Exposure Values for Use in a Risk Assessment Toolkit for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Warren, N.; Goede, H.A.; Tijssen, S.C.H.A.; Oppl, R.; Schipper, H.J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalize

  3. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  4. UCD4SME: Small to Medium-sized Enterprises involving their users and clients for product innovation

    De Lille, C.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) starts to realize the opportunities offered by User-centred Design (UCD). The issue is that our understanding of UCD either comes from large companies or is developed in an academic setting, without taking SMEs into account. This resea

  5. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  6. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  7. Attitudes about OCLC in Small and Medium-Sized Libraries. Illinois Valley Library System OCLC Experimental Project. Report No. 4.

    Bills, Linda G.; Wilford, Valerie

    A project was conducted from 1980 to 1982 to determine the costs and benefits of OCLC use in 29 small and medium-sized member libraries of the Illinois Valley Library System (IVLS). Academic, school, public, and special libraries participated in the project. Based on written attitude surveys of and interviews with library directors, staff,…

  8. The influence of CEO gender on market orientation and performance in service small and medium-sized service businesses

    Davis, Peter S.; Babakus, Emin; Danskin Englis, Paula; Pett, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of CEO gender on market orientation and performance (growth and profitability) among a sample of small and medium-sized service businesses. Gender was found to have significant indirect effects (via market orientation) on both market performance (growth) and financial

  9. Energy conservation of small and medium-sized businesses in the Netherlands; MKB houdt niet van energiebesparen

    Mulder, A. [ed.

    2001-05-17

    According to a report of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands, knowledge and attitudes of small and medium-sized businesses (SME's) with respect to energy conservation should change. Contrary to what SME-representatives believe there are profitable options for them to save energy, to be stimulated by branch organizations for SME's.

  10. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  11. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  12. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  13. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically…

  14. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.

  15. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes.Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing

  16. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining

  17. Feasibility of LNG shipping by small or medium-sized ships%利用中小型船舶运输LNG的可行性

    付海泉; 屈晟; 尹丹霓

    2012-01-01

    LNG transmission is a vital link in the LNG industry chain. The lack of economy and limitations can be seen in the existing large-scale LNG ship, highway and railway LNG transport modes, which have been unable to meet increasingly rising LNG demands. Therefore, the idea that small or medium-sized LNG ships are taken as a new LNG transport mode is proposed. By summarizing the development of small or medium-sized LNG shipping, inducing its advantages, in accordance with the Twelfth Five-year Plan, energy market demand and other factors, the feasibility of small or medium-sized LNG ship transportation is analyzed. Relevant policy recommendations for the development of small or medium-sized LNG ship transportation are proposed. Application of small or medium-sized LNG ship transport will optimize the LNG transport mode and provide the protection to the gas source adjustment and safe urban gas supply in coastal areas and those along the Yangtze River.%LNG运输是LNG产业链中极其重要的环节,现有的大型LNG船舶、公路和铁路LNG运输模式存在经济性和局限性的问题,已无法满足当前日益高涨的LNG需求,因此,提出利用中小型LNG船舶作为新型LNG运输模式的观点.通过总结中小型LNG船舶运输的发展,归纳其优点,并结合国内十二五规划和能源市场发展需求等因素,对中小型LNG船舶运输的可行性进行分析.提出发展中小型LNG船舶运输的相关政策建议.中小型LNG船舶运输的应用将优化LNG运输模式,为沿海、沿江地区调剂气源和城市燃气的安全供应提供保障.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  19. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  20. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms’ performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation

  1. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  2. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be

  3. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

  4. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. (a) The contracting officer shall determine...

  5. 76 FR 3144 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug... industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle.'' This draft guidance provides... guidance for industry entitled ``Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle.'' This draft...

  6. Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Rockfill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rockfill materials obtained by blasting rocks or al-luvial rockfill materials collected from the riverbeds. Behaviors of rockfill materials and their charac-terization significantly depend on breakage factor observed during triaxial loading. In this paper, two modeled rockfill materials are investigated by using medium triaxial cell. Drained triaxial tests are conducted on various sizes of modeled rockfill materials used in the two dams, and test data are analyzed accordingly. Breakage factor of rockfill material is studied and the effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor are investigated using medium triaxial cell as many researchers have already conducted investigation using large triaxial cell.

  7. Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2015-01-01

    and sense of belonging to certain districts of the city. Through positioning battles of various kinds the groups fight for space and place for their unstructured socialization processes with their peers. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give local children and young people an opportunity......Abstract / Journal of youth studies Conference 2015 Peter Frostholm Olesen & David Thore Gravesen Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark. In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town...... in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater / parkour / ball-cage facility right on the city's central squares. The facility serves as a territorial meeting place for a number of conflicting groups of adolescents with different codes of behavior based on their cultural orientation...

  8. Business competitiveness in the small and medium-sized enterprises of the manufacturing sector in Baja California

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the competitiveness level of the manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs of Baja California and to identify which areas within them affect this competitiveness. The methodology used is descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional; the systemic competitiveness model is developed at the micro level, and a measurement instrument with 64 questions is used on 195 companies in the state; in addition, traditional multiple linear regressions are performed to test the hypotheses. One of the findings is that the SMEs in the state have a medium-low competitiveness level and do not show any relationship between the size of the companies and their competitiveness; however, the production-operations area prove to be more important for their competitiveness level. Although the measurement instrument that is used has no proportionality at the municipality and subsector level, it does allow us to approach the internal operation of the SMEs.

  9. How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures

    Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

  10. Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.; Neusser, N.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect is the ge......A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect...... factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based...

  11. Are the determinants of markup size industry-specific? The case of Slovenian manufacturing firms

    Ponikvar Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify factors that affect the pricing policy in Slovenian manufacturing firms in terms of the markup size and, most of all, to explicitly account for the possibility of differences in pricing procedures among manufacturing industries. Accordingly, the analysis of the dynamic panel is carried out on an industry-by-industry basis, allowing the coefficients on the markup determinants to vary across industries. We find that the oligopoly theory of markup determination for the most part holds for the manufacturing sector as a whole, although large variability in markup determinants exists across industries within the Slovenian manufacturing. Our main conclusion is that each industry should be investigated separately in detail in order to assess the precise role of markup factors in the markup-determination process.

  12. Size-Dependent Transition to High-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Medium

    Strain, M C; Strain, Matthew C.; Greenside, Henry S.

    1997-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of an excitable medium with multiple spiral defects is shown to vary smoothly with system size from short-lived transients for small systems to extensive chaos for large systems. A comparison of the Lyapunov dimension density with the average spiral defect density suggests an average dimension per spiral defect varying between three and seven. We discuss some implications of these results for experimental studies of ventricular fibrillation.

  13. Small and medium-sized enterprises’ exporting: Home and host country motivators effect on first and successive export venture decisions

    Stouraitis, Vassilios; Kyritsis, Markos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the internationalization (particularly exporting) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) taking a sample of United Kingdom (UK) SMEs for the use in economic policy, academia and management. It focuses on the critical first and less risky step towards internationalization and separates the motivators into home country and host country. The paper investigates 44 specific, high impact, pre-selected exporting motivators from the literature and tests th...

  14. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicholls, Andrew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  15. e-Leadership through strategic alignment: An empirical study of small and medium sized enterprises in the digital age

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in the European economy. A critical challenge faced by SME leaders, as a consequence of the continuing digital technology revolution, is how to optimally align business strategy with digital technology to fully leverage the potential offered by these technologies in pursuit of longevity and growth. There is a paucity of empirical research examining how e-leadership in SMEs drives successful alignment between business strategy an...

  16. A Study on the Importance of Export Assistance Programs: The case of Exporting Small and Medium Sized Enterprises of Malaysia

    Sa’ari Ahmad; Mohammed S. Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    The empirical study presented in this report focused on government export incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that involved in exporting. More specifically, the study attempted to examine the significance of exporting incentives to the exporting activities of the Malaysian SMEs. The data for the study was collected through the mail of 2000 questionnaires to the selected exporting SMEs. Two hundred firms responded by returning the questionnaires. Only 154 questionnaires we...

  17. Intra-Arterial Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Rare Case Report of Peripheral Medium Sized Muscular Artery Involvement

    Amin, Ashima; Umashankar, T; Dsouza, Chryselle Olive

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign vasoproliferative disease with distinct clinical and histopathological features. The most common clinical presentation is dermal and subcutaneous painless nodules in the head and neck region. The involvement of medium sized peripheral muscular artery is uncommon. It predominantly affects Caucasian adults during the third and fourth decades, but is also known to occur in Asians and it very rarely occurs in children. We he...

  18. Comprehensive therapeutic effect of the stroke rehabilitation unit in a medium-sized comprehensive community hospital

    Xiaohua Fu; Hong Wang; Jia Sun; Haiyan Sun; Qingyang Song; Yi Liu; Hong Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute stroke unit (stroke care unit) is developing in some domestic large-sized hospitals, but most stroke patients need stroke rehabilitation unit therapy, so setting stroke rehabilitation unit in medium-sized comprehensive community hospital (secondary hospital), where medical facility is relatively insufficient, is a new pathway to satisfy stroke patients.OBJECTIVE: To observe the comprehensive effect of developing stroke rehabilitation unit based on the facility of secondary hospital and its feasibility.DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Beijing Longfu Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 264 stroke reconvalescents who suffered stroke for 7 days and received treatment in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Longfu Hospital during June 2003 to June 2005 were involved in the study. All the involved patients were confirmed by CT or MRI. The patients were scored by using Modified Edinbergh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) > 16 points. Written informed consents were obtained from all the patients. The patients were assigned into 2 groups according to the willing of patients and their relatives: ①treatment group, in which, there were 134 patients, 76 males and 58 females, aged 43 to 74 years;cerebral infarction was found in 116 cases and cerebral hemorrhage in 18 cases;② control group, in which,there were 130 patients, 66 males and 64 females, aged 45 to 77 years, cerebral infarction was found in 115 cases and cerebral hemorrhage in 15 cases. There were significant differences in baseline data of the patients between two groups. METHODS: A same basic treatment was conducted in the patients of the two groups. ① Patients in the treatment group admitted to stroke rehabilitation unit and received comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The rehabilitation flow-sheet: randomization-letting the patients of treatment group go into the unit-making comprehensive assessment in the initial stage-making therapy

  19. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  20. High-performance work systems and workplace performance in small, medium-sized and large firms

    Wu, N; Hoque, K.; Bacon, N.; Bou Llusar, JC

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the Organisational Growth and Development (OGD) lifecycle model to extend understanding of congruence or ‘best fit’ theory within strategic human resource management (SHRM) debates on the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) and performance. With reference to management control theory, economies of scale and the availability of specialist managerial skills, the paper hypothesises that while an HPWS-performance relationship might exist in small, medium-...

  1. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    Pham Hong Nhat,

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent year

  2. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    2013-11-07

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission... prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)...

  3. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... and Medium- sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union. DATES: September 13... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the...

  4. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... Barriers that U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union... ). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the...

  5. A Comprehensive, Competency-Based Education Framework Using Medium-Sized ERP Systems

    Scholtz, Brenda; Cilliers, Charmain; Calitz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Graduates with industry-relevant ERP competencies are highly sought after. This requirement is due to a dominance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and the positive affect which good quality ERP specialists have on the success rate of ERP system implementation projects. Universities are therefore increasingly pressurised to supply…

  6. The role of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the phase behavior of medium sized Lennard-Jones clusters.

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Poon, Louis; Bowles, Richard K

    2010-08-21

    The free energy of a 600-atom Lennard-Jones cluster is calculated as a function of surface and bulk crystallinity in order to study the structural transformations that occur in the core of medium sized clusters. Within the order parameter range studied, we find the existence of two free energy minima at temperatures near freezing. One minimum, at low values of both bulk and surface order, belongs to the liquid phase. The second minimum exhibits a highly ordered core with a disordered surface and is related to structures containing a single fcc-tetrahedral subunit, with an edge length of seven atoms (l=7), located in the particle core. At lower temperatures, a third minimum appears at intermediate values of the bulk order parameter which is shown to be related to the formation of multiple l=6 tetrahedra in the core of the cluster. We also use molecular dynamics simulations to follow a series of nucleation events and find that the clusters freeze to structures containing l=5, 6, 7, and 8 sized tetrahedra as well as those containing no tetrahedral units. The structural correlations between bulk and surface order with the size of the tetrahedral units in the cluster core are examined. Finally, the relationships between the formation of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the core, the phase behavior of medium sized clusters and the nucleation of noncrystalline global structures such as icosahedra and decahedra are discussed.

  7. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs.

  8. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    Tovar, Beatriz [Departmento de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco [Departamento de Analisis Economico, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife, Espana (Spain); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes [IE-UFRJ (Instituto de Economia-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  9. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  10. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  11. Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal

    Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

  12. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  13. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  14. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

    El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

  15. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  16. Size distribution of aerosol particles: comparison between agricultural and industrial areas in Egypt

    Tadros, M.T.Y.; Madkour, M. [Mansoura Univ., Physics Dept., Mansoura (Egypt); Elmetwally, M. [Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Abbasyia-Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Mie theory has been used in this work to obtain a theoretical calculation of the size distribution of aerosol particles by using tabulated mean of the Angstrom wavelength exponent {alpha}{sub o}. Comparison was done between an industrial polluted area (Helwan, which is a neighbor to Cairo city), and an agricultural relatively unpolluted area (Mansoura, about 140 km from Cairo). The results show that the size distribution obeys the Junge power law. The size of particles in the polluted area is larger than that in the unpolluted area. (Author)

  17. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  18. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  19. Intra-Arterial Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Rare Case Report of Peripheral Medium Sized Muscular Artery Involvement.

    Amin, Ashima; Umashankar, T; Dsouza, Chryselle Olive

    2015-08-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign vasoproliferative disease with distinct clinical and histopathological features. The most common clinical presentation is dermal and subcutaneous painless nodules in the head and neck region. The involvement of medium sized peripheral muscular artery is uncommon. It predominantly affects Caucasian adults during the third and fourth decades, but is also known to occur in Asians and it very rarely occurs in children. We here by present a case of intravascular ALHE in a 46-year-old female presenting with subcutaneous forearm nodule clinically diagnosed as ulnar artery thrombosis.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TANGIBLE ASSETS AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CROATIA

    Martina Harc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The asset structure of companies should matter for financing decisions. Small and medium-sized companies in Croatia may use tangible assets as collateral, either providing more access to creditors or as a guarantee in case of bankruptcy. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tangible assets and the capital structure of Croatian small and medium-sized enterprises. Most previous studies have shown various relationships between tangible assets and leverage. This study has been conducted on a sample of 500 Croatian SMEs for the period between 2005 and 2010. The data used for the empirical analysis were taken from companies’ annual reports. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient is applied in order to examine the relationship between tangible assets and leverage measures. The results of this research indicate that tangible assets are differently correlated with short-term and long-term leverage. The relationship between tangible assets and short-term leverage is negative and statistically significant in all observed years. The relationship between tangible assets and long-term leverage is positive in all observed years and statistically significant. The results show that small and medium-sized companies use their collateral to attract long-term debt, which means that small and medium-sized companies use lower costs and the interest rate of long-term debt in relation to short-term debt. These findings correspond with the maturity matching principle, according to which long-term assets are financed with long-term financing and short-term assets are financed with short-term funds. These results suggest that tangible assets have a positive impact on the long-term debt of Croatian SMEs because tangible assets constitute a positive signal to the financial institutions, which can request the selling of these assets in case of bankruptcy. These findings are consistent with the trade-off theory which predicts a positive relation

  1. Work organization and job quality of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Japan

    サトウ, ヨシオ

    1995-01-01

    During the last three decades of economic growth in Japan, gaps existing between large and small firms in terms of wages, benefits, etc. have grown smaller and less significant. The amount and quality of human resources available will become more limited after the size of the Japanese population peaks somewhere around the year 2010. Satisfaction expressed by both employers and employees at Japanese SMEs is now better than it was in the past, being accentuated by growing popularity of new mana...

  2. How to Use Benchmarking in Small and Medium-Sized Businesses

    Alexandrache (Hrimiuc) Olivia Bianca

    2011-01-01

    In nowadays benchmarking become a powerful management tool that stimulates innovative improvement through exchange of corporate information, performance measurement, and adoption of best practices. It has been used for to improve productivity and quality in leading manufacturing organizations. In the last years, companies of different sizes and business sectors are getting involved in benchmarking activities. Despite the differences of benchmarking practices between smaller and bigger organiz...

  3. Magic number behavior for heat capacities of medium sized classical Lennard-Jones clusters

    Frantz, D D

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate heat capacities as functions of temperature for classical atomic clusters of aggregate sizes $25 \\leq N \\leq 60$ that were bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The parallel tempering method was used to overcome convergence difficulties due to quasiergodicity in the solid-liquid phase-change regions. All of the clusters studied had pronounced peaks in their heat capacity curves, most of which corresponded to their solid-liquid phase-change regions. The heat capacity peak height and location exhibited two general trends as functions of cluster size: for $N = 25$ to 36, the peak temperature slowly increased, while the peak height slowly decreased, disappearing by $N = 37$; for $N = 30$, a very small secondary peak at very low temperature emerged and quickly increased in size and temperature as $N$ increased, becoming the dominant peak by $N = 36$. Superimposed on these general trends were smaller fluctuations in the peak heights that corresponded to ``magic numbe...

  4. The Internationalization Process of Mature Danish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Myhre, Malene

    that the decision to internationalize is often determined by opportunity. In many cases, the choice of a particular market is not a deliberate strategy but the result of an unplanned chance opportunity. Furthermore, the findings reveal that most SMEs have a preference for near markets and that the motivation...... of what makes mature enterprises which have predominantly had a domestic orientation decide to internationalize. Through ten case studies in three industries – machinery manufacturing, food distribution, and healthcare – this study qualitatively explores the internationalization process of mature SMEs...... with respect to pre-entry market research, market (choice) and entry mode. Through a number of semi-structured, in-depth interviews, I examine (a) how SMEs select their market; (b) how they conduct market research, and (c) how they choose their entry mode. The analysis shows two main reasons...

  5. System size dependence of the structure and rheology in a sheared lamellar liquid crystalline medium

    Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and rheological evolution of an initially disordered lamellar phase system under a shear flow is examined using a mesoscale model based on a free energy functional for the concentration field, which is the scaled difference in the concentration between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. The dimensionless numbers which affect the shear evolution are the Reynolds number (γ ˙ ¯ L2 /ν ) , the Schmidt number (ν /D ) , a dimensionless parameter Σ =(A λ2 /ρ ν2 ) , a parameter μr which represents the viscosity contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, and (L /λ ) , the ratio of system size and layer spacing. Here, ρ, ν, and D are the density, kinematic viscosity (ratio of viscosity and density), and the mass diffusivity, and A is the energy density in the free energy functional which is proportional to the compression modulus. Two distinct modes of structural evolution are observed for moderate values of the parameter Σ depending only on the combination ScΣ and independent of system size. For ScΣ less than about 10, the layers tend to form before they are deformed by the mean shear, and layered but misaligned domains are initially formed, and these are deformed and rotated by the flow. In this case, the excess viscosity (difference between the viscosity and that for an aligned state) does not decrease to zero even after 1000 strain units, but appears to plateau to a steady state value. For ScΣ greater than about 10, layers are deformed by the mean shear before they are fully formed, and a well aligned lamellar phase with edge dislocation orders completely due to the cancellation of dislocations. The excess viscosity scales as t-1 in the long time limit. The maximum macroscopic viscosity (ratio of total stress and average strain rate over the entire sample) during the alignment process increases with the system size proportional to (L/λ ) 3 /2. For large values of Σ, there is localisation of shear at the walls

  6. Fast 3C 279 gamma flares by a merging medium size black hole jet aligned to the AGN one by tidal torque?

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The shorter-than-Schwarzschild 3C 279 variability flare on June 2015 is very puzzling. Its nature cannot naturally be due to a NS merging nor to a medium sized (a hundred solar masses) BH collapse onto the AGN. Our preliminary model is based on the long-life (nearly a year) merging of a medium size BH spiralling toward the largest AGN one, that is dragging by tidal torques the medium size BH jet along the same 3C 279 one, aligning both jets toward Earth. The twin overlapping blazars may offer at once a long and a short scale variability consistent with the surprising Fermi discover.

  7. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  8. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  9. 3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX

    Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

  10. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  11. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Du Randt, Francois Jean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include determining the extent of the impacts of these CSFs on the different success measures of a project. The investigation suggests that there are correlations among CSFs, and that certain factors impact the outcome of projects far more than others. This research finds that the single most important CSF for small- to medium-sized projects is the selection of a competent project manager. The competent project manager is characterised by a group of interrelated CSF factors: good leadership, commitment, and learning from past experiences. Based on the research results, other CSFs are discussed and explored in order for recommendations to be made on how this mining company, and possibly other organisations, can achieve greater project success.

  12. Closure of small and medium size umbilical hernias with the Proceed Ventral Patch in obese patients: a single center experience.

    Wassenberg, Dirk; Zarmpis, Nikolaos; Seip, Nora; Ambe, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of umbilical hernia. Open hernia closure could be challenging in obese patients leading to high rates of recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of hernia patches in the management of obese patients with umbilical hernias. All the patients included in this study were managed in the department of surgery of a primary care hospital in Germany. The data of patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair within a two-year period was retrospectively reviewed. Patients managed with the PVP were included for analysis. 24 obese patients were analyzed. Small and medium size patches were used in 15 and 9 patients respectively. The median duration of surgery was 40 min and the median length of hospital stay was 4d. The mean length of follow-up was 12 ± 9 months (range: 6-30 months). The rate of recurrence was 4.1% and the rate of complication was 8.3%. Obese patients presenting with small and medium size umbilical hernias could be safely and effectively managed with prosthetic patches like the Proceed Ventral Patch. However, the limited overlap zone following hernia closure with such a patch can be an issue.

  13. Cooperation in Creating Innovation in Polish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Light of Empirical Studies

    Zastempowski Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sources of competitive advantage and economic development are sought in the sphere of innovation. They are at the centre of interest of representatives of the world of politics, science, and business. Moreover, they have been incorporated into governmental and international strategic development programmes. This article attempts to characterize and evaluate cooperation in creating innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Empirical research, a fragment of which is presented in this article, was conducted at the turn of March and April 2015 on a representative sample of Polish small and medium-sized enterprises. The subject of the analysis was business innovation expressed through the indicators of innovation and frequency of cooperation with different entities from the business environment to create new solutions, as well as forms of business innovation. The evaluation of the existing dependence was performed on the basis of the estimation results of the logit model. The objective of this study was to identify key factors related to cooperation and their impact on the innovativeness of Polish companies, using the tools of econometric analysis. The article presents a contemporary approach to managing innovative activity – open innovation, which is both widely reported and reflected in the results of research conducted. The logit model that was developed also indicates that companies that are open to cooperation with customers and academic institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN and are members of clusters are more likely to implement innovations of a radical nature.

  14. Estimated performance of an adaptive trailing-edge device aimed at reducing fuel consumption on a medium-size aircraft

    Diodati, Gianluca; Concilio, Antonio; Ricci, Sergio; De Gaspari, Alessandro; Huvelin, Fabien; Dumont, Antoine; Godard, Jean-Luc

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance of a medium-size aircraft (3-hour flight range) equipped with an adaptive trailing edge device (ATED) that runs span-wise from the wing root in the flap zone and extends chord-wise for a limited percentage of the MAC. Computations are calculated referring to the full wing and do not refer to the complete aircraft configuration. Aerodynamic computations, taking into account ideal shapes, have been performed by using both Euler and Navier- Stokes method in order to extract the wing polars for the reference and the optimal wing, implementing an ATED, deflected upwards and downwards. A comparison of the achieved results is discussed. Considering the shape domain, a suitable interpolation procedure has been set up to obtain the wing polar envelop of the adaptive wing, intended as the set of "best" values, picked by each different polar. At the end, the performances of the complete reference and adaptive wing are computed and compared for a symmetric, centered, leveled and steady cruise flight for a medium size aircraft. A significant fuel burn reduction estimate or, alternatively, an increased range capability is demonstrated, with margins of further improvements. The research leading to these results has gratefully received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under Grant Agreement n° 284562.

  15. Design of a medium size x-ray mirror module based on thin glass foils

    Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The hot slumping glass technology for X-ray mirror is under development and in the last years the results have been improved. Nustar is the first X-ray telescope based on slumped glass foils and it benefit is the low cost compared to the direct polishing of glass. With the slumping technique it is possible to maintain the glass mass to low values with respect to the direct polishing, but in general the angular resolution is worst. A further technique based on glass is the cold shaping of foils. The improved capabilities of manufacturing thin glass foils, pushed by the industrial application for screens, open new possibilities for X-ray mirror. The increase in strength of thin tempered glasses, the reduction of thickness errors and the good roughness of flat foils are potentially great advantages. In this paper a design of a mediumsize X-ray mirror module is analysed. It is based on integration of glass foils, stacked directly on a supporting structure that is part of the X-ray telescope using stiffening ribs as spacer between foils. The alignment of each stack is performed directly into the integration machine avoiding the necessity of the alignment of different stacked modules. A typical module (glass optic and metallic structure) provides an effective area of 10 cm2/kg at 1 keV (with a mass of about 50- 100 kg and a focal length of 10 m).

  16. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Bettuzzi, M.; Brancaccio, R. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Casali, F.; Morigi, M.P. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); Centro Fermi, Rome (Italy); Carson, D.; Chiari, G. [Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maish, J. [The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography of a medium size Roman bronze statue of Cupid

    Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Carson, D.; Chiari, G.; Maish, J.

    2015-03-01

    Diagnostics based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) are becoming increasingly important, not only in the medical field but in industry and cultural heritage. CT devices typical for medical applications, however, can seldom be used on art objects because both they are not easily transportable and they often present high X-ray absorption. It is therefore necessary to make use of portable instrumentation and/or to develop tomographic systems optimized to the characteristics of the objects under examination. This work describes the computed tomography of a first century A.D. Roman bronze statue of Cupid (96.AB.53) in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, within the collaborative framework between the Getty Conservation Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA) of the University of Bologna (Italy). The tomography performed at the Getty facilities employed a 450 kV X-ray tube and a detection system developed at DIFA. The study highlighted the casting and construction techniques used by Roman foundry workers and provided information on the status of conservation of the statue. A 3D virtual reconstruction allowed the user to define different cross-sections enabling the study of the internal features.

  18. Sustainable management and supply of natural and recycled aggregates in a medium-size integrated plant.

    Faleschini, Flora; Zanini, Mariano Angelo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Pasinato, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of natural aggregates in civil engineering applications can cause severe environmental impacts on a regional scale, depleting the stock of bulk resources within a territory. Several methods can improve the environmental sustainability of the whole aggregates' supply process, including natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains, for instance promoting the use of recycled aggregates (RA). However, when quarrying and recycling activities are considered as stand-alone processes, also the RA supply chain may not be as sustainable as expected, due to the high environmental loads associated to transportation, if high distances from the production to the use sites are involved. This work gives some insights on the environmental impact assessment of the aggregates' industry in the Italian context, through a comparative assessment of the environmental loads of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. An integrated plant for the extraction of virgin aggregates and recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) was analyzed as significant case study, with the aim to identify the influence of sustainable solutions on the overall emissions of the facility. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used, using site-specific data and paying particular attention on transportation-related impacts, land use, avoided landfill and non-renewable resources preservation. From this work it was possible to evaluate the influence of transportation and PV energy use on the overall environmental emissions of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains.

  19. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical approach for medium-sized explosive eruptions

    Spanu, A; Barsotti, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the seventies, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed, and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled deposit datasets. Discrete numbers of tephra ground loadings or stratigraphic records are usually processed to estimate source eruptive values. Reconstruction techniques like Pyle, Power law and Weibull are adopted as standard to quantify the erupted mass (or volume) whereas Voronoi for reconstructing the granulometry. Reconstructed values can be affected by large uncertainty due to complexities occurring within the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of volcanic particles. Here we want to quantify the sensitivity of reconstruction techniques, and to quantify how much estimated values of mass and grain size differ from emitted and deposited ones. We adopted a numerical approach simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna, with eruptive parameters similar to those estimated for eruptions occurred in the last decade. T...

  1. The rarity of Dark Matter Halos in medium-sized walls of the cosmic web

    Goh, Tze; Primack, Joel R.; Lee, Christoph; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Behroozi, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, Marshall McCall mapped out our Local Sheet, the cosmic wall containing the Milk Way and Andromeda galaxies. We use the large new Bolshoi-Planck cosmological simulation to investigate how rare our type of Local Sheet is, with 2 nearby halos like those of Milky Way and Andromeda. The conclusion of our investigation is that the occurrence of a pair of galaxies the size of Milky Way and Andromeda near the center of a wall 8 mpc in diameter, with the pair of galaxies within 0.7 mpc/h of each other, is very rare : it makes up only 0.05% of all walls in the simulation.

  2. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Wenjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new

  3. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules

  4. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies. Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collected from various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique. Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new

  5. Energy efficiency networks - accelerated mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in medium sized companies; Energieeffizienznetzwerke - beschleunigte Emissionsminderungen in der mittelstaendischen Wirtschaft

    Jochem, Eberhard [CEPE, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Mai, Michael [IREES, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ott, Volker [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The reduction of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions by more efficient energy use in medium sized companies is one of the most profitable options. However, these opportunities are scarcely realised because of many obstacles and market failures. High transaction cost and decision routines play an important role for decision making and procurement of the companies. A network concept being developed in Switzerland and covering an initial consulting of each participating company, targets for the network, regular and moderated meetings of the energy managers for mutual exchange of experiences and a yearly monitoring alleviates many of these obstacles. It doubles the energy efficiency progress relative to the average progress of industry. This network concept can be fully realised by industry itself. Average energy savings per site and year are 100,000 Euro and average CO{sub 2} emission reduction about 500 t CO{sub 2} per year and site. Assuming a maximum potential of 700 Networks, additional emission reductions of some 10 Mio. t CO{sub 2} seem to be possible in Germany by 2020. A network management system for consulting engineers and moderators allows a minimum performance standard of how to start and operate those efficiency networks.

  6. [The rational basis for the short-, medium-, and long-term evolution of the pharmaceutical industry].

    Amédée-Manesme, O

    In the last few years, a worldwide reorganization affecting the entire pharmaceutical industry has begun and is now accelerating. This intense trend of mergers, acquisitions, market entires++ and exits, reorientation and diversification reflects a new environment. This article sets out to explain the reasons behind this inescapable and rapid evolution.

  7. Deformation Behavior in Medium Mn Steel of Nanometer-Sized α' + γ Lamellar Structure

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dong Hwi; Heo, Nam Hoe; Hong, Chang Wan; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-12-01

    Yielding and work-hardening phenomena in an Fe-10.62Mn-2.84Al-0.17C-0.5Mo steel, which is composed of nanometer-sized lamellae of α' and γ, are described on the basis of the Hall-Petch relations. Unlike the general expectation, yielding in the steel, which consists of lamellae of α' and mechanically stable γ, occurs through the propagation of pileup dislocations from α' to γ. However, when γ is mechanically unstable, yielding occurs through the stress-assisted martensitic transformation (SAMT) within the unstable γ region, resulting in a low YS of about 500 MPa. The overall prominent work-hardening behavior of this steel after yielding is due to the active SAMT, which does not accompany the increase in mobile dislocation density and so causes the high elastic strain rate. The carbon partitioning treatment increases the SAMT starting strength to about 980 MPa, which is caused by the mechanical stabilization of γ. The overall low work-hardening behavior of this case is mainly attributed to the active propagation of pile-up dislocation from α' to γ which causes the high plastic strain rate through the abrupt increase of mobile dislocation density.

  8. 浅析中小企业融资新措施%The New Measures for the Financing of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    李普玲

    2014-01-01

    我国中小企业在国民经济中发挥着重要作用,而融资难是中小企业发展的主要障碍之一。鉴于此,本文试图结合最近一两年来针对中小企业融资环境的内外部变化来研究中小企业融资新措施。%China's small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the national economy,while the financing difficulty is one of the main obstacles for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. In terms of this, this paper studies the new measures on the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises based on the internal and external financing environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in recent years.

  9. Size controlled sonochemical synthesis of highly crystalline superparamagnetic Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Abbas, Mohamed [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ceramics Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohous Street, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Torati, Sri Ramulu [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rao, B. Parvatheeswara [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Abdel-Hamed, M.O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt); Kim, CheolGi, E-mail: cgkim@dgist.ac.kr [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Mn–Zn ferrite NPs were synthesized by two different methods are polyol and sonochemical. • The sonochemical method produced NPs with high crystallinity than polyol method. • The ferrite samples synthesized by sonochemical method showed high magnetization values and superparamagnetic properties. • XRD, TEM, EDS, TGA, FTIR, and VSM techniques used to characterize the samples. - Abstract: Monodisperse Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) nanoparticles have been synthesized using two different routes namely sonochemical and polyol methods, and the shape and size along with physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles were compared in detail. In both the routes, the synthesis was performed in a single reaction without the use of any surfactant and deoxygenated conditions. The reaction kinetics and surface adsorption characteristics of nanoparticles were observed by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a pure ferrite phase with cubic spinel structure, and the patterns further clearly indicate that the sonochemical method produces highly crystalline particles without any post calcination reaction, comparing with the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy results reveal that the nanoparticles synthesized by polyol method are mostly aggregated and spherical in nature whereas the nanoparticles produced by sonochemical method are monodisperse large particles with cubic like shapes. The overall studies demonstrated that the sonochemical method is facile, reliable, rapid and very attractive for the aqueous synthesis of highly crystalline and high magnetic moment (84.5 emu/g) monodisperse superparamagnetic Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles which considered as potential materials for various applications.

  10. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Yıldırım, Gülşen; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples.

  11. Analysis of Strategic Management in Small and Medium Business Organizations in Graphic Industry

    Ilija Jolevski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphic industry as a field of work and a field of study offers ability for economic growth of every country or region. The increase in competition and the development of the market method of prediction, increase the need for business organizations to continuously observe their own position. Faced with a variable, turbulent and complex environment, the business organizations adopt strategic management, and modern managers, especially those in top management, have to possess knowledge and skills of the concepts and application of strategic management.In this paper the case method, as a method used in strategic management, will be applied as a general approach of strategic analysis in creating strategy map for businesses in graphic industry.

  12. Anisotropic finite-size scaling of an elastic string at the depinning threshold in a random-periodic medium

    Sebastián Bustingorry

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study the geometry of a driven elastic string at its sample-dependent depinning threshold in random-periodic media. We find that the anisotropic finite-size scaling of the average square width $overline{w^2}$ and of its associated probability distribution are both controlled by the ratio $k=M/L^{zeta_{dep}}$, where $zeta_{dep}$ is the random-manifold depinning roughness exponent, $L$ is the longitudinal size of the string and $M$ the transverse periodicity of the random medium. The rescaled average square width $overline{w^2}/L^{2zeta_{dep}}$ displays a non-trivial single minimum for a finite value of $k$. We show that the initial decrease for small $k$ reflects the crossover at $k sim 1$ from the random-periodic to the random-manifold roughness. The increase for very large $k$ implies that the increasingly rare critical configurations, accompanying the crossover to Gumbel critical-force statistics, display anomalous roughness properties: a transverse-periodicity scaling in spite that $overline{w^2} ll M$, and subleading corrections to the standard random-manifold longitudinal-size scaling. Our results are relevant tounderstanding the dimensional crossover from interface to particle depinning. Received: 20 October 2010, Accepted: 1 December 2010; Edited by:  A. Vindigni; Reviewed by: A. A. Fedorenko, CNRS-Lab. de Physique, ENS de Lyon, France; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.020008

  13. Small and medium-sized enterprises’ exporting: Home and host country motivators effect on first and successive export venture decisions

    Vassilios Stouraitis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the internationalization (particularly exporting of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs taking a sample of United Kingdom (UK SMEs for the use in economic policy, academia and management. It focuses on the critical first and less risky step towards internationalization and separates the motivators into home country and host country. The paper investigates 44 specific, high impact, pre-selected exporting motivators from the literature and tests their effect on the firm’s initial export decision and latest (or sequential export decision. Results show that the first exporting choice affects later exporting choices and both are mostly affected by home country-specific, internal, motivators as opposed to host country-specific reactive motivators. In addition regionalization shows an association as European Union membership of the UK showed a relationship to subsequent entry mode choice. The paper’s results are of use to policy-makers and management.

  14. Performance of Silicon Photomultipliers for the Dual-Mirror Medium-Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Biteau, Jonathan; Dang, Dennis; Doyle, Kevin; Johnson, Caitlin A.; Williams, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray observations in the very-high-energy domain (E > 30 GeV) can exploit the imaging of few-nanosecond Cherenkov flashes from atmospheric particle showers. Photomultipliers have been used as the primary photosensors to detect gamma-ray induced Cherenkov light for the past 25 years, but they are increasingly challenged by the swift progress of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). We are working to identify the optimal photosensors for medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescopes (SCT), which are proposed to contribute a significant fraction of the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array in its core energy range. We present the capabilities of the latest SiPMs from the Hamamatsu, SensL, and Excelitas companies that we have characterized in our laboratory, and compare them to the SiPMs equipping the prototype SCT camera that is under construction.

  15. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  16. From amino acids to nature-inspired molecular scaffolds: incorporation of medium-sized bridged heterocycles into a peptide backbone.

    La-Venia, Agustina; Ventosa-Andrés, Pilar; Hradilová, Ludmila; Krchňák, Viktor

    2014-11-07

    Novel molecular scaffolds comprising two to four bridged and fused heterocycles were synthesized from amino acids using seven-membered endocyclic N-acyliminium ions as key intermediates in acid-mediated tandem reactions with internal nucleophiles. This complexity-generating synthesis proceeds with high efficiency and with full stereocontrol of the newly generated stereogenic center. These results have extended the scope of medium-sized cyclic iminium ion chemistry, making it applicable as a regio- and stereoselective synthetic strategy for the generation of complex polycyclic structures. Furthermore, its compatibility with the traditional Merrifield synthesis of peptides on solid supports allowed the incorporation of the previously unexplored conformationally restricted cyclic systems into peptides without a need to independently synthesize the scaffold.

  17. SOCIAL CAPITAL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

    Banjo G. Roxas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a conceptual framework that explains that the social capital of a community shapes the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs through knowledge management within the firm. The study's significance stems from the unprecedented effort in explaining how community social capital matters in the innovation performance of SMEs, a departure from previous studies that have typically examined market-related or hierarchical social capital in the form of formal networks and directly linked them to a firm's innovation performance without due regard for knowledge management within the firm as an antecedent of organisational innovation performance. The aim is to stimulate further thinking and empirical research on the subject of social capital of a community in the SME and/or entrepreneurial context.

  18. Assessment for Production and Operation Ability of Medium and Small-sized Enterprises Based on Neural Network

    WANG Yu-hong; XU Jun; WANG Guan; ZENG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve production and operation ability of medium and small-sized enterprises, an assessment-index system of production and operation ability was proposed, and a corresponding assessment model was established based on BP neural network. The conjunction weights of the neural network were continuously modified from output layer to input layer in the process of neural network training to reduce the errors between the anticipated and actual outputs. The results from an example show that this method is reliable and feasible. The production and operation ability of an enterprise with assessed result of 0.833 is fairly powerful, and that with assessed result of 0.644 is average.

  19. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  20. Small and medium-sized enterprises in the export-oriented strategy of Ukraine’s development

    Yuliya Yevdokymova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the economic development of Ukraine, as it enters the world arena through its export potential. The author accentuates the diverse methods, ways and areas of economic policy for improving the export performance of SMEs. In particular, attention is centered on the support of SMEs by governments, international organizations and associations of entrepreneurs-exporters. In the opinion of the author, it is imperative to analyze the global experience in improving and stimulating SME exports not only in the economically developed countries, but also in those that are at such a political and socioeconomic stage of development as Ukraine is today. The author lists the policy areas for improving SME exports and their essence and outlines the prospects for their further development.

  1. Influence of information technology management on the organizational performance of the small and medium-sized enterprises

    José Melchor Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the degree of influence that the use of information management and information technology has on the organizational performance in terms of competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of the small and medium-sized enterprises in the central region of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and analyzed by using a Partial Least Squares; the results show a greater support from the information technology and information management variables to innovation (standardized path=0.418 and 0.367, and p<0.05* both. This means that by having an efficient information management process, enterprises are able to get new goods/services, to identify new markets and to face competition.

  2. Small And Medium-Sized Business Development In Regions: Establishment Of Priority Directions By The Example Of Sverdlovsk Region

    Dmitry Yevgenyevich Tolmachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of current small and medium-sized business development in Sverdlovsk region. It includes analysis of enterprise development statistics, Russian and international experience, sociological survey of entrepreneurs’ satisfaction of doing business conditions in Sverdlovsk region. The aim of the research was to develop proposals for business support system development in the long run for inclusion in the SME Development Strategy in Sverdlovsk region up to 2030. As a result, a set of strategic SME development directions was formulated. It includes measures aimed at business problems solving through the development of SME support tools and at addressing institutional problems of business support. The paper includes proposals for improvement of regional support system and implementation the priority SME development direction

  3. Study on the Preparation of Allyl-modified Starch in Isopropyl/Water Medium for Warp Sizing

    LI Man-li; ZHU Zhi-feng; ZHANG Long-qiu

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the pretreatment of starch by etherification was developed to eliminate the problems of lower grafting efficiency associated with the preparation of starch graft copolymers as warp sizing agents.The etherification of starch with allyl chloride was investigated in order to effectively enhance the reaction efficiency.The technological variables of the reaction considered for evaluating the etherification included sodium hydroxide amount,water content in water-isopropyi alcohol medium,allyl cldoride concentration,reaction temperature and reaction time.The experimental result demonstrated that the variables considered showed evident effect on the reaction efficiency.For the etherification,a condition of 20% for the water content,1.5:1 for the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to allyl chloride.and at 30℃ under 24h reaction is Sufficient to retain the reaction efficiency above 50%.Furthermore,a contrast test demonstrated that the graft efficiency can be increased with the etherification pretreatment.

  4. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.

  5. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  6. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEMS IN CHINA’S SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FOOD ENTERPRISES

    Shaosheng Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, a large number of small and medium-sized food enterprises (food SMEs rarely adopt the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP system, which results in a low product quality. Some local governments have encouraged food SMEs to implement HACCP systems through financial subsidies, but because of an incomplete understanding of the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing HACCP systems in food SMEs, relevant policies have not enhanced the adoption rate of HACCP systems. Based on our questionnaire survey data of 132 food SMEs in China's Henan, Guangdong, and Zhejiang provinces, this study estimates Chinese food SMEs' WTP for implementing HACCP systems by a double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM. According to the estimated results, the WTP for implementing HACCP systems under the log-logistic model is approximately 115,714 Chinese RMB (113,149 Chinese RMB for the log-normal model.

  7. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  8. Occurrence of large and medium-sized mammals: Occurrence but not count models predict pronghorn distribution: Chapter 8

    2011-01-01

    Management of medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals (Antilocapridae, Canidae, Cervidae, Leporidae, Mustelidae, Ochotonidae) in the western United States is multifaceted and complex. Species in this group generally are charismatic and provide economic opportunities, although others are considered a nuisance at one extreme or are listed as species of conservation concern at the other. Understanding the relative influence of land cover, habitat fragmentation, and human land use on their distribution during the breeding season is imperative to inform management decisions on land use and conservation planning for these species. We surveyed medium to large-sized sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-associated mammal species in 2005 and 2006 on 141 random transects (mean length = 1.1 km) in the Wyoming Basins, an area undergoing rapid land cover transformation due to human actions including energy development. Overall, we observed 10 species but only obtained enough observations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) to develop spatially explicit distribution models. For pronghorn, occurrence related positively to proportion of sagebrush land cover within 0.27 km, mixed shrubland land cover within 3 km, riparian land cover within 5 km, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 0.27 km, road density within 5 km, and decay distance to power line corridors at 1 km, but negatively to salt-desert shrubland cover within 18 km and an interaction between sagebrush and NDVI within 0.27 km. We found excellent predictive capability of this model when evaluated with independent test data. The model provides a basis for assessing the effects of proposed development on pronghorn and can aid planning efforts to avoid or mitigate adverse effects on pronghorn.

  9. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively.

  10. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in a Medium-Sized Mediterranean Catchment on a Millennium Scale

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales in Mediterranean environments. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to i) investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across the landscape in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment (Contrada Maddalena; ~14km2, Calabria, Italy) and ii) to establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties and to verify them against observations, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on essential feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic or seismic events or human intervention. Although the results are evidently conditioned by the physiographic setting of the study area and by the

  11. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  12. INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, DYNAMICS OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FIRMS

    Ying FAN; Menghui LI; Zengru DI

    2006-01-01

    A multi-agent model is presented to discuss the market dynamics and the size distribution of firms.The model emphasizes the effects of increasing returns to scale and gives the description of the born and death of adaptive producers. The evolution of market structure and its behavior under the technological shocks are investigated. Its dynamical results are in good agreement with some empirical "stylized facts" of industrial evolution. With the diversity of demand and adaptive growth strategies of firms, the firm size in the generalized model obeys the power-law distribution. Three factors mainly determine the competitive dynamics and the skewed size distributions of firms: 1. Self-reinforcing mechanism; 2. Adaptive firm growing strategies; 3. Demand diversity or widespread heterogeneity in the technological capabilities of firms.

  13. Study of corrosion erosion behaviour of stainless alloys in industrial phosphoric acid medium

    Guenbour, Abdellah; Hajji, Mohamed-Adil; Jallouli, El Miloudi; Bachir, Ali Ben

    2006-12-01

    The corrosion and corrosion-abrasion resistance of some stainless steels in industrial phosphoric acid 30% P 2O 5 has been studied using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion rate of materials increases with the increase of temperature. Alloys which contain chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen in sufficient quantities present the best behaviour. In the abrasion-corrosion conditions, the experimental device set up allowed to follow continually samples electrochemical behaviour. Under dynamic conditions and without solid particles, the increase of acid projection speed has no effect on the alloys corrosion behaviour. The adding of abrasive leads to a general increase of corrosion rate and to a decrease of material resistance. Under these conditions, materials attack is controlled by synergistic effect between the abrasion and the impurities. The cast 30% Cr shows good resistance according to his high chromium content.

  14. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  15. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  16. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  17. Size-dependent transformation from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction in organic medium

    Karvianto; Chow, G. M., E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-10-15

    The transformation from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells via galvanic replacement reaction with HAuCl{sub 4} was systematically studied in an organic medium in the presence of oleylamine. Decahedral ({approx}43 nm in size) and triangular prism ({approx}53 nm in edge length) Ag templates transformed into equiaxed and triangular prismatic Au-Ag nanoshells, respectively. The first step involved structural and morphological changes from Ag templates to Au-Ag nanoshells with an interior cavity. In the second step, the growth of the shells continued through the deposition of Au. The shell thickness increased from {approx}5 to {approx}10 nm for the equiaxed Au-Ag nanoshells ({approx}39-nm interior cavity) and {approx}5 to {approx}8 nm for the triangular prismatic Au-Ag nanoshells ({approx}52-nm interior edge length). Oleylamine not only served as a surfactant but also removed AgCl precipitates and reduced HAuCl{sub 4}. For the nanoshells derived from the {approx}20-nm Ag decahedrons, further reaction in excess HAuCl{sub 4} collapsed the nanoshells into Au-rich solid fragments. However, the nanoshells derived from the {approx}43-nm Ag decahedrons, the nanoshell structure not only persisted in excess HAuCl{sub 4}, but its shell thickness also increased. The size-dependent transformation of these nanoshells is discussed.

  18. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate Research Programme (ACRP) by means of the project CHC-FloodS (id KR13AC6K11102). Further support is also received

  19. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  20. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise

    Lakhwinder Pal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002 type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A, criterion level at 90dB(A, criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A, upper limit is equal to 140dB(A and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A. About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE. The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  1. Growth phase-associated changes in the proteome and transcriptome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in industrial-type whey medium.

    Laakso, Kati; Koskenniemi, Kerttu; Koponen, Johanna; Kankainen, Matti; Surakka, Anu; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Tynkkynen, Soile; Varmanen, Pekka

    2011-11-01

    The growth phase during which probiotic bacteria are harvested and consumed can strongly influence their performance as health-promoting agents. In this study, global transcriptomic and proteomic changes were studied in the widely used probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during growth in industrial-type whey medium under strictly defined bioreactor conditions. The expression of 636 genes (P ≤ 0.01) and 116 proteins (P rhamnosus GG in the host and proteins that directly contribute to human health showed temporal changes in expression. Our results suggest that L. rhamnosus GG has a highly flexible and adaptable metabolism and that the growth stage during which bacterial cells are harvested and consumed should be taken into consideration to gain the maximal benefit from probiotic bacteria.

  2. Industry

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  4. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE PRICE MARKETING STRATEGY RESEARCH%中小农产品企业价格博弈理论研究

    张洁

    2011-01-01

    本文基于营销价格理论,分析了农产品行业目前存在的问题及影响,并以两种价格博弈为例分析中小农产品企业价格(博弈主要产生于企业与客户,如渠道的中间商、零售商以及终端客户、企业与其他农产品企业之间)。最后给出营销策略。%Based on the marketing price theory,this paper analyses the existing problems and its influence in the agricultural industry,and with two price games as an example,analyzed small and medium-sized agricultural enterprise price(game mainly produced in enterprise and customers,such as channel middlemen,retailers and terminal customers,enterprise and other agricultural products between enterprise).Finally give marketing strategies.

  5. 中小企业科技创新途径的研究%Technological innovation approaches of small and medium-sized enterprises

    任红

    2014-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are creating jobs, an important force in promoting China's economic growth. Related scientific and technological innovation has been the development of SMEs research community to focus of attention. This article combines the characteristics of the development of SMEs. Depth study of how the system launched for SMEs to more effectively carry out scientific and technological innovation. Detailed analyzing the status quo in terms of the development of SMEs, technological innovation and industrialization of technology development, innovation and development of proposed new approach is suitable for SMEs.%中小企业是创造就业机会,推动我国经济增长的重要力量,有关中小企业科技创新发展的研究一直是社会各界共同关注的热点。论文结合中小企业发展的特点,针对中小企业如何更有效地进行科技创新展开深入系统的研究,从中小企业发展现状、科技创新能力和科技产业化发展等方面进行详细分析,提出适合中小企业创新发展的新途径。

  6. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Olteanu Valerica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using

  8. Phospholipid metabolism in an industry microalga Chlorella sorokiniana: the impact of inoculum sizes.

    Shuhuan Lu

    Full Text Available Chlorella sorokiniana is an important industry microalga potential for biofuel production. Inoculum size is one of the important factors in algal large-scale culture, and has great effects on the growth, lipid accumulation and metabolism of microalgae. As the first barrier of cell contents, membrane plays a vital role in algal inoculum-related metabolism. The knowledge of phospholipids, the main membrane component and high accumulation of phospholipids as the major content of total lipids mass in some microalgae, is necessary to understand the role of membrane in cell growth and metabolism under different inoculum density. Profiling of C. sorokiniana phospholipids with LC-MS led to the identification of 119 phospholipid species. To discover the phospholipid molecules most related to change of inoculum sizes, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA was employed and the results revealed that inoculum sizes significantly affected phospholipid profiling. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG, phosphatidyl- ethanolamine (PE and several phosphatidylcholine (PC species might play an important role under our experimental conditions. Further analysis of these biomarkers indicated that cell membrane status of C. sorokiniana might play an important role in the adaption to the inoculum sizes. And the culture with inoculum size of 1 × 10(6 cells mL(-1 presented the best membrane status with the highest content of PC and PG, and the lowest content of PE. We discovered that the inoculum size of 1 × 10(6 cells mL(-1 might provide the best growth condition for C. sorokiniana. Also we proposed that PG, PE and several PC may play an important role in inoculum-related metabolism in C. sorokiniana, which may work through thylakoid membrane and photosynthetic pathway. Thus this study would provide more potential targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel production and productivity in microalgae.

  9. Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the gamma-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Waché, Y; Bergmark, K; Courthaudon, J L; Aguedo, M; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2000-03-01

    Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d32 of 2.5 microm whereas it was 0.7 microm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 microm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytica in both media was very similar except for the lag phase which was lowered in homogenized medium conditions.

  10. An Empirical Analysis of the Adoption Barriers of E-commerce in Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs with implementation of Technology Acceptance Model

    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrance of electronic technologies to the field of trade has caused many changes in the business environment and competition and has caused a large number of companies to pay attention to E-commerce methods and some of them succeed to obtain a lot of advantages and benefits from them. Small and Medium sized Enterprises are forced to use electronic technologies to survive in the competitive environment and gain more market share against large companies. But in this way they are faced with problems. Therefore, the challenges and limitations of these companies should be examined in the adoption of e-commerce. The aim of this study is to identify the main obstacles and challenges of E-commerce adoption by SMEs. The aim of the present study is applied and data collection is descriptive -survey and correlational. The study population consisted of managers and experts of companies in the industrial city of Bushehr (Iran. Total sample size is 157 people from 86 companies that were collected by convenient sampling data. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed through the content validity and reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Analyzing the data was done by structural equation modeling via partial least squares method by the help of smart PLS software. The results showed that organizational barriers, technical barriers and environmental barriers as external factors on technology has effected on two starter variables of technology acceptance model that includes usefulness and perceived ease and this predicted relationships are confirmed. In addition, expressed relationships in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, including the impact of usefulness and perceived ease on attitude, impact of attitude on Intention and finally impact of Intention on actual use was confirmed.

  11. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  12. Change Management – Condition of Organizational Sustainability in IT&C Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Dan Popescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and outline strategies for promoting change in the context of organizational learning, in order to maintain deeply active and creative human resources, while capable of achieving economic sustainability. This is becoming more obvious now as the changes take place in a dynamic world where human resources are the only key factors able to provide the design and implementation of routine changes and procedures, in the present and not in the future. Furthermore, to highlight strengths and weaknesses of approaches regarding the sustainability and organizational change, our topic of research was conducted as an empirical study on the IT&C Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs, especially in the context of sustainability tending to become even more a value of modern, dynamic and powerful organizations. The main objective of the article is to outline some potential ways to implement the change management in the IT&C Romanian SMEs environment and their perception manner concerning the rationality and operationality of change, to ensure the viability and the organizational sustainability.

  13. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    Meriyanti, Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair, Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

  14. MCDA-C Methodology Based Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses at the City of Lages

    Marcelo Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When employed in a focused manner, corporate performance evaluation has proven to be instrumental for entrepreneurs as an important tool that contributes with performance improvements at their organizations. The descriptive study herein, prepared as of a questionnaire comprising 46 queries, poses to analyse the performance of micro and small companies (MSEs by employing the multicriteria methodology for constructive decision aiding (MCDA-C. As of respondent replies, MCDA-C descriptors were formed, shaping six prime groups so as to identify relevant factors that drive or hinder MSE success. The questionnaire was applied to managers in charge administering 25 small and medium-sized companies of Lages, a city within the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Study findings provide evidence as to the fact that (i 24% of surveyed companies, tend to go bankrupt; (ii managerial functions at the MSEs are the prime source of influence on negative outcomes; (iii from a financial control standpoint, surveyed companies fall far shorter than the minimum level deemed necessary to qualify as satisfactory; (iv those that present the best results, operate both within the domestic and international markets; (v the study placed under the spotlight the group “Evolution Stage”, evidencing the trend of ever increasing MSE expansion. This study revealed that corporate failure contributing factors are intensely interconnected and largely depend on the entrepreneur´s own performance, the prime contribution of findings residing in demonstrating that MCDA-C can be employed to analyse the performance of micro and small businesses.

  15. An Influence of Strategic Awareness on Management Control: Evidence from Polish Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Joanna Dyczkowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper investigates whether employees’ strategic awareness influences the shape of management control systems (MCSs in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (mSMEs. Methodology: The study is based on data obtained from 223 companies between November 2010 and January 2012. The quantitative analysis used a set of variables which depicted MCSs: ‘goalsetting process’, ‘control framework’ and ‘organisation of control’. Strategic awareness was considered an independent variable. Findings: The results showed positive correlations between strategic awareness and considered variables. Regression models developed by the authors proved statistically valid. The study evidences, that increasing employees’ strategic awareness stimulates their participation in goal-setting, contributes to the development of more comprehensive MCSs, or may even imply formalisation of management control. Research limitations: The study does not include an analysis of the extent to which employees find MCSs useful in their work. This will be considered in future research. Another possible extension of the project is to identify factors which enable the capturing of the dynamic character of MCSs and their changes over time. Practical implications: The knowledge of MCSs does not explain whether or not the strategic orientation of a company stimulates a need for MCS. Such knowledge may be important to managers who have to face Polish employees’ general aversion to control. Originality: The study contributes to the limited body of knowledge in a scope of relations between employees’ strategic awareness and control mechanisms in Polish mSMEs.

  16. African swine fever outbreak on a medium-sized farm in Uganda: biosecurity breaches and within-farm virus contamination.

    Chenais, Erika; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Liu, Lihong; LeBlanc, Neil; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl

    2017-02-01

    In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination. The study was carried out on a medium-sized pig farm with 35 adult pigs and 103 piglets or growers at the onset of the outbreak. Within 3 months, all pigs had died or were slaughtered. The study included interviews with farm representatives as well as biological and environmental sampling. ASF was confirmed by the presence of ASF virus (ASFV) genomic material in biological (blood, serum) and environmental (soil, water, feed, manure) samples by real-time PCR. The ASFV-positive biological samples confirmed the clinical assessment and were consistent with known virus characteristics. Most environmental samples were found to be positive. Assessment of farm biosecurity, interviews, and the results from the biological and environmental samples revealed that breaches and non-compliance with biosecurity protocols most likely led to the introduction and within-farm spread of the virus. The information derived from this study provides valuable insight regarding the implementation of biosecurity measures, particularly in endemic areas.

  17. Developmentally coordinated extrinsic signals drive human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward authentic DARPP-32+ medium-sized spiny neurons.

    Delli Carri, Alessia; Onorati, Marco; Lelos, Mariah J; Castiglioni, Valentina; Faedo, Andrea; Menon, Ramesh; Camnasio, Stefano; Vuono, Romina; Spaiardi, Paolo; Talpo, Francesca; Toselli, Mauro; Martino, Gianvito; Barker, Roger A; Dunnett, Stephen B; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only neostriatum projection neurons, and their degeneration underlies some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease. Using knowledge of human developmental biology and exposure to key neurodevelopmental molecules, human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells were induced to differentiate into MSNs. In a feeder-free adherent culture, ventral telencephalic specification is induced by BMP/TGFβ inhibition and subsequent SHH/DKK1 treatment. The emerging FOXG1(+)/GSX2(+) telencephalic progenitors are then terminally differentiated, resulting in the systematic line-independent generation of FOXP1(+)/FOXP2(+)/CTIP2(+)/calbindin(+)/DARPP-32(+) MSNs. Similar to mature MSNs, these neurons carry dopamine and A2a receptors, elicit a typical firing pattern and show inhibitory postsynaptic currents, as well as dopamine neuromodulation and synaptic integration ability in vivo. When transplanted into the striatum of quinolinic acid-lesioned rats, hPS-derived neurons survive and differentiate into DARPP-32(+) neurons, leading to a restoration of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior. In summary, hPS cells can be efficiently driven to acquire a functional striatal fate using an ontogeny-recapitulating stepwise method that represents a platform for in vitro human developmental neurobiology studies and drug screening approaches.

  18. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  19. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  20. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  1. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  2. Export Barriers for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Literature Review based on Leonidou’s Model

    Vijay Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to understand the barriers faced by small and medium-sized enterprises in their path to internationalization. The intention of this paper is to provide an overview about the barriers faced by SMEs in their path to internationalization and discuss in detail different approaches taken by SMEs to overcome these barriers. This article is a literature review on the barriers faced by SMEs in internationalization and new approaches in this domain based on Leonidou’s (1995, 1998, 2004 model of export barrier classification. Modern approaches by SMEs are effective in handling most of the traditional challenges posed in internationalization. Firms have evolved in handling internal barriers by finding dynamic solutions from within. SMEs need support from governmental and policy makers to overcome external barriers. Indications on the work to be done in overcoming certain barriers which impede the internationalization of SMEs are more in the context of external barriers. The originality of this work is in creating a framework of barriers and finding solutions to some of the identified barriers.

  3. Pediatric Oncology Clinic Care Model: Achieving Better Continuity of Care for Patients in a Medium-sized Program.

    Johnston, Donna L; Halton, Jacqueline; Bassal, Mylène; Klaassen, Robert J; Mandel, Karen; Ramphal, Raveena; Simpson, Ewurabena; Peckan, Li

    2016-10-25

    Providing the best care in both the inpatient and outpatient settings to pediatric oncology patients is all programs goal. Using continuous improvement methodologies, we changed from a solely team-based physician care model to a hybrid model. All patients were assigned a dedicated oncologist. There would then be 2 types of weeks of outpatient clinical service. A "Doc of the Day" week where each oncologist would have a specific day in clinic when their assigned patients would be scheduled, and then a "Doc of the Week" week where one physician would cover clinic for the week. Patient satisfaction surveys done before and 14 months after changing the model of care showed that patients were very satisfied with the care they received in both models. A questionnaire to staff 14 months after changing showed that the biggest effect was increased continuity of care, followed by more efficient clinic workflow and increased consistency of care. Staff felt it provided better planning and delivery of care. A hybrid model of care with a primary physician for each patient and assigned clinic days, alternating with weeks of single physician coverage is a feasible model of care for a medium-sized pediatric oncology program.

  4. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  5. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties.

  6. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control.

  7. An Initial Implementation of Multiagent Simulation of Travel Behavior for a Medium-Sized City in China

    Chengxiang Zhuge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the traditional four-step model is so simple that it cannot solve complex modern transportation problems, microsimulation is gradually applied for transportation planning and some researches indicate that it is more compatible and realistic. In this paper, a framework of agent-based simulation of travel behavior is proposed, which is realized by MATSim, a simulation tool developed for large-scale agent-based simulation. MATSim is currently developed and some of its models are under training, so a detailed introduction of simulation structure and preparation of input data will be presented. In practice, the preparation process differs from one to another in different simulation projects because the available data for simulation is various. Thus, a simulation of travel behavior under a condition of limited available survey data will be studied based on MATSim; furthermore, a medium-sized city in China will be taken as an example to check whether agent-based simulation of travel behavior can be successfully applied in China.

  8. Problems and Opportunities of an International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities. The EAA FRSC's Comment on the IASB's Discussion Paper

    Thinggaard, Frank; Evans, Lisa; Gebhardt, Günther

    2005-01-01

    and questions arising from this. This paper briefly introduces the background to the publication of the Discussion Paper. This is followed by a review of prior litterature on SME financial reporting implications, prepared by the European Accountin Association's Financial Reporting Standards Committee......In June 2004 the IASB issued the Discussion Paper "Preliminary Views on Accounting Standards for Small and Medium-Sized Entities". This invited comments on the central question of whether the IASB should develop separate standards for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and on further issues...

  9. 77 FR 12311 - Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability

    2012-02-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Size of Beads in Drug Products Labeled for Sprinkle; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...

  10. Factors Constraining the Informatization of China' s Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and Suggestions for Related Policies%我国中小企业信息化制约因素及政策建议

    郭东强; 林美容

    2001-01-01

    Compared with the large-sized enterprises, the small and medium-sized enterprises have the characteristics of small scale, low management level, fragile fund basis and low capacity to resist business risk and external impact. Starting with the problems faced by the small and medium-sized enterprises in modern competition and informatization process, this paper explores the concrete policies and measures the small and medium-sized enterprises should adopt in the informatization construction.

  11. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    C.T. Amancio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6. Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06 in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  12. Infrastructure deficiency and the performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Nigeria’s Liberalised Economy

    Lawrence O. Obokoh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The paper investigates the situation facing SME’s in Nigeria, who have to function in an environment with depleted infrastructure.Research purpose: To examine the effects of infrastructure deficiency on the performance of manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises in Nigeria.Motivation for the study: Low budgetary allocation by the Nigerian government toward investment and rehabilitation of infrastructure in favor of attempts to conform to the tenets of trade liberalisation, has created a situation where basic infrastructure provision is a huge challenge in the creation of SME’s.Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal approach was followed, where a survey was conducted amongst 500 SME’s in Nigeria. To complement this, semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2007 and 2011 respectively. Main findings: The deficiency in infrastructure negatively impacts the profitability and performance of SMEs, due to the high cost incurred by SMEs in the self-provision of infrastructure and distribution of finished goods. Furthermore, despite the successful privatisation of electricity production in November 2013, there is still no significant improvement in the power supply in Nigeria. However, the government has embarked on road rehabilitation to ease the transportation of goods and services.Practical/managerial implications: The study uncovers the practical realities of the challenges faced by SME’s operating in an environment with insufficient infrastructure, which is typical of much of the developing world.Contribution/value add: The study highlights the necessity of sound infrastructure provision as a key factor to the development of SME’s.

  13. Challenges of small and medium sized companies at early stage of development: Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Saša Petković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discover and understand factors that lead to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs shutdown in transitional economies, such as the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The paper provides some findings about main influencing factors that lead to SMEs shut down in the first years of operation from entrepreneurs’ and managers’ perspective and suggests certain measures that should be taken to secure their survival, development and growth. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted, using stratified sampling of 110 SMEs from Republic of Srpska (49% of B&H territory. The section on methodology explains the entry criteria for the study population and methods of data analysis. Respondents from the research sample identified the following factors as the main obstacles to successful development of their businesses: difficulties in the collection of receivables from debtors, complicated legal procedures that regulate the work and business operations of enterprises, high rates of taxes and contributions on wages, the negative impact of the global economic crisis and expensive and complicated procedures for obtaining loans from commercial banks. Respondents didn’t evaluate their personal traits, level of formal and informal knowledge from business management field or lack of entrepreneurial spirit and readiness for being proactive, innovative or risk acceptance as potential causes of business failure. With its limitation, the paper contains novel information and insights about SMEs business obstacles and challenges in economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a solid base for more comprehensive future research.

  14. Concentration, sources and light absorption characteristics of dissolved organic carbon on a medium-sized valley glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau

    Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Qin, Xiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhaofu; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-11-01

    Light-absorbing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a major part of the organic carbon in glacierized regions, and has important influences on the carbon cycle and radiative forcing of glaciers. However, few DOC data are currently available from the glacierized regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, DOC characteristics of a medium-sized valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12, LHG) on the northern TP were investigated. Generally, DOC concentrations on LHG were comparable to those in other regions around the world. DOC concentrations in snow pits, surface snow and surface ice (superimposed ice) were 332 ± 132, 229 ± 104 and 426 ± 270 µg L-1, respectively. The average discharge-weighted DOC of proglacial stream water was 238 ± 96 µg L-1, and the annual DOC flux released from this glacier was estimated to be 6949 kg C yr-1, of which 46.2 % of DOC was bioavailable and could be decomposed into CO2 within 1 month of its release. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) of DOC at 365 nm was 1.4 ± 0.4 m2 g-1 in snow and 1.3 ± 0.7 m2 g-1 in ice, similar to the values for dust transported from adjacent deserts. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between DOC and Ca2+; therefore, mineral dust transported from adjacent arid regions likely made important contributions to DOC of the glacierized regions, although contributions from autochthonous carbon and autochthonous/heterotrophic microbial activity cannot be ruled out. The radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m-2, demonstrating that DOC in snow needs to be taken into consideration in accelerating melt of glaciers on the TP.

  15. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING FOR SUSTAINABLE ELEPHANT MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA. FOUR MEDIUM SIZED GAME RESERVES AS CASE STUDIES

    M. Jordaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loxodonta africana (African Elephant are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  16. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIUM SIZED ARTERIES OF NECK IN RELATION WITH THEIR PULSE PRESSURE AND PULSATORY POWER

    Prerana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: There are several studies on the microstructure of main arteries of the body but limited have been dealt with the neck arteries. It has been mentioned that the vascular pathologies like the thrombo-embolism, atherosclerosis and infarction are common in the branches of vertebral and internal carotid artery as compared to the branches of external carotid artery. OBJECTIVE: To study the histological structure of the 3 medium sized arteries of neck namely external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery, calculation of their mean pulse pressure and pulsatory power and to find any association between them if present. METHOD: Fresh samples of external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery each measuring 10mm in length were taken from five cadavers and prepared for histological examination under microscope using orcein and H&E stain. The mean pressure and pulsatory power of these arteries were calculated by taking the measurements such as wall thickness, lumen circumference, arterial wall area, and smooth muscle fibre density in tunica media in that arterial segment. RESULT: The pulsatory power of external carotid artery, internal carotid artery and vertebral artery is found to be 120, 273.3, 400 Joules /heart beat and the mean pressure is 17.1 mm Hg, 27.3 mm Hg and 33.3 mm Hg respectively. CONCLUSION: The thickness of tunica media of an artery is directly proportional to its pulsatory power. The mean pulse pressure, pulsatory power as well the number of smooth muscles fibres in tunica media are more in internal carotid artery and vertebral artery in comparison to external carotid artery. It may be a very important reason why vascular pathologies are less common in branches of external carotid as compare to internal carotid and vertebral artery.

  18. Strategy for Promoting the Quality of Service of Hotels in Small and Medium-sized Cities%浅谈提升中小城市酒店服务质量的对策

    谭欣

    2014-01-01

    近几年中小城市酒店业发展势头迅猛,但其服务质量却与大城市中小酒店的服务存在较大的差距。文章从提升服务质量对中小城市酒店发展的重要性入手,分析了顾客对中小城市酒店服务质量的要求和中小城市酒店服务质量存在的问题及原因,提出了建立完善的酒店服务制度、明确酒店工作流程和服务标准、创新酒店服务类型、优化服务过程、加强酒店培训、完善酒店质量监控体系等措施,以提升酒店服务质量和酒店管理水平。%In recent years, the hotel industry in small and medium-sized cities develops rapidly, but the quality of service exists larger gap from small hotels in big cities. With the beginning of the importance to improve the quality of service for the development of the hotel industry in small and medium-sized cities, this paper analyzes the customer's requirements as well as the problems and reasons of the quality of service in hotels of small and medium-sized cities, puts forward the measures to establish perfect hotel service system, define the hotels' workflow and service standards, innovate the service type, optimize the service process, strengthen the hotel training and improve quality monitoring system for promoting the quality of service and management level of hotels.

  19. 云计算时代下中小型出版社数字出版模式研究%Research on Digital Publishing Pattern for Small and Medium -sized Publication House under the Background of Cloud Computing Time

    崔明; 段琳琳

    2011-01-01

    The way of the people to obtain information, the peoples life and the mode of thinking are changed greatly when the cloud computing is turned up. The transform of technology in IT often brings great changes in other industries. The change of people to obtain information and the reading habits, all of these turn the digital publishing into an irreversible trend of the Chinas publishing industry. Confronting with the high investment of the digital publishing, small and medium - sized publication house which is weak and has distinctive resource is anxious for digital publishing pattern that is suitable for them. This article comes up with the imagination to construct the digital publishing pattern for small and medium - sized publication house under the background of cloud computing time. We wish to give direction for small and medium - sized publication house to carry out the digital publishing.%云计算的出现改变了人们获取信息的方式,改变了人们的生活和思维方式.IT技术的变革往往带来其他行业的巨大变化.人们获取信息方式的改变,阅读习惯的变化,使得数字出版成为中国出版行业不可逆转的发展趋势.面对需要过高投入的数字出版,实力薄弱但拥有独特优质内容资源的中小型出版社急需适合自己的数字出版模式.以云计算时代为背景,提出构建中小型出版社数字出版模型的设想,希望给中小型出版社开展数字出版以指导.

  20. Do interventions targeted at micro-entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized firms create jobs? A systematic review of the evidence for low and middle income countries

    M. Grimm (Michael); A.L. Paffhausen

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, 600 million jobs are needed over the next 15 years to keep employment rates at their current level. Because most employment in low and middle income countries is in micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises, governments, non-governmental organizations and do

  1. Towards a Guideline for Design of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Function for Business Development in Medium-Sized Technology-Based Companies

    Uittenbogaard, Boaz; Broens, Lute; Groen, Aard J.

    2005-01-01

    The speed with which global high-technology markets evolve makes companies recognize that an effective innovation process is the best way to guarantee competitiveness. However, when (medium-sized) companies then wish to set up a corporate entrepreneurship function to enhance business development pro

  2. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  3. The relationship between employee initiatives and occupational expertise throughout the career in small- and medium-sized enterprises in The Netherlands

    Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the relationship between three individual predictor variables and the degree of occupational expertise of middle and higher-level employees in three different career stages working in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Occupational expertise is operationalised by

  4. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  5. Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses

    Castro Aponte, W.V.

    2013-01-01

      The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs,

  6. International orientation and export commitment in fast small and medium size firms internationalization: scales validation and implications for the Brazilian case

    Marcelo André Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of changes in the competitive environment has recently provoked the emergence of a new kind of organization that has since its creation a meaningful share of its revenue being originated from international activities developed in more than one continent. Within this new reality, the internationalization of the firm in phases or according to its growth has resulted in it losing its capacity to explain this process with regard to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME. Thus, in this paper, the international orientation (IO and export commitment (EC constructs have been revised under a theoretical context of the fast internationalization of medium-sized companies, so as to identify scales that more accurately measure these dimensions in the Brazilian setting. After a literature review and an exploratory research, the IO and EC scales proposed by Knight and Cavusgil (2004 and Shamsuddoha and Ali (2006 were respectively applied to a sample of 398 small- and medium-sized exporting Brazilian companies. In spite of conjunction and situation differences inherent to the Brazilian companies, the selected scales presented high measuring reliability. Furthermore, the field research outcomes provide evidence for the existence of a phenomenon of fast internationalization in medium-sized companies in Brazil, as well as support some theoretical assumptions of other empirical investigations carried out with samples from developed countries.

  7. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  8. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...

  9. Exploring the Financial Gap for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana : A Case Study of Ghana

    AGBOZO, ERIC; YEBOAH, ERIC OMANE

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) tend by their very nature to show a far more volatile pattern of growth and earnings, with greater fluctuations, than larger companies. According to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) policy brief report on SME development in 2006, Financing is necessary to help Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) set up and expand their operations, develop new products, and invest in new staff or production facilities. The study revea...

  10. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  11. Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons: identification by nuclear staining and study of neuronal subpopulations in BAC transgenic mice.

    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D(1-receptors (D1Rs project preferentially to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, whereas those expressing dopamine D(2- receptors (D2Rs project preferentially to the lateral part of the globus pallidus (LGP. The degree of segregation of these populations has been a continuous subject of debate, and the recent introduction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins driven by specific promoters was a major progress to facilitate striatal neuron identification. However, the fraction of MSNs labeled in these mice has been recently called into question, casting doubt on the generality of results obtained with such approaches. Here, we performed an in-depth quantitative analysis of striatal neurons in drd1a-EGFP and drd2-EGFP mice. We first quantified neuronal and non-neuronal populations in the striatum, based on nuclear staining with TO-PRO-3, and immunolabeling for NeuN, DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr approximately 32,000, and various markers for interneurons. TO-PRO-3 staining was sufficient to identify MSNs by their typical nuclear morphology and, with a good probability, interneuron populations. In drd1a-EGFP/drd2-EGFP double transgenic mice all MSNs expressed EGFP, which was driven in about half of them by drd1a promoter. Retrograde labeling showed that all MSNs projecting to the SNr expressed D1R and very few D2R (<1%. In contrast, our results were compatible with the existence of some D1R-EGFP-expressing fibers giving off terminals in the LGP. Thus, our study shows that nuclear staining is a simple method for identifying MSNs and other striatal neurons. It also

  12. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  13. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    A. Amengual

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  14. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    A. Amengual

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  15. Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the γ-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Waché, Y.; Bergmark, K.; Courthaudon, J.-L.; Aguedo, Mario; Nicaud, J.-M.; Belin, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into γ-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d 32 of 2.5 μm whereas it was 0.7 μm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 μm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytic...

  16. HRM effectivity in small and medium-sized enterprises: a multiple cross-case study of Pakistani and Dutch SMEs

    Rauf, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an investigation conducted on HRM within SMEs to determine HRM effectivity in both the readymade garments manufacturers and exporters industry of Lahore, Pakistan, and SMEs from multiple industries in the Netherlands. This study has attempted to contribute to contemporary researc

  17. Engaging with economic evaluation methods: insights from small and medium enterprises in the UK medical devices industry after training workshops

    Craven Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased governmental interest in value assessment of technologies and where medical device manufacturers are finding it increasingly necessary to become more familiar with economic evaluation methods, the study sought to explore the levels of health economics knowledge within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and to scope strategies they employ to demonstrate the value of their products to purchasers. Methods A short questionnaire was completed by participants attending one of five workshops on product development in the medical device sector that took place in England between 2007 and 2011. From all responses obtained, a large proportion of participants were based in SMEs (N = 43, and these responses were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests was performed on questions with approximately interval scales. Qualitative data from participant responses were analysed to reveal emerging themes. Results The questionnaire results revealed that 60% of SME participants (mostly company directors or managers, including product or project managers rated themselves as having low or no knowledge of health economics prior to the workshops but the rest professed at least medium knowledge. Clinical trials and cost analyses or cost-effectiveness studies were the most highly cited means by which SMEs aim to demonstrate value of products to purchasers. Purchasers were perceived to place most importance on factors of safety, expert opinion, cost-effectiveness and price. However many companies did not utilise formal decision-making tools to prioritise these factors. There was no significant dependence of the use of decision-making tools in general with respect to professed knowledge of health economics methods. SMEs did not state a preference for any particular aspect of potential value when deciding whether to develop a product. A majority of SMEs stated they would use a health economics tool

  18. Influence of particle size distribution on inhalation doses to workers in the Florida phosphate industry.

    Kim, Kwang Pyo; Wu, Chang-Yu; Birky, Brian K; Bolch, Wesley E

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that inhalation exposures to TENORM aerosols are potentially a major contributor to the annual total effective dose to workers in the Florida phosphate industry. Further research was deemed necessary to characterize the particle size distribution of these aerosols containing various radionuclides of the U decay series. In the present study, individualized assessments of worker committed effective doses are reported in which detailed information is used on the particle size distribution, particle density, particle shape, and radioactivity concentrations from sampled aerosols at 6 different phosphate facilities and at various worker areas within these facilities. Inhalation dose assessments are calculated using the ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model as implemented within the LUDEP and IMBA computer codes. Under the least conservative assumptions of radionuclide-specific lung solubility, the annual total effective doses are shown to be 0.31+/-0.12, 0.27+/-0.07, and 0.22+/-0.02 mSv at granulator, storage, and shipping areas, respectively, and thus all annual doses are below the annual limits to the members of the general public (1 mSv y). In contrast, the most conservative assumptions of lung solubility by radionuclide yield annual total effective doses of 2.24+/-2.53 mSv at granulator areas, 1.26+/-1.19 mSv at storage areas, and 0.56+/-0.36 mSv at shipping areas. In this later case, some 44%, 31%, and 15% of individual dose assessments yield worker doses above the annual dose limit. The study thus demonstrates the importance of facility- and area-specific particle solubility data in dose assessments for regulatory compliance and for making decisions regarding worker respiratory protection.

  19. SIZE ENTERPRISES’ INFLUENCE FOR INNOVATION ACTIVITY IN REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM IN POMORSKIE REGION IN 2009-2011

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In transition countries, company’s size has a big impact on economy processes, including innovation activity in industry. The main objective of the study was to search for the impact of class size of enterprises on their innovation activity within the regional industrial system in Pomorskie region, and consequently determine the boundary conditions for the model structure of regional innovation networks, which take into account the specificity of region, allowing a skillful creation of innovation policy. Methodological part of the study was based on probit modeling (probability theory.

  20. Enhance the Strategic Thinking of the Small and Medium-sized Urban Population Aggregation%提升中小城市人口聚集功能的战略思考

    辜胜阻; 郑超

    2013-01-01

      Exhibition of small and medium-sized cities to enhance the aggregation of small and medium-sized urban population is an important part of our balanced urbanization strategy. This article aims to discuss the strategic significance of the development of small and medium-sized cities and countermeasures that the development of small and medium-sized cities can effectively stimulate domestic demand, to avoid over-concentration of population in large cities led to the "big city disease" "and the excessive fragmentation rural industrialization and small towns and rural disease "contribute to the achievement of migrant workers in situ urbanization and moved across the country. Current development of small and medium-sized cities to small and medium-sized cities is built on a solid industrial base with deepening government fiscal and tax reform and expansion of private investment to solve the bottleneck of funds in the construction of infrastructure and public services, the household registration reform, the equalization of basic public services and housing focusing on the reform to achieve rural migrant workers to the public to improve the business support system and vocational training system to improve migrant workers into urban capacity.%  发展中小城市,提升中小城市人口聚集功能是我国均衡城镇化战略的重要组成部分。本文旨在讨论发展中小城市的战略意义与对策,认为发展中小城市能有效拉动内需,避免人口过分集中大城市而导致的“大城市病”与过度分散的乡村工业化及小城镇所造成的“农村病”,有助于实现农民工的就地城镇化与举家迁移。当前发展中小城市,要把中小城市建立在坚实的产业基础上,通过深化政府财税体制改革与扩大民间投资解决基础设施建设与公共服务中的资金瓶颈,以户籍改革、基本公共服务均等化和住房改革为重点实现农民工就地市民化,

  1. A hydrometeorological model intercomparison as a tool to quantify the forecast uncertainty in a medium size basin

    A. Amengual

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of AMPHORE, an INTERREG III B EU project devoted to the hydrometeorological modeling study of heavy precipitation episodes resulting in flood events and the improvement of the operational hydrometeorological forecasts for the prediction and prevention of flood risks in the Western Mediterranean area, a hydrometeorological model intercomparison has been carried out, in order to estimate the uncertainties associated with the discharge predictions. The analysis is performed for an intense precipitation event selected as a case study within the project, which affected northern Italy and caused a flood event in the upper Reno river basin, a medium size catchment in the Emilia-Romagna Region.

    Two different hydrological models have been implemented over the basin: HEC-HMS and TOPKAPI which are driven in two ways. Firstly, stream-flow simulations obtained by using precipitation observations as input data are evaluated, in order to be aware of the performance of the two hydrological models. Secondly, the rainfall-runoff models have been forced with rainfall forecast fields provided by mesoscale atmospheric model simulations in order to evaluate the reliability of the discharge forecasts resulting by the one-way coupling. The quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs are provided by the numerical mesoscale models COSMO and MM5.

    Furthermore, different configurations of COSMO and MM5 have been adopted, trying to improve the description of the phenomena determining the precipitation amounts. In particular, the impacts of using different initial and boundary conditions, different mesoscale models and of increasing the horizontal model resolutions are investigated. The accuracy of QPFs is assessed in a threefold procedure. First, these are checked against the observed spatial rainfall accumulations over northern Italy. Second, the spatial and temporal simulated distributions are also examined over the catchment of interest

  2. Collective Beer Brand Identity: A Semiotic Analysis of the Websites Representing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Brewing Industry of Western PA

    Cincotta, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This research studies how brand identities, individually and communally, as read through websites are created among small and medium-sized enterprise breweries in western Pennsylvania. Content analysis through the frame of Kress and van Leeuwen was used as the basis for the codebook that reads each brand identity for the researcher. The…

  3. E-Learning in small and medium sized enterprises across Europe: attitudes towards technology, learning and training

    Admiraal, W.; Lockhorst, D.

    2009-01-01

    There is little doubt that e-learning has had a major impact in large companies, both in allowing the extension of training provision and in facilitating professional development activities. However, the picture is far less clear when it comes to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Technology and a

  4. Competition among fcc-like, double-layered flat, tubular cage, and close-packed structural motifs for medium-sized Au n (n = 21-28) clusters.

    Tian, Dongxu; Zhao, Jijun

    2008-04-10

    Using density functional theory calculations, we compared four kinds of possible structural motifs of the medium-sized Aun (n = 21-28) clusters, i.e., fcc-like, double-layered flat, tubular cage, and close-packed. Our results show strong competition between those structural motifs in the medium-sized gold clusters. Aun (n = 21-23) adopt fcc-like structure owing to the high stability of tetrahedral Au20. A structural transition from fcc-like to tubular occurs at Au24, and the tubular motif continues at Au27 and Au28. Meanwhile, a double-layered flat structure was found at Au25, and a pyramid-based structure at Au26. The relationship between electronic properties and cluster geometry was also discussed.

  5. Technological Intensity of Sectors, Size of the Firms and Competencies of Network Evidence from French Industrial Firms

    MUNIER Francis

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to stress the importance of competencies to build network in the innovation process. Innovation is not only R&D but is often supporting by networks and relations that differ according to the size of the firm and the sector. We propose an empirical analysis, based on logit model, for French industrial firms. It appears that size and technological intensity of the sector affect positively the detention of networking competencies.

  6. Pathways to a low-carbon iron and steel industry in the medium-term – the case of Germany

    Arens, Marlene; Worrell, Ernst; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The iron and steel industry is a major industrial emitter of carbon dioxide globally and in Germany. If European and German climate targets were set as equal proportional reduction targets (referred to here as “flat” targets) among sectors, the German steel industry would have to reduce its carbon d

  7. ‘We don’t deal with courts’: cooperation and alternative institutions shaping exporting relationships of small and medium sized enterprises in Ghana

    Amoako, Isaac Oduro; Lyon, Fergus

    2014-01-01

    Through an investigation of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) exporting in contexts which lack a formalised institutional environment in a less developed country, this article shows how entrepreneurs cope with institutional deficiency. By drawing on an analysis of 12 SMEs exporting from Ghana to other West African countries, the findings reveal how entrepreneurs and their organisations avoid recourse to the courts and instead, use culturally specific relationships to settle disputes w...

  8. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...... on the findings of a wider study into the key outcomes of the AREED project. These barriers include the institutional frameworks, human capacities and social and cultural factors....

  9. Formal Marketing Planning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises vs. Large Companies and its Impact on Performance: The Case of Macedonia

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Numerous theories and practices show that with strategic planning, enterprises can resolve many problems and barriers that arise in their work, as well as lay the foundation for innovation in the market. Yet practice indicates that strategic planning, especially strategic marketing planning is not always the rule, particularly in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Despite of the numerous examples that affirm the importance of marketing planning, this paper does not claim that the oper...

  10. Suggestions on how to Improve Employee Motivation in Chinese Small and Medium-Sized Private Enterprises. Case Company: X Glassware Factory.

    Li, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    With the economic revolution and open economy policy, China’s private enterprises have become the main driver of the economic growth, covering the main areas of China. However, with the development of enterprises and competition, more and more small and medium-sized private enterprises have faced with serious challenges in human resource management and employee motivation. The phenomena of low employees’ satisfaction,poor motivation and the loss of labor force are prevalent, which have a nega...

  11. Experimental and computational studies on the natural circulation characteristics of a small- and medium-sized reactor, REX-10

    Jang, Byeong Il

    2012-02-15

    The rapid economic development in many countries has led to a growing need for energy. To meet the demand, the nuclear power generation is emerging as a viable alternative because it emits much smaller amount of carbon dioxide as compared to conventional fossil fuel plant produces high power density energy. Because of the latter attractiveness, many large-sized nuclear reactors ({approx}1000 MWe/unit) for electricity generation have been constructed around the world. Recently, small- and medium-sized nuclear reactors (SMRs) receive attention because of its effective adaptability to diversified energy demands. Several attractiveness of the SMR is worth to report here. First, the SMR is a viable alternative for the developing countries that have inferior electricity grids. Second, the SMR may effectively prevent the Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) as it adopts the integral-type reactor. Finally, the SMR is used for various applications - desalination, district heating, small-scale power generation, ship propulsion, to mention a few. These attractiveness provides reasonable justification to construct the SMRs such as SMART, IRIS, CAREM, and KLT-40S. As such, the Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation (RERI) has been developing a SMR for regional energy supply, REX-10 since 2005. The REX-10 is the integral-type reactor and relies on natural circulation to improve passive safety. In this study, the natural circulation behavior and capability of the REX-10 is investigated experimentally as well as numerically. To evaluate the thermal-hydraulics of the REX-10, two experimental facilities . RTF and NACTER . were designed and fabricated using the scaling laws proposed by Ishii et al. Both experimental facilities consist of main components of the core, heat exchanger, hot legs, pressurizer, and chillers; however, both experimental facilities have different heat exchanger systems because two types of the heat exchanger are being considered. To

  12. Construction of a medium-sized Schwarzschild-Couder telescope as a candidate for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: development of the optical alignment system

    Nieto, D; Humensky, B; Kaaret, P; Limon, M; Mognet, I; Peck, A; Petrashyk, A; Ribeiro, D; Rousselle, J; Stevenson, B; Vassiliev, V; Yu, P

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-size candidate telescope model features a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field-of-view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davis-Cotton optics design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict alignment requirements to be accomplished by a dedicated alignment system. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern ...

  13. 浅析中小企业战略管理发展%Analysis of the Development of Strategic Management of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    赵金一

    2013-01-01

    战略管理不仅对大型企业的生存和发展起着决定性作用,而且对于中小企业的生存和发展也具有非常重要的意义。本文主要介绍了企业战略管理的基本概念,分析了加强中小企业战略管理的重要性,探讨了中小企业战略管理的发展现状及存在问题,并提出相应的改进措施和建议。%Strategic management is not only play a decisive role in the survival and development of enterprises , but also has very important significance for the survival and development of small and medium-sized enterprises. This thesis mainly introduces the basic concept of enterprise's strategic management, analyses the importance of strengthening strategic management of small and medium-sized enterprises, discusses the existing problems of the development status of strategic management of small and medium-sized enterprises, and puts forward the corresponding improvement measures and recommendations.

  14. Application Analysis of ERP in Small and Medium-sized Enterprise%ERP在中小企业的应用分析

    王珏

    2011-01-01

    运用先进科学的信息系统提高企业的管理水平,已成为中小企业发展的关键.论文概述了ERP的管理思想,分析了中小企业ERP实施的状况,针对实施中存在的问题提出了中小企业在ERP应用中的对策建议,以提高ERP实施的效率,促进企业管理水平的提升.%Using advanced science and information system to improve the management level of enterprises has become the key to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper summarized the ERP management ideas, analyzed the implementing situation of ERP in small and medium-sized enterprises, aiming at the existing problems in the implementation of ERP in small and medium-sized enterprises put forward countermeasures and suggestions, in order to improve the efficiency of implementing ERP and promote the management level.

  15. Evolutionary Research on the Credit Behaviors of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises%中小私营企业信用行为演化研究

    马国建; 杜建国; 张冬华

    2013-01-01

    运用演化经济学理论,通过建立中小私营企业信用行为演化博弈模型,研究中小私营企业信用行为演化规律,并用计算机仿真技术展示信用行为的演化方向。研究发现:如果中小私营企业追求短期利益、缺乏第三方公正的惩罚及失信后资产损失小,会造成中小私营企业信用行为演化成不良“锁定”状态。%In order to study the evolutionary law of small and medium sized private enterprises ’ credit behaviors , this paper applies the theory of evolutionary economics to build their credit behaviors evolutionary game model and shows the evolutionary direction by computer simulation .The study finds that if the small and medium sized private enterprises pursue short-term interests, or they are lack of fair punishment by the third-party organization, and just suffer small-loss of assets after dishonesty , then the credit behaviors of small and medium sized private enterprises will evolve into the bad “lock-in” condition .

  16. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size...

  17. Quantitative Characterization of the Growth of Deinococcus geothermalis DSM-11302: Effect of Inoculum Size, Growth Medium and Culture Conditions.

    Bornot, Julie; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Gorret, Nathalie

    2015-08-20

    Due to their remarkable resistance to extreme conditions, Deinococcaceae strains are of great interest to biotechnological prospects. However, the physiology of the extremophile strain Deinococcus geothermalis has scarcely been studied and is not well understood. The physiological behaviour was then studied in well-controlled conditions in flask and bioreactor cultures. The growth of D. geothermalis type strains was compared. Among the strains tested, the strain from the German Collection of Microorganisms (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen DSM) DSM-11302 was found to give the highest biomass concentration and growth rate: in a complex medium with glucose, the growth rate reached 0.75 h(-1) at 45 °C. Yeast extract concentration in the medium had significant constitutive and catalytic effects. Furthermore, the results showed that the physiological descriptors were not affected by the inoculum preparation steps. A batch culture of D. geothermalis DSM-11302 on defined medium was carried out: cells grew exponentially with a maximal growth rate of 0.28 h(-1) and D. geothermalis DSM-11302 biomass reached 1.4 g·L(-1) in 20 h. Then, 1.4 gDryCellWeight of biomass (X) was obtained from 5.6 g glucose (Glc) consumed as carbon source, corresponding to a yield of 0.3 CmolX·CmolGlc(-1); cell specific oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production rates reached 216 and 226 mmol.CmolX(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and the respiratory quotient (QR) value varied from 1.1 to 1.7. This is the first time that kinetic parameters and yields are reported for D. geothermalis DSM-11302 grown on a mineral medium in well-controlled batch culture.

  18. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy. The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long......-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from...

  19. 瑞士中小型企业创新发展模式%Innovation and Development Model of Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    叶建忠

    2014-01-01

    瑞士联邦政府为促进中小型企业创新活动,专门设立了一个国家级创新基金资助独立法人机构——国家技术创新委员会(KTI)。该机构用自建的“科学技术转移支撑系统”,为中小型企业提供包括“丰富创新方案、提升创新目标、帮助寻找合作伙伴直至合作项目形成并提供资助”的全程服务。瑞士中小型企业创新发展模式是:自主创新体现在企业创新想法的形成和自身经费的投入上,创新活动的开展依托在科研机构的参与上,创新成功建立在政府支持形成的有效的产学研结合上。%The Committee of Technology and Innovation ( CTI ) was set up by Swiss federal government specially to promote innovation activities of its small and medium-sized enterprises ( SMEs ). Based on the WTT-Support platform, the committee seeks to provide a series of solutions for SMEs, from making various innovation schemes, promoting innovation target, and helping seek partners, to funding SEMs to carry out business projects. Based on the in-depth study of Swiss enterprises, this paper summarizes innovation and development of Swiss SMEs, especially emphasizes the approaches to innovation activities of Swiss SMEs and strong support by the Swiss Committee of Technology and Innovation ( CTI ), which supports the collaboration among industries, universities and research sectors with all its strength.

  20. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Logistics Information Sharing Platform%中小企业物流信息共享平台

    骆正茂

    2013-01-01

    In view of the small and medium-sized enterprises in building their own logistics information system are in the capital and the technical difficulties, task group using PaaS mode for small and medium-sized enterprise develop-ment of logistics information sharing platform. It describes the small and medium enterprise logistics information sharing platform of the operation mode, clear the system function. Platform structure contains multi-layer, using Force data model and two data isolation method building database, through the server cluster and database vertical slit realize system extension. Through to the system prototype trial found that user experience is good, the system of small and medium-sized enterprises can improve circulation of commodities management efficiency, and effectively reduce enterprise logistics information construction threshold.%  鉴于中小企业在建设自己的物流信息系统中存在着资金和技术上的难题,课题组采用 PaaS 模式开发了中小企业物流信息共享平台。阐述了中小企业物流信息共享平台的运营模式,明确了系统的功能。平台架构包含多层,采用 Force 数据模型和两种数据隔离方式构建数据库,通过服务器集群和数据库垂直切分实现系统扩展。通过对系统原型试用发现,用户体验良好,系统可以提高中小企业商品流通的管理效率,有力降低企业物流信息化建设的门槛。

  1. 我国中小型金融机构运作模式探析%Our country small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode analysis

    吴雪; 熊英

    2015-01-01

    当前中小金融机构已经成为我国金融体系中不可替代、不可或缺的重要组成部分。在我国,中小金融机构对保持宏观经济的持续稳定增长、鼓励创新、稳定就业、增加税收等方面都发挥着极其重要的作用。但是通过解读中小金融机构运作模式内涵,发现了中小金融机构运作模式存在资产运营效率低下、人力资源管理机制不完善、市场定位不准确、分业经营制度抑制金融创新等问题。而导致这些问题的原因在于中小金融机构缺乏对内部控制的正确认识、缺少良好的外部环境、政府政策扶持力度小以及社会征信体系不完善等。因此,我们提出了完善中小金融机构金融法律法规、准确定位市场和客户、完善金融业统一的征信平台、加大政府支持力度等对策,希望能够促进我国中小金融机构的健康发展。%Small and medium-sized financial institutions has become the financial system of our country can not be replaced, the indispensable important component. In our country, small and medium-sized financial institutions play an extremely important role to maintain macroeconomic steady growth, encourage innovation, stable employment, raise taxes. But through the interpretation of the connotation of the small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode, discovered the existence of small and medium-sized financial institutions operating mode assets operation efficiency is low, human resources management mechanism is imperfect, the market localization is not accurate, separate operation system restrain the financial innovation and so on. The reason of these problems lies in the lack of a correct understanding of internal control of small and medium-sized financial institutions, the lack of a good external environment, the government's policy support is insufficient, imperfect social credit system. As a result, we put forward countermeasures to

  2. 77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    2012-01-25

    ... Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance document entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional..., size, prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human...

  3. INFORMATION AND SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES: THE CONVERGENCE OF SHAREDTIME WORK AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Marc-André VILETTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this communication is to analyze points of similarities of usingInformation and Communication Technologies (ICT and Shared Time Work(STW, for a special category of firms, whose place seems to be more andmore important: Small and Middle sized Enterprises (SMEs. After severalparticularities (apart from the size, we will remind their difficulties in HumanResources Management, especially about ICT, then the opportunity in theusing of STW, for research teachers, professionals and media. We willpresent different legal shapes, then precise points of similarities between TICand STW, and finally, results among different kinds of players in this one, inan exploring research.

  4. THE PARTICIPATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESSING OF GDP - POLAND ON THE BACKGROUND OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Danuta Łapacz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs around the world play a key role in the growth and innovation in all sectors. The sustainable development of the SME sector is crucial for the development of the economy of each country. It is small and medium businesses create most of the jobs on the market, showing ingenuity and commitment, which often results in the development of new, advanced technology. In conclusion, companies of this segment of the economy also contribute to the development of the global market. SMES, however, are highly susceptible to the negative influence of the economic and political environment. The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of the SME sector for the national economy as well as for the other Member States of the European Union.

  5. Case study feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply options for small to medium-sized tourist accommodations

    Dalton, G.J.; Lockington, D.A.; Baldock, T.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Queensland, 3rd Floor, Hawken Building, Brisbane, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper outlines a feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply (RES) for small to medium-scale tourist operations (less than 100 beds) dependent on stand-alone supplies. The analysis utilised the power load data from three accommodation case studies that had RES/hybrids already installed. The accommodation sites, chosen from diverse locations within Australia, varied in both climatic and geographic characteristics. The assessment criteria for the analysis were net present cost (NPC), renewable factor (RF) and payback time. The specific operational characteristics of the tourism accommodation sector, such as 24-h operation, comfort provision and low tolerance for failure, necessitates a separate assessment of RES viability for this sector, rather than relying on similar assessments from other commercial and domestic sectors, which may not be representative. This study utilised RES assessment software, HOMER (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US) in order to compare the present RES/hybrid configuration to diesel generator-only (genset-only), RES-only and optimised RES/hybrid configurations. Analysis of both actual data and modeling results demonstrated that RES can adequately and reliably meet the power demand for stand-alone small to medium-scale tourist accommodations. Optimisation, achieved by further addition of RES to the existing configurations, reduced NPC in the majority of cases, with the added benefit of increased RF. Furthermore, NPC for these optimised RES/hybrid configurations were comparable to the optimised genset-only configurations. Modeling of conversions to RES-only configurations demonstrated this option as uneconomical unless existing RF was already high. Results indicated that wind energy conversion systems (WECS), rather than photovoltaics, were the most economical RES for sampled hybrid systems. For example, the payback time of the WECS/hybrids was approximately 3-4 years compared to PV/hybrids at 6-7 years. Hydrogen fuel cells and

  6. Chongqing Hechuan District Plans to Build 10 Billion Yuan Size Aluminum Industry Park

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the reporter learned from Chongqing Hechuan District Aluminum Industry Integration Enterprise Discussion Meeting that Hechuan District would build aluminum industrial park at Caojie Development Park,and strive to fulfill 10 billion yuan output value within 3 to 5 years.It has been learned that Hechuan District currently has 29 aluminum product enterprises(including enterprises with aluminum and aluminum products as raw material),in which 9

  7. Lean assessment for manufacturing of small and medium enterprises (SMEs: A case study of electronics industry in the Northeast of Thailand

    Chanchai Laoha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at assessing for manufacturing a small and medium enterprise of electronic industry case study in the Northeast of Thailand. Electronic industry produces integrated circuits products (IC. We use lean assessment tools with 14 lean technique and tools. The value of lean assessment are scoring system derived from the malcolm baldrige national quality award, the two-dimensioned scoring system composing of the process; approach, deployment, learning, and integration. There are reveal operations of each of lean techniques and tools, and the performance; the 0 - 4 level needed to be improved in depth and hence would reflect operations requiring sustainable outcomes. This lean assessment is a systematic approach, assessor come to sit, examine operations from a lean perspective and assessed the situation as prior. The purposes of this visit were to introduced to production or factory manager or window person of SMEs who gave assessor a tour of the plant. Assessor also got a chance to explain lean assessment criteria on the shop floor. Assessor selects a value streaming line that produce most goods or main production line to assess. Assessor takes 1 day to assess and discuss the lean assessment. As a result, the lean assessment survey should be adjusted to fit the systems adaptively. Three plants of electronic industries were leanness of 1.06 or 26%. Five plants of garment industry were leanness of 1.13 or 28%. Four plants of shoe industry were leanness of 1.39 or 34%. Shoe industry had high leanness all unless quick changeover and multi skill. The quick changeover and multi skill were high score on garment industry. Electronics industry has not the lead but second in visual management, 5s, operation base layout, quick changeover, multi skill, standard operation procedures, and policy deployment.

  8. Templates for gas consumption with small and medium sized gas costumers; Skabeloner for gasforbrug hos smae og mellemstore gaskunder

    Gruijthuijsen, Leo van

    2005-12-01

    In connection with deregulation of the Danish gas market 1 January 2004 the need for determining the gas consumption of consumers without hourly consumption registration cropped up. On this background a measurement program for two consumer groups was initiated, one group consisted of customers in single family houses with consumption between 0 and 6.000 m{sup 3}/y and one group consisting of industry/business customers with consumption between 6.000 and 300.000 m{sup 3}/y. Results from this measurement program have been used to develop consumption models for both customer types. (BA)

  9. Create the innovative culture of small and medium-sized private enterprises%打造中小民营企业创新文化探讨

    孙仁祥

    2013-01-01

      我国中小民营企业生命周期只有3.5年,其根本原因在于创新文化建设方面存在不足。本文认为企业文化是企业成长最持久的决定因素,中小民营企业只有打造创新文化,塑造以创新为核心的企业价值观,树立以人为本的人才观,加强技术创新管理制度,同时政府要充分利用法制、税收、金融等政策,积极营造有利于中小民营企业自主创新的环境,才能真正实现企业的可持续发展。%  The life cycle of small and medium-sized private enterprises in China is only 3.5 years, the fundamental reason lies in the shortage of the construction of innovation culture. This paper argues that the enterprise culture is the most lasting decisive factor of enterprise growth, only to create innovation culture of small and medium-sized private enterprises, to create innovation as the core values of enterprises, establish the people-oriented concept of talent, strengthen technological innovation management system, at the same time, the government should make full use of legal, tax, financial policy, and actively create independent innovation environment of small and medium-sized private enterprise, in order to realize the sustainable development of enterprises.

  10. 中小型超市发展模式的研究%Research on Development Mode of Small and Medium-sized Supermarkets

    高晓虹

    2011-01-01

    连锁超市已经逐步成为中国商业、零售业的主流,为扩大内需、拉动经济增长做出重大贡献。但其在迅速的发展经营过程中也暴露出很多问题,基于我国的国情和经济水平,今后我国超市发展的注意力不应只注重大型综合超市,更应注重中小型超市的发展。随着社区的涌现,人们生活水平的提高,中小型超市企业迎来新的发展契机。基于SWOT分析方法,对我国的中小型超市企业进行深入的分析,为中小型超市企业的发展提出建设性意见。%Supermarket chains have gradually become the mainstream of Chinese business and retail,which has made significant contributions in expanding domestic demand and promoting economic growth.But many problems are exposed in its rapid development.Based on China's national conditions and economic level,attention should not be only focused on the large-scale comprehensive supermarket,but also should be paid to the development of small and medium-sized supermarkets.With the emergence of community and the improved living standard of people,small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise is facing with new development opportunity.This paper gave an in-depth analysis of the small and medium-sized supermarkets enterprise in China based on the method of SWOT analysis,and put forward a constructive suggestion for the development of these enterprises.

  11. Organizational-level interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises: Enabling and inhibiting factors in the PoWRS program

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Work-related stress in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is an increasing problem. However, knowledge regarding organizational-level interventions in SMEs is limited, and SMEs often lack professional facilitator resources to assist in change processes. An intervention program developed...... for large corporations, the PoWRS (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) program, has been modified to fit the conditions in SMEs, i.e., appointing employees as in-house facilitators. The aim of this paper is to examine the enablers and inhibiting factors of the PoWRS program when applied in four Danish SMEs...

  12. Benefits and challenges of using social media in marketing strategy:investigating small- and medium-sized companies in the Oulu region

    Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explains what social media marketing is as a phenomenon and what kind of roles it can fill in a company’s overall marketing strategies. The thesis also provides very practical information on how small/medium-sized companies can use social media channels in their daily marketing activities. This has been achieved through a literature review on the topic supported by an empirical multi-case study. The motivation for doing qualitative research of social media marketing in small/medi...

  13. 中小企业流动资产管理方法探讨%Management of Current Assets in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    左蕾

    2011-01-01

    从中小企业流动资产的内容、目标与方法、问题与对策等方面着手,结合有关示例来研究中小企业资产管理方法,以期更好地提高企业的经济效益。%Based on the contents,goals,problems and countermeasures of the current assets of small and medium-sized enterprises,and with examples,the paper studies the management of the current assets in these enterprises for better economic benefits.

  14. MYSTICISM IN BATIK INDUSTRIAL RELATION: The Study of Trust Achievement on the Survivability of Small-Medium Batik Industry at Pekalongan City

    Imam Kanafi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between economy and religion had been known for long time ago as it was found in Max Weber’s books “The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism” and “The Protestant Sects and The Spirit of Capitalism”. This paper examines the extent to which mysticism practices have been conducted among the employers and employees of Batik Industries in Pekalongan City. It argues that mysticism has an important role to reinforce the social capital and make the industry survive, especially to face many problems related to productivity, motivation, trust as well as wage issues. By practicing mystics and religious traditions, like dhikiran, manakiban, hawl and muludan, people have spiritual force which has an important role both for personally and professionally in the work place, especially to maintain the relationship between employees and employers. Also they could be stronger when faced the changes and challenges of business and their industry can survive.

  15. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  16. Study on the Implementation of Quality Management System in Small Medium-sized Enterprises from the Central Region of Romania

    Liviu Pop

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With over 12% share of the national total, small and medium enterprises from the Central Region of Romania, play the role of one of the pistons of the economic engine and social development of this country, finding them in all fields. Even if the global crisis has affected the region, however lately there is an improvement in the situation, thanks to the support either from foreign investment or from the Romanian state. Therefore, these organizations are striving through proactive involvement and long-term vision, to detect effective ways of implementing existing systems based on processes, balanced investment in human skills, technical and technological competence. This paper investigates the operation of the quality management system and the research methodology consists in the investigation based on online interviews of a total of 191 organizations from Central Region of Romania, with certified quality management system according to ISO 9001. The research was conducted during six months, the companies accessing the online questionnaire, specially created by the author, data being retrieved and analyzed by one of the most powerful and popular software, SPSS 17.0. The paper highlights some important factors that influence the operation of quality systems implemented in the SMEs of this region in order to increase their competitiveness.

  17. INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTITIES- A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Ana-Maria Pascu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global economic crisis, small and medium enterprises are most affected. That is why the problem that arises more frequently is the harmonization of national legislation with the European legislation. The necessity to implement specific standards for SMEs appeared in order to provide them a beneficial framework for better economic and financial market positioning. In this respect, the International Accounting Standards Board issued in 2009 IFRS for SMEs, a referential aiming to the simplification of accounting procedures, reconciliation and increase of confidence of potential investors (stakeholders. The question of compatibility of these standards with the European Accounting Directives appears in situations where they may choose to use IFRS for SMEs. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the incompatibilities between IFRS for SMEs and the European Accounting Directives and to analyze the results concerning the implementation of the IFRS for SMEs in Europe. Through this article we want to contribute to the SME accounting area of knowledge.

  18. Aspects Regarding the Development and the Integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Firms’ Behaviour. Particularities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Georgeta Vintila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the particularities, at Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs level, regarding: socially responsible behaviour and participation in actions related to CSR; type of CSR strategies adopted by SMEs as compared to larger firms; the motivations, benefits and constraints of the social involvement. The ultimate question refers to the existence, nature and implications of a link between the firm size and the aspects mentioned above. These aspects will be presented according to the conclusions of the previous studies conducted in this area of research, the present paper representing therefore a theoretical synthesis of the existant literature.

  19. Submicron-sized boron carbide particles encapsulated in turbostratic graphite prepared by laser fragmentation in liquid medium.

    Ishikawa, Yoshie; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2010-08-01

    Submicron-sized B4C spherical particles were obtained by laser fragmentation of large B4C particles dispersed in ethyl acetate. The irradiated surface of large B4C raw particles was heated and melted by laser energy absorption. B4C droplets were then cooled down, and finally B4C spherical particles were obtained. Moreover, each B4C particle obtained was encapsulated in a graphitic layer that is useful for medical functionalization of particles. Thus, obtained B4C particles encapsulated in graphitic layer may have potential uses in boron neutron capture therapy.

  20. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  1. 我国中小企业金融排斥研究%A Study on Financial Exclusion in Medium-sized and Small Enterprises of China

    邢雅菲

    2012-01-01

    中小企业是我国经济的重要组成部分,它们在扩大经济总量、缓解就业压力、拉动民间投资、促进市场繁荣、维护社会稳定等方面发挥着十分重要的作用.但是长期以来我国中小企业的发展存在很多问题,融资面临很大困难.经济学界对此的讨论研究从未停止过.文章另辟蹊径,从金融排斥这一新兴的金融经济学理论的角度分析了我国中小企业融资难的形成原因,并有针对性的提出了解决中小企业金融排斥的对策和建议.%Medium—sized and small enterprises are significant parts of China's economy. They have been playing an important role in amplifying economic aggregate, relieving employment pressure, promoting private investment, accelerating market development and maintaining social stability. However, there are many development problems in medium-sized and small enterprises in a long run. Especially they face toughly financing difficulties, which has kept on investigating in economic field. This paper takes a different tact, and applies financial exclusion, a new theory of finance economics, to analyze the reasons of financing difficulties in medium -sized and small enterprises. Finally, this paper gives some feasible polices and suggestions to resolve financial exclusion of medium—sized and small enterprises.

  2. Factors Influencing Usage of an Electronic Journal Collection at a Medium-Size University: An Eleven-Year Study.

    Alain R. Lamothe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative analysis examining factors affecting electronic journal usage at the J.N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University. This study covered an 11-year period, from 2000 to 2010. The number of full-text articles downloaded was compared to the size of the e-journal collection, the number of students, and the number of faculty members at the university, all of which exerted varying degrees of influence on the rate of use of e-journals. Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of any existing linear relationship. Although the size of the e-journal collection did impact its level of use, there seems to be a “critical mass” which once reached will slow or stop any further increase in usage. Among the student population, the number of doctoral students demonstrated the strongest linear relationship to the use of the e-journal collection while the undergraduate population showed the least strong linear relationship. Faculty members were important users of the library’s e-journal collection but the linear relationship was not as strong as that observed for graduate students. In fact, faculty members demonstrated the least strong linear relationship of all segments of the Laurentian University community. It may be wise for the library to consult not only its faculty members but also its graduate students when seeking advice on collection building and management.

  3. Industry-specificities and Size of Corporations: Determinants of Ownership Structures

    van der Elst, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership concentration in six European countries and empirically studies the rent-seeking theory. This theory states that ownership concentration not only depends on the level of investor protection but also on company-specific and industry-specific parameters. This study analys

  4. Post-operative complications associated with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System in small- to medium-sized dogs: A retrospective analysis (2009-2012).

    Rappa, Nick S; Radasch, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    This study classified and determined the post-operative complication rate associated with stabilization of cranial (CCL) ligament deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System (CCLRAS). Eighty-five medical records from 2009 to 2012 from 1 institution were evaluated. Complications were classified according to previously proposed definitions for orthopedic studies in veterinary medicine. Fifty-two owners were contacted by telephone at least 6 months after surgery and given a questionnaire to classify complications related to the implant. A visual analog scale was used to assess functionality and degree of pain. The overall complication rate was 30.3% with an inflammation-infection rate of 5.4% and a documented infection rate requiring implant removal of 1.8%. Owners reported full or acceptable function in 96% of cases with an average functional score of 86.5. Stabilization of CCL-deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine CCLRAS is reliable with acceptable complication rates.

  5. 民营中小企业吸纳就业能力研究%Study on the employment ability of the small and medium sized private enterprises

    张志刚; 邵秋红; 田力; 田龙

    2015-01-01

    The private economy is the main carrier to absorb laid-off workers of state-owned enterprises and social labor. In the new urbanization rapid development process,a large number of rural labor force flowing into urban employment and small and medium-sized private enterprises become the main carrier to absorb migrant workers and enhance the small and medium-sized private enterprises of the production scale and economic strength,to provide more jobs for migrant workers,to solve the main paths of the employment of migrant workers in cities.%民营经济是吸纳国有企业下岗职工和社会新增劳动力的主要载体。在目前新型城镇化快速发展过程中,大批农村劳动力流入城镇就业,民营中小企业成为吸纳农民工的主要载体,增强中小民营企业的生产经营规模和经济实力,为农民工提供更多的就业岗位,成为解决农民工城市就业的主要路径。

  6. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  7. Composition and relative abundance of terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    André Valle Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Three northern areas of Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB were sampled for terrestrial medium- and large-sized mammals, using camera traps, for twelve months. Nine wild species and one domestic species were registered, through 49 records. The community’s composition was based on an exponential series with dominance of few species. In contrast, there was a relatively high proportion of species that might be “rare” in the community observed, with dominance of puma (Puma concolor over the other ones. The results show that the area named Vale Perdido is the most important one for the conservation of mammals, because the estimated species richness is higher there (13.99 ± 2.23 when compared to that of the other two areas, which had a richness of 6.00 ± 1.41 and 6.00 ± 1.00, respectively. It’s possible that the structural and spatial characteristics of Vale Perdido favored the use of this area by the species. The structure of the community of medium-and large-sized terrestrial mammals of PESB is unstructured or in a structuring phase. Possibly, this model was caused by negative historical effects of the occupation and extraction that the region underwent in the 1960s.

  8. An Assessment of the Influence of Selected on the Performance of Small to Medium Sized Family Owned Businesses in the Zimbabwe Retail Sector

    Maxwell Sandada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to assess the factors that are affecting business performance of small to medium sized family owned businesses in the Zimbabwean retail sector. The objective was to establish the effect of innovation, management skills, succession planning and corporate governance on family owned SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study sought to complement other previous studies that were carried out in other different contexts by producing evidence on the same phenomenon from a developing country context. The study adopted a quantitative approach. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data that was analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results showed that the most significant factors affecting business performance in order of predictive power were innovation, proper management skills, succession planning and corporate governance. The findings have implications to family business managers and owners in Zimbabwe who are encouraged to be innovative, properly manage, practise succession planning and be guided by business morals in managing their enterprises. Whilst the factors ensuring the success of Small and Medium sized enterprises have extensively been examined, there is dearth of research on family business success factors especially in a developing country like Zimbabwe.

  9. Using MUSIC and CC(CONH for Backbone Assignment of Two Medium-Sized Proteins Not Fully Accessible to Standard 3D NMR

    Annette K. Brenner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The backbone assignment of medium-sized proteins is rarely as straightforward as that of small proteins, and thus often requires creative solutions. Here, we describe the application of a combination of standard 3D heteronuclear methods with CC(CONH and a variety of MUltiplicity Selective In-phase Coherence transfer (MUSIC experiments. Both CC(CONH and MUSIC are, in theory, very powerful methods for the backbone assignment of proteins. Due to low sensitivity, their use has usually been linked to small proteins only. However, we found that combining CC(CONH and MUSIC experiments simplified the assignment of two challenging medium-sized proteins of 13 and 19.5 kDa, respectively. These methods are to some extent complementary to each other: CC(CONH acquired with a long isotropic mixing time can identify amino acids with large aliphatic side chains. Whereas the most sensitive MUSIC experiments identify amino acid types that cannot be detected by CC(CONH, comprising the residues with acid and amide groups, and aromatic rings in their side chains. Together these methods provide a means of identifying the majority of peaks in the 2D 15N HSQC spectrum which simplifies the backbone assignment work even for proteins, e.g., small kinases, whose standard spectra resulted in little spectral resolution and low signal intensities.

  10. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  11. Exploring the effect of silver nanoparticle size and medium composition on uptake into pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells

    Kettler, Katja; Krystek, Petra; Giannakou, Christina; Hendriks, A. Jan; de Jong, Wim H.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of nanotechnology products on the market poses increasing human health risks by particle exposures. Adverse effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various cell lines have been measured based on exposure dose after a fixed time point, but NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Even though knowledge about relevant timescales for NP uptake is essential, e.g. for time- and cost-effective risk assessment through modelling, insufficient data are available. Therefore, the authors examined uptake rates for three different AgNP sizes (20, 50 and 75 nm) and two tissue culture medium compositions (with and without foetal calf serum, FCS) under realistic exposure concentrations in pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells. The quantification of Ag in cells was carried out by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We show for the first time that uptake kinetics of AgNPs into 16HBE14o-cells was highly influenced by medium composition. Uptake into cells was higher in medium without FCS, reaching approximately twice the concentration after 24 h than in medium supplemented with FCS, showing highest uptake for 50-nm AgNPs when expressed on a mass basis. This optimum shifts to 20 nm on a number basis, stressing the importance of the measurand in which results are presented. The importance of our research identifies that not just the uptake after a certain time point should be considered as dose but also the process of uptake (timing) might need to be considered when studying the mechanism of toxicity of nanoparticles.

  12. Firm Size, Ownership and Performance in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    Bala Ramasamy; Darry Ong; Yeung, Matthew C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of market structure components and other performance measures to better understand the dynamics and determinants of performance within the Malaysian palm oil sector. In particular, we consider the effects of firm size and firm ownership on the level of profitability in this sector. Our findings suggest that size is negatively related to performance while privately owned plantation companies are more profitably managed. These results suppor...

  13. Characterization of clarified medium from submerse and semisolid cultivation of OF Aspergillus awamori NRRL3112 by size-exclusion chromatography

    MINAMI N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a preparative size-exclusion chromatography of two different clarified media obtained from submerse and semisolid culture of the mold Aspergillus awamori was carried out. Characterization and comparison of the quantities of glucoamylase and contaminant proteins present in these media were possible. Glucoamylase is the protein with the higher molecular weight in both media analyzed, varying from 72 to 80kDa in the submerse culture and from 68 to 90kDa in the semisolid culture. Also, glucoamylase protein concentration is higher in the submerse culture than in the semisolid culture. The other proteins in the submerse culture presented molecular weights lower than 12kDa and in the semisolid culture their molecular weights varied from 21 to 37kDa and below 10kDa.

  14. Empirical Study on Financing Desire of Rural Small and Medium-sized Enterprises%农村中小企业的融资意愿实证

    陈啸

    2013-01-01

    农村中小企业是农村社会经济发展的主体,然而资金短缺已成为其发展的瓶颈.为加快农村中小企业融资的发展,不断提高融资意愿,本文在对山西省农村中小企业融资现状调查基础上,分析了农村中小企业金融需求特征,并运用Logit决策模型分析探讨了影响农村中小企业金融需求的主要因素.研究结果表明,企业规模小、预期收益率较低和企业资信度差等因素是造成企业融资意愿低的主要内部因素,同时,农村中小企业的融资市场因素、企业所处行业的竞争环境也对农村中小企业融资意愿有重要的影响.其中企业法人代表受教育程度、企业规模、企业资信状况、信贷担保及农村金融市场化程度等对农村中小企业融资意愿有着显著的影响.为此,提出的对策建议是要加强农村中小企业自身的建设,改善企业的经营状况,塑造企业的良好形象,提高企业经济实力;构建完善的农村融资环境;引进竞争机制以提高各金融机构的供给意愿.%Rural small and medium-sized enterprises ( SMEs) are the main force of rural economic development. However fund shortage has become the bottleneck for its development. In order to speed up the financing development of rural SMEs and constantly improve the financing will, this paper analyzed the financial needs characteristics of SMEs in rural areas based on the survey of SEMs financing in rural areas of Shanxi, discussed main factors that impact the financial needs of SMEs in rural areas by using the Logit regression model. The result shows small-scale enterprises, low expected yield and poor corporate creditworthiness are the major internal factors causing low willingness of corporate finance. At the same time, financial institutions have an important impact on the rural SMEs financing market factors, corporate competitive environment of the industries in which rural SMEs financing willingness. Some of

  15. Locomotion in some small to medium-sized mammals: a geometric morphometric analysis of the penultimate lumbar vertebra, pelvis and hindlimbs.

    Álvarez, Alicia; Ercoli, Marcos D; Prevosti, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the influence of a variety of aspects of locomotion and ecology including gait and locomotor types, maximal running speed, home range, and body size on postcranial shape variation in small to medium-sized mammals, employing geometric morphometric analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods. The four views analyzed, i.e., dorsal view of the penultimate lumbar vertebra, lateral view of the pelvis, posterior view of the proximal femur and proximal view of the tibia, showed clear phylogenetic signal and interesting patterns of association with movement. Variation in home range size was related to some tibia shape changes, while speed was associated with lumbar vertebra, pelvis and tibia shape changes. Femur shape was not related to any locomotor variables. In both locomotor type and high-speed gait analyses, locomotor groups were distinguished in both pelvis and tibia shape analyses. These results suggest that adaptations to both typical and high-speed gaits could explain a considerable portion of the shape of those elements. In addition, lumbar vertebra and tibia showed non-significant relationships with body mass, which suggests that they might be used in morpho-functional analyses and locomotor inferences on fossil taxa, with little or no bias for body size. Lastly, we observed morpho-functional convergences among several mammalian taxa and detected some taxa that achieve similar locomotor features following different morphological paths.

  16. 中小房地产企业发展战略浅析%Brief Analysis of Strategy for Small and Medium-Sized Real Estate Enterprises Development

    佟镇戎

    2014-01-01

    In the fiercely competitive real estate industry, a great number of small and medium firms must make clear their own strategies of development to take a long-term way. This paper explores their development strategies through SWOT analysis of the enterprises and with the strategic management theory.%在当前日益严峻的竞争形势下,众多中小房地产企业必须明晰自己的发展战略,才能走长远发展的道路。本文通过对这些企业进行SWOT分析,并结合战略管理的思想,以探究中小房地产企业的发展战略。

  17. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical study of medium-sized explosive eruptions at Etna volcano

    Spanu, Antonio; Michieli Vitturi, Mattia de'; Barsotti, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1970s, multiple reconstruction techniques have been proposed and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled tephra fall deposit datasets. Atmospheric transport and deposition processes strongly control the spatial distribution of tephra deposit; therefore, a large uncertainty affects mass derived estimations especially for fall layer that are not well exposed. This paper has two main aims: the first is to analyse the sensitivity to the deposit sampling strategy of reconstruction techniques. The second is to assess whether there are differences between the modelled values for emitted mass and grainsize, versus values estimated from the deposits. We find significant differences and propose a new correction strategy. A numerical approach is demonstrated by simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna on 24 November 2006. Eruptive parameters are reconstructed by an inversion information collected after the eruption. A full synthetic deposit is created by integrating the deposited mass computed by the model over the computational domain (i.e., an area of 7.5 × 104 km 2). A statistical analysis based on 2000 sampling tests of 50 sampling points shows a large variability, up to 50 % for all the reconstruction techniques. Moreover, for some test examples Power Law errors are larger than estimated uncertainty. A similar analysis, on simulated grain-size classes, shows how spatial sampling limitations strongly reduce the utility of available information on the total grain size distribution. For example, information on particles coarser than ϕ(-4) is completely lost when sampling at 1.5 km from the vent for all columns with heights less than 2000 m above the vent. To correct for this effect an optimal sampling strategy and a new reconstruction method are presented. A sensitivity study shows that our method can be extended to a wide range of eruptive scenarios including those in which

  18. The impact of transformational CEOs on the performance of small- to medium-sized firms: does organizational context matter?

    Ling, Yan; Simsek, Zeki; Lubatkin, Michael H; Veiga, John F

    2008-07-01

    Although theory suggests that CEOs who engage in transformational leadership should have a positive effect on firm performance, most empirical examinations using data drawn from larger firms have failed to find support for this linkage. Given that the organizational complexity associated with larger firms has been viewed as a central obstacle to establishing this important link, the authors examined the impact of CEO transformational leadership on firm performance in smaller, privately held firms. After first explaining why the less complex context of these firms provides a setting for transformational CEOs to play a more direct role in enhancing firm performance, they then further clarified the nature of this link by hypothesizing 3 contingencies that they argued are particularly salient: firm size, CEO founder status (founder or nonfounder), and CEO tenure. Results from a multisource survey of CEOs and their top management teams in 121 firms and 2 time-lagged measures of performance, 1 objective and 1 perceived, provided consistent support for these hypotheses.

  19. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.

  20. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries

    2010-10-06

    ... Historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUBZone), women owned small businesses and service disabled veteran... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN: 3245-AF71 Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food...

  1. Concentrations and size distribution of inhalable and respirable dust among sugar industry workers: a pilot study in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Chaiear, Naesinee; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Sadhra, Steven

    2011-11-01

    There has been very limited information regarding bagasse exposure among workers in sugar industries as well as on health outcomes. The authors determined the occupational exposure of sugar industry workers in Khon Kaen to airborne bagasse dust. The size of the bagasse dust ranged from 0.08 to 9 µm with the highest size concentration of 2.1 to 4.7 µm. The most common size had a geometric mean diameter of 5.2 µm, with a mass concentration of 6.89 mg/m(3)/log µm. The highest mean values of inhalable and respirable dust were found to be 9.29 mg/m(3) from February to April in bagasse storage, 5.12 mg/m(3) from May to September, and 4.12 mg/m(3) from October to January. Inhalable dust concentrations were 0.33, 0.47, and 0.41 mg/m(3), respectively. Workers are likely to be exposed to high concentrations of bagasse dust and are at risk of respiratory diseases. Preventive measures, both in the form of engineering designs and personal protective devices, should be implemented.

  2. The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note

    Yi An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC disclosure among Chinese (mainland companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited literature regarding the associations between the level of IC disclosure and a variety of relevant impact factors, in particular in the Chinese mainland context. In addition, the findings of this research provide some references for policy-makers while developing an IC reporting framework applicable to the Chinese environment.

  3. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq Hussain; Al-Wassil, Abdulaziz Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Refaat Mohamad [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Chemistry, College of Science; Al-Otaibi, Abdullah Mohmmed [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia). The NationalProgram for Advanced Materials and Building Systems

    2012-11-15

    Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O and Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. (author)

  4. 浅析中小型连锁零售业如何获益于物联网%How Small and Medium-sized Chain Retail Enterprises Benefit from the Internet of Things

    刘轶宏

    2014-01-01

    物联网技术被认为是继计算机、互联网与移动通信网之后的又一个信息产业热点,有专家预测10年内物联网可能会大规模普及,物联网将是下一个万亿级的信息服务业务,它将引发零售业第四次革命,在仓储管理、智能自动化、产品应用等方面,物联网已经让大型连锁零售业率先一步感受到新技术带来的利润增长,在此背景下,文章探讨了中小型连锁零售业在运用物联网技术方面所面临的困难,并给出了相应的建议。%Internet of things is considered as another hotspot of information industry following computer, Internet and mobile communication network. Experts predict that there could be massive popularity of Internet of things in 10 years. Internet of things will be the next trillion-class information service business, and it will lead to the fourth revolution of retail industry. In terms of storage management, intelligent automation and product applications, Internet of things has brought profit growth to large retail chain industry. In this context, the article discusses the difficulties facing small and medium sized retail chain in use of Internet of things, and gives corresponding recommendations.

  5. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  6. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  7. [Analysis of workplace health promotion and its effect on work ability and health-related quality of life in a medium-sized business].

    Biallas, B; Froböse, I; Zöller, M; Wilke, C

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of workplace health promotion on work ability and health-related quality of life in white-collar and blue-collar workers in a medium-sized business. The intervention group contains 75 subjects with a mean age of 36.6±10.63 years (55 men, 20 women). The participation rate is 47%. White-collar workers show improvement in their health-related quality of life regarding physical and psychological aspects and work ability. Physically inactive employees show improvement in their health-related quality of life regarding physical and psychological aspects as well as context. Active employees only show significant improvement in terms of work ability. In conclusion, the promotion of exercise in the context of occupational health promotion has a positive effect on quality of life and work ability of employees and, thus, is a benefit for both the individual as well as the business itself.

  8. E-poslovanje v slovenskih malih in srednje velikih podjetjih = E-business in Slovenian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Viktorija Sulcic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the position of Slovenian small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of e-business is presented. In the first part of the paper we compare the prevalence of e-business practices in Slovenia and EU countries and present the intensity of Slovene SME’s use of ebusiness as well. The second part of the paper is based on a research conducted with a sample of 49 Slovenian small and mediumsized enterprises. By performing a data analysis, we show the prevalence of SME’s individual internet activities and compare them with the research data collected by the national statistical office a year and a half ago. The e-business impacts and the obstacles for e-business implementation are the most interesting part of the presented research.

  9. Construction of a Medium-Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Implementation of the Cherenkov-Camera Data Acquisition System

    Santander, M; Humensky, B; Mukherjee, R

    2015-01-01

    A medium-sized Schwarzchild-Couder Telescope (SCT) is being developed as a possible extension for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The Cherenkov camera of the telescope is designed to have 11328 silicon photomultiplier pixels capable of capturing high-resolution images of air showers in the atmosphere. The combination of the large number of pixels and the high trigger rate (> 5 kHz) expected for this telescope results in a multi-Gbps data throughput. This sets challenging requirements on the design and performance of a data acquisition system for processing and storing this data. A prototype SCT (pSCT) with a partial camera containing 1600 pixels, covering a field of view of 2.5 x 2.5 square degrees, is being assembled at the F.L. Whipple Observatory. We present the design and current status of the SCT data acquisition system.

  10. A perspective on open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and design requirements for an open innovation approach

    Krause, Willie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides key results from an exploratory research study aimed at understanding the current landscape in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in South Africa with regard to their appetite for, and use of, open innovation. The survey, which was conducted within a contained group of SMEs that belong to business network groups on LinkedIn, explored the current use and perception of open innovation. It was found that collaboration is the approach most preferred by the SMEs surveyed, with customers and suppliers as their preferred innovation partners. Based on the findings of the survey, this paper proposes 25 design requirements, grouped into five functional categories, for an open innovation approach. The design requirements have been developed as a primer to a more complete open innovation approach for SMEs.

  11. 军队中小医院发展战略SWOT分析%SWOT Analysis on the Development Strategy of the Military Small-medium-sized Hospital

    朱孟军; 李玉超; 孙金海

    2014-01-01

    The SWOT analysis theory was used to analyze the construction and development strategies of regional small-medium-sized hospitals , then the development measures were stated as to clear the objectives and ideas of the hospital development , to innovate management ideas ,advance the construction of hospital staff , estab-lish research -oriented organization , construct hospital core competence , promote the construction of discipline groups and carry out medical cooperation items legitimately .%本文运用SWOT理论对某区域中小医院建设发展战略分析,明确医院发展的目标与思路,提出创新管理理念、强化人才梯队建设、创建学习型组织、构建医院核心竞争力、推进优势学科群建设、合理开展合作等对策。

  12. Tourism Potential Analysis of the Medium and Small-sized Cultural Tourist Cities Based on Accessibility%基于可达性的中小文化旅游城市旅游潜力分析

    胡浩; 王姣娥; 金凤君

    2012-01-01

    Tourism potential is an important part of tourism industry planning studies. As the antecedent condition of tourism development and potentiality exploitation of cities, tourism traffic accessibility is always the key to breakthrough the bottleneck of tourism, especially in the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities that are under the effect of shielding in tourism development. There is a large quantity of tourism potential measure- ments and evaluations based on a certain type of tourism from the perspectives of markets and resources in the large and medium-sized cities, but relatively few studies are available on the tourism potential study of the medi- um and small sized cultural tourist cities by using accessibility concepts of tourism affected by the traffic of dif- ferent scales of regions. With the building of evaluation index system, this article evaluates the tourism traffic ac- cessibility for the nationwide 34 medium and small sized cultural tourist cities from macro scale, and analyzes the tourism traffic accessibility in the region of time accessibility hinterland based on lh, 2h and 3h traffic cir- cles on the micro scale. Combined with the evaluation and analysis results, we analyzed the tourism potential un- der the influence of the tourism traffic accessibility, and drew the conclusions that the tourism potential displays a high coefficient of correlation with the coefficient of traffic accessibility in medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. What is more, near the Sichuan Basin, the downstream and delta of the Yangtze River, cities with a high traffic accessibility coefficient will enhance the tourism accessibility of the small and medium-sized tour- ist cities under their governance, and will become the tourists stopover stations or important tourists potential markets of the medium and small sized cultural tourist cities. The higher economic output and better traffic con- ditions of the country regions and the adjacent areas

  13. ERP在中小型企业应用中的现状分析%Application of ERP in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    项海锋; 李军祥

    2013-01-01

    In order to get the long-term development, enterprises must keep up the pace with times to implement informationization in the transmission and processing of information. For helping enterprises do this better, ERP (enterprise resource planning) came into being. As a business process information system, ERP software is mainly in large enterprises, most of which are designed and developed for large software systems. Hence it is not suitable for growing small and medium-sized enterprises. In this paper, data are got by way of questionnaires and the results are analyzed about the application of ERP software in the market of small and medium-sized enterprises and some flexible options are put forward.%  一个企业要想得到长远发展,就必须紧跟时代步伐,在信息传递、信息处理上做到信息化。而为了使企业更好的做到这一点,ERP(企业资源计划)应运而生,它就是一款使企业处理过程信息化的系统。而现在主流ERP软件还是主要在大型企业方面,设计开发的大部分是大型软件系统,不适合日益发展的中小型企业市场。文章通过调查问卷的方式得到数据并分析结果,得出ERP软件在中小型企业市场的问题,并提出一些可行方案。

  14. 中小企业如何开展电子商务%How Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Carry out Electronic Commerce

    房洪涛

    2016-01-01

    我国的电子商务发展迅速,截止到2015年,我国的线上购物者已经达到4亿以上,中小企业电子商务也到了飞速发展阶段,中小企业在发展电子商务的过程中却面临着各种各样的困难,如基础设施薄弱、缺乏专门的电子商务人才等,中小企业只有加强企业信息化建设、选择适合企业发展的第三方电子商务服务平台、加强人才建设,才能使企业健康、良好地发展。%With the rapid development of electronic commerce in China, by the end of 2015, China's online shoppers has re-ached more than 4 million, the development of electronic commerce in the small and medium-sized enterprises to the stage of rapid development, SMEs in the process of the development of e-commerce is facing a variety of difficulties, such as infra-structure is weak, the lack of specialized electronic commerce talented person etc., small and medium-sized enterprises only strengthen enterprise information construction, choose a suitable enterprise development third party e-commerce service plat-form, strengthen the construction of talent, in order to enable enterprises to healthy development.

  15. The impact of work experience of small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers on their competitive intelligence awareness and practices

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information technology has assisted in globalisation, which then assisted in making international trade easier. Consequently, businesses no longer compete with local competitors only but also with international ones, leading to intense competition in all business sectors. Businesses will hardly practice what they are not aware of and therefore needs to know about their competitive landscape. Competitive intelligence (CI gathers information from both the internal and external business environments, and analyses these for use by decision makers. Whilst awareness of the importance of CI is wide, it is not practiced optimally, making the need for creating awareness of the benefits of CI important.Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the influence of owners’ and managers' working experience of CI practice and awareness in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs environment.Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a questionnaire was used to collect data from SMEs owners and managers in The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.Results: This research indicates that SMEs in the study are aware of CI through education and training. Moreover, the study reveals that the working experience of owners and managers has a great influence on awareness and practice of CI and one should implement training programmes in this domain to assist with building competitive advantage.Conclusion: Small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers’ years of working experience has a greater influence on awareness and practice of CI. Put differently, years of working experience is a great predictor of CI awareness and practice.

  16. THE MOTIVATION BEHIND SUBCONTRACTING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LARGE FIRMS AND SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN KENYA

    Beatrice Auko Okatch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The motivation behind subcontracting relationships in the motor vehicle manufacturing The purpose of this study was to determine internal and external constraints to subcontracting arrangements between large firms and small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry in Kenya in order to establish the reasons for the gap in those arrangements. The sector was chosen for the study because of the government’s selection of the sector to promote subcontracting arrangements between small and medium enterprises and large firms in Kenya. Secondly, the sector was chosen because of the complexity of the motor vehicle industry with one motor vehicle comprising about 10,000 component parts, all of which would be difficult for one company to manufacture in-house. The research was mainly qualitative but quantitative data was also used. Content analysis approach was used to analyze the qualitative data and descriptive statistics to analyze the quantitative data. Data was collected from two of the three motor vehicle assembles in Kenya, nine out of thirteen franchise holders and 66 of the 72 component parts suppliers who are mainly small and medium enterprises. The results indicate that the level of subcontracting that takes place in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry is minimal. This is motivated mainly by a desire to remain in the good books of the government. The big enterprises are not willing to buy component parts from local suppliers and especially not local SME suppliers mainly due to the inability of the SMEs to supply quality products to schedule, lack of local suppliers for certain parts, the proliferation of makes and models and competition from imported second hand vehicles from Japan and Europe. The proliferation of makes and models also requires frequent technological changes which both assemblers and SMEs owners find difficult to keep up with. The study recommends that the government should reduce the age of

  17. Information technology use in the food and beverage industry: a planning model for small and medium manufacturing enterprises

    Gibson Barcelos Reggiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The determinant variables of the performance of small and medium companies (SMEs are associated to aspects of entrepreneurial capacity, regional economy, positioning in the market and type of operational management. These aspects are all influenced by the use of information technology (IT. This paper presents the intervening factors in the management process of these companies and a model that contemplates IT as an integrant part of the enterprise planning. The model, based on the Competence Theory, identifies in the business context of the company the critical factors to its success, the capacities and resources necessary to its sustain and the metrical which should reflect the evolution of the results of the company in relation to its objectives. Associated to these capacities IT resources are identified to be applied to upgrade the existing competences, or to develop new ones, according to the strategic focus and positioning of the company in the market. It is presented also a case study of a manufacturing SME of beverages where the model is being applied. The case shows some metrical results which certify the effectiveness of the model, although the short time of implantation. In spite of still being in the validation phase, with implementations in companies of other sectors, the model has shown favorable aspects mainly due to its  cognitive and recurrent approach, which is well appropriate to the management process of  SMEs.

  18. Medium-tech industries may be of greater importance to a local economy than 'High-tech' firms: new methods for measuring the knowledge base of an economic system.

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we offer a way to measure the knowledge base of an economy in terms of probabilistic entropy. This measure, we hypothesize, is an indication of the extent to which a system, including the economic system, self-organizes. In a self-organizing system, interactions between dimensions or subsystems will unintentionally give rise to anticipations that are properly aligned. The potential reduction of uncertainty can be measured as negative entropy in the mutual information among three (or more) dimensions. For a knowledge-based economy, three dimensions can be considered as key: the distribution of firm sizes, the geographical locations, and the technological classifications of firms. Based on statistics of these three dimensions and drawing on a unique dataset of all Dutch firms registered with the Chambers of Commerce, we are able to refine well-known empirical findings for the geographical dimension. Counter-intuitive, however, are our empirical findings for the dimension of technology. Knowledge diffusion through medium-tech industry is much more important for a localized economy than knowledge creation in high-tech industry. Knowledge-intensive services tend to uncouple economic activities from the regional dimension.

  19. Particle size distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in urban and industrial aerosol of Algiers, Algeria.

    Ladji, R; Yassaa, N; Balducci, C; Cecinato, A

    2014-02-01

    The distribution of ambient air n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to particles with aerodynamic diameters lesser than 10 μm (PM(10)) into six fractions (five stages and a backup filter) was studied for the first time in Algeria. Investigation took place during September of 2007 at an urban and industrial site of Algiers. Size-resolved samples (particles ≤ 1.5 μm in both urban and industrial atmosphere. In both cases, the n-alkane contents exhibited bimodal or weakly bimodal distribution peaking at the 0.95-1.5-μm size range within the fine mode and at 7.3-10 μm in the coarse mode. Low molecular weight PAHs displayed bimodal patterns peaking at 0.49-0.95 and 7.3-10 μm, while high molecular weight PAHs exhibited mono-modal distribution with maximum in the particles ≤ 0.95 μm in diameter which could induce adverse health effects to the population living in these areas.

  20. Board Size and Board Independence: A Quantitative Study on Banking Industry in Pakistan

    Kashif Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship of board independence and board size with productivity and efficiency of the listed banks on the Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan. There is a lack of consensus regarding impact of corporate governance practices in correspondence to number of board members and board independence in banking sector. The derived results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between board independence and bank profitability and efficiency. Independent directors play a crucial role in providing genuine advice during executive decision making process which is an important source for improving overall corporate governance. Moreover, results regarding the role of control variables suggest a positive relationship of the total assets and deposits of the firm with the firm’s performance supporting stewardship theory in the market.